Manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI): A powerful new imaging method to study tinnitus.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID: 24583078 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - February 26, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Cacace AT, Brozoski T, Berkowitz B, Bauer C, Odintsov B, Bergkvist M, Castracane J, Zhang J, Holt AG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Contribution of Bimodal Hearing to Lexical Tone Normalization in Mandarin-speaking Cochlear Implant Users.
In this study, native Mandarin NH listeners and pre-lingually deafened unilaterally implanted CI users were asked to recognize a series of Mandarin tones varying from Tone 1 (high-flat) to Tone 2 (mid-rising) with or without a preceding sentence context. Most of the CI subjects used a hearing aid (HA) in the non-implanted ear (i.e., bimodal users) and were tested both with CI alone and CI+HA. In the test without context, typical S-shaped tone recognition functions were observed for most CI subjects and the function slopes and perceptual boundaries were similar with either CI alone or CI+HA. Compared to NH subjects, CI subj...
Source: Hearing Research - February 24, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Luo X, Chang YP, Lin CY, Chang RY Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Central auditory function of deafness genes.
Abstract The highly variable benefit of hearing devices is a serious challenge in auditory rehabilitation. Various factors contribute to this phenomenon such as the diversity in ear defects, the different extent of auditory nerve hypoplasia, the age of intervention, and cognitive abilities. Recent analyses indicate that, in addition, central auditory functions of deafness genes have to be considered in this context. Since reduced neuronal activity acts as the common denominator in deafness, it is widely assumed that peripheral deafness influences development and function of the central auditory system in a stereot...
Source: Hearing Research - February 21, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Willaredt MA, Ebbers L, Nothwang HG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Insertion Site and Sealing Technique Affect Residual Hearing and Tissue Formation after Cochlear Implantation.
Abstract Tissue formation around the electrode array of a cochlear implant has been suggested to influence preservation of residual hearing as well as electrical hearing performance of implanted subjects. Further, inhomogeneity in the electrical properties of the scala tympani shape the electrical field and affect current spread. Intracochlear trauma due to electrode insertion and the insertion site itself are commonly seen as triggers for the tissue formation. The present study investigates whether the insertion site, round window membrane (RWM) vs. cochleostomy (CS), or the sealing material, no seal vs. muscle g...
Source: Hearing Research - February 21, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Burghard A, Lenarz T, Kral A, Paasche G Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential frequency tuning in certain Menière's disease.
Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential frequency tuning in certain Menière's disease. Hear Res. 2014 Feb 13; Authors: Jerin C, Berman A, Krause E, Ertl-Wagner B, Gürkov R Abstract Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) represent extraocular muscle activity in response to vestibular stimulation. To specify the value of oVEMP in the diagnostics of Menière's disease, the amplitude ratio between 500 and 1000 Hz stimuli was investigated. Thirty-nine patients with certain Menière's disease, i.e. definite Menière's disease with visualization of endolymphatic hyd...
Source: Hearing Research - February 13, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Jerin C, Berman A, Krause E, Ertl-Wagner B, Gürkov R Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Residual inhibition of tinnitus induced by 30-kHz bone-conducted ultrasound.
This study investigated whether RI could be induced by BCU. Five types of the masker sounds were used to measure RI in 21 subjects with tinnitus. A bone-conducted 30-kHz pure tone was used as a BCU, and an air-conducted 4-kHz pure tone, narrow-band noise, white noise, and a bone-conducted 4-kHz pure tone were used as controls of audible sounds. The masker intensities of the 30-kHz BCU and audible sounds were set at the minimum masking levels of tinnitus plus 3 and 10 dB, respectively, considering the narrow dynamic range of BCU. The duration of RI induced by the 30-kHz BCU was significantly longer than those induced b...
Source: Hearing Research - February 12, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Koizumi T, Nishimura T, Yamashita A, Yamanaka T, Imamura T, Hosoi H Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Spatial and temporal modifications of multitalker speech can improve speech perception in older adults.
This study investigated two signal-processing techniques that have been suggested as a means of improving speech perception accuracy of older adults: time stretching and spatial separation of target talkers. Stimuli in each experiment comprised 2-4 fixed-form utterances in which listeners were asked to consecutively 1) detect concurrently spoken keywords in the beginning of the utterance (divided attention); and, 2) identify additional keywords from only one talker at the end of the utterance (selective attention). In Experiment 1, the overall tempo of each utterance was unaltered or slowed down by 25%; in Experiment 2 the...
Source: Hearing Research - February 12, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Gygi B, Shafiro V Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

A summary of research investigating echolocation abilities of blind and sighted humans.
Abstract There is currently considerable interest in the consequences of loss in one sensory modality on the remaining senses. Much of this work has focused on the development of enhanced auditory abilities among blind individuals, who are often able to use sound to navigate through space. It has now been established that many blind individuals produce sound emissions and use the returning echoes to provide them with information about objects in their surroundings, in a similar manner to bats navigating in the dark. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding human echolocation. Some blind individuals...
Source: Hearing Research - February 10, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Kolarik AJ, Cirstea S, Pardhan S, Moore BC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory responses to electric and infrared neural stimulation of the rat cochlear nucleus.
Abstract In an effort to improve the auditory brainstem implant, a prosthesis in which user outcomes are modest, we applied electric and infrared neural stimulation (INS) to the cochlear nucleus in a rat animal model. Electric stimulation evoked regions of neural activation in the inferior colliculus and short-latency, multipeaked auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). Pulsed INS, delivered to the surface of the cochlear nucleus via an optical fiber, evoked broad neural activation in the inferior colliculus. Strongest responses were recorded when the fiber was placed at lateral positions on the cochlear nucleus, clo...
Source: Hearing Research - February 5, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Verma R, Guex AA, Hancock KE, Durakovic N, McKay CM, Slama MC, Brown MC, Lee DJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Morphological and physiological development of auditory synapses.
Abstract Acoustic communication requires gathering, transforming, and interpreting diverse sound cues. To achieve this, all the spatial and temporal features of complex sound stimuli must be captured in the firing patterns of the primary sensory neurons and then accurately transmitted along auditory pathways for additional processing. The mammalian auditory system relies on several synapses with unique properties in order to meet this task: the auditory ribbon synapses, the endbulb of Held, and the calyx of Held. Each of these synapses develops morphological and electrophysiological characteristics that enable the...
Source: Hearing Research - February 5, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Yu WM, Goodrich LV Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of the sparse coding shrinkage noise reduction algorithm in normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners.
Abstract Although there are numerous single-channel noise reduction strategies to improve speech perception in noise, most of them improve speech quality but do not improve speech intelligibility, in circumstances where the noise and speech have similar frequency spectra. Current exceptions that may improve speech intelligibility are those that require a priori knowledge of the speech or noise statistics, which limits practical application. Hearing impaired (HI) listeners suffer more in speech intelligibility than normal hearing listeners (NH) in the same noisy environment, so developing better single-channel nois...
Source: Hearing Research - February 1, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Sang J, Hu H, Zheng C, Li G, Lutman ME, Bleeck S Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

In vitro assessment of antiretroviral drugs demonstrates potential for ototoxicity.
In vitro assessment of antiretroviral drugs demonstrates potential for ototoxicity. Hear Res. 2014 Jan 31; Authors: Thein P, Kalinec GM, Park C, Kalinec F Abstract Several studies have reported an increased incidence of auditory dysfunction among HIV/AIDS patients. We used auditory HEI-OC1 cells in cell viability, flow cytometry and caspases 3/7-activation studies to investigate the potential ototoxicity of fourteen HIV antiretroviral agents: Abacavir, AZT, Delavirdine, Didenosine, Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, Indinavir, Lamivudine, Nefinavir, Nevirapine, Tenofovir, Ritonavir, Stavudine and Zalcitabine, ...
Source: Hearing Research - January 31, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Thein P, Kalinec GM, Park C, Kalinec F Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effect of different stapes prostheses on the passive vibration of the basilar membrane.
Abstract The effect of different stapes prostheses on the basilar membrane (BM) motion was determined. To that end, a three dimensional finite-element (FE) model of the passive human cochlea was developed. Passive responses of the BM were found based on coupled fluid-structure interactions between the cochlear solid structures and the scala fluids. The passive BM vibrations in normal (healthy) cochlea were compared with vibrations in the cochlea in which a 0.4-mm piston or a proposed new type of prosthesis was implanted. The proposed chamber prosthesis was not experimentally implanted, but only numerically simulat...
Source: Hearing Research - January 22, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Kwacz M, Marek P, Borkowski P, Gambin W Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

A subset of chicken statoacoustic ganglion neurites are repelled by Slit1 and Slit2.
A subset of chicken statoacoustic ganglion neurites are repelled by Slit1 and Slit2. Hear Res. 2014 Jan 21; Authors: Battisti AC, Fantetti KN, Moyers BA, Fekete DM Abstract Mechanosensory hair cells in the chicken inner ear are innervated by bipolar afferent neurons of the statoacoustic ganglion (SAG). During development, individual SAG neurons project their peripheral process to only one of eight distinct sensory organs. These neuronal subtypes may respond differently to guidance cues as they explore the periphery in search of their target. Previous gene expression data suggested that Slit repellants...
Source: Hearing Research - January 21, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Battisti AC, Fantetti KN, Moyers BA, Fekete DM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The layering of auditory experiences in driving experience-dependent subcortical plasticity.
Abstract Auditory brain function is shaped by a combination of genetic factors and one's auditory experiences. Genetic factors set the gross architecture of the system, whereas experiences fine-tune that architecture and its functionality throughout life. In this review article, we focus on recent discoveries of experiential influences on brainstem function. Using these studies as scaffolding, we then lay the initial groundwork for the Layering Hypothesis, a new hypothesis of experience-dependent plasticity that explicates how experiences combine to shape subcortical auditory function. Our hypothesis is built on t...
Source: Hearing Research - January 17, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Skoe E, Chandrasekaran B Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

TMC function in hair cell transduction.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID: 24423408 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - January 11, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Holt JR, Pan B, Koussa MA, Asai Y Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Factors affecting loss of tympanic membrane mobility in acute otitis media model of chinchilla.
In this study, a chinchilla AOM model was produced by transbullar injection of Haemophilus influenzae. Mobility of the TM at the umbo was measured by laser vibrometry in two treatment groups: 4 days (4D) and 8 days (8D) post inoculation. These time points represent relatively early and later phases of AOM. In each group, the vibration of the umbo was measured at three experimental stages: unopened, pressure-released, and effusion-removed ears. The effects of MEP and MEE and middle ear structural changes were quantified in each group by comparing the TM mobility at one stage with that of the previous stage. Our findings sho...
Source: Hearing Research - January 7, 2014 Category: Audiology Authors: Guan X, Chen Y, Gan RZ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Tinnitus in men, mice (as well as other rodents), and machines.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID: 24374091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - December 25, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Schaette R Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Top-Down Restoration of Speech in Cochlear-Implant Users.
Abstract In noisy listening conditions, intelligibility of degraded speech can be enhanced by top-down restoration. Cochlear implant (CI) users have difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments. This could partially be due to reduced top-down restoration of speech, caused by the changes that the electrical stimulation imposes on the bottom-up cues. We tested this hypothesis using the phonemic restoration (PhR) paradigm in which speech interrupted with periodic silent intervals is perceived illusorily continuous (continuity illusion or CoI) and becomes more intelligible (PhR benefit) when the interruptions...
Source: Hearing Research - December 21, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Bhargava P, Gaudrain E, Başkent D Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Prestin at Year 14: Progress and Prospect.
This article reviews recent advances of the structural and functional properties of prestin with focus on the areas that are critical but still controversial in understanding the molecular mechanism of how prestin works: The structural domains for voltage sensing and interaction with anions and for conformational change. Future research directions and potential application of prestin are also discussed. PMID: 24361298 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - December 17, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: He DZ, Lovas S, Ai Y, Li Y, Beisel KW Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Sustained attention, selective attention and cognitive control in deaf and hearing children.
Abstract Deaf children have been characterized as being impulsive, distractible, and unable to sustain attention. However, past research has tested deaf children born to hearing parents who are likely to have experienced language delays. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an absence of auditory input modulates attentional problems in deaf children with no delayed exposure to language. Two versions of a continuous performance test were administered to 37 deaf children born to Deaf parents and 60 hearing children, all aged 6-13 years. A vigilance task was used to measure sustained attention over the ...
Source: Hearing Research - December 16, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Dye MW, Hauser PC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory cortex activation to natural speech and simulated cochlear implant speech measured with functional near-infrared spectroscopy.
In this study, we sought to determine whether functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive neuroimaging method which is safe to use repeatedly and for extended periods of time, can provide an objective measure of whether a subject is hearing normal speech or distorted speech. We used a 140 channel fNIRS system to measure activation within the auditory cortex in 19 normal hearing subjects while they listed to speech with different levels of intelligibility. Custom software was developed to analyze the data and compute topographic maps from the measured changes in oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrat...
Source: Hearing Research - December 13, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Pollonini L, Olds C, Abaya H, Bortfeld H, Beauchamp MS, Oghalai JS Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Connexin 26 null mice exhibit spiral ganglion degeneration that can be blocked by BDNF gene therapy.
Abstract Mutations in the connexin 26 gene (GJB2) are the most common genetic cause of deafness, leading to congenital bilateral non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss. Here we report the generation of a mouse model for a connexin 26 (Cx26) mutation, in which cre-Sox10 drives excision of the Cx26 gene from non-sensory cells flanking the auditory epithelium. We determined that these conditional knockout mice, designated Gjb2-CKO, have a severe hearing loss. Immunocytochemistry of the auditory epithelium confirmed absence of Cx26 in the non-sensory cells. Histology of the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion neu...
Source: Hearing Research - December 12, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Takada Y, Beyer LA, Swiderski DL, O'Neal AL, Prieskorn DM, Shivatzki S, Avraham KB, Raphael Y Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Expression patterns of atrial natriuretic peptide and its receptors within the cochlear spiral ganglion of the postnatal rat.
Abstract The spiral ganglion, which is primarily composed of spiral ganglion neurons and satellite glial cells, transmits auditory information from sensory hair cells to the central nervous system. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), acting through specific receptors, is a regulatory peptide required for a variety of cardiac, neuronal and glial functions. Although previous studies have provided direct evidence for the presence of ANP and its functional receptors (NPR-A and NPR-C) in the inner ear, their presence within the cochlear spiral ganglion and their regulatory roles during auditory neurotransmission and deve...
Source: Hearing Research - December 11, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Sun F, Zhou K, Wang SJ, Liang PF, Zhu MZ, Qiu JH Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The effects of noise vocoding on speech quality perception.
This study quantifies the effects of TFS randomization through noise vocoding on the perception of speech quality by parametrically varying the amount of original TFS available above 1500Hz. The two research aims were: 1) to establish the role of TFS in quality perception, and 2) to determine if the role of TFS in quality perception differs between subjects with normal hearing and subjects with sensorineural hearing loss. Ratings were obtained from 20 subjects (10 with normal hearing and 10 with hearing loss) using an 11-point quality scale. Stimuli were processed in three different ways: 1) A 32-channel noise-excited voco...
Source: Hearing Research - December 11, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Anderson MC, Arehart KH, Kates JM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Vestibular receptors contribute to cortical auditory evoked potentials.
Abstract Acoustic sensitivity of the vestibular apparatus is well-established, but the contribution of vestibular receptors to the late auditory evoked potentials of cortical origin is unknown. Evoked potentials from 500 Hz tone pips were recorded using 70 channel EEG at several intensities below and above the vestibular acoustic threshold, as determined by vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs). In healthy subjects both auditory mid- and long-latency auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), consisting of Na, Pa, N1 and P2 waves, were observed in the sub-threshold conditions. However, in passing through the vesti...
Source: Hearing Research - December 6, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Todd NP, Paillard AC, Kluk K, Whittle E, Colebatch JG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Sensorineural hearing loss amplifies neural coding of envelope information in the central auditory system of chinchillas.
Abstract People with sensorineural hearing loss often have substantial difficulty understanding speech under challenging listening conditions. Behavioral studies suggest that reduced sensitivity to the temporal structure of sound may be responsible, but underlying neurophysiological pathologies are incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the effects of noise-induced hearing loss on coding of envelope (ENV) structure in the central auditory system of anesthetized chinchillas. ENV coding was evaluated noninvasively using auditory evoked potentials recorded from the scalp surface in response to sinusoidally amp...
Source: Hearing Research - December 4, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Zhong Z, Henry KS, Heinz MG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effects of cochlear ablation on amino acid levels in the rat cochlear nucleus and superior olive.
Abstract Amino acids have important roles in the chemistry of the auditory system, including communication among neurons. There is much evidence for glutamate as a neurotransmitter from auditory nerve fibers to cochlear nucleus neurons. Previous studies in rodents have examined effects of removal of auditory nerve input by cochlear ablation on levels, uptake and release of glutamate in cochlear nucleus subdivisions, as well as on glutamate receptors. Effects have also been reported on uptake and release of γ-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glycine, two other amino acids strongly implicated in cochlear nucleus synap...
Source: Hearing Research - November 28, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Godfrey DA, Jin YM, Liu X, Godfrey MA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Narrow sound pressure level tuning in the auditory cortex of the bats Molossus molossus and Macrotus waterhousii.
A, Mora EC Abstract In the auditory system, tuning to sound level appears in the form of non-monotonic response-level functions that depict the response of a neuron to changing sound levels. Neurons with non-monotonic response-level functions respond best to a particular sound pressure level (defined as "best level" or level evoking the maximum response). We performed a comparative study on the location and basic functional organization of the auditory cortex in the gleaning bat, Macrotus waterhousii, and the aerial-hawking bat, Molossus molossus. Here, we describe the response-level function of cortica...
Source: Hearing Research - November 21, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Macías S, Hechavarría JC, Cobo A, Mora EC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Electric-acoustic pitch comparisons in single-sided-deaf cochlear implant users: Frequency-place functions and rate pitch.
Abstract Eight cochlear implant users with near-normal hearing in their non-implanted ear compared pitch percepts for pulsatile electric and acoustic pure-tone stimuli presented to the two ears. Six subjects were implanted with a 31-mm MED-EL FLEXSOFT electrode, and two with a 24-mm medium (M) electrode, with insertion angles of the most apical contacts ranging from 565° to 758°. In the first experiment, frequency-place functions were derived from pure-tone matches to 1500-pps unmodulated pulse trains presented to individual electrodes and compared to Greenwood's frequencyposition map along the organ of Co...
Source: Hearing Research - November 16, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Schatzer R, Vermeire K, Visser D, Krenmayr A, Kals M, Voormolen M, Van de Heyning P, Clemens Z Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

An Automated Psychoacoustic Testing Apparatus for Use in Cats.
We present a novel behavioral experimental system that was developed to allow efficient animal training in response to acoustic stimuli. Cats were required to perform a relatively simple task of moving toward and away from the device depending on whether the members of a tone pair were different or the same in frequency (go/no-go task). The experimental setup proved to be effective, with all animals (N = 7) performing at above 90% correct on an easy task. Animals were trained within 2 to 4 weeks and then generated a total of 150 to 200 trials per day, distributed within approximately 8 self initiated sessions. Data collect...
Source: Hearing Research - November 12, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Benovitski YB, Blamey PJ, Rathbone GD, Fallon JB Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Behavioral correlates of auditory streaming in rhesus macaques.
Abstract Perceptual representations of auditory stimuli (i.e., sounds) are derived from the auditory system's ability to segregate and group the spectral, temporal, and spatial features of auditory stimuli-a process called "auditory scene analysis". Psychophysical studies have identified several of the principles and mechanisms that underlie a listener's ability to segregate and group acoustic stimuli. One important psychophysical task that has illuminated many of these principles and mechanisms is the "streaming" task. Despite the wide use of this task to study psychophysical mechanisms of hum...
Source: Hearing Research - November 12, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Christison-Lagay KL, Cohen YE Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Left hemisphere fractional anisotropy increase in noise-induced tinnitus: A diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of white matter tracts in the brain.
Abstract Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a contemporary neuroimaging modality used to study connectivity patterns and microstructure of white matter tracts in the brain. The use of DTI in the study of tinnitus is a relatively unexplored methodology with no studies focusing specifically on tinnitus induced by noise exposure. In this investigation, participants were two groups of adults matched for etiology, age, and degree of peripheral hearing loss, but differed by the presence or absence (+/-) of tinnitus. It is assumed that matching individuals on the basis of peripheral hearing loss, allows for differentiatin...
Source: Hearing Research - November 8, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Benson RR, Gattu R, Cacace AT Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effects of electrical pulse polarity shape on intra cochlear neural responses in humans: Triphasic pulses with cathodic second phase.
Abstract To avoid a continuous charging of the stimulated tissue in auditory prostheses, charge-balanced pulses are used. In this context the effect of electrical pulse shape and polarity is still a matter of debate and the most effective pulse shape needs to be determined (Bahmer et al., 2010a; Undurraga et al., 2010; Wieringen et al., 2008; Macherey et al., 2008). Therefore, we conducted electrophysiological measurements, namely electrical compound action potentials (ECAPs) to assess response strength elicited by various pulse shapes and polarities in five cochlear implant recipients (SonataTI100/PulsarCI100 dev...
Source: Hearing Research - October 23, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Bahmer A, Baumann U Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Bone conduction in Thiel-embalmed cadaver heads.
CONCLUSION: Thiel-embalmed human whole-head specimens can be used as an alternative model for the study of human middle ear mechanics secondary to BC stimulation. At some frequencies, differences from living subjects must be considered. PMID: 24161399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - October 22, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Guignard J, Stieger C, Kompis M, Caversaccio M, Arnold A Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory cortical axons contact commissural cells throughout the guinea pig inferior colliculus.
Abstract Projections from auditory cortex (AC) affect how cells in both inferior colliculi (IC) respond to acoustic stimuli. The large projection from the AC to the ipsilateral IC is usually credited with the effects in the ipsilateral IC. The circuitry underlying effects in the contralateral IC is less clear. The direct projection from the AC to the contralateral IC is relatively small. An unexplored possibility is that the large ipsilateral cortical projection contacts the substantial number of cells in the ipsilateral IC that project through the commissure to the contralateral IC. Apparent contacts between cort...
Source: Hearing Research - October 17, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Nakamoto KT, Sowick CS, Schofield BR Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Exploring the role of auditory analysis in atypical compared to typical language development.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID: 24112877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - October 7, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Grube M, Cooper FE, Kumar S, Kelly T, Griffiths TD Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions evoked by swept tones.
Abstract Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are soft sounds generated by the cochlea and the measurements of OAEs are useful in detecting cochlear damages. Stimulus frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) are evoked by one single tone and they are the most frequency specific in probing functional status of the cochlea than other types of OAEs. However, SFOAEs are currently restricted to research only because of the difficulty and low efficiency of their measurements. To solve these problems, an efficient method of using swept tones to measure SFOAEs was proposed in this study. The swept tones had time-varying frequenci...
Source: Hearing Research - October 7, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Chen S, Deng J, Bian L, Li G Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Neuronal basis of speech comprehension.
Abstract Verbal communication does not rely only on the simple perception of auditory signals. It is rather a parallel and integrative processing of linguistic and non-linguistic information, involving temporal and frontal areas in particular. This review describes the inherent complexity of auditory speech comprehension from a functional-neuroanatomical perspective. The review is divided into two parts. In the first part, structural and functional asymmetry of language relevant structures will be discus. The second part of the review will discuss recent neuroimaging studies, which coherently demonstrate that spee...
Source: Hearing Research - October 7, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Specht K Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Thalamocortical mechanisms for integrating musical tone and rhythm.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID: 24103509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - October 6, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Musacchia G, Large E, Schroeder CE Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

ECAP Spread of Excitation with Virtual Channels and Physical Electrodes.
Abstract The primary goal of this study was to evaluate physiological spatial excitation patterns for stimulation of adjacent physical electrodes and intermediate virtual channels. Two experiments were conducted that utilized electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) spread-of-excitation (SOE) functions obtained with the traditional forward-masking subtraction method. These two experiments examined spatial excitation patterns for virtual-channel maskers and probes, respectively. In Experiment 1, ECAP SOE patterns were obtained for maskers applied to physical electrodes and virtual channels to determine ...
Source: Hearing Research - October 3, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Hughes ML, Stille LJ, Baudhuin JL, Goehring JL Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Mode-locking neurodynamics predict human auditory brainstem responses to musical intervals.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID: 24091182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - October 1, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Lerud KD, Almonte FV, Kim JC, Large EW Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Vertical-plane sound localization with distorted spectral cues.
Abstract For human listeners, the primary cues for localization in the vertical plane are provided by the direction-dependent filtering of the pinnae, head, and upper body. Vertical-plane localization generally is accurate for broadband sounds, but when such sounds are presented at near-threshold levels or at high levels with short durations (
Source: Hearing Research - September 27, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Macpherson EA, Sabin AT Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory neuroimaging with fMRI and PET.
This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID: 24076424 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - September 27, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Talavage TM, Gonzalez-Castillo J, Scott SK Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Phase effects in masking by harmonic complexes: Speech recognition.
Abstract Harmonic complexes that generate highly modulated temporal envelopes on the basilar membrane (BM) mask a tone less effectively than complexes that generate relatively flat temporal envelopes, because the non-linear active gain of the BM selectively amplifies a low-level tone in the dips of a modulated masker envelope. The present study examines a similar effect in speech recognition. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured for a voice masked by harmonic complexes with partials in sine phase (SP) or in random phase (RP). The masker's fundamental frequency (F0) was 50, 100 or 200 Hz. SRTs were...
Source: Hearing Research - September 27, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Deroche ML, Culling JF, Chatterjee M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Examining neural plasticity and cognitive benefit through the unique lens of musical training.
Abstract Training programs aimed to alleviate or improve auditory-cognitive abilities have either experienced mixed success or remain to be fully validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to our weak understanding of (i) how (and which) interventions provide the most robust and long lasting improvements to cognitive and perceptual abilities and (ii) how the neural mechanisms which underlie such abilities are positively modified by certain activities and experience. Recent studies indicate that music training provides robust, long-lasting biological benefits to auditory function. Imp...
Source: Hearing Research - September 27, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Moreno S, Bidelman GM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Editorial introduction to Hearing Research special issue on communication sounds and the brain: New directions and perspectives.
PMID: 24076210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - September 24, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Petkov C, Gentner T, Liu RC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Can nonlinguistic musical training change the way the brain processes speech? The expanded OPERA hypothesis.
Abstract A growing body of research suggests that musical training has a beneficial impact on speech processing (e.g., hearing of speech in noise and prosody perception). As this research moves forward two key questions need to be addressed: 1) Can purely instrumental musical training have such effects? 2) If so, how and why would such effects occur? The current paper offers a conceptual framework for understanding such effects based on mechanisms of neural plasticity. The expanded OPERA hypothesis proposes that when music and speech share sensory or cognitive processing mechanisms in the brain, and music places h...
Source: Hearing Research - September 19, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Patel AD Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Special issue in Hearing Research: Human auditory neuroimaging.
PMID: 24055073 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - September 18, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Hall DA, Langers DR Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Cochlear implantation for chronic electrical stimulation in the mouse.
We describe the surgical approach for implantation, as well as presenting the first functional data obtained from intracochlear electrical stimulation in the mouse. PMID: 24055621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - September 18, 2013 Category: Audiology Authors: Irving S, Trotter MI, Fallon JB, Millard RE, Shepherd RK, Wise AK Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research