The hidden dysfunction of otolithic organs in patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To define the profiles of ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP and cVEMP, respectively) in patients with profound sensorineural hearing loss (PSHL). METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with PSHL and 20 healthy volunteers were investigated. The patients' medical records were collected and analyzed. The ACS-evoked oVEMPs and cVEMPs and caloric test were tested and analyzed. RESULTS: The oVEMP and cVEMP response rates in the patients with PSHL were 38.9% and 44.4%, respectively, and these values were significantly less than those in the healthy volunteers (both were...
Source: Hearing Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Xu XD, Ding CR, Yu J, Han Z, Gu J, Gao N, Jia XH, Luo X, Wang J, Chi FL Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Immune defense is the primary function associated with the differentially expressed genes in the cochlea following acoustic trauma.
Abstract Our previous RNA-sequencing analysis of the rat cochlear genes identified multiple biological processes and molecular pathways in the cochlear response to acoustic overstimulation. However, the biological processes and molecular pathways that are common to other species have not been documented. The identification of these common stress processes is pivotal for a better understanding of the essential response of the cochlea to acoustic injury. Here, we compared the RNA-sequencing data collected from mice and rats that sustained a similar, but not identical, acoustic injury. The transcriptome analysis of c...
Source: Hearing Research - October 28, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Yang S, Cai Q, Vethanayagam RR, Wang J, Yang W, Hu BH Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

High-frequency hearing in seals and sea lions.
Abstract Existing evidence suggests that some pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) can detect underwater sound at frequencies well above the traditional high-frequency hearing limits for their species. This phenomenon, however, is not well studied: Sensitivity patterns at frequencies beyond traditional high-frequency limits are poorly resolved, and the nature of the auditory mechanism mediating hearing at these frequencies is unknown. In the first portion of this study, auditory sensitivity patterns in the 50-180 kHz range were measured for one California sea lion (Zalophus californianus), one harbor seal (P...
Source: Hearing Research - October 27, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Cunningham KA, Reichmuth C Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex.
This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape a...
Source: Hearing Research - October 27, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Ranaweera RD, Kwon M, Hu S, Tamer GG, Luh WM, Talavage TM Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Synaptic Mechanisms Shaping Delay-Tuned Combination-Sensitivity in The Auditory Thalamus of Mustached Bats.
Abstract For the processing of target-distance information, delay-tuned auditory neurons of the mustached bat show facilitative responses to a combination of signal elements of a biosonar pulse-echo pair with a specific echo delay. They are initially produced in the inferior colliculus by facilitative responses based on the coincidence of the rebound response following glycinergic inhibition to the first harmonic of the pulse and a short-latency response to the 2nd-4th harmonics of its echo. Here, we report that further facilitative responses to pulse-echo pairs of thalamic delay-tuned neurons are mediated by glut...
Source: Hearing Research - October 27, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Butman JA, Suga N Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

High frequency bone conduction auditory evoked potentials in the guinea pig: Assessing cochlear injury after ossicular chain manipulation.
The objectives of the present study were firstly to evaluate a novel high frequency bone conduction transducer with evoked auditory potentials in a guinea pig model, and secondly to use this model to investigate the impact of middle ear surgical manipulation on cochlear function. We modified a magnetostrictive device as a high frequency BC transducer and evaluated its performance by comparison with a calibrated AC transducer at frequencies up to 32 kHz using the auditory brainstem response (ABR), compound action potential (CAP) and summating potential (SP). To mimic a middle ear traumatising stimulus, a rotating bur w...
Source: Hearing Research - October 19, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Bergin MJ, Bird PA, Vlajkovic SM, Thorne PR Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Thin-film micro-electrode stimulation of the cochlea in rats exposed to aminoglycoside induced hearing loss.
Abstract The multi-channel cochlear implant (CI) provides sound and speech perception to thousands of individuals who would otherwise be deaf. Broad activation of auditory nerve fibres when using a CI results in poor frequency discrimination. The CI also provides users with poor amplitude perception due to elicitation of a narrow dynamic range. Provision of more discrete frequency perception and a greater control over amplitude may allow users to better distinguish speech in noise and to segregate sound sources. In this research, thin-film (TF) high density micro-electrode arrays and conventional platinum ring ele...
Source: Hearing Research - October 14, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Allitt BJ, Harris AR, Morgan SJ, Clark GM, Paolini AG Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Suprathreshold auditory processing deficits in noise: Effects of hearing loss and age.
Abstract People with sensorineural hearing loss generally suffer from a reduced ability to understand speech in complex acoustic listening situations, particularly when background noise is present. In addition to the loss of audibility, a mixture of suprathreshold processing deficits is possibly involved, like altered basilar membrane compression and related changes, as well as a reduced ability of temporal coding. A series of 6 monaural psychoacoustic experiments at 0.5, 2, and 6 kHz was conducted with 18 subjects, divided equally into groups of young normalhearing, older normal-hearing and older hearing-impaired...
Source: Hearing Research - October 14, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Kortlang S, Mauermann M, Ewert SD Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Prenatal low dosage dioxin (TCDD) exposure impairs cochlear function resulting in auditory neuropathy.
Abstract 2,3,7,8-tetrachorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminant, is a potent teratogen. Whereas developmental TCDD toxicity is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the normal function of the AhR is poorly understood. We tested whether dioxin exposure during a critical period of hair cell development disrupts cochlear function in three mouse strains, (C57BL6, BalbC, and CBA) that contain high affinity AhR-b alleles. C57BL/6, BalbC, and CBA dams were exposed to 500 ng/kg TCDD or olive oil (vehicle) on embryonic day 12 by gavage. Cochlear function was analyze...
Source: Hearing Research - October 11, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Safe TM, Luebke AE Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Novel in vivo imaging analysis of an inner ear drug delivery system: drug availability in inner ear following different dose of systemic drug injections.
This study provides a better understanding of in vivo drug delivery dynamics measured in the inner ear. Further studies will show whether a high dosage of drug is effective or not. PMID: 26435094 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - October 1, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Kanzaki S, Watanabe K, Fujioka M, Shibata S, Nakamura M, Okano HJ, Okano H, Ogawa K Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Blind people are more sensitive than sighted people to binaural sound-location cues, particularly inter-aural level differences.
Abstract Blind people use auditory information to locate sound sources and sound-reflecting objects (echolocation). Sound source localization benefits from the hearing system's ability to suppress distracting sound reflections, whereas echolocation would benefit from "unsuppressing" these reflections. To clarify how these potentially conflicting aspects of spatial hearing interact in blind versus sighted listeners, we measured discrimination thresholds for two binaural location cues: inter-aural level differences (ILDs) and inter-aural time differences (ITDs). The ILDs or ITDs were present in single clic...
Source: Hearing Research - September 30, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Nilsson ME, Schenkman BN Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Cochlear Implantation as a Long-Term Treatment for Ipsilateral Incapacitating Tinnitus in Subjects with Unilateral Hearing Loss up to 10 years.
CONCLUSION: This is the first study to report on LT results in a large number of UHL CI users, up to 10 years. Structured interviews shows that 100% of the subjects wears their CI seven days a week. The tinnitus reduces significantly up to three months after the first-fitting and the tinnitus reduction remain stable up to the LT test interval. The SSD group report tinnitus reduction as the primary benefit, whereas the majority of the AHL group report improved hearing as the primary benefit, eight (3-10) years after implantation. In addition to the tinnitus reduction, the CI provides also a benefit regarding reported. ...
Source: Hearing Research - September 30, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Mertens G, De Bodt M, Van de Heyning P Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors and tinnitus.
Abstract One hypothesis suggests that tinnitus is a form of sensory epilepsy, arising partly from neuronal hyperactivity in auditory regions of the brain such as the cochlear nucleus and inferior colliculus. Although there is currently no effective drug treatment for tinnitus, anti-epileptic drugs are used in some cases as a potential treatment option. There is increasing evidence to suggest that cannabinoid drugs, i.e. cannabinoid receptor agonists, can also have anti-epileptic effects, at least in some cases and in some parts of the brain. It has been reported that cannabinoid CB1 receptors and the endogenous ca...
Source: Hearing Research - September 30, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Smith PF, Zheng Y Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Audiograms, gap detection thresholds, and frequency difference limens in cannabinoid receptor 1 knockout mice.
Abstract The cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is found at several stages in the auditory pathway, but its role in hearing is unknown. Hearing abilities were measured in CB1R knockout mice and compared to those of wild-type mice. Operant conditioning and the psychophysical Method of Constant Stimuli were used to measure audiograms, gap detection thresholds, and frequency difference limens in trained mice using the same methods and stimuli as in previous experiments. CB1R knockout mice showed deficits at frequencies above 8 kHz in their audiograms relative to wild-type mice. CB1R knockouts showed enhancements for ...
Source: Hearing Research - September 28, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Toal KL, Radziwon KE, Holfoth DP, Xu-Friedman MA, Dent ML Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Neural networks of tinnitus in humans: Elucidating severity and habituation.
Abstract The article reviews current data about the neural correlates of an individual's reaction to tinnitus, primarily from studies that employ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Human studies employing brain imaging remain the most commonly used method to understand neural biomarkers of the reaction to tinnitus, a subjective hearing disorder. Evidence from anatomical and functional MRI studies is reviewed to better understand the large-scale neural networks implicated in tinnitus habituation and severity. These networks are concerned with attention, audition, and emotion, both during tasks and at 'rest' when no ...
Source: Hearing Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Husain FT Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Psychometric properties of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI): assessment in a UK research volunteer population.
CONCLUSION: Even though the proposed 8-factor structure was not fully confirmed for this population, the TFI appears to cover multiple symptom domains, and to measure the construct of tinnitus with an excellent reliability in distinguishing between patients. While the TFI may discriminate those whose tinnitus is not a problem, floor effects in many items means it is less appropriate as a measure of change in this subgroup. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these effects are relevant in other populations. PMID: 26415998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - September 25, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Fackrell K, Hall DA, Barry JG, Hoare DJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Information Theoretic Evaluation of a Noiseband-Based Cochlear Implant Simulator.
This study assessed the similarity in vowel identification of CI subjects and NH subjects using an 8-channel noise-band vocoder simulator configured to match input and output frequencies or to mimic output after a basalward shift of input frequencies. Under each stimulus condition, NH subjects performed the task both with and without feedback/training. Similarity of NH subjects to CI users was evaluated using correct identification rates and information theoretic approaches. Feedback/training produced higher rates of correct identification, as expected, but also resulted in error patterns that were closer to those of the C...
Source: Hearing Research - September 23, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Aguiar DE, Taylor NE, Li J, Gazanfari DK, Talavage TM, Laflen JB, Neuberger H, Svirsky MA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Synaptic Studies Inform the Functional Diversity of Cochlear Afferents.
Abstract Type I and type II cochlear afferents differ markedly in number, morphology and innervation pattern. The predominant type I afferents transmit the elemental features of acoustic information to the central nervous system. Excitation of these large diameter myelinated neurons occurs at a single ribbon synapse of a single inner hair cell. This solitary transmission point depends on efficient vesicular release that can produce large, rapid, suprathreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials. In contrast, the many fewer, thinner, unmyelinated type II afferents cross the tunnel of Corti, turning basally for hund...
Source: Hearing Research - September 21, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Fuchs PA, Glowatzki E Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Hearing aid validation based on 40 Hz auditory steady-state response thresholds.
This study aimed to compare characteristics of aided and unaided auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs). METHODS: A total of 30 moderate to profoundly hearing-impaired subjects participated in this study. The subjects underwent acoustic immittance, behavioral audiometry, and ASSR with the modulation rate of 40 Hz, first without a hearing aid and then with a hearing aid. Sixteen people with normal hearing and 17 people with severe hearing loss were included in biological calibration of the sound field. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between unaided behavioral and ASSR thresholds in all test freq...
Source: Hearing Research - September 16, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Sardari S, Jafari Z, Haghani H, Talebi H Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Induction of single sided deafness in the newborn rat and its consequence for cochlear nucleus volume development.
Abstract Aim of this study was to induce a single sided deafness (SSD) in rats before hearing onset. Rats were operated at postnatal day 10 by approaching the tympanic cavity along a retroauricular path without manipulating ossicles or tympanic membrane. The ototoxic aminoglycoside neomycin was injected intracochlearly through the round window membrane on one side. When the animals have reached young adult stages, their hearing threshold was determined by their auditory brainstem response (ABR). Monaural deafening was considered successful when the hearing threshold was at least 95 dB above the threshold of the no...
Source: Hearing Research - September 16, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Jakob TF, Rosskothen-Kuhl N, Illing RB Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Otoacoustic emissions in young adults: Effects of blood group [R.1].
Abstract Previous research findings have suggested that individuals with different blood groups demonstrate varied haematological risk factors for a wide range of disorders, including noise-induced hearing loss. The present study investigated the effects of blood group on several features of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) including magnitude, as OAE status is indicative of cochlear function. A total of 60 normal hearing females aged between 18 to 26 years were included in the study. Measurements of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs), transient-evoked emissions (TEOAEs) and distortion-product otoacoustic emiss...
Source: Hearing Research - September 13, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Chow KT, McPherson B, Fuente A Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Ischemia as a potential etiologic factor in idiopathic unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss: Analysis of posterior circulation arteries.
Abstract The association between idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and the radiologic characteristics of the vertebrobasilar artery is unclear. We hypothesized that the degree and direction of vertebrobasilar artery curvature in the posterior circulation contribute to the occurrence of ISSNHL. We consecutively enrolled patients diagnosed with unilateral ISSNHL in two tertiary hospitals. Magnetic resonance images were performed in all patients to exclude specific causes of ISSNHL, such as vestibular schwannoma, chronic mastoiditis, and anterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct. We measured the...
Source: Hearing Research - September 11, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Kim C, Sohn JH, Jang MU, Hong SK, Lee JS, Kim HJ, Choi HC, Lee JH Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Speech-evoked ABR: Effects of age and simulated neural temporal jitter.
Abstract The speech-evoked auditory brainstem response (sABR) provides a measure of encoding complex stimuli in the brainstem, and this study employed the sABR to better understand the role of neural temporal jitter in the response patterns from older adults. In experiment 1, sABR recordings were used to investigate age-related differences in periodicity encoding of the temporal envelope and fine structure components of the response to a/da/speech token. A group of younger and a group of older adults (n=22 per group) participated. The results demonstrated reduced amplitude of the fundamental frequency and harmonic...
Source: Hearing Research - September 11, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Mamo SK, Grose JH, Buss E Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Medial Olivocochlear Efferent Reflex Inhibition of Human Cochlear Nerve Responses.
Abstract Inhibition of cochlear amplifier gain by the medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system has several putative roles: aiding listening in noise, protection against damage from acoustic overexposure, and slowing age-induced hearing loss. The human MOC reflex has been studied almost exclusively by measuring changes in otoacoustic emissions. However, to help understand how the MOC system influences what we hear, it is important to have measurements of the MOC effect on the total output of the organ of Corti, i.e., on cochlear nerve responses that couple sounds to the brain. In this work we measured the inhibit...
Source: Hearing Research - September 10, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Lichtenhan JT, Wilson US, Hancock KE, Guinan JJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Tinnitus and anxiety disorders: a review.
CONCLUSION: Comorbidity is high and screening for and treatment of anxiety disorders is recommended in moderate to severe tinnitus, as, given the overlap in the structural and functional brain circuitries involved, theoretically, their management could improve (subjective) levels of tinnitus although further empirical research on this topic is required. PMID: 26342399 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hearing Research)
Source: Hearing Research - September 2, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Pattyn T, Van Den Eede F, Vanneste S, Cassiers L, Veltman DJ, Van De Heyning P, Sabbe BC Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Dunnione ameliorates cisplatin ototoxicity through modulation of NAD(+) metabolism.
Abstract Ototoxicity is an important issue in patients receiving cisplatin chemotherapy. Numerous studies have demonstrated that cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is related to oxidative stress and DNA damage. However, the precise mechanism underlying cisplatin-associated ototoxicity is still unclear. The cofactor nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) has emerged as an important regulator of energy metabolism and cellular homeostasis. Here, we demonstrate that the levels and activities of sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) are suppressed by the reduction of intracellular NAD(+) levels in cisplatin-mediated ototoxicity. We provide...
Source: Hearing Research - September 1, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Kim HJ, Pandit A, Oh GS, Shen A, Lee SB, Khadka D, Lee S, Shim H, Yang SH, Cho EY, Kwak TH, Choe SK, Park R, So HS Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Delayed loss of hearing after hearing preservation cochlear implantation: human temporal bone pathology and implications for etiology.
Abstract After initially successful preservation of residual hearing with cochlear implantation, some patients experience subsequent delayed hearing loss. The etiology of such delayed hearing loss is unknown. Human temporal bone pathology is critically important in investigating the etiology, and directing future efforts to maximize long term hearing preservation in cochlear implant patients. Here we present the temporal bone pathology from a patient implanted during life with an Iowa/Nucleus Hybrid S8 implant, with initially preserved residual hearing and subsequent hearing loss. Both temporal bones were removed ...
Source: Hearing Research - September 1, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Quesnel AM, Nakajima HH, Rosowski JJ, Hansen MR, Gantz BJ, Nadol JB Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Harmonic fusion and pitch affinity: Is there a direct link?
Abstract Simultaneous pure tones approximately one octave apart tend to be fused perceptually and to evoke a single pitch sensation. Besides, sequentially presented pure tones show a subjective "affinity" or similarity in pitch when their frequency ratio is close to one octave. The aim of the study reported here was to determine if these two perceptual phenomena are directly related. Each stimulus was a triplet of simultaneous or successive pure tones forming frequency ratios varying across stimuli between 0.96 and 1.04 octaves. The tones were presented at a low sensation level (15 dB) within broadb...
Source: Hearing Research - September 1, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Bonnard D, Dauman R, Semal C, Demany L Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Comparative gene expression study of the vestibular organ of the Igf1 deficient mouse using whole-transcript arrays.
In this study we have compared the whole transcriptome of the vestibular organ from wild type and Igf1(-/-) mice at different developmental and postnatal times. RNA was prepared from E18.5, P15 and P90 vestibular organs of Igf1(-/-) and Igf1(+/+) mice and the transcriptome analysed in triplicates using Affymetrix® Mouse Gene 1.1 ST Array Plates. These plates are whole-transcript arrays that include probes to measure both messenger (mRNA) and long intergenic non-coding RNA transcripts (lincRNA), with a coverage of over 28 thousand coding transcripts and over 7 thousands non-coding transcripts. Given the complexity of th...
Source: Hearing Research - September 1, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Rodríguez-de la Rosa L, Sánchez-Calderón H, Contreras J, Murillo-Cuesta S, Falagan S, Avendaño C, Dopazo J, Varela-Nieto I, Milo M Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

A comprehensive catalogue of the coding and non-coding transcripts of the human inner ear.
We report here, for the first time, comprehensive transcriptome characterization of the adult human cochlea, ampulla, saccule and utricle of the vestibule obtained from patients without hearing abnormalities. Using RNA-Seq, we measured the expression of>50,000 predicted genes corresponding to approximately 200,000 transcripts, in the adult inner ear and compared it to 32 other human tissues. First, we identified genes preferentially expressed in the inner ear, and unique either to the vestibule or cochlea. Next, we examined expression levels of specific groups of potentially interesting RNAs, such as genes implicated in...
Source: Hearing Research - September 1, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Schrauwen I, Hasin-Brumshtein Y, Corneveaux JJ, Ohmen J, White C, Allen AN, Lusis AJ, Van Camp G, Huentelman MJ, Friedman RA Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Frequency-change in DPOAE evoked by 1 s/octave sweeping primaries in newborns and adults.
Frequency-change in DPOAE evoked by 1 s/octave sweeping primaries in newborns and adults. Hear Res. 2015 Aug 26; Authors: AlMakadma HA, Henin S, Prieve BA, Dyab WM, Long GR Abstract Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in newborns and adults were evoked by sweeping primaries up and down in frequency at 1 s/octave. Sweeping up and down in frequency resulted in changes in the amplitude vs. frequency functions of the composite DPOAE and its two major components. In addition, DPOAE component phases differed slightly between the up- and down-swept conditions. The changes in amplitude ...
Source: Hearing Research - August 26, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: AlMakadma HA, Henin S, Prieve BA, Dyab WM, Long GR Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Commissural functional topography of the inferior colliculus assessed in vitro.
Abstract The inferior colliculus (IC) receives ascending and descending information from several convergent neural sources. As such, exploring the neural pathways that converge in the IC is crucial to uncovering their multi-varied roles in the integration of auditory and other sensory information. Among these convergent pathways, the IC commissural connections represent an important route for the integration of bilateral information in the auditory system. Here, we describe the preparation and validation of a novel in vitro slice preparation for examining the functional topography and synaptic properties of the co...
Source: Hearing Research - August 25, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Lee CC, Yanagawa Y, Imaizumi K Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Interaural stimulation timing in single sided deaf cochlear implant users.
Abstract The interaural time difference (ITD) is an important cue for the localization of sounds. ITD changes as little as 10 μs can be detected by the human auditory system. By provision of one ear with a cochlear implant (CI) ITD are altered due to the partial replacement of the peripheral auditory system. A hearing aid (HA), in contrast, does not replace but adds a processing delay component to the peripheral auditory system extending ITD. The aim of the present study was to quantify interaural stimulation timing between these different modalities to estimate the need for central auditory temporal compensati...
Source: Hearing Research - August 21, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Zirn S, Arndt S, Aschendorff A, Wesarg T Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Enhanced audio-visual interactions in the auditory cortex of elderly cochlear-implant users.
n P Abstract Auditory deprivation and the restoration of hearing via a cochlear implant (CI) can induce functional plasticity in auditory cortical areas. How these plastic changes affect the ability to integrate combined auditory (A) and visual (V) information is not yet well understood. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine whether age, temporary deafness and altered sensory experience with a CI can affect audio-visual (AV) interactions in post-lingually deafened CI users. Young and elderly CI users and age-matched NH listeners performed a speeded response task on basic auditory, v...
Source: Hearing Research - August 21, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Schierholz I, Finke M, Schulte S, Hauthal N, Kantzke C, Rach S, Büchner A, Dengler R, Sandmann P Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Psychophysical and neural correlates of noised-induced tinnitus in animals: Intra- and inter-auditory and non-auditory brain structure studies.
Abstract Tinnitus, a ringing in the ear or head without an external sound source, is a prevalent health problem. It is often associated with a number of limbic-associated disorders such as anxiety, sleep disturbance, and emotional distress. Thus, to investigate tinnitus, it is important to consider both auditory and non-auditory brain structures. This paper summarizes the psychophysical, immunocytochemical and electrophysiological evidence found in rats or hamsters with behavioral evidence of tinnitus. Behaviorally, we tested for tinnitus using a conditioned suppression/avoidance paradigm, gap detection acoustic r...
Source: Hearing Research - August 20, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Zhang J, Luo H, Pace E, Li L, Liu B Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Auditory-limbic interactions in chronic tinnitus: challenges for neuroimaging research.
Abstract Tinnitus is a widespread auditory disorder affecting approximately 10-15% of the population, often with debilitating consequences. Although tinnitus commonly begins with damage to the auditory system due to loud-noise exposure, aging, or other etiologies, the exact neurophysiological basis of chronic tinnitus remains unknown. Many researchers point to a central auditory origin of tinnitus; however, a growing body of evidence also implicates other brain regions, including the limbic system. Correspondingly, we and others have proposed models of tinnitus in which the limbic and auditory systems both play cr...
Source: Hearing Research - August 20, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Leaver AM, Seydell-Greenwald A, Rauschecker JP Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Development of an Electrode for the Artificial Cochlear Sensory Epithelium.
Abstract An artificial cochlear sensory epithelium has been developed on the basis of a new concept that the piezoelectric membrane, which converts mechanical distortion into electricity, can mimic the function of the inner hair cell and basilar membrane of the mammalian cochlea. Our previous research demonstrated that the piezoelectric membrane generated electrical outputs in response to the sound stimulation after implantation into the guinea pig cochlea, whereas electrodes for the stimulation of spiral ganglion neurons have not been fabricated, and a method to fix the device in the cochlea is also required to s...
Source: Hearing Research - August 20, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Tona Y, Inaoka T, Ito J, Kawano S, Nakagawa T Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Hair cell counts in a rat model of sound damage: Effects of tissue preparation & identification of regions of hair cell loss.
In this study we quantify changes in HC number following exposure to one of four sound damage paradigms. We exposed adult, anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats to a unilateral 16 kHz pure tone that varied in intensity (114 dB or 118 dB) and duration (1, 2, or 4 h) and sacrificed animals 2-4 weeks later. We compared two different methods of tissue preparation, plastic embedding/sectioning and whole mount dissection, for quantifying hair cell loss as a function of frequency We found that the two methods of tissue preparation produced largely comparable cochleograms, with whole mount dissections allowing a mor...
Source: Hearing Research - August 20, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Neal C, Kennon-McGill S, Freemyer A, Shum A, Staecker H, Durham D Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Analysis of plasma microRNA expression profiles in male textile workers with noise-induced hearing loss.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have attracted interests as non-invasive biomarkers of physiological and pathological conditions, which may be applied in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). However, no epidemiology studies have yet examined the potential effects of NIHL or noise exposure on miRNA expression profiles. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify permanent NIHL-related miRNAs and to predict the biological functions of the putative genes encoding the indicated miRNAs. METHODS: In the discovery stage, we used a microarray assay to detect the miRNA expression profiles between pooled p...
Source: Hearing Research - August 13, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Ding L, Liu J, Shen HX, Pan LP, Liu QD, Zhang HD, Han L, Shuai LG, Ding EM, Zhao QN, Wang BS, Zhu BL Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Protective role of edaravone against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line.
Abstract Edaravone is a neuroprotective agent with a potent free radical scavenging and antioxidant actions. In the present study we investigated the influence of edaravone on cisplatin ototoxicity in auditory cells. Cell viability was determined using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide cell proliferation assay. Oxidative stress and apoptosis were assessed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement, Hoechst 33258 staining, caspase-3 activity assay, and immunoblotting of PARP. Pretreatment with 100 μM of edaravone prior to application of 15 μM of cisplatin increased cel...
Source: Hearing Research - August 13, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Im GJ, Chang J, Lee S, Choi J, Jung HH, Lee HM, Ryu SH, Park SK, Kim JH, Kim HJ Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The pathophysiology of otosclerosis: Review of current research.
Abstract Otosclerosis is a complex disease of the human otic capsule with highest incidence in adult Caucasians. So far, many possible etiological factors like genetics, HLA, autoimmunity, viruses, inflammation, and hormones have been investigated but still the development of the disease remains unclear. Currently, the surgical replacement of stapes (stapedotomy) remains the best possible treatment option. In this review, we analyze different etiological factors studied so far in otosclerosis pathophysiology and discuss most recent findings and possible new research pathways. PMID: 26276418 [PubMed - as suppl...
Source: Hearing Research - August 11, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Rudic M, Keogh I, Wagner R, Wilkinson E, Kiros N, Ferrary E, Sterkers O, Bozorg Grayeli A, Zarkovic K, Zarkovic N Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Effects of background noise on inter-trial phase coherence and auditory N1-P2 responses to speech stimulus.
This study investigated the effects of a speech-babble background noise on inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC, also referred to as phase locking value (PLV)) and auditory event-related responses (AERP) to speech sounds. Specifically, we analyzed EEG data from 11 normal hearing subjects to examine whether ITPC can predict noise-induced variations in the obligatory N1-P2 complex response. N1-P2 amplitude and latency data were obtained for the syllable/bu/in quiet and noise listening conditions. ITPC data in delta, theta, and alpha frequency bands were calculated for the N1-P2 responses in the two passive listening conditions....
Source: Hearing Research - August 11, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Koerner TK, Zhang Y Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Brief bursts of infrasound may improve cognitive function - an fMRI study.
Kühn S Abstract At present, infrasound (sound frequency
Source: Hearing Research - August 7, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Weichenberger M, Kühler R, Bauer M, Hensel J, Brühl R, Ihlenfeld A, Ittermann B, Gallinat J, Koch C, Sander T, Kühn S Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Age-regulated function of autophagy in the mouse inner ear.
We report that autophagy-related genes (ATG) Becn1, Atg4g and Atg5 are expressed in the mouse cochlea, vestibular system and brainstem cochlear nuclei from late developmental stages to adulthood. Atg9 was studied in the mouse cochlea and showed a similar pattern. The presence of autophagic flux was confirmed by decreased sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1/p62) and increased relative levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II). Inner ear autophagy flux is developmentally regulated and is lower at perinatal stages than in the adult mouse, where an expression plateau is reached at the age of two-months, coinciding ...
Source: Hearing Research - July 30, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: de Iriarte Rodríguez R, Pulido S, Rodríguez-de la Rosa L, Marta Magariños, Varela-Nieto I Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

The Paracrine Effect of Mesenchymal Human Stem Cells Restored Hearing in β Tubulin Induced Autoimmune Sensorineural Hearing Loss.
The Paracrine Effect of Mesenchymal Human Stem Cells Restored Hearing in β Tubulin Induced Autoimmune Sensorineural Hearing Loss. Hear Res. 2015 Jul 30; Authors: Yoo TJ, Du X, Zhou B Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the activities of hASCs (Human Adipose tissue Derived Stem Cells) on autoimmune hearing loss (EAHL) and how human stem cells regenerated mouse cochlea cells. We have restored hearing in 19 years old white female with autoimmune hearing loss with autologous adipose tissue derived stem cells and we wish to understand the mechanism of restoration of hearing in animal model. ...
Source: Hearing Research - July 30, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Yoo TJ, Du X, Zhou B Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Abnormal fast fluctuations of electrocochleography and otoacoustic emissions in Menière's disease.
Abnormal fast fluctuations of electrocochleography and otoacoustic emissions in Menière's disease. Hear Res. 2015 Jul 29; Authors: Gerenton G, Giraudet F, Djennaoui I, Pavier Y, Gilain L, Mom T, Avan P Abstract The responses of cochlear hair cells to sound stimuli depend on the resting position of their stereocilia bundles, which is sensitive to the chemical and mechanical environment. Cochlear hydrops, a hallmark of Menière's disease (MD), which is likely to come with disruption of this environment, results in hearing symptoms and electrophysiological signs, such as excessive changes in...
Source: Hearing Research - July 29, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Gerenton G, Giraudet F, Djennaoui I, Pavier Y, Gilain L, Mom T, Avan P Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Mice with conditional deletion of Cx26 exhibit no vestibular phenotype despite secondary loss of Cx30 in the vestibular end organs.
Abstract Connexins are components of gap junctions which facilitate transfer of small molecules between cells. One member of the connexin family, Connexin 26 (Cx26), is prevalent in gap junctions in sensory epithelia of the inner ear. Mutations of GJB2, the gene encoding Cx26, cause significant hearing loss in humans. The vestibular system, however, does not usually show significant functional deficits in humans with this mutation. Mouse models for loss of Cx26 function demonstrate hearing loss and cochlear pathology but the extent of vestibular dysfunction and organ pathology are less well characterized. To under...
Source: Hearing Research - July 29, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Lee MY, Takada T, Takada Y, Kappy MD, Beyer LA, Swiderski DL, Godin AL, Brewer S, King WM, Raphael Y Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Speech quality evaluation of a sparse coding shrinkage noise reduction algorithm with normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners.
Abstract Although there are numerous papers describing single-channel noise reduction strategies to improve speech perception in a noisy environment, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effects of noise reduction algorithms on speech quality for hearing impaired (HI). A model-based sparse coding shrinkage (SCS) algorithm has been developed, and has shown previously (Sang et al., 2014) that it is as competitive as a state-of-the-art Wiener filter approach in speech intelligibility. Here, the analysis is extended to include subjective quality ratings and a method called Interpolated Paired Comparison...
Source: Hearing Research - July 29, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Sang J, Hu H, Zheng C, Li G, Lutman ME, Bleeck S Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Age-related Shifts in Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions Peak-ratios and Amplitude Modulation Spectra.
In this study, we measured DPOAEs to reveal age-related changes in peak f2/f1 ratio and degradation in AM detection by basilar membrane vibration. Two tones (f1 and f2, f2>f1) at various f2/f1 ratios and simultaneous presentation of one AM and one pure tone were used as stimuli to evoke DPOAEs. In addition of observing reduced DPOAE amplitudes and steeper slopes in the input-output DPOAE functions, higher peak f2/f1 ratios and broader f2/f1 tuning were also observed in aged animals. Aged animals generally had lower distortion product (DP) and first sideband (SB 1) responses evoked by an f1 pure tone and an f2 AM tone, r...
Source: Hearing Research - July 29, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Lai J, Bartlett EL Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research

Cochlear afferent innervation development.
Abstract Sound signal is detected by sensory hair cells located in the cochlear region of the inner ear, and transmitted to the central nervous system by the spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). These bipolar neurons develop long peripheral processes to connect hair cells, forming ribbon synapses, specialised for the precision and speed required to process auditory information. The establishment of a complex innervation pattern relies on specific signals, intrinsic to SGNs or provided by neighbouring cells, which are tightly controlled in time and space. In this paper, we review recent advances about stepwise developme...
Source: Hearing Research - July 28, 2015 Category: Audiology Authors: Delacroix L, Malgrange B Tags: Hear Res Source Type: research