Introducing the sporobiota and sporobiome
AbstractUnrelated spore-forming bacteria share unique characteristics stemming from the presence of highly resistant endospores, leading to similar challenges in health and disease. These characteristics are related to the presence of these highly transmissible spores, which are commonly spread within the environment and are implicated in host-to-host transmission. In humans, spore-forming bacteria contribute to a variety of pathological processes that share similar characteristics, including persistence, chronicity, relapses and the maintenance of the resistome. We first outline the necessity of characterizing the totalit...
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 30, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from stool specimens of outpatients in sentinel hospitals Beijing, China, 2010 –2015
ConclusionsThe detection rate ofK. pneumoniae in stool specimens from outpatients with diarrhea syndromes was about 0.5% in Beijing. Less similarity of the isolated strains indicated the unlikely long-term circulating ofK. pneumoniae in the community. ST23 was the most common genotype. Drug resistance of the community-acquiredK. pneumoniae was not a serious problem in comparing with hospital-acquired infections. High vigilance in the community-acquiredK. pneumoniae strains and investigation of pathogens ’ microbiological characteristics are valuable for signals detection for drug resistance in population and strains ...
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 30, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Development and evaluation of a PCR assay for rapid detection of azithromycin resistant Campylobacter isolated from diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata, India
ConclusionThis study describes a simple and rapid method for detection of mutation conferring macrolide resistance with additional feature of identification of sensitive strains. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Outer membrane phospholipase A ’s roles in Helicobacter pylori acid adaptation
ConclusionThe three-dimensional model of OMPLA predicts a transmembrane pore that can aidH. pylori’s acid tolerance through urea influx and ammonium efflux. After urea passes through OMPLA into the periplasm, it passes through the pH-gated inner membrane channel UreI into the cytoplasm where urease hydrolyses it into NH3 and CO2. Most of the NH3 becomes NH4+ that is likely to need an inner membrane channel to reach the periplasm. Two genes that are co-regulated with OMPLA in gastric Helicobacter operons could aid this transport. The NH4+ that might leave the cell through the OMPLA pore has been implicated inH. pylor ...
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of pks -positive Escherichia coli in Japanese patients with or without colorectal cancer
ConclusionsAlthough the method of collecting fecal DNA from colonic lavage samples was safe and technically feasible, factors other thanpks-positive bacteria appear to play more important roles in CRC development in this cohort. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 12, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Anaerobic adaptation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in vitro: similarities to M. tuberculosis and differential susceptibility to antibiotics
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate that MAP is capable of adaptation to NRP similar to that observed for MTB with differential susceptibility to antibiotics under aerobic versus anaerobic conditions. Such findings have significant implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of MAP in vivo and the treatment of CD should this organism be established as the causative agent. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Immune responses upon Campylobacter jejuni infection of secondary abiotic mice lacking nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2
ConclusionIn secondary abiotic mice, Nod2 signaling is involved in the orchestrated host immune responses uponC. jejuni infection, but does not control pathogen loads in the gastrointestinal tract. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of Clostridium perfringens CBA7123 isolated from a faecal sample from Korea
ConclusionsIn this study, theC. perfringens CBA7123 genome was sequenced and compared with otherC. perfringens genomes. Among the various genes sequenced, the detection of antimicrobial resistance genes and those encoding various virulence factors may extend the understanding of the pathogenesis ofC. perfringens strains. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 2, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Complete genome sequence of Vibrio campbellii strain 20130629003S01 isolated from shrimp with acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease
ConclusionsThe genome sequence ofV. campbellii 20130629003S01 and its comparative analysis with otherV. campbellii strains that we present here are important for a better understanding of the genomic characteristics of VCAHPND. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - June 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparison of clinical and immunological findings in gnotobiotic piglets infected with Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak strain and EHEC O157:H7
ConclusionsUnexpectedly,E. coli O104:H4 infection caused only mild symptoms and minor changes in histology and blood parameters in piglets. Outcome of the infection trial does not reflectE. coli O104:H4 associated human disease as observed during the outbreak in 2011. The potential role of cells of the innate immune system for STEC related disease pathogenesis should be further elucidated. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - May 25, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative genomic analysis reveals genetic features related to the virulence of Bacillus cereus FORC_013
ConclusionsThrough genome analysis ofB. cereus FORC_013, we identified multiple virulence factors that may contribute to pathogenicity. These results will provide insight into further studies regardingB. cereus pathogenesis mechanism at the genomic level. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - May 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Probiotic engineering: towards development of robust probiotic strains with enhanced functional properties and for targeted control of enteric pathogens
AbstractThere is a growing concern about the increase in human morbidity and mortality caused by foodborne pathogens. Antibiotics were and still are used as the first line of defense against these pathogens, but an increase in the development of bacterial antibiotic resistance has led to a need for alternative effective interventions. Probiotics are used as dietary supplements to promote gut health and for prevention or alleviation of enteric infections. They are currently used as generics, thus making them non-specific for different pathogens. A good understanding of the infection cycle of the foodborne pathogens as well ...
Source: Gut Pathogens - May 8, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Significantly higher faecal counts of the yeasts candida and saccharomyces identified in people with coeliac disease
ConclusionFurther research is required to understand the significance of Candida andSaccharomyces species in both the aetiology of CoeD and of persistent symptoms in this sub-group.Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registration —ANZCTR Number: 12610000630011 (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - May 5, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Capsular polysaccharide inhibits adhesion of Bifidobacterium longum 105-A to enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells and phagocytosis by macrophages
ConclusionsOur results suggest that CPS/EPS production and fimbriae formation are negatively correlated and play key roles in the survival, attachment, and colonization ofB. longum 105-A in the gut. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - May 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Single-nucleotide polymorphism typing analysis for molecular subtyping of Salmonella Tennessee isolates associated with the 2007 nationwide peanut butter outbreak in the United States
ConclusionsThe SNP-typing method described here might aid the investigation of the epidemiology and microevolution of pathogenic bacteria by discriminating between outbreak-related and sporadic clinical cases. In addition, this approach enables us to understand the population structure of the bacterial subtypes involved in the outbreak. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - May 1, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance, serogroups, virulence genes, and phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli isolated from yaks with diarrhea in Qinghai Plateau, China
ConclusionsOur results suggest that yaks with diarrhea serve as a reservoir of pathogenicE. coli carrying various virulence genes and resistance phenotypes. Therefore, clinicians and relevant authorities must ensure the regulatory use of antimicrobial agents and prevent the spread of these organisms through manure to farm workers and food-processing plants. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 28, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of antidiarrhoeal effects by diosmectite in human intestinal cells
ConclusionThese findings indicate that DS exerts an anti-diarrhoeal effect by inhibiting viral replication and the expression of NSP4. Both ion secretion and cell damage induced by RV are strongly inhibited consequent to the antiviral effect, which explains its clinical efficacy. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 24, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genetic variants of Helicobacter pylori type IV secretion system components CagL and CagI and their association with clinical outcomes
We examined the full sequences ofH. pylori cagL andcagI using whole-genome sequencing (WGS), and analyzed whether single nucleotide variants and amino acid changes (AACs) correlated with adverse clinical outcomes. Three isolates were excluded from the analysis due tocagPAI rearrangements. CagL RGD motifs were conserved in 39 isolates (97.5%). CagL-Glu59 and Ile234 in the C-terminal motif were more common in 10H. pylori isolates from GC patients (p  
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Prevalence, virulence potential, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiling of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from cattle
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of STEC in cattle farm samples in South Korea and to assess their virulence potentials.ResultsIn total, 63 STEC were isolated from 496 cattle farm samples, and temperature and rainfall affected STEC prevalence (p 
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Substance P enhances lactic acid and tyramine production in Enterococcus faecalis V583 and promotes its cytotoxic effect on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells
ConclusionSP can modulate the physiology ofE. faecalis. Extensive studies are now needed to screen within the human microbiota which bacteria are responsive to host molecules, and to identify their sensors. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria in the gut of young children in Bangladesh
ConclusionsOur results suggest gut of young Bangladeshi children to be an important reservoir for multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria  carrying ESBL related genes. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 20, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori vacA s1m1 genotype but not cagA or babA2 increase the risk of ulcer and gastric cancer in patients from Southern Mexico
ConclusionsIn population from Southern Mexico,H. pylori and thes1m1 genotype were associated with gastric cancer and thes1m1/cagA+/babA2+  strains predominated in tumor and adjacent tissue. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 13, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Multiple etiologies of infectious diarrhea and concurrent infections in a pediatric outpatient-based screening study in Odisha, India
AbstractBackgroundThere are multiple etiologies responsible for infectious gastroenteritis causing acute diarrhea which are often under diagnosed. Also acute diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children less than 5  years of age.MethodsIn our study, fecal samples (n = 130) were collected from children (
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 11, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Amelioration of intestinal and systemic sequelae of murine Campylobacter jejuni infection by probiotic VSL#3 treatment
ConclusionAdministration of probiotic formulations such as VSL#3 might open up valuable strategies for prophylaxis and/or treatment ofC. jejuni induced intestinal and systemic sequelae in vivo by the suppression of pro-inflammatory and induction of anti-inflammatory responses. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 11, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Global gene expression in Escherichia coli , isolated from the diseased ocular surface of the human eye with a potential to form biofilm
ConclusionsThis is the first study on global gene expression in antibiotic resistant ocularE. coli with a potential to form biofilm. Using native ocular isolates for antibiotic susceptibility testing, for biofilm formation and global gene expression is relevant and more acceptable than using type strains or non clinical strains which do not necessarily mimic the native isolate. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - April 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Attenuation of Helicobacter pylori -induced gastric inflammation by prior cag − strain (AM1) infection in C57BL/6 mice
ConclusionsThese data suggested that priorH. pylori cag− strain infection attenuated the severity of gastric pathology induced by subsequentcag+ strain in C57BL/6 mice. Prior AM1 infection induced Th1 cytokine IFN- γ, which reduced the Th17 response induced by subsequent SS1 infection. The reduced gastritis in AM1/SS1-infected mice might also be due to enrichment of AM1- primed Treg cells in the gastric compartment which inhibit Th1 and Th17 responses to subsequent SS1 infection. In summary, prior infection b y non-virulentH. pylori strain (AM1) causes reduction of subsequent virulent strain (SS1) infection by ...
Source: Gut Pathogens - March 9, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

We are not alone: a case for the human microbiome in extra intestinal diseases
ConclusionsEvaluating diseases remote from the gut would unfold the mysteries of the microbiome. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - March 7, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Strain-specific probiotic properties of lactic acid bacteria and their interference with human intestinal pathogens invasion
ConclusionThe LAB strains examined in this study may protect the intestinal epithelium through a series of barriers (antimicrobial activity, co-aggregation with pathogens, adherence) and interference mechanisms. Consequently, these LAB strains may be considered candidates for prophylactic use to prevent intestinal infections. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - March 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Oral administration of Clostridium butyricum CGMCC0313-1 inhibits β-lactoglobulin-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in a mouse model of food allergy
ConclusionsClostridium butyricum reduces BLG-induced intestinal anaphylaxis in mice and might be an additional or supplementary therapy for food allergy. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - February 22, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Role of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR6 in the modulation of intestinal inflammation and Candida albicans elimination
ConclusionIn contrast to TLR6, both TLR1 and TLR2 deficiencies increased intestinal inflammation, and the overgrowth ofC. albicans andE. coli populations in the colitis model, suggesting the involvement of TLR1 and TLR2 in epithelial homeostasis, and a role of TLR6 in increasing intestinal inflammation in response to pathogen-sensing. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - February 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Differential regulation of riboflavin supply genes in Vibrio cholerae
ConclusionsGrowing in the presence of riboflavin downregulates only a single element among the transcriptional units of riboflavin supply pathways. Thus, endogenous riboflavin biosynthesis seems to be negatively regulated by extracellular riboflavin through its specific effect on transcription ofribB inV. cholerae. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - February 15, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Epidemiological, molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from chicken farms in Egypt
ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this study considered first report discussing the prevalence, genotyping, antibiotic susceptibility and public health significance ofS. enterica serovars in broilers farms of different ages in Delta Egypt. Further studies are mandatory to verify the location of some resistance genes that are within or associated with the class one integron. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - February 10, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative genomic analysis of Shiga toxin-producing and non-Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 isolated from outbreaks in Korea
ConclusionsOur whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis revealed that NCCP15739 and NCCP15738 have specific genes and pathways. NCCP15739 had more genes (410), virulence factors (48), and phage-related regions (11) than NCCP15738. However, NCCP15738 had three more antibiotic resistance genes than NCCP15739. These differences may explain differences in pathogenicity and biological characteristics. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - February 6, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Campylobacter jejuni infection of conventionally colonized mice lacking nucleotide-oligomerization-domain-2
ConclusionNOD2 is involved in the well-balanced regulation of innate and adaptive pro-inflammatory immune responses of conventional mice uponC. jejuni infection. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - January 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Influence of pCP1NetB ancillary genes on the virulence of Clostridium perfringens poultry necrotic enteritis strain CP1
ConclusionsThe results of this study suggest that other genes present in NELoc-1, in addition tonetB, are required for full virulence in the chicken challenge model. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - January 21, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Acute ileitis facilitates infection with multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in human microbiota-associated mice
ConclusionAcute intestinal inflammation facilitates infection of the vertebrate host with MDR bacteria includingP. aeruginosa and might also pose particularly hospitalized patients at risk for acquisition. Since acuteT. gondii induced inflammation might mask immunopathology caused byP. aeruginosa, a subacute or chronic inflammation model might be better suited to investigate the potential role ofP. aeruginosa infection in the aggravation of intestinal disease. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - January 18, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Cross feeding of glucose metabolism byproducts of Escherichia coli human gut isolates and probiotic strains affect survival of Vibrio cholerae
AbstractVibrio cholerae converts glucose into either acid or the neutral end product acetoin and its survival in carbohydrate enriched media is linked to the nature of the byproducts produced. It has been demonstrated in this study thatEscherichia coli strain isolated from the gut of healthy human volunteers and the commonly used probioticE. coli Nissle strain that metabolize glucose to acidic byproducts drastically reduce the survival ofV. cholerae strains irrespective of their glucose sensitivity and acetoin production status. Accordingly,E. coli glucose transport mutants that produce lower amounts of acidic metabolites ...
Source: Gut Pathogens - January 17, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

The complete genome sequence of Cronobacter sakazakii ATCC 29544 T , a food-borne pathogen, isolated from a child ’s throat
ConclusionsThe strain ATCC 29544T genome hasompA andibeB-homologouscusC genes, probably associated with the invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). In addition, gene clusters for siderophore production (iucABCD/iutA) and the related transport system (eitCBAD) were detected in pCSK29544_p1 plasmid, indicating better iron uptake ability for survival. Furthermore, to survive under extremely dry condition like milk powder, this genome has gene clusters for biosynthesis of capsular proteins (CSK29544_00281-00284) and cellulose (CSK29544_01124-01127) for biofilm formation and a gene cluster for utilizati...
Source: Gut Pathogens - January 4, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and associated risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease in Iranian patients
ConclusionsThis study provided evidences that high prevalence of MAP DNA and anti-MAP antibodies in CD patients is significantly associated with the development of CD. Despite the role of several factors contributing to IBD, the presence of MAP DNA and anti-MAP antibodies in Iranian CD patients highlights a possible transmission of MAP from animal-derived products to humans. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - January 3, 2017 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Impacts of resistant starch and wheat bran consumption on enteric inflammation in relation to colonic bacterial community structures and short-chain fatty acid concentrations in mice
ConclusionsCollectively, data indicated that the consumption of DF-rich diets ameliorates the effects ofC. rodentium-induced enteritis by modifying the host microbiota to increase SCFA production, and bacterial recognition and response mechanisms to promote host health. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - December 22, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effects of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Ciprofloxacin on small intestinal epithelial cell mRNA expression in the neonatal piglet model of human rotavirus infection
AbstractWe evaluated the effects of the probioticEscherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and the antibiotic Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) on mRNA expression of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets colonized with a defined commensal microflora (DMF) and inoculated with human rotavirus (HRV) that infects IECs. We analyzed mRNA levels of IEC genes for enteroendocrine cells [chromogranin A (CgA)], goblet cells [mucin 2 (MUC2)], transient amplifying progenitor cell [proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)], intestinal epithelial stem cell (SOX9) and enterocytes (villin). Cipro treatment enhanced HRV diarrhea and d...
Source: Gut Pathogens - December 13, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Comparative genomics analyses revealed two virulent Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat food
ConclusionsWhole genome sequencing and comparative genomics analyses revealed two virulentL. monocytogenes strains isolated from ready-to-eat foods in Malaysia. The identification of strains with pathogenic, persistent, and antibiotic resistant potentials from minimally processed food warrant close attention from both healthcare and food industry. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - December 12, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Alterations of the gut microbiome in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
ConclusionsComparing the dysbiosis of the gut microbiome among SLE patients from China or Spain, may indicate that the gut microbiome profiles of SLE patients are more influenced by disease than ethnicity. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - December 8, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Clostridium difficile colonization and antibiotics response in PolyFermS continuous model mimicking elderly intestinal fermentation
ConclusionsUsing our in vitro fermentation models, we demonstrated that stable CD colonization in TDC reactors can be induced by inoculating CD vegetative cells or spores without the application of ceftriaxone. Treatment with metronidazole temporarily reduced the counts of CD, in agreement with CD infection recurrence in vivo. Our data demonstrate that CD colonized an undisturbed microbiota in vitro, in contrast to in vivo observations, thus suggesting an important contribution of host-related factors in the protection against CD infection. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - December 1, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Genome sequence of a commensal bacterium, Enterococcus faecalis CBA7120, isolated from a Korean fecal sample
ConclusionsThe comparative genomic analysis ofE. faecalis strains presented in this study was performed using a variety of analysis methods and will facilitate future identification of hypothetical proteins. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - November 25, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Interferon- γ promotes gastric lymphoid follicle formation but not gastritis in Helicobacter -infected BALB/c mice
ConclusionsThe work shows that in mice on a BALB/c background, IFN- γ is not required for bacterial clearance, antibody responses, nor gastric inflammation. Conversely, IFN-γ appears to play a role in the development of gastric lymphoid follicles, which are precursor lesions to mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. This study highlights the importance of mouse host background on the susceptibility toHelicobacter-induced pathologies. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - November 21, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Effect of antibiotic pre-treatment and pathogen challenge on the intestinal microbiota in mice
ConclusionsWe conclude that despite gut microbiota disturbance, susceptibility to gut colonization by these pathogens was unchanged. The major gut microbiome disturbance produced by antibiotic treatment may be reduced by colonization with specific microbial taxa. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - November 18, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Complete genome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus FORC014 isolated from the toothfish
ConclusionsThrough investigation of the complete genome sequence ofV. parahaemolyticus FORC_014, which differs from previously reported strains, we revealed two type III secretion systems (T3SS1, T3SS2) located on chromosome 1 which do not includetdh andtrh genes. We also identified several virulence factors carried by our strain, including iron uptake system, hemolysin and secretion system. This result suggests that the FORC_014 strain may be one pathogen responsible for foodborne illness outbreak. Our results provide significant genomic clues which will assist in future understanding of virulence at the genomic level and...
Source: Gut Pathogens - November 17, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Case –control study of diarrheal disease etiology in individuals over 5 years in southwest China
AbstractBackgroundAcute diarrhea is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Most of studies on acute diarrhea have been made on infants aged below 5  years and few efforts have been made to identify the etiological agents of acute diarrhea in people over five, especially in China.Methods271 diarrhea cases and 149 healthy controls over 5  years were recruited from four participating hospitals between June 2014 and July 2015. Each stool specimen was collected to detect a series of enteric pathogens, involving five viruses (Rotavirus group A, RVA;Norovirus, NoV;Sapovirus, SaV;Astrovirus, As; andAdenovirus...
Source: Gut Pathogens - November 16, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

Whole-genome sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of Escherichia coli O91 strains isolated from symptomatic and asymptomatic human carriers
ConclusionsNCCP15736 and NCCP15737 differ at the genomic level, even though they share features such as virulence-related genes. NCCP15737 has a deletion infimD, which may underlie its asymptomatic character. We conclude that complete genome sequencing and integration of other types of omics data are needed to fully reveal the mechanism underlying the asymptomatic character of NCCP15737. (Source: Gut Pathogens)
Source: Gut Pathogens - November 11, 2016 Category: Microbiology Source Type: research