Growth differentiation factor 15 and its role in carcinogenesis: an update.
Authors: Modi A, Dwivedi S, Roy D, Khokhar M, Purohit P, Vishnoi J, Pareek P, Sharma S, Sharma P, Misra S Abstract Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is a novel cytokine secreted by a variety of cells like macrophages, adipocytes, normally expressed in high amounts by placenta. It is also highly expressed in multiple carcinomas like Colon, Breast, Pancreas, Liver, and Ovarian. Several reports on serum GDF-15 as a potential biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer are hampered by the lack of robust data, with large sample size and critical patient recruitment. However, experimental accounts on cancer t...
Source: Growth Factors - November 8, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Dose optimisation of PTEN inhibitor, bpV (HOpic), and SCF for the in-vitro activation of sheep primordial follicles.
This study aimed to optimise the effective doses of bpV (HOpic) and stem cell factor (SCF) for the in-vitro activation of sheep primordial follicles. To do this, sheep ovarian cortex was treated with bpV (1.5, 15, and 150 μM) and SCF (50 and 100 ng/ml). Follicular count indicated that 15 μM bpV and 100 ng/ml SCF significantly increased normal primary follicles compared to other groups (p 
Source: Growth Factors - October 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Lowe syndrome with extremely short stature: growth hormone deficiency may be the pathogeny.
Authors: Dai C, Wang L, Li Y, Zheng Z, Qian J, Wang C, Liu Z, Shan X Abstract Lowe syndrome is an x-linked disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, nervous system abnormalities and renal tubular dysfunction. With the rising number of reported cases, more patients are found to suffer from endocrine abnormalities. Hereby, three Chinese patients with typical symptoms and extremely short stature were described. The OCRL gene was analyzed. A combination of blood biochemistry and radiological examinations were performed. Growth hormone provocation test was taken in one patient. Nucleotide sequence analysis reveale...
Source: Growth Factors - October 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Plasma CCN2 is independently related to subsequent need for abdominal aorta aneurysm repair.
The objective of this study was to determine if plasma CCN2 is associated with abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA), and future need for AAA repair, and further to assess the potential clinical value of CCN2 in predicting disease outcome. CCN2 was quantified in plasma samples obtained from a cohort of 679 men aged 65-74 at initial ultrasound screening for AAA in the Viborg Vascular (VIVA) screening trial. Plasma CCN2 was correlated with need for future surgical repair in the whole study population (HR = 1.457 (1.081-1.962), p = .013) and in the AAA group alone (HR = 1.431 (1.064-1.926), p = .018), yet...
Source: Growth Factors - September 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

An oncogenic activity of PDGF-C and its splice variant in human breast cancer.
Authors: Bottrell A, Meng YH, Najy AJ, Hurst N, Kim S, Kim CJ, Kim ES, Moon A, Kim EJ, Park SY, Kim HC Abstract Despite strong evidence for the involvement of PDGF signaling in breast cancer, little is known about the PDGF ligand responsible for PDGFR activation during breast cancer progression. Here, we found PDGF-C to be highly expressed in breast carcinoma cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of invasive breast cancer revealed an association between increased PDGF-C expression and lymph node metastases, Ki-67 proliferation index, and poor disease-free survival. We also identified a PDGF-C splice variant enco...
Source: Growth Factors - September 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor downregulates interferon-gamma receptor expression and stimulates interleukin-6 production in activated human macrophages.
Authors: Seledtsov VI, Malashchenko VV, Meniailo ME, Gazatova ND, Seledtsova GV Abstract We studied direct effects of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on phenotypical properties of human macrophage cells in vitro. CD14+ monocyte/macrophages (Mc/Mphs) were isolated from blood of healthy donors by positive magnetic separation. G-CSF (0.01-1.0 ng/mL), when added to Mc/Mphs along with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1.0 μg/mL), was able to noticeably reduce proportions of CD119 (interferon-γ receptor 1)-positive cells, with no stable effects on CD16 (FcγRIII)+ and СD124 (IL-4 r...
Source: Growth Factors - September 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Association of growth performance and body conformational traits with BMP4 gene variation in Barki lambs.
The objective of this study was to test the association of the variation in a 360 bp region in exon 2 of the ovine bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) gene with growth performance (birth weight, pre-weaning average daily gain, weaning weight, post-weaning average daily gain and marketing weight) and body conformational traits (height at withers, height at hips, body length, heart girth, thigh circumference, body mass index, skeletal muscle index, body index and relative body index) in 242 Barki lambs using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Two variants (A and B) and thre...
Source: Growth Factors - September 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Effects of hepatocyte growth factor gene-transfected mesenchymal stem cells on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
The objective of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of HGF-transfected human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. HGF-transfected MSCs were transplanted into rats with DMN-induced liver fibrosis. H2O2-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species were reduced in HGF-transfected MSCs in HGF-transfected MSCs. Pro-apoptotic proteins, such as cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and cleaved caspase-3, were decreased in HGF-transfected MSCs. Biochemical analysis showed that the levels of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine ...
Source: Growth Factors - August 28, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Recombinant protein CCN5/WISP2 promotes islet cell proliferation and survival in vitro.
In this study, we demonstrated that exogenous treatment of insulinoma cells and primary islets with recombinant CCN5 (rh-CCN5) protein enhanced the proliferative capacity which was correlated with activation of cell-cycle regulators CDK4 and cyclin D1. Furthermore, pre-incubation of these cells with rh-CCN5 enhanced their survival rate after being exposed to harsh treatments such as streptozotocin and high concentrations of glucose and free fatty acids. CCN5 as well caused an upregulation in the expression of key genes associated with ß cell identity and function such as GLUT-2 and GCK. Finally, CCN5 activated FAK an...
Source: Growth Factors - August 24, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Effects of subcutaneous injection of ozone during wound healing in rats.
In conclusion, it was demonstrated that subcutaneous injections of ozone accelerate and ameliorate wound repairing process. Moreover, injectable ozone therapy's action mechanism may be associated with FGF2 overexpression. PMID: 31339390 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Growth Factors)
Source: Growth Factors - July 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Growth factor signaling pathways in vascular development and disease.
Authors: Grant ZL, Coultas L Abstract Angiogenic blood vessel growth is essential to ensure organs receive adequate blood supply to support normal organ function and homeostasis. Angiogenesis involves a complex series of cellular events through which new vessels grow out from existing vasculature. Growth factor signaling, layered over a range of other signaling inputs, orchestrates this process. The response of endothelial cells (ECs) to growth factor signals must be carefully controlled through feedback mechanisms to prevent excessive vessel growth, remodeling or destabilization. In this article, we summarize rece...
Source: Growth Factors - July 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in breast cancer progression.
Authors: Chi LH, Burrows AD, Anderson RL Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent type of cancer amongst women worldwide. The mortality rate for patients with early-stage breast cancer has been decreasing, however, the 5-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease remains poor, currently at 27%. Here, we have reviewed the current understanding of the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in breast cancer progression, and have highlighted the discordant results that are reported in different studies. We propose that some of these contradictory outcomes may result from signaling through e...
Source: Growth Factors - July 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Vascular endothelial growth factor B inhibits lipid accumulation in C2C12 myotubes incubated with fatty acids.
Authors: Li LJ, Ma J, Li SB, Chen X, Zhang J Abstract To investigate (1) the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB) on lipid accumulation and the alteration of fatty acids and fatty acid-related enzymes in C2C12 myotubes incubated with fatty acids and (2) the regulatory effect of VEGFB on skeletal muscle lipid metabolism. Mouse C2C12 myotubes were incubated with oleic acid (OA) and palmitic acid (PA), and differentiated mature C2C12 myotubes were treated with VEGFB. Oil-red O staining, BODIPY staining and cell triglycerides (TG) content were examined. Total RNA was isolated, and real-time PCR analys...
Source: Growth Factors - June 21, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Structure, function and disease relevance of Wnt inhibitory factor 1, a secreted protein controlling the Wnt and hedgehog pathways.
Authors: Kerekes K, Bányai L, Trexler M, Patthy L Abstract Wnts and Hedgehogs (Hh) are large, lipid-modified extracellular morphogens that play key roles in embryonic development and stem cell proliferation of Metazoa. Both morphogens signal through heptahelical Frizzled-type receptors of the G-Protein Coupled Receptor family and there are several other similarities that suggest a common evolutionary origin of the Hh and Wnt pathways. There is evidence that the secreted protein, Wnt inhibitory factor 1 (WIF1) modulates the activity of both Wnts and Hhs and may thus contribute to the intertwining of these pat...
Source: Growth Factors - June 19, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Hepatocyte growth factor levels in livers and serum at Kasai-portoenterostomy are not predictive of clinical outcome in infants with biliary atresia.
Authors: Madadi-Sanjani O, Kuebler JF, Dippel S, Gigina A, Falk CS, Vieten G, Petersen C, Klemann C Abstract Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by progressive destruction of the biliary system leading to liver fibrosis and deterioration of liver function. Serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to be increased in cirrhotic diseases including BA. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of HGF levels in sera and liver tissue for the further disease course. A total of 49 serum and liver samples from infants with BA were acquired during Kasai-portoenterostomy (KPE) and analyzed by m...
Source: Growth Factors - June 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Emerging roles for Interleukin-11 in disease.
Authors: Nguyen PM, Abdirahman SM, Putoczki TL Abstract Interleukin (IL)-11 belongs to the IL-6 family of cytokines, discovered over 30 years ago. While early studies focused on the ability of IL-11 to stimulate megakaryocytopoiesis, the importance of this cytokine to inflammatory disease and cancers is only just beginning to be uncovered. This review outlines recent advances in our understanding of IL-11 biology, and highlights the development of novel therapeutics with the potential for clinical targeting of signaling by this cytokine in multiple diseases. PMID: 31161823 [PubMed - as supplied by publishe...
Source: Growth Factors - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

HMGB1 inhibits insulin signalling through TLR4 and RAGE in human retinal endothelial cells.
Authors: Jiang Y, Steinle JJ Abstract In the past decade, the role of inflammation has been shown in diabetes and its complications. Little is available on high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) actions on the proteins involved in insulin signal transduction, which may be altered to result in insulin resistance in the retina. Retinal endothelial cells (REC) were grown in normal or high glucose and treated with recombinant human HMGB1, an Epac1 agonist, or both. Additional cells were treated with advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) or toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) siRNA prior to rhHMGB1. Proteins lysates were processed ...
Source: Growth Factors - May 16, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Exploitation of receptor tyrosine kinases by viral-encoded growth factors.
Authors: Lateef Z, Wise LM Abstract Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are essential components of cell communication pathways utilized from the embryonic to adult stages of life. These transmembrane receptors bind polypeptide ligands, such as growth factors, inducing signalling cascades that control cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, differentiation, motility and inflammation. Many viruses have acquired homologs of growth factors encoded by the hosts that they infect. Production of growth factors during infection allows viruses to exploit RTKs for entry and replication in cells, as well as for host ...
Source: Growth Factors - May 16, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Escherichia coli BMP-2 showed comparable osteoinductivity with Chinese hamster ovary derived BMP-2 with demineralized bone matrix as carrier.
Authors: Jin YZ, Zheng GB, Lee JH Abstract Escherichia coli bone morphogenetic protein-2 (ErhBMP-2) had a larger yield but less osteoinductivity than Chinese hamster ovary cell bone morphogenetic protein-2 (CrhBMP-2). Since the release profile of rhBMP-2 affects its osteoinductivity, an appropriate carrier could improve the effect of ErhBMP-2. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) was one of the most widely used bone substitutes, but few studies evaluated the osteoinductivity of ErhBMP-2 while it was carried by DBM. Therefore, we compared the osteoinductivity of ErhBMP-2 with CrhBMP-2 with DBM as the carrier of each. In ...
Source: Growth Factors - April 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

The association of insulin-like growth factor-1 standard deviation score and height in Chinese children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Song W, Qiao Y, Xue J, Zhao F, Yang X, Li G Abstract Assessing the relationship between IGF-1 and height in type 1 diabetes children. Seventy-two type 1 diabetes children and 190 controls were recruited. The height standard deviation score of type 1 diabetes children was significantly higher than controls. The height standard deviation score was higher than the target height standard deviation score in both type 1 diabetes and controls. Serum IGF-1 levels and the IGF-1 standard deviation score were significantly lower in type 1 diabetes patients compared with controls. There was a significant difference in...
Source: Growth Factors - March 23, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Hematopoietic growth factors: the scenario in zebrafish.
Authors: Pazhakh V, Lieschke GJ Abstract Humoral regulation by ligand/receptor interactions is a fundamental feature of vertebrate hematopoiesis. Zebrafish are an established vertebrate animal model of hematopoiesis, sharing with mammals conserved genetic, molecular and cell biological regulatory mechanisms. This comprehensive review considers zebrafish hematopoiesis from the perspective of the hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), their receptors and their actions. Zebrafish possess multiple HGFs: CSF1 (M-CSF) and CSF3 (G-CSF), kit ligand (KL, SCF), erythropoietin (EPO), thrombopoietin (THPO/TPO), and the interleuk...
Source: Growth Factors - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

VEGF-A is associated with early degenerative changes in cartilage and subchondral bone.
Authors: Zupan J, Vrtačnik P, Cör A, Haring G, Weryha G, Visvikis-Siest S, Marc J Abstract Paired cartilage and subchondral bone of subjects with no clinical history of joint disorders were analyzed to determine whether antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory cytokines and growth factors can be linked to a pre-osteoarthritis. Tissue explants were phenotyped according to Osteoarthritis Research Society International grading and micro-computed tomography, and also screened for the expression of several markers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The expression of these same genes was measured in SW1353 cell...
Source: Growth Factors - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Regulation of hematopoietic cell signaling by SHIP-1 inositol phosphatase: growth factors and beyond.
Authors: Hibbs ML, Raftery AL, Tsantikos E Abstract SHIP-1 is a hematopoietic-s2pecific inositol phosphatase activated downstream of a multitude of receptors including those for growth factors, cytokines, antigen, immunoglobulin and toll-like receptor agonists where it exerts inhibitory control. While it is constitutively expressed in all immune cells, SHIP-1 expression is negatively regulated by the inflammatory and oncogenic micro-RNA miR-155. Knockout mouse studies have shown the importance of SHIP-1 in various immune cell subsets and have revealed a range of immune-mediated pathologies that are engendered due t...
Source: Growth Factors - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

The roles of vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms in congenital heart diseases: a meta-analysis.
In conclusion, our findings indicated that rs1570360 and rs833061 polymorphisms may affect the risk of CHD. In addition, the rs3025039 polymorphism may serve as a genetic biomarker of TOF. PMID: 30689460 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Growth Factors)
Source: Growth Factors - January 30, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Growth factor signalling in osteoarthritis.
Authors: Huang J, Zhao L, Chen D Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common diseases, affecting more than 10% of populations and thus creating immense socioeconomic burden. The pathological changes of OA involve the entire joint, which is composed of multiple types of tissues and cells, exemplified by cartilage degradation, subchondral bone thickening, osteophyte formation, synovium inflammation and hypertrophy, and ligament degeneration. As joint homeostasis requires a complex network of growth factors to regulate anabolic and catabolic events, the dysregulation of growth factor signalling would have n...
Source: Growth Factors - January 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

The effect of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin on bone morphogenetic protein-2 and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized split mouth clinical trail.
Authors: Kizildağ A, Çiçek Y, Arabaci T, Köse O Abstract The present study evaluates the effects of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) combined with open flap debridement (OFD) on clinical parameters and growth factors levels (GFL) in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02594605. 16 patients (32 sites) with chronic periodontitis who had at least two areas of horizontal bone loss, were treated with OFD alone or L-PRF with OFD (OFD + L-PRF). GFL in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were analyzed at baseline, 1 week, 2&th...
Source: Growth Factors - January 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor attenuates lung inflammation and injury in a murine model of pulmonary emphysema.
This study was designed to determine the effect of HB-EGF on lung inflammation and injury in a murine model of pulmonary emphysema. HB-EGF promoted percent survival and body weight, attenuated lung injury, inflammatory cells, and cytokines infiltration, and prevented lung function decline. Additionally, treatment of rHB-EGF suppressed the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)/p65, decreased TUNEL-positive cells and the expression of caspase 3, and increased the expression of PCNA, HB-EGF, and EGF receptor (EGFR). We conclude that HB-EGF attenuates lung inflammation and injury, probably through the ...
Source: Growth Factors - January 4, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Effect of serum fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and CAPS proteins on calcium status in β-thalassaemia major patients who are free from overt inflammation.
In conclusion, FGFR2 and CAPS associated with Ca status and subsequent bone disturbances in β-TM patients. Their level can be predicted from the equation: CAPS =0.001ALP +0.48FGFR2-1.26Ca - 3.95Pi +12.76 with acceptable applicability. PMID: 30375242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Growth Factors)
Source: Growth Factors - November 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Zhao X, Meng L, Jiang J, Wu X Abstract We performed this study to better elucidate the relationship between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms and coronary heart disease (CHD). Eligible articles were searched in PubMed, Medline, Embase, Scopus and CNKI. A total of 24 studies containing 6489 CHD patients and 5664 control subjects were analyzed. Our overall and subgroup analyses suggested that rs699947 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in both Caucasians and Asians, rs1570360 polymorphism was significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in Caucasians, ...
Source: Growth Factors - October 16, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Cytokine control of megakaryopoiesis.
Authors: Behrens K, Alexander WS Abstract Platelets are anuclear blood cells required for haemostasis and are implicated in other processes including inflammation and metastasis. Platelets are produced by megakaryocytes, specialized cells that are themselves generated by a process of controlled differentiation and maturation of bone-marrow stem and progenitor cells. This process of megakaryopoiesis involves the coordinated interplay of transcription factor-controlled cellular programming with extra-cellular cues produced locally in supporting niches or as circulating factors. This review focuses on these external c...
Source: Growth Factors - October 16, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Understanding SOCS protein specificity.
Authors: Linossi EM, Calleja DJ, Nicholson SE Abstract The development and activity of our immune system are largely controlled by the action of pleiotropic cytokines and growth factors, small secreted proteins, which bind to receptors on the surface of immune cells to initiate an appropriate physiological response. Cytokine signalling is predominantly executed by intracellular proteins known as the Janus kinases (JAKs) and the signal transducers and activators of transcriptions (STATs). Although the 'nuts and bolts' of cytokine-activated pathways have been well established, the nuanced way in which distinct cellul...
Source: Growth Factors - October 16, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Relationship of fibroblast growth factor 21, sirtuin 1, visfatin, and regulators in children with short stature.
Authors: Kaplan DS, Canak A, Isık E, Orkmez M, Kumru B Abstract Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is mainly secreted by the liver. It is a factor that is not fully understood in relation to growth. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a deacetylase protein. It is thought that may have an effect on the release and function of GH and IGF-1. Visfatin is synthesized from adipose tissue as primary. It may be prognostic marker associated with growth factors. As a result of our work, FGF21 is not associated with short stature but levels of SIRT1 and visfatin are associated with short stature. The decrease in visfatin value in the shor...
Source: Growth Factors - October 13, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Heterodimeric BMP-2/7 exhibits different osteoinductive effects in human and murine cells.
In this study, we compared the osteoinductive effects of BMP-2/7 heterodimer in human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) with their homodimers BMP-2 and BMP-7, in which MC3T3-E1 cells were utilized as a positive control. The results indicated that BMP-2/7 was not a stronger inducer during the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs as that for MC3T3-E1, and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase signaling played a role in the different effects of BMP-2/7 between hASCs and MC3T3-E1. Our study demonstrates the osteoinductive effects of heterodimeric BMP-2/7 present in a cell-specific pattern and cautions should be taken when appl...
Source: Growth Factors - September 23, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Cyclooxygenase-2 interacts with MMP and FGF pathways to promote epimorphic regeneration in lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis.
Authors: Buch PR, Ranadive I, Desai I, Balarakrishnan S Abstract Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme known for its role in promoting inflammation, pain and cancer. It has more recently been attributed a function in epimorphic regeneration of vertebrate appendages. However, its position among the molecular regulators of regeneration remains unclear. This work was aimed at analyzing the influence of COX-2 on critical mediators of regenerative processes in the lizard Hemidactylus flaviviridis. It was found during the early events of regeneration that MMP and FGF genes get altered in their expression in res...
Source: Growth Factors - September 12, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Effect of adipocyte-derived IGF-I on adipose tissue mass and glucose metabolism in the Berlin Fat Mouse.
In conclusion, adipocyte-specific IGF-I ablation in obese BFMI mice results in reduced adipose tissue mass and thereby alters glucose metabolism. PMID: 30196772 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Growth Factors)
Source: Growth Factors - September 12, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Deficiency of the Wnt receptor Ryk causes multiple cardiac and outflow tract defects.
This study therefore defines a key intersection between a subset of growth factor receptors involved in planar cell polarity signalling, the Wnt family and mammalian cardiovascular development. PMID: 30035654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Growth Factors)
Source: Growth Factors - July 25, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Evaluation of the growth factors VEGF-a and VEGF-B in the vitreous and serum of patients with macular and retinal vascular diseases.
This study aims to compare VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels in the serum and vitreous of patients with neovascular pathology versus non-neovascular pathology. Our findings showed vitreous VEGF-A and VEGF-B levels increased in patients with neovascular disease, with higher levels of VEGF-A compared to VEGF-B (p ≤ .05). In the diabetic retinopathy (DR) group, higher vitreous VEGF-A or VEGF-B were found in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) than in non-PDR. The strong correlation between VEGF-A and VEGF-B demonstrates a simultaneous pathological increase of cytokines (p 
Source: Growth Factors - July 4, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

STAT3: a multifaceted oncoprotein.
Authors: Guanizo AC, Fernando CD, Garama DJ, Gough DJ Abstract Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 is a key signalling protein engaged by a multitude of growth factors and cytokines to elicit diverse biological outcomes including cellular growth, differentiation, and survival. The complete loss of STAT3 is not compatible with life and even partial loss of function mutations lead to debilitating pathologies like hyper IgE syndrome. Conversely, augmented STAT3 activity has been reported in as many as 50% of all human tumours. The dogma of STAT3 activity posits that it is a tyrosine phosphorylate...
Source: Growth Factors - June 8, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

The biochemistry, signalling and disease relevance of RYK and other WNT-binding receptor tyrosine kinases.
Authors: Roy JP, Halford MM, Stacker SA Abstract The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a well-characterized family of growth factor receptors that have central roles in human disease and are frequently therapeutically targeted. The RYK, ROR, PTK7 and MuSK subfamilies make up an understudied subset of WNT-binding RTKs. Numerous developmental, stem cell and pathological roles of WNTs, in particular WNT5A, involve signalling via these WNT receptors. The WNT-binding RTKs have highly context-dependent signalling outputs and stimulate the β-catenin-dependent, planar cell polarity and/or WNT/Ca2+ pathways. RYK, RO...
Source: Growth Factors - June 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Role of granulosa cell mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 in gonadotropin-mediated meiotic resumption from diplotene arrest of mammalian oocytes.
Authors: Sahu K, Gupta A, Sharma A, Tiwari M, Pandey AN, Prasad S, Yadav PK, Pandey AK, Shrivastav TG, Chaube SK Abstract In mammals, preovulatory oocytes are encircled by several layers of granulosa cells (GCs) in follicular microenvironment. These follicular oocytes are arrested at diplotene arrest due to high level of cyclic nucleotides from encircling GCs. Pituitary gonadotropin acts at the level of encircling GCs and increases adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) and activates mitogen-activated protein kinase 3/1 (MAPK3/1) signaling pathway. The MAPK3/1 di...
Source: Growth Factors - June 1, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of osteoinductivity and bone fusion ability of an activin a/BMP2 chimera (AB204): a comparison study between AB204 and rhBMP-2.
This study compared osteoinductivity and osteogenic capacity between AB204 and rhBMP-2 using hMSCs in vitro and a beagle's posterolateral spinal fusion model. Cultured hMSCs were treated with AB204 or rhBMP-2 with low to high doses. Three male beagles were performed posterolateral spinal fusion with biphasic calcium phosphate (2 ml) + AB204 or rhBMP-2 (20, 50 or 200 µg). They were euthanized after 8 weeks. The fusion rate and bone formation of spine samples were examined. AB204 had higher alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization and osteogenic-related gene expression than rhBMP...
Source: Growth Factors - April 15, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Differential effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor ligands on receptor binding, downstream signalling pathways and DNA synthesis in hepatocytes.
Authors: Ødegård J, Sondresen JE, Aasrum M, Tveteraas IH, Guren TK, Christoffersen T, Thoresen GH Abstract Hepatocytes are responsive to mitogenic effects of several ligands acting via EGFR. Studying primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, we found that, as compared to EGF, HB-EGF had a markedly higher affinity of the EGFR, while AR and TGFα had lower affinity. HB-EGF was also more potent compared to the other growth factors regarding phosphorylation of EGFR, Shc, ERK1/2 and Akt. All ligands induced phosphorylation of ErbB2, indicating receptor heterodimerization. TGFα, despite having much low...
Source: Growth Factors - March 29, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Toll-like receptor 4 regulates insulin signal transduction in retinal M üller cells.
Toll-like receptor 4 regulates insulin signal transduction in retinal Müller cells. Growth Factors. 2018 Feb 28;:1-5 Authors: Liu L, Steinle JJ Abstract Dysfunctional insulin signalling is a causative factor in type-2 diabetes. While insulin signal transduction has been well investigated in many tissues, less is known in retinal tissues. We have previously reported that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in retinal damage in diabetes. We used TLR4 retinal Müller cell-specific knockout mice and Müller cells in culture to investigate the effects of loss of TLR4 on Müller cell ins...
Source: Growth Factors - March 3, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Systemic inhibition of BMP1-3 decreases progression of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Authors: Grgurevic L, Erjavec I, Grgurevic I, Dumic-Cule I, Brkljacic J, Verbanac D, Matijasic M, Paljetak HC, Novak R, Plecko M, Bubic-Spoljar J, Rogic D, Kufner V, Pauk M, Bordukalo-Niksic T, Vukicevic S Abstract Liver fibrosis is a progressive pathological process resulting in an accumulation of excess extracellular matrix proteins. We discovered that bone morphogenetic protein 1-3 (BMP1-3), an isoform of the metalloproteinase Bmp1 gene, circulates in the plasma of healthy volunteers and its neutralization decreases the progression of chronic kidney disease in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Here, we investigated the p...
Source: Growth Factors - February 28, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Neuregulin-1 accelerates corneal epithelial wound healing.
Authors: Jeong WY, Yoo HY, Kim CW Abstract Corneal epithelial cells (CECs) play an important role in the function of the cornea, and are maintained by corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs). Recent studies have shown that neuronal growth factors affect the proliferation and migration of CESCs. Neuregulin-1 (NR-1) is a neuronal growth factor that is expressed in the early stages of brain development. The aim of this study was to determine whether NR-1 activates corneal wound healing. We observed that NR-1 activated both proliferation and migration of CECs. In addition, the colony-forming efficacy of CESCs was enhance...
Source: Growth Factors - February 21, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Combined effects of artificial dermis and vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradient on wound healing in diabetic porcine model.
Authors: Tsui HY, Liu YC, Yan X, Lin Y, Xu Y, Tan Q Abstract Wounds in patients with diabetes mellitus are one of the most prevalent impaired wounds in the world. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important proangiogenic mediators. Artificial dermal (AD) such as Pelnac® has been shown, in humans and animal models, a great therapeutic potential in full-thickness skin wounds. We attempt to promote the wound healing in diabetic porcine models through combined use of AD and constant concentration of VEGF or VEGF concentration gradient. We created full-thickness excisional wounds in diabet...
Source: Growth Factors - February 17, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Multiplex analysis of serum hormone and cytokine in patients with cervical cOPLL: towards understanding the potential pathogenic mechanisms.
Authors: Cai GD, Zhu ZC, Wang JQ, Chen G, Wang Z, Yang CS, Sun GX Abstract Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (cOPLL) is one of the major causes of myelopathy. However, the mechanism underlying remains elusive. In the present study, using MILLIPLEX magnetic bead panel, we investigated four serum hormones and six serum cytokines in cOPLL patients and healthy subjects. The results showed that tumor necrosis factore-α (TNF-α) were significantly increased, and DDK-1 was significantly decreased in the serum from male and female cOPLL patients compared with those from healthy control...
Source: Growth Factors - December 13, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Continuous stimulation with differentiation factors is necessary to enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in-vitro.
Authors: Reible B, Schmidmaier G, Prokscha M, Moghaddam A, Westhauser F Abstract Bone defect treatment belongs to the most challenging fields in orthopedic surgery and requires the well-coordinated application of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and differentiation factors. MSC isolated from reaming material (RMSC) and iliac crest (BMSC) in combination with bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been used. The short half-life of both factors limit their applications: a burst release of the factor can probably not induce sustainable differentiation. We stimulated MSC in osteog...
Source: Growth Factors - December 13, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Can whole body vibration exercises affect growth hormone concentration? A systematic review.
Authors: Paineiras-Domingos LL, Sá-Caputo DDC, Moreira-Marconi E, Morel DS, da Fontoura Dionello C, Sousa-Gonçalves CR, Frederico ÉHFF, Marín PJ, Tamini S, Sartorio A, Bernardo-Filho M Abstract Whole body vibration (WBV) has been recognized as an effective alternative exercise modality to resistance exercise for its ability in enhancing force and power, generating capacity in skeletal muscle, increasing bone mass and improving cardiovascular function. Since the effect of WBV exercises on growth hormone (GH) levels has been never compared and discussed, the aim of this study was to review...
Source: Growth Factors - December 13, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research

Cardiac autonomic denervation and expression of neurotrophins (NGF and BDNF) and their receptors during experimental Chagas disease.
Authors: Oliveira NK, Ferreira RN, Lopes SDN, Chiari E, Camargos ERDS, Martinelli PM Abstract Although cardiac dysautonomia is a distinctive feature of Chagas disease, its clinical and functional significance is still being speculated. Neurotrophic factors are potentially involved; however, studies of their effect in this infection are rare. Ultrastructural abnormalities in autonomic varicosities, levels of both nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), as well as the expression of their receptors, were analysed in the heart of a rat model of Trypanosoma infection. Predominantly, at t...
Source: Growth Factors - November 11, 2017 Category: Research Tags: Growth Factors Source Type: research