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Lower Plasma Klotho Concentrations Are Associated with Vascular Dementia but Not Late-Onset Alzheimer ’s Disease
Conclusion: In a sample of elderly individuals, we found a significant association between low plasma Klotho levels and VD, but not LOAD. This finding suggests that, although these 2 forms of dementia might overlap, some physiopathological mechanisms related to VD and LOAD remain distinct.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 16, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Rising above It: Status Ambivalence in Older Adults
Conclusion: We discussstatus ambivalence as a potential protective mechanism in the context of negative societal perceptions of age-related social status that may be important for well-being in later life.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 9, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Long-Term Moderate Exercise Rescues Age-Related Decline in Hippocampal Neuronal Complexity and Memory
Conclusion: The hippocampus-related memory function declines from middle age, but long-term moderate-intensity running effectively increased hippocampal neuroplasticity and memory in mice of different ages, even when the memory impairment had progressed to an advanced stage. Thus, long-term, moderate intensity exercise training might be a way of delaying and treating aging-related memory decline.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 7, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Automatic Change Detection in Older and Younger Women: A Visual Mismatch Negativity Study
Conclusion: Automatic detection of violated sequential regularities, reflected by the vMMN, emerged in the two age groups (earlier vMMN). However, detection of stimulus change, a preattentive visual process delayed in the elderly, and identification of the specific change was compromised in the older participants.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - April 26, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effects of Driving Skill Training on Safe Driving in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Conclusion: The driving skill program significantly improved safe driving performance in older adults with cognitive impairment who were at a potentially high risk of a car accident.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - April 12, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age, Loss Minimization, and the Role of Probability for Decision-Making
Conclusion: Results suggest that older adults are more willing to select a risky option when it increases the likelihood that larger losses be avoided, whereas younger adults are more willing to select a risky option when it allows for slightly larger gains. This finding supports expectations based on theoretical accounts of goal orientation shifting away from securing gains in younger adulthood towards maintenance and avoiding losses in older adulthood. Findings are also discussed in respect to the affective enhancement perspective and socioemotional selectivity theory.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - April 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Subjective Social Status Predicts Late-Life Memory Trajectories through Both Mental and Physical Health Pathways
Conclusion: Results provide preliminary behavioral evidence for the deleterious effects of social stress on cognitive aging. These results may help inform the development of policies and interventions to reduce cognitive morbidity among older adults who perceive a low position on the social hierarchy.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - March 29, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Testosterone Deprivation Aggravates Left-Ventricular Dysfunction in Male Obese Insulin-Resistant Rats via Impairing Cardiac Mitochondrial Function and Dynamics Proteins
Conclusion: We concluded that testosterone deprivation during adulthood aggravated the impairment of mitochondrial function, mitochondrial respiratory complex, mitochondrial dynamics proteins, and apoptosis, leading to LV dysfunction in obese insulin-resistant rats.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - March 23, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Biology Explaining Tooth Repair and Regeneration: A Mini-Review
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, becam...
Source: Gerontology - March 13, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Negative Aging Stereotypes Disrupt both the Selection and Execution of Strategies in Older Adults
Conclusion: Our findings have important implications to further understand age-based (and other) stereotype threat effects, and how noncognitive factors modulate age-related changes in human cognition.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - February 15, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Impact of Advanced Age on Driving Safety in Adults with Medical Conditions
Conclusion: Advanced age adversely affected driving safety outcomes. The oldest-old are a unique age group with medical conditions known to interfere with safe driving. Driving safety strategies should particularly target the oldest-old since they are the fastest-growing group and their increased frailty is associated with severe or fatal injuries due to MVCs.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - February 14, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Associations of Near-Miss Traffic Incidents with Attention and Executive Function among Older Japanese Drivers
Conclusion: Male sex, high driving frequency, and poor performance in attention (in young-old drivers) were associated with near-miss traffic incidents. Improvement in attention may play a role in decreasing the risk of traffic accidents among older drivers.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - February 9, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Medical Overtreatment: Friend or Foe?
“Overtreatment” is a neologism coined some 15 years ago to denote medical and surgical interventions that are unnecessary. It is a topical term for an old concept. However, it has rapidly become a shibboleth for those inclined toward finger-pointing and blaming in matters of health policy. As su ch, it is a “foe” that heats up rather than modulates debate. But if one examines the notion in the context of the contemporary patient-physician dialogue, it is anything but a foe. Overtreatment and its fellow travelers, overutilization and overprescription, face off with contrary notions when a patient con...
Source: Gerontology - February 9, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Impact of < b > < i > BDNF < /i > < /b > Genotype on the Longitudinal Relationship between Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance
Conclusion: We observed longitudinal, but not cross-sectional, effects of physical activity on cognitive performance. Our study highlights the importance of longitudinal follow-up and consideration of sex differences in the relationships between physical activity,BDNF genotype, and cognitive decline. The findings contribute to understanding gene-lifestyle interactions in promoting cognitive health.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - February 2, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age Estimation with DNA: From Forensic DNA Fingerprinting to Forensic (Epi)Genomics: A Mini-Review
Forensic genetics developed from protein-based techniques a quarter of a century ago and became famous as “DNA fingerprinting,” this being based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) of high-molecular-weight DNA. The amplification of much smaller short tandem repeat (STR) sequences using the polymerase chain reaction soon replaced RFLP analysis and advanced to become the gold standard in genetic identification. Meanwhile, STR multiplexes have been developed and made commercially available which simultaneously amplify up to 30 STR loci from as little as 15 cells or fewer. The enormous information ...
Source: Gerontology - January 23, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Four-Week Strategy-Based Training to Enhance Prospective Memory in Older Adults: Targeting Intention Retention Is More Beneficial than Targeting Intention Formation
Conclusion: Strategy-based PM training in older adults targeting the maintenance of the PM intention in the intention-retention phase may be more effective in enhancing PM accuracy in terms of PM cue detection than the strategy targeting the encoding of the PM intention in the intention-formation phase. This suggests that for successful prospective remembering, older adults may need more support to keep the PM cues active in memory while working on the ongoing task than to initially encode the PM intention.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - January 19, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Social and Behavioural Determinants of the Difference in Survival among Older Adults in Japan and England
Conclusion: Compared to participants in England, Japanese older people lived longer mainly because of non-smoking for women and family-based social relationships for men. In contrast, a lower rate of underweight, men ’s better friendship-based social relationships, and a lower smoking rate contributed to survival among participants in England.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - January 19, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Recent Advances and Future Opportunities to Address Challenges in Offloading Diabetic Feet: A Mini-Review
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are a substantial dilemma for geriatric individuals with diabetes. The breakdown in tissue associated with DFU is typically a result of repetitive cycles of physical stress placed on the feet during weight-bearing activity. Accordingly, a key tenet in healing as well as preventing DFU is the use of offloading footwear to redistribute physical stress away from high stress locations such as bony prominences. Over the last several years there has been a substantial amount of effort directed at better understanding and implementing the practice of offloading. A review of this work as well as relevant...
Source: Gerontology - January 16, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Developmental Origins of Health Span and Life Span: A Mini-Review
Background: A vast body of research has demonstrated that disease susceptibility and offspring health can be influenced by perinatal factors, which include both paternal and maternal behavior and environment. Offspring disease risk has the potential to affect the health span and life span of offspring.Key Findings: Various maternal factors, such as environmental toxicant exposure, diet, stress, exercise, age at conception, and longevity have the potential to influence age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer risk in offspring. Paternal factors such as diet, age at conception, an...
Source: Gerontology - January 12, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

A Perfect sTORm: The Role of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in Cerebrovascular Dysfunction of Alzheimer's Disease: A Mini-Review
This article examines the available evidence for a role of mTOR-driven cerebrovascular dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD and of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) and highlights the therapeutic potential of targeting mTOR and/or specific downstream effectors for vasculoprotection in AD, VCID, and other age-associated neurological diseases with cerebrovascular etiology.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - January 10, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Impact of Aging on Mechanisms of Mammalian Epimorphic Regeneration
Aging is associated with a significant decline of tissue repair and regeneration, ultimately resulting in tissue dysfunction, multimorbidity, and death. Salamanders possess remarkable regenerative abilities and have been studied with the prospect of inducing regeneration in humans and counteracting regenerative decline with aging. However, epimorphic regeneration, the full replacement of amputated structures, also occurs in mammals. One of the best studied models is digit tip regeneration, which is described for mice, and occurs in humans in a comparable manner. To accomplish regeneration, the amputated digit tip has to un...
Source: Gerontology - January 9, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the MyotonPRO in Dementia Patients with Paratonia
Conclusion: The MyotonPRO is potentially applicable for cross-sectional studies between groups of paratonia patients and appears less suitable to measure intraindividual changes in paratonia. Because of the inherent variability in movement resistance in paratonia, the outcomes from the MyotonPRO should be interpreted with care; therefore, future research should focus on additional guidelines to increase the clinical interpretation and improving reproducibility.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - December 21, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Is Social Network a Protective Factor for Cognitive Impairment in US Chinese Older Adults? Findings from the PINE Study
This study aims to provide an analytic framework to examine quantity, composition, and quality of social network and investigate the association between social network, global cognition, and cognitive domains among US Chinese older adults.Methods: Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE), a community-engaged, population-based epidemiological study of US Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the greater Chicago area, with a sample size of 3,157. Social network was assessed by network size, volume of contact, proportion kin, proportion female, proportion co-resident, and emotional closeness. ...
Source: Gerontology - December 21, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Social Dimensions of Personal Growth following Widowhood: A Three-Wave Study
Conclusion: Findings underline the importance of a longitudinal and linked-lives perspective on personal growth and point to different pathways regarding its various subdimensions. Future research should further examine the validity of personal growth scales for other populations and consider the possibility to experience personal growth already during the anticipation of a traumatic event (e.g., in the case of long-term caretaking).Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - December 19, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Predicting Trajectories of Functional Decline in 60- to 70-Year-Old People
Conclusion: Already in people aged 60-70 years, 3 distinct trajectories of functional decline were identified in these cohorts over a 9-year follow-up. Predictors of trajectories differed between males and females, except for gait speed. Identification of people at risk is the basis for targeting interventions.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - December 12, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Aging and Decision-Making: A Conceptual Framework for Future Research - A Mini-Review
Age differences in decision-making are of theoretical interest and have important practical implications, but relevant lines of work are distributed across multiple disciplines and often lack integration. The present review proposes an overarching conceptual framework with the aim of connecting disjointed aspects of this field of research. The framework builds on process models of decision-making and specifies potential mechanisms behind age effects as well as relevant moderators including task characteristics and contextual factors. After summarizing the extant literature for each aspect of the framework, compensatory mec...
Source: Gerontology - December 6, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age-Induced Changes in White, Brite, and Brown Adipose Depots: A Mini-Review
In conclusion, the aging process is a lifelong, creeping process with gradual decline in (pre-)adipocyte function over time. Thus, slowing down the accumulation of (pre-)adipocyte damage and dysfunction, removal of senescent preadipocytes as well as blocking deleterious compounds of the senescent secretome are protective measures to maintain a lasting state of health at old age.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - December 6, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

How Virtue Was Born
This paper summarizes the Opening Lecture of the European Forum Alpbach 2017 in Tyrol/Austria (https://www.alpbach.org/de/). It deals with the evolution of cooperation throughout the history of life on Earth, and in particular human cooperation based on partnership. It emphasizes the role of institutions providing incentives for cooperation, and the role of praise and blame in guiding our actions. This helps for a better understanding of the social contract, based on evolutionary biology and psychology.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - December 5, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

mTOR as Regulator of Lifespan, Aging, and Cellular Senescence: A Mini-Review
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) network is an evolutionary conserved signaling hub that senses and integrates environmental and intracellular nutrient and growth factor signals to coordinate basic cellular and organismal responses such as cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation depending on the individual cell and tissue. A growing list of evidence suggests that mTOR signaling influences longevity and aging. Inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) with rapamycin is currently the only known pharmacological treatment that increases lifespan in all model organisms studied. This review discusses th...
Source: Gerontology - November 30, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

User-Oriented Evaluation of a Robotic Rollator That Provides Navigation Assistance in Frail Older Adults with and without Cognitive Impairment
Conclusion: The RR-integrated navigation system was effective for improving navigation within a real-life environment in potential end-users, especially in those with cognitive impairment. This is the first study to provide statistical evidence on the effectiveness of an RR-integrated navigation system in the intended user group.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - November 28, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mild-to-Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease and Geriatric Outcomes: Analysis of Cross-Sectional Data from the Berlin Aging Study II
Conclusion: GA identified impairments in 21 versus 15.9% of older adults with and without mild-to-moderate CKD, respectively. However, except for an increased likelihood of impaired gait performance (TUG) with mild-to-moderate CKD, we did not find independent associations between mild-to-moderate CKD and geriatric conditions.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - November 28, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Toward Using a Smartwatch to Monitor Frailty in a Hospital Setting: Using a Single Wrist-Wearable Sensor to Assess Frailty in Bedbound Inpatients
In this study, we proposed an enhanced automated algorithm to identify frailty using a single wrist-worn sensor.Methods: The data collected from 100 geriatric inpatients (age: 78.9 ± 9.1 years, 49% frail) were reanalyzed to validate the new algorithm. The frailty status of the participants was determined using a validated modified frailty index. Different FM phenotypes (31 features) including velocity of elbow rotation, decline in velocity of elbow rotation over 20 s, range o f motion, etc. were extracted. A regression model, bootstrap with 2,000 iterations, and recursive feature elimination technique were used for ...
Source: Gerontology - November 24, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

How Old Are You It's on Your Face!
Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - November 23, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

How Old Are You? It's on Your Face!
Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - November 22, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Prognostic Factors in Patients with an Implanted Pacemaker after 80 Years of Age in a 4-Year Follow-Up
Conclusions: DDD mode pacing seems to serve as a factor which decreases mortality among patients aged>80 years in long-term follow-up. The potentially poorer prognosis for the female patients in this group may result from a combination of the dominant VVI pacing mode, potential propagation of atrial fibrillation, a low proportion of antithrombotic therapy, and sex-related predispositions to thromboembolic complications.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - November 14, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Discontinued Information and Communication Technology Usage among Older Adults in Continuing Care Retirement Communities in the United States
Conclusion: ICT training interventions may motivate residents of CCRCs to stay connected by increasing the ICT skill level and promoting confidence, thus decreasing the probability that they will discontinue using ICTs and searching for general information. However, the effects of ICT training on motivating continued ICT usage may be more pronounced among independent living residents. Limitations in the number of IADL impairments is a key factor leading to discontinued use of ICTs among CCRC residents, suggesting that designers of ICTs should be cognizant of the cognitive and physical limitations among this group.Gerontolo...
Source: Gerontology - November 8, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effects of Wearable Sensor-Based Balance and Gait Training on Balance, Gait, and Functional Performance in Healthy and Patient Populations: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Conclusion: This review provides evidence for a positive effect of WS training on static steady-state balance in studies with usual care controls and studies with conventional balance training controls. Specific gait parameters and proactive balance measures may also be improved by WS training, yet limited evidence is available. Heterogeneous training paradigms, small sample sizes, and short intervention durations limit the validity of our findings. Larger studies are required for estimating the true potential of WS technology.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 31, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Oral Tolerization with Mycobacterial Heat Shock Protein 65 Reduces Chronic Experimental Atherosclerosis in Aged Mice
Conclusion: Oral tolerization against mbHSP65 could be used both to prevent and to treat chronic atherosclerosis in aged individuals.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Neighborhood Built Environment and Cognitive Function of Older Persons: Results from the Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study
Conclusion: BE features which increase opportunities and easy access to a diversity of destinations for services and facilities that promote physical, social and cognitively stimulating activities is associated with better cognitive functioning in older people.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Feasibility and Effectiveness of Intervention Programmes Integrating Functional Exercise into Daily Life of Older Adults: A Systematic Review
Conclusions: This review provides evidence for the effectiveness of integrated training for improving motor performances in older adults. Single studies suggest advantages of integrated compared with structured training. Combined programmes are positively evaluated in institutionalised settings, while little evidence exists in other populations. In summary, the approach of integrating functional exercise into daily life represents a promising alternative or complement to structured exercise programmes. However, more RCTs are needed to evaluate this concept in different target populations and the potential for inducing beha...
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Non-Discriminant Relationships between Leg Muscle Strength, Mass and Gait Performance in Healthy Young and Old Adults
Conclusions: Gait speed did not preferentially correlate with leg muscle strength or leg LTM, favoring neither outcome for predicting mobility. Thus, we recommend that both leg muscle strength and leg LTM should be tested and trained complementarily. Further, hip and ankle extension torque predicted gait performance, and thus we recommend to test and train healthy old adults by functional integrated multiarticular rather than monoarticular lower extremity strength exercises.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Untangling Longevity, Dauer, and Healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans Insulin/IGF-1-Signalling
The groundbreaking discovery that lower levels of insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) can induce lifespan extension was reported 24 years ago in the nematodeCaenorhabditis elegans. In this organism, mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor genedaf-2 or other genes in this pathway can double lifespan. Subsequent work has revealed that reduced IIS (rIIS) extends lifespan across diverse species, possibly including humans. InC. elegans, IIS also regulates development into the diapause state known as dauer, a quiescent larval form that enablesC. elegans to endure harsh environments through morphological adaptation, improved cellular r...
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 63, 2017
Gerontology 2017;63:I-VI (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Prediction of the Future Need for Institutional Care in Finnish Older People: A Comparison of Two Birth Cohorts
Background: More recent birth cohorts of older people have better physical and cognitive status than earlier cohorts. As such, this could be expected to diminish the need for institutional care. The prediction of the future need for institutional care provides essential information for the planning and delivery of future care and social services as well as the resources needed.Objective: To predict the future need for institutional care among older Finnish people born in 1940.Methods: Representative samples of home-dwelling 70-year-olds from Turku, Finland were examined with similar methods in 1991 (those born in 1920) (n ...
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mission Statement
Gerontology 2018;64:1-2 (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Frailty among Older Adults: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands
Conclusion: SEP inequalities in frailty among older adults were observed, mainly among men, and persisted during 10 years of follow-up.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cognitive Aging in Dogs
A decline in the physical or mental health of older dogs can be a challenge for the owners, whose relationship with their dog is compromised by the cognitive and behavioral changes in their dogs. Although dog owners tend to consider many physiological and behavioral changes in old dogs as part of the normal aging process, it is important to differentiate between normal aging and pathologic aging, since behavioral changes may be the first indication of declining health and welfare in old dogs. Most reviews on cognitive aging in dogs have focused on translational approaches to human Alzheimer's disease; from a practical pers...
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Socioeconomic Inequalities in Frailty among Older Adults: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study in the Netherlands
Conclusion: SEP inequalities in frailty among older adults were observed, mainly among men, and persisted during 10 years of follow-up.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 20, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 63, 2017
Gerontology 2017;63:I-VI (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 19, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research