Serum Myostatin Levels Are Higher in Fitter, More Active, and Non-Frail Long-Term Nursing Home Residents and Increase after a Physical Exercise Intervention
Conclusions: Higher serum levels of myostatin were found to be associated with better physical fitness. The improvements in physical fitness after the intervention were positively related to increases in myostatin concentrations in men. These results seem to rule out the idea that high serum myostatin levels are indicative of frailty in long-term nursing home residents. However, although the direction of association was opposite to that expected for the function of myostatin, the use of this protein as a biomarker for physical fitness, rather than frailty, merits further study.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - November 21, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Vastly Different Exercise Programs Similarly Improve Parkinsonian Symptoms: A Randomized Clinical Trial
Conclusion: Two highly different exercise programs resulted in similar improvement of most motor and clinical symptoms in PD patients.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 26, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

STING SNP R293Q Is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Aging-Related Diseases
Conclusion: Our results indicate that decreased sensitivity of the innate immune receptors is associated with healthy aging, most likely due to a decreased process of inflamm-aging.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 26, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Instrumented Trail-Making Task: Application of Wearable Sensor to Determine Physical Frailty Phenotypes
Conclusion: This study demonstrated a non-gait-based wearable platform to objectively quantify frailty phenotypes and determine physical frailty, using a quick and practical test. This platform may address the hurdles of conventional physical frailty phenotypes methods by replacing the conventional frailty walking test with an automated and objective process that reduces the time of assessment and is more practical for those with mobility limitations.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 25, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Beam Walking to Assess Dynamic Balance in Health and Disease: A Protocol for the “BEAM” Multicenter Observational Study
Conclusion: We expect to find that beam walking performance vis- à-vis the traditionally used balance outcomes predicts more accurately fall risks and falls.Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT03532984.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 18, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 64, 2018
Gerontology 2018;64:I –VI (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 16, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mild Cognitive Impairment Affects Obstacle Negotiation in Older Adults: Results from “Gait and Brain Study”
Conclusion: Older adults with MCI attenuate the anticipatory gait adjustments needed to avoid an obstacle when dual-tasking. Deficits in higher-order cognitive processing may limit obstacle negotiation capabilities in MCI populations, being a potential falls risk factor.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 12, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Association between Type of Residence and Clinical Signs of Neglect in Older Adults
Conclusions: Using an aggregate measure, our findings support prior studies demonstrating an association between residence type and adverse health outcomes for disabled elderly.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 9, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Mission Statement
Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - October 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Perceived Stress and Mild Cognitive Impairment among 32,715 Community-Dwelling Older Adults across Six Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Conclusion: If our study results are confirmed in prospective studies, addressing perceived stress may have an impact in reducing the risk for MCI and subsequent dementia in LMICs.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - September 10, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia and Frailty in Parkinson ’s Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusions: Both frailty and sarcopenia are more common in PD patients than in the general community and are associated with a more adverse course of the disease. Future studies should look into underlying risk factors for the occurrence of sarcopenia and frailty in PD patients and into adequate management to prevent and mitigate them.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - September 10, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

In a Nutshell: Findings from the Bruneck Study
The Bruneck Study is a prospective community-based study enrolling an age- and sex-stratified random sample of 1,000 men and women. It achieved an extraordinary participation rate of 93.4% and a near-complete long-term follow-up exceeding a quarter of a century (1990 –2018). High-quality ascertainment of most common human diseases enables reliable evaluation of: disease epidemiology, overlaps between age-related diseases, and risk factors, and discovery of novel biomarkers. Research priorities include atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, aging and longevit y, neurological diseases, disorders of the bone, and canc...
Source: Gerontology - September 7, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Blood-Based Therapies to Combat Aging
Dysfunction associated with the aging process positions aging as a leading culprit for development of devastating diseases and mounting health-care costs. Many age-associated conditions for which aging increases risk are neurological disorders with no effective treatments, including Alzhei ­mer’s disease. As the proportion of aged individuals continues to rise in the coming decades, aging-related costs are expected to increase dramatically. Diverse approaches have emerged to meet the clinical need to treat aging and its associated conditions, including those aimed at increasing lon gevity, slowing the aging proce...
Source: Gerontology - September 7, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Urinary Urgency in the Elderly
The last 2 decades have brought an explosion of research, new products, and general attention to the problem of urinary urgency, and yet patients continue to be plagued by this symptom – especially the elderly. What is it? What does it mean? How can we guide patients successfully through this challenge? This paper presents a review of current thinking about urgency relevant to the practicing clinician, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of the se patients.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - September 2, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Effects of Endurance Exercise and Diet on Atherosclerosis in Young and Aged ApoE < sup > –/– < /sup > and Wild-Type Mice
Conclusion: Practicing endurance exercise seems to be enough for reducing early aortic lesion formation, independent of diet. However, this was only true in mice with smaller aortic lesions, since mice with large, advanced, complicated atherosclerotic plaques did not show any reduction in lesion size with exercise training.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - September 2, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Gintonin Attenuates D-Galactose-Induced Hippocampal Senescence by Improving Long-Term Hippocampal Potentiation, Neurogenesis, and Cognitive Functions
Conclusion: These results show that gintonin administration restores D-gal-induced memory deficits by enhancing hippocampal LPA1 receptor expression, LTP, and neurogenesis. Finally, the present study shows that gintonin exerts anti-brain aging effects that are responsible for alleviating brain aging-related dysfunction.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - August 23, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cognitive Impairment, Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Exploration
Conclusion: Having no cognitive impairment was associated with more engagement in sexual activity and physical tenderness among community-dwelling older adults. Sexuality is an important aspect of active aging and our findings illustrate a potential barrier to maintaining or instigating intimate relationships as we age. Longitudinal analyses are required to explore the direction of effect.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - August 23, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Designing Interiors to Mitigate Physical and Cognitive Deficits Related to Aging and to Promote Longevity in Older Adults: A Review
Conclusions: Knowledge of current evidence regarding the impact of different environmental factors may hasten adaptation of well-designed innovations that can provide optimal healing and living environments for the aging population. By effectively addressing older adults ’ unique and specialized needs, design practitioners can become an indispensable part of their medical, social, and environmental team. One of the rapidly developing infrastructures promising to revolutionize the design of “future homes” is the IoT. While it is at an early stage of development , ultimately we envisage a connected home usi...
Source: Gerontology - August 21, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Determining Physical and Mental Health Conditions Present in Older Adult Refugees: A Mini-Review
This study, a review of physical and mental health data from the Utah Department of Health, was undertaken in an effort to ascertain the prevalence of health conditions among refugee men and women 60 years and older arriving in Utah. Findings include information on diseases correlated with increasing age, such as hypertension, decreases in vision, arthritis, and low back pain, which are common among this population of refugees aged 60 years and older. Overall, most of the health conditions assessed affect women and men with a similar prevalence. Some notable exceptions are a history of torture and violence, and a propensit...
Source: Gerontology - August 21, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cognitive Change at the End of Life in Nursing Home Residents: Differential Trajectories of Terminal Decline
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the majority of residents experience terminal change, with the exception of those at already high levels of impairment. Furthermore, late-life cognitive change is related to functional and mental health.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - July 24, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Transferability and Sustainability of Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Training in Patients with Dementia: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Conclusion: This study confirmed that specific DT training is effective in improving specifically trained DT performances in PwD and demonstrated sustainability of training-induced effects for at least 3 months. Effects were partially transferable to semi-trained DTs but not to untrained DTs. With increasing distance between trained and untrained DTs, transferability of training effects decreased.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - July 24, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Better Assessment of Illness Study for Delirium Severity: Study Design, Procedures, and Cohort Description
Conclusion: The BASIL study presents an innovative effort to advance the conceptualization and measurement of delirium severity. Unique strengths include the diverse cohort with complete high quality data and longitudinal follow-up, along with detailed collection of multiple delirium measures daily during hospitalization.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - July 20, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Thyroid Function Changes in the Elderly and Their Relationship to Cardiovascular Health: A Mini-Review
Conclusions: The absence of large prospective interventional data does not allow the formulation of strict clinical recommendations, but a higher TSH threshold for treating both subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism in the elderly seems reasonable.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - July 20, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Frailty and Associated Factors among Centenarians in the 5-COOP Countries
Conclusions: This study shows that reaching 100 years of age rarely goes without frailty and sheds light on factors associated with frailty at a very old age.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - July 20, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Gut Microbiota and Healthy Aging: A Mini-Review
The gut microbiota shows a wide inter-individual variation, but its within-individual variation is relatively stable over time. A functional core microbiome, provided by abundant bacterial taxa, seems to be common to various human hosts regardless of their gender, geographic location, and age. With advancing chronological age, the gut microbiota becomes more diverse and variable. However, when measures of biological age are used with adjustment for chronological age, overall richness decreases, while a certain group of bacteria associated with frailty increases. This highlights the importance of considering biological or f...
Source: Gerontology - July 19, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Glymphatic System and Waste Clearance with Brain Aging: A Review
The glymphatic system is a glial-dependent waste clearance pathway in the brain, in place of lymphatic vessels, dedicated to drain away soluble waste proteins and metabolic products. Specifically, the glymphatic network serves as a “front end” for waste clearance, and is connected downstream to an authentic lymphatic network, associated with dura covering the brain as well as cranial nerves and large vessels at the skull exits. The anatomical and functional interconnections between these two networks are not completely und erstood. Several key physiological processes have been identified that control glymphatic...
Source: Gerontology - July 11, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Concern about Falling and Complexity of Free-Living Physical Activity Patterns in Well-Functioning Older Adults
Conclusions: These results extend our understanding of the interplay between low concern about falling and physical activity behavior of community-dwelling older persons in their everyday life context. This information could serve to better design and evaluate personalized intervention programs in future prospective studies.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - July 4, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Trajectories of the Number of Pain Sites and Their Associated Factors in Older Adults: Results from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing
Conclusions: The pain status at the early stage is predictive of future pain. In this study, we identified gender differences in the trends of the number of pain sites and associated factors. Further comprehensive studies on pain intensity and duration are required.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - July 3, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Prognostic Models Associated with 6-Month Survival of Patients Admitted to Nursing Homes
Conclusions: Prognostic models such as ours that include variables commonly included in clinical assessments can help nursing home professionals prioritize and ensure adequate mobilization of palliative care resources, which are very limited in these institutions.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - June 29, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of a Multifaceted Podiatry Intervention for the Prevention of Falls in Older People: The REducing Falls with Orthoses and a Multifaceted Podiatry Intervention Trial Findings
Conclusion: The benefits of the intervention justified the moderate cost. The intervention could be a cost-effective option for falls prevention when compared with usual care in the UK.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - June 26, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Editor ’s Note
Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - June 22, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Building Bridges between Gerontology and Elder Law
Conclusions: The authors identify ways gerontologists can be encouraged to integrate elder law into their teaching and research, and suggest how this integration could enhance understanding of the aging experience.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - June 20, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Does Sample Attrition Affect the Assessment of Frailty Trajectories Among Older Adults? A Joint Model Approach
Conclusion: Linear mixed models assuming MAR sample attrition provided good estimates of frailty trajectories up until high age. Thus, the validity of existing studies estimating frailty trajectories based on standard linear mixed models seems not threatened by substantial sample attrition.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - June 20, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

HIV and Aging – Perhaps Not as Dramatic as We Feared?
Ever since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1995, HIV infection has been linked to “metabolic” complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis, and others). Studies suggested increased rates of myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency, neurocognitive dysfunction, and fractures in HIV-postitive patients. Even long-term suppression of HIV seemed to be accompanied by an excess of deleterious inflammation that could promote these complications. The aims of this viewpoint paper are to summarize recent data and to examine the possibility that the problem of aging-relat...
Source: Gerontology - June 15, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Role of Frailty in Acute Coronary Syndromes in the Elderly
Conclusion: Frailty is an independent prognostic marker of the composite of mortality and reinfarction and of overall mortality in patients aged ≥75 years admitted due to MI.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - June 1, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Cytoplasmic RNA Granules in Somatic Maintenance
Cytoplasmic RNA granules represent subcellular compartments that are enriched in protein-bound RNA species. RNA granules are produced by evolutionary divergent eukaryotes, including yeast, mammals, and plants. The functions of cytoplasmic RNA granules differ widely. They are dictated by the cell type and physiological state, which in turn is determined by intrinsic cell properties and environmental factors. RNA granules provide diverse cellular functions. However, all of the granules contribute to aspects of RNA metabolism. This is exemplified by transcription, RNA storage, silencing, and degradation, as well as mRNP remod...
Source: Gerontology - May 30, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Delayed Senile Symptoms in Old Mice via Regulation of the AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1 α Signaling Cascade
Conclusion: Our findings show that TSG could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of aging- and high-calorie intake-associated disorders.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 29, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Relationship between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scores in Older Adults
Conclusion: The association between CRF and MoCA score in older adults suggests that meeting or exceeding public health guidelines for physical activity is likely to increase CRF in low fit individuals, maintain CRF in those with a moderate to high level of CRF, and thereby help to maintain cognitive function in healthy older adults.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 29, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Lower Plasma Klotho Concentrations Are Associated with Vascular Dementia but Not Late-Onset Alzheimer ’s Disease
Conclusion: In a sample of elderly individuals, we found a significant association between low plasma Klotho levels and VD, but not LOAD. This finding suggests that, although these 2 forms of dementia might overlap, some physiopathological mechanisms related to VD and LOAD remain distinct.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 16, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Rising above It: Status Ambivalence in Older Adults
Conclusion: We discussstatus ambivalence as a potential protective mechanism in the context of negative societal perceptions of age-related social status that may be important for well-being in later life.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 9, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Long-Term Moderate Exercise Rescues Age-Related Decline in Hippocampal Neuronal Complexity and Memory
Conclusion: The hippocampus-related memory function declines from middle age, but long-term moderate-intensity running effectively increased hippocampal neuroplasticity and memory in mice of different ages, even when the memory impairment had progressed to an advanced stage. Thus, long-term, moderate intensity exercise training might be a way of delaying and treating aging-related memory decline.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - May 7, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Automatic Change Detection in Older and Younger Women: A Visual Mismatch Negativity Study
Conclusion: Automatic detection of violated sequential regularities, reflected by the vMMN, emerged in the two age groups (earlier vMMN). However, detection of stimulus change, a preattentive visual process delayed in the elderly, and identification of the specific change was compromised in the older participants.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - April 26, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Effects of Driving Skill Training on Safe Driving in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Conclusion: The driving skill program significantly improved safe driving performance in older adults with cognitive impairment who were at a potentially high risk of a car accident.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - April 12, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Age, Loss Minimization, and the Role of Probability for Decision-Making
Conclusion: Results suggest that older adults are more willing to select a risky option when it increases the likelihood that larger losses be avoided, whereas younger adults are more willing to select a risky option when it allows for slightly larger gains. This finding supports expectations based on theoretical accounts of goal orientation shifting away from securing gains in younger adulthood towards maintenance and avoiding losses in older adulthood. Findings are also discussed in respect to the affective enhancement perspective and socioemotional selectivity theory.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - April 5, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Subjective Social Status Predicts Late-Life Memory Trajectories through Both Mental and Physical Health Pathways
Conclusion: Results provide preliminary behavioral evidence for the deleterious effects of social stress on cognitive aging. These results may help inform the development of policies and interventions to reduce cognitive morbidity among older adults who perceive a low position on the social hierarchy.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - March 29, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Testosterone Deprivation Aggravates Left-Ventricular Dysfunction in Male Obese Insulin-Resistant Rats via Impairing Cardiac Mitochondrial Function and Dynamics Proteins
Conclusion: We concluded that testosterone deprivation during adulthood aggravated the impairment of mitochondrial function, mitochondrial respiratory complex, mitochondrial dynamics proteins, and apoptosis, leading to LV dysfunction in obese insulin-resistant rats.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - March 23, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Biology Explaining Tooth Repair and Regeneration: A Mini-Review
The tooth is an intricate composition of precisely patterned, mineralized matrices and soft tissues. Mineralized tissues include enamel (produced by the epithelial cells called ameloblasts), dentin and cementum (produced by mesenchymal cells called odontoblasts and cementoblasts, respectively), and soft tissues, which include the dental pulp and the periodontal ligament along with the invading nerves and blood vessels. It was perceived for a very long time that teeth primarily serve an esthetical function. In recent years, however, the role of healthy teeth, as well as the impact of oral health on general well-being, becam...
Source: Gerontology - March 13, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Negative Aging Stereotypes Disrupt both the Selection and Execution of Strategies in Older Adults
Conclusion: Our findings have important implications to further understand age-based (and other) stereotype threat effects, and how noncognitive factors modulate age-related changes in human cognition.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - February 15, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

The Impact of Advanced Age on Driving Safety in Adults with Medical Conditions
Conclusion: Advanced age adversely affected driving safety outcomes. The oldest-old are a unique age group with medical conditions known to interfere with safe driving. Driving safety strategies should particularly target the oldest-old since they are the fastest-growing group and their increased frailty is associated with severe or fatal injuries due to MVCs.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - February 14, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research

Associations of Near-Miss Traffic Incidents with Attention and Executive Function among Older Japanese Drivers
Conclusion: Male sex, high driving frequency, and poor performance in attention (in young-old drivers) were associated with near-miss traffic incidents. Improvement in attention may play a role in decreasing the risk of traffic accidents among older drivers.Gerontology (Source: Gerontology)
Source: Gerontology - February 9, 2018 Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research