The Use of the Over-the-Scope Clip to Treat Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
This article provides an overview on available literature, potential indications, and technical aspects of hemostasis with over-the-scope clip. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Arthur Schmidt, Nicolas Glaser, Armin Kuellmer, Karel Caca, James Lau Source Type: research

The Use of the Overstitch for Bariatric Weight Loss
Obesity is a public health pandemic and leading contributor to morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic bariatric therapies have emerged as a viable minimally invasive treatment option to fill the therapeutic gap between conservative and surgical approaches. The ability to reliably place full-thickness sutures throughout the gastrointestinal tract has opened the door to novel endoscopic gastric restrictive procedures. A growing body of literature supports endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty as a safe, effective, and reproducible endoscopic treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. In addition, endoscopic sutured revision procedur...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - October 14, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Rabindra R. Watson Source Type: research

Colonoscopic Polypectomy
GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - August 22, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Douglas K. Rex Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - August 22, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contributors
CHARLES J. LIGHTDALE, MD (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - August 22, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contents
Charles J. Lightdale (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - August 22, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Endoscopic Closures (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - August 22, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Closure of Defects and Management of Complications
This article focuses on the colonoscopic closure of resection def ects and perforations and the prevention and treatment of colon perforations after endoscopic resection. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 31, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Gottumukkala Subba Raju Source Type: research

Surgery Versus Endoscopic Mucosal Resection Versus Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Large Polyps
Endoscopic resection for large colorectal lesion is effective and cost-saving than surgery. Piecemeal resections are often effective if applied meticulously but endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) allows meritorious removal of large lesions in one piece. For rectal lesions, transanal endoscopic microsurgery or transanal minimally invasive surgery offers more radical transmural resection but ESD is also effective for removal of complex rectal lesions. Surgical resection with lymph node dissection is the gold standard for invasive cancer; however, the management of low-risk early-stage colorectal cancer is worth debating....
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 30, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Norio Fukami Source Type: research

Colonoscopic Resection in Evolution
Five decades have passed since the introduction of colonoscopy and the transformative development of the wire loop polypectomy snare by Shinya, Wolff, and Ichikawa in the United States and Deyhle in Europe. Remarkably, the wire snare remains the workhorse of everyday colonic resection. Despite this, very important changes in colonoscopic resection have appeared in the current century. First, colonoscopic resection has changed from an anecdotal practice in which colonoscopists largely used whatever techniques they acquired in training, with academic centers often using substantially different approaches based largely on tra...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 29, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Douglas K. Rex Tags: Preface Source Type: research

The Cold Revolution
This article examines the fundamentals of cold snare resection and evidence for its application, theorizes on limits to its application, and identifies areas for further research. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Nicholas J. Tutticci, Ammar O. Kheir, David G. Hewett Source Type: research

Endoscopic Assessment of the Malignant Potential of the Nonpolypoid (Flat and Depressed) Colorectal Neoplasms
This article provides information on assessment of the malignant potential of colorectal neoplasms. It takes a modern approach on the topic and integrates relevant information that aligns with the thinking process. The theory of thinking fast (reflex) and slow (rational) is used. By doing so, it is hoped that the learning process can be expedited and practiced immediately. The focus is on preresection assessment of nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms. Assessment of polypoid, sessile-serrated adenoma/polyp, or inflammatory bowel disease dysplasia is briefly discussed. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 25, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Ravishankar Asokkumar, Carmel Malvar, Tiffany Nguyen-Vu, Silvia Sanduleanu, Tonya Kaltenbach, Roy Soetikno Source Type: research

Best Practices for Resection of Diminutive and Small Polyps in the Colorectum
Diminutive colorectal lesions are polyps and flat lesions 1 to 5  mm in size, and small are 6 to 9 mm in size. The best resection method is the cold snare. Cold forceps are acceptable for 1- to 3-mm lesions, but should not be used to piecemeal polyps. Cold snaring has few complications and is more effective than cold forceps for 4- to 5-mm polyps and as effecti ve and more efficient than hot snaring for 6- to 9-mm polyps. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 24, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Douglas K. Rex Source Type: research

How to Learn and Perform Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection and Full-Thickness Resection in the Colorectum in the United States
This article reviews challenges and methods in learning ESD in the United States and provides a primer on performing ESD and full-thickness resection in the colorectum. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 23, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Kavel Visrodia, Amrita Sethi Source Type: research

Underwater Endoscopic Mucosal Resection
Although an established standard, conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has disseminated despite an absence of studies demonstrating the value of submucosal injection. Several consequences of poorly executed submucosal injection may increase the difficulty and risk of EMR. Underwater EMR (UEMR), an alternative resection method for colonic neoplasms, avoids the need for submucosal injections. In comparison with reported outcomes of EMR, UEMR achieves similar rates of complete resection with comparable safety, with lower rates of recurrence and fewer repeat procedures. UEMR also compares favorably with endoscopic s...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 23, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Andrew Nett, Kenneth Binmoeller Source Type: research

Reviewing the Evidence that Polypectomy Prevents Cancer
Colonoscopic polypectomy is fundamental to effective prevention of colorectal cancer. Polypectomy reduces colorectal cancer incidence and mortality by altering the natural history and progression of precancerous precursor polyps. Epidemiologic data from the United States, where colorectal cancer rates have been steadily declining in parallel with screening efforts, provide indisputable evidence about the effectiveness of polypectomy. Randomized controlled trials of fecal occult blood tests and flexible sigmoidoscopy, and observational colonoscopy studies, provide additional support. Longitudinal studies have shown variable...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 22, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Charles J. Kahi Source Type: research

How to Perform Wide-Field Endoscopic Mucosal Resection and Follow-up Examinations
Wide-field endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is the primary management option for noninvasive laterally spreading colorectal lesions. It has been proved to be safe, highly effective, efficient, and cost-effective. Careful lesion interrogation before resection is essential because it provides essential information, including the risk of submucosal invasive disease. Adjuvant thermal ablation to the post-EMR defect margin has recently been shown to substantially reduce adenoma recurrence. Adenoma recurrence is predictable using the Sydney EMR Recurrence Tool. Adenoma recurrence can be accurately detected using standardized i...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 22, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Bilel Jideh, Michael Bourke Source Type: research

Assessing the Quality of Polypectomy and Teaching Polypectomy
Ineffective polypectomy technique may lead to incomplete polyp resection, high complication rates, interval colorectal cancer, and costly referral to surgery. Despite its central importance to endoscopy, training in polypectomy is not standardized nor has the most effective training approach been defined. Polypectomy competence is rarely reported and quality metrics for this skill are lacking. Use of tools and measurements to assess polypectomy outcomes is low. There is a need for standardization of training and remediation in polypectomy; defining standards of competent polypectomy and how it is feasibly measured; and int...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Anna M. Duloy, Rajesh N. Keswani Source Type: research

Colonoscopic Polypectomy: Improved and New Methods
Once it became clear that most colorectal cancers developed from premalignant colon polyps, screening colonoscopy with removal of these polyps became the focus of colon cancer prevention with demonstrable effectiveness. The brilliant simplicity of the flexible cautery snare quickly became the standard method for polypectomy, and the use of partial colon resections to remove precancerous colon polyps plummeted. As colonoscopy evolved with an emphasis on higher detection of adenomas and identification of subtle flat colon lesions such as sessile serrated adenomas, the need for improved polypectomy techniques has become obvio...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Charles J. Lightdale Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Lesion Retrieval, Specimen Handling, and Endoscopic Marking in Colonoscopy
Retrieval of lesions after endoscopic polypectomy enables histopathologic analysis and guides future surgical management and endoscopic surveillance intervals. Various techniques and devices have been described with distinct advantages and disadvantages to accomplish retrieval. Appropriate histopathologic analysis depends on lesion handling and preparation. How lesions are handled further depends on size, endoscopic appearance, and removal technique. Endoscopic marking or tattooing is a well-described process that uses dye mediums to leave longstanding marks in the colon. Techniques, dye mediums, and locations within the c...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - July 2, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Arshish Dua, Brian Liem, Neil Gupta Source Type: research

Advances in Perianal Disease Associated with Crohn ’s Disease-Evolving Approaches
Perianal diseases, common complications of Crohn's disease, are difficult to diagnose/manage. Patients with perianal Crohn's disease suffer from persistent pain and drainage, recurrent perianal sepsis, impaired quality of life, and financial burden. Conventional medical and surgical therapies carry risk of infection, myelosuppression, incontinence, disease recurrence. Although the phenotype of Crohn's disease has been extensively studied, reported outcomes are inconsistent. Endoanal ultrasonography is also becoming popular because of low cost and ability to acquire images in real time. Emerging management strategies for tr...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Xinying Wang, Bo Shen Source Type: research

Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Progress and Promise
It is an exhilarating time for clinicians treating patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The past two decades of anti-TNF therapy have provided true improvement for patients suffering from ulcerative colitis and Crohn ’s disease. Clinical researchers have honed anti-TNF therapy by using quantitative, personalized, and precision measures to improve safety and outcomes. Gastrointestinal endoscopists have contributed with a new emphasis on treating to target: mucosal healing and histologic improvement based on end oscopic biopsies. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Charles J. Lightdale Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Inflammatory Bowel Disease
GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Simon Lichtiger Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contributors
CHARLES J. LIGHTDALE, MD (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contents
Charles J. Lightdale (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Colonoscopic Polypectomy (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - May 9, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Endoscopy in Postoperative Patients with Crohn's Disease or Ulcerative Colitis. Does It Translate to Better Outcomes?
This article discusses the use of endoscopy in patients with Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis in the postoperative setting. Endoscopy is the most sensitive and validated tool available in the diagnosis of recurrence of Crohn disease in the postoperative setting. It is also the most effective diagnostic modality available for evaluating complications of pouch anatomy in patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition to diagnosis, management postoperatively can be determined through endoscopy. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 13, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Abhik Bhattacharya, Bo Shen, Miguel Regueiro Source Type: research

The Role of Laparoscopic, Robotic, and Open Surgery in Uncomplicated and Complicated Inflammatory Bowel Disease
The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing and despite advances in medical therapy, patients continue to require operations for complications of their disease. Minimally invasive surgical options have impacted postoperative morbidity dramatically with reduction of pain, length of stay and adhesion formation, but additionally, this population of patients are not only concerned with successful operative therapy but also the ability to return to their lifestyle and cosmetics. Laparoscopic and robotic surgery for Crohn's disease has proven to benefit patients with ileocolic or colonic disease, however complicate...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: David M. Schwartzberg, Feza H. Remzi Source Type: research

The Era of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Is Over. What Do We Know, What Don ’t We Know, and What Do We Yearn to Know?
The development of the first anti –tumor necrosis factor (TNF) biological therapy (infliximab) marked a revolutionary advance in our treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and ushered in an era of biological therapies that changed the face of these diseases. Biological therapies have greatly advanced treatment options for patients with both Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) by increasing disease remission rates, prolonging disease maintenance, and improving overall quality of life. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Sujaata Dwadasi, Amanda Israel, David T. Rubin Source Type: research

Inflammatory Bowel Disease
It has been an honor to edit this issue of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America, which represents a bridge connecting the past decade to the next one in terms of concepts, tools, and approach to the patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The future approach incorporates changes in pathogenesis, advances in predicting disease activity and severity, treat to target philosophy, and the prospect of expanding our ability to treat disease with new technical modalities as well as expanding our menu of medication. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 12, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Simon Lichtiger Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Strictures in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis
This article presents current literature on strictures in inflammatory bowel disease. Focus is placed on the short- and long-term outcomes, complications, and safety of endoscopic balloon dilation for Crohn disease strictures. Adjuvant techniques, such as intralesional injection of steroids and anti –tumor necrosis factor, stricturotomy, and stent insertion, are briefly discussed. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 10, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jason Reinglas, Talat Bessissow Source Type: research

Treat-to-Target in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, What Is the Target and How Do We Treat?
Inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, progressive, immune-mediated inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Early therapy using a treat-to-target (T2T) approach, which implies identification of a pre-defined target, followed by optimization of therapy and regular monitoring until the goal is achieved is critical in preventing adverse long-term outcomes. In this review, the authors discuss the T2T guidance developed by the Selecting Therapeutic Targets in Inflammatory Bowel Disease committee, new evidence published on the role of various targets in CD...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Manasi Agrawal, Jean-Frederic Colombel Source Type: research

Capsule Endoscopy and Small Bowel Enteroscopy
Capsule endoscopy (CE) provides visualization of small bowel mucosa for evidence of inflammation. Given its ability to detect subtle mucosal changes, CE is recommended in the diagnostic work-up of small bowel Crohn disease (CD) and also in monitoring mucosal response to therapy in nonstricturing CD. Patency capsule and cross-sectional imaging can reduce risk of capsule retention in patients with suspected stenotic disease. CE is complementary to magnetic resonance enterography, which can provide extraintestinal information. Device-assisted enteroscopy has limited role in CD. (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: George Ou, Robert Enns Source Type: research

Management of Inflammatory Bowel Disease –Associated Dysplasia in the Modern Era
This article begins with a brief overview of risk factors for colorectal neoplasia in inflammatory bowel disease to concretize the approach to risk stratification. It then provides an up-to-date review of diagnosis and management of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease, which integrates new and emerging data in the field. This is particularly relevant in an era of increased attention to cost- and resource-containment from the health systems vantage point, coupled with a heightened prioritization of patient quality of life and shared decision-making. Also provided is a brief discussion of the status of newer therapeutic ...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Shailja C. Shah, Steven H. Itzkowitz Source Type: research

The Role of Histology in Determining Disease Activity, Treatment, and Prognosis
Histologic activity in inflammatory bowel disease is associated with an increased risk of clinical relapse, surgery, hospitalizations, and disease-associated dysplasia independent of clinical or endoscopic activity. Several histologic scoring systems exist to capture disease activity. However, none has been validated to assess prognosis or response to therapy and there is no universally accepted definition of histologic healing or remission. Although histologic healing is not a current recommended target for treatment, it may be a more sensitive marker of disease activity. Future studies are needed to determine standardize...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 6, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mark S. Salem, Gil Y. Melmed Source Type: research

The Microbiota and the Immune Response: What Is the Chicken and What Is the Egg?
The underlying factors driving the onset and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include the interplay between host genetics, microbiota, and mucosal inflammation. The same environmental triggers that are a risk factor for IBD also alter the microbiota, suggesting a link between the microbiome and IBD. Specific IBD-associated genetic polymorphisms change the microbiome linking host genetics to the microbiota. Microbial changes occur at least simultaneously with new onset IBD, and fecal microbial transplant can ameliorate certain types of IBD. A current debate in the field is which comes first, dysbiosis or infl...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Julia Fritsch, Maria T. Abreu Source Type: research

Prognosticating the Course of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) that can lead to progressive irreversible bowel damage. Selecting the most appropriate therapy for patients is a challenge because not all patients diagnosed with IBD have complications, and the amount of time to develop a complication is different for individuals. Models using patient characteristics, genetics, and immune responses help identify those patients who require early aggressive therapy with a goal to modify their disease course. Future research will help identify the role that the microbiome, metagenomics, metaproteomics, and micr...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Jenna L. Koliani-Pace, Corey A. Siegel Source Type: research

The Role of the Radiologist in Determining Disease Severity in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases that lead to progressive bowel damage including the development of stricturing and penetrating complications. Increasingly, cross-sectional imaging with computed tomography or magnetic resonance scans have emerged as leading tools to: (1) assess disease activity; (2) monitor response to therapy or disease recurrence; and (3) identify disease-related complications. Several validated radiological scoring systems have been developed to quantify cross-sectional and longitudinal inflammatory burden in these diseases and to monitor response to treatment. Bo...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - April 4, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Parakkal Deepak, Jordan E. Axelrad, Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan Source Type: research

Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography and Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Gallbladder Drainage
This article reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of gallbladder diseases and discusses the various percutaneous, surgical, and endoscopic approaches to managing gallbladder disease.” (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Habeeb Salameh, Christopher J. DiMaio Source Type: research

Endoscopic Ultrasound for the Diagnosis and Staging of Liver Tumors
Endoscopic ultrasound examination may provide complementary information to cross-sectional imaging in lesions of the liver, portal vein, and surrounding lymph nodes. With fine needle aspiration, endoscopic ultrasound examination is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of focal liver lesions and has usefulness in the evaluation of indeterminate liver lesions. Endoscopic ultrasound examination may influence hepatocellular cancer staging and Endoscopic ultrasound examination with fine needle aspiration of locoregional nodes and portal vein thromboses changes management. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound examination and end...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Andrew Lange, Thiruvengadam Muniraj, Harry R. Aslanian Source Type: research

Endoscopic Management of Portal Hypertension –related Bleeding
Gastrointestinal bleeding as a sequela of portal hypertension can be catastrophic and fatal. Endoscopic and endosonographic therapy play a critical role in management of such bleeding — both for hemostasis of active bleeding and bleeding prophylaxis. Variceal band ligation is established as the standard intervention for esophageal varices. For other sources of portal hypertension–related bleeding, or for salvage therapy for esophageal varices, a variety of endoscopic techniqu es are available. Endoscopic ultrasound may be used to enhance endoscopic management, particularly for gastric and ectopic varices (Sourc...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Andrew Nett, Kenneth F. Binmoeller Source Type: research

Advances in Endoscopic Imaging of the Biliary Tree
Direct endoscopic imaging of the biliary tree is increasingly performed by endoscopists since the introduction of digital single-operator cholangioscopy. In parallel, there have been several advances to overcome the challenges associated with direct peroral cholangioscopy with development of multibending cholangioscopes and new devices to enable direct placement of an endoscope into the biliary tree without a supporting duodenoscope. The indications for cholangioscopy are also evolving with newer indications, such as intraductal lithotripsy, foreign body (mostly stent) removal, guide wire cannulation of specific ducts, pho...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Saurabh Mukewar, David Carr-Locke Source Type: research

The Endoscopic Hepatologist
The role of advanced endoscopic techniques, such as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), continues to evolve in the diagnosis and management of a variety of gastrointestinal (GI) conditions. ERCP has traditionally been a “plumbers” tool, a minimally invasive intervention to manage obstruction and leaks of the pancreaticobiliary tree, all with the assistance of 2-dimensional black-and-white fluoroscopic images. EUS, in its infancy, was used as a tool to identify and stage GI malignancies and eventually perform fi ne-needle aspirates of tumors. (Source: Gastrointe...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Christopher J. DiMaio Tags: Preface Source Type: research

The Endoscopic Hepatologist: Not an Oxymoron
Endoscopists have long had an impact in the management of pancreatobiliary disease and esophageal and gastric varices secondary to cirrhosis, but the use of endoscopic methods in diagnosis and management of primary liver disease has been modest to nil. This is changing. With the use of new instruments and techniques, mostly based on progress in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and more importantly in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), advanced endoscopists have recently shown the capability to carry out procedures that have the potential to compete successfully with interventional radiologists. (Source: Gastro...
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Charles J. Lightdale Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

The Endoscopic Hepatologist
GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Christopher J. DiMaio Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contributors
CHARLES J. LIGHTDALE, MD (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Contents
Charles J. Lightdale (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America)
Source: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Clinics of North America - March 5, 2019 Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research