Ras2 is important for growth and pathogenicity in Fusarium circinatum
In this study, we investigated to possible role of Ras2 in Fusarium circinatum- a fungus that causes pine pitch canker disease on many different pine species and has a wide geographic distribution. This protein is encoded by the RAS2 gene and has been shown to control growth and pathogenicity in a number of fungi in a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and/or cyclic adenosyl monophosphate pathway-dependent manner. The aim was therefore to characterize the phenotypes of RAS2 gene knockout and complementation mutants of F. circinatum. These mutants were generated by transforming protoplasts of the fungus with suitable split-m...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 27, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: M M Phasha M J Wingfield B D Wingfield M P A Coetzee H Hallen-Adams F Fru B S Swalarsk-Parry N Yilmaz T A Duong E T Steenkamp Source Type: research

Evaluation of multi-color genetically encoded Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > indicators in filamentous fungi
Fungal Genet Biol. 2021 Feb 16;149:103540. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103540. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) enable long-term monitoring of cellular and subcellular dynamics of this second messenger in response to environmental and developmental cues without relying on exogenous dyes. Continued development and optimization in GECIs, combined with advances in gene manipulation, offer new opportunities for investigating the mechanism of Ca2+ signaling in fungi, ranging from documenting Ca2+ signatures under diverse conditions and genetic backgrounds to evaluating how changes in Ca2+ si...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 19, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hye-Seon Kim Jung-Eun Kim Aram Hwangbo Jasper Akerboom Loren L Looger Randall Duncan Hokyoung Son Kirk J Czymmek Seogchan Kang Source Type: research

Evaluation of multi-color genetically encoded Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > indicators in filamentous fungi
Fungal Genet Biol. 2021 Feb 16;149:103540. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103540. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) enable long-term monitoring of cellular and subcellular dynamics of this second messenger in response to environmental and developmental cues without relying on exogenous dyes. Continued development and optimization in GECIs, combined with advances in gene manipulation, offer new opportunities for investigating the mechanism of Ca2+ signaling in fungi, ranging from documenting Ca2+ signatures under diverse conditions and genetic backgrounds to evaluating how changes in Ca2+ si...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 19, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hye-Seon Kim Jung-Eun Kim Aram Hwangbo Jasper Akerboom Loren L Looger Randall Duncan Hokyoung Son Kirk J Czymmek Seogchan Kang Source Type: research

Evaluation of multi-color genetically encoded Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > indicators in filamentous fungi
Fungal Genet Biol. 2021 Feb 16:103540. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103540. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) enable long-term monitoring of cellular and subcellular dynamics of this second messenger in response to environmental and developmental cues without relying on exogenous dyes. Continued development and optimization in GECIs, combined with advances in gene manipulation, offer new opportunities for investigating the mechanism of Ca2+ signaling in fungi, ranging from documenting Ca2+ signatures under diverse conditions and genetic backgrounds to evaluating how changes in Ca2+ signat...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 19, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hye-Seon Kim Jung-Eun Kim Aram Hwangbo Jasper Akerboom Loren L Looger Randall Duncan Hokyoung Son Kirk J Czymmek Seogchan Kang Source Type: research

Evaluation of multi-color genetically encoded Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > indicators in filamentous fungi
Fungal Genet Biol. 2021 Feb 16:103540. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103540. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGenetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) enable long-term monitoring of cellular and subcellular dynamics of this second messenger in response to environmental and developmental cues without relying on exogenous dyes. Continued development and optimization in GECIs, combined with advances in gene manipulation, offer new opportunities for investigating the mechanism of Ca2+ signaling in fungi, ranging from documenting Ca2+ signatures under diverse conditions and genetic backgrounds to evaluating how changes in Ca2+ signat...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 19, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Hye-Seon Kim Jung-Eun Kim Aram Hwangbo Jasper Akerboom Loren L Looger Randall Duncan Hokyoung Son Kirk J Czymmek Seogchan Kang Source Type: research

Histatin 5 variant reduces Candida albicans biofilm viability and inhibits biofilm formation
Fungal Genet Biol. 2021 Feb 14:103529. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2021.103529. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTCandida albicans is a commensal organism and opportunistic pathogen that can form biofilms that colonize surfaces such as implants, catheters, and dentures. Compared to planktonic C. albicans cells, cells in biofilms exhibit increased resistance to treatment. Histatin 5 (Hst-5) is an antimicrobial peptide that is natively secreted by human salivary glands and has strong antifungal activity against C. albicans. However, C. albicans produce secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) that can cleave and inactivate Hst-5, limiting its ...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 17, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Parisa Moghaddam-Taaheri Jesse A Leissa Haleigh B Eppler Christopher M Jewell Amy J Karlsson Source Type: research

Evaluation of multi-color genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators in filamentous fungi.
Abstract Genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators (GECIs) enable long-term monitoring of cellular and subcellular dynamics of this second messenger in response to environmental and developmental cues without relying on exogenous dyes. Continued development and optimization in GECIs, combined with advances in gene manipulation, offer new opportunities for investigating the mechanism of Ca2+ signaling in fungi, ranging from documenting Ca2+ signatures under diverse conditions and genetic backgrounds to evaluating how changes in Ca2+ signature impact calcium-binding proteins and subsequent cellular changes. Here, we attem...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 16, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Kim HS, Kim JE, Hwangbo A, Akerboom J, Looger LL, Duncan R, Son H, Czymmek KJ, Kang S Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Histatin 5 variant reduces Candida albicans biofilm viability and inhibits biofilm formation.
Abstract Candida albicans is a commensal organism and opportunistic pathogen that can form biofilms that colonize surfaces such as implants, catheters, and dentures. Compared to planktonic C. albicans cells, cells in biofilms exhibit increased resistance to treatment. Histatin 5 (Hst-5) is an antimicrobial peptide that is natively secreted by human salivary glands and has strong antifungal activity against C. albicans. However, C. albicans produce secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) that can cleave and inactivate Hst-5, limiting its antifungal properties. We previously showed that residue substitutions K11R and K17...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 14, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Moghaddam-Taaheri P, Leissa JA, Eppler HB, Jewell CM, Karlsson AJ Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

SsCat2 encodes a catalase that is critical for the antioxidant response, QoI fungicide sensitivity, and pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
Abstract Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a destructive necrotrophic fungal pathogen with worldwide distribution. The metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is critical for the development and infection process of this economically important pathogen. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is converted into water and dioxygen by catalases, which are major ROS scavengers in cells. Several genes have been predicted to encode the catalases of S. sclerotiorum, but the critical ones that function in the ROS stress response are still unknown. In this research, a catalase gene called SsCat2 was found to contribute to the predominant c...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - February 6, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Huang Z, Lu J, Liu R, Wang P, Hu Y, Fang A, Yang Y, Ling Q, Bi C, Yu Y Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Population genetic structure and migration patterns of the maize pathogenic fungus, Cercospora zeina in East and Southern Africa.
In this study, we aimed to assess the diversity and gene flow of the pathogen between major maize producing countries in East and Southern Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa). A total of 964 single-spore isolates were made from GLS lesions and confirmed as C.zeina using PCR diagnostics. The other causal agent of GLS, Cercospora zeae-maydis, was absent. Genotyping all the C.zeina isolates with 11 microsatellite markers and a mating-type gene diagnostic revealed (i) high genetic diversity with some population structure between the five African countries, (ii) cryptic sexual recombination, (iii) that So...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 29, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Nsibo DL, Barnes I, Omondi DO, Dida MM, Berger DK Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Central American and Caribbean population history of the Pseudocercospora fijiensis fungus responsible for the latest worldwide pandemics on banana.
Abstract Among the emerging fungal diseases threatening food security, the Pseudocercospora fijiensis fungus causing black leaf streak disease of banana is one of the most marked examples of a recent worldwide pandemic on a major crop. We assessed how this pathogen spread throughout the latest invaded region, i.e. Central America and the Caribbean. We retraced its population history combining detailed monitoring information on disease outbreaks and population genetic analyses based on large-scale sampling of P. fijiensis isolates from 121 locations throughout the region. The results first suggested that sexual rep...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 27, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Carlier J, Robert S, Roussel V, Chilin-Charles Y, Lubin-Adjanoh N, Gilabert A, Abadie C Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Fungal cross-talk: an integrated approach to study distance communication.
o S Abstract Despite the interest on fungi as eukaryotic model systems, the molecular mechanisms regulating the fungal non-self-recognition at a distance have not been studied so far. This paper investigates the molecular mechanisms regulating the cross-talk at a distance between two filamentous fungi, Trichoderma gamsii and Fusarium graminearum which establish a mycoparasitic interaction where T. gamsii and F. graminearum play the roles of mycoparasite and prey, respectively. In the present work, we use an integrated approach involving dual culture tests, comparative genomics and transcriptomics to investigate th...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 23, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Zapparata A, Baroncelli R, Brandström Durling M, Kubicek CP, Karlsson M, Vannacci G, Sarrocco S Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

The spindle pole-body localization of activated cytoplasmic dynein is cell cycle-dependent in Aspergillus nidulans.
Abstract Cytoplasmic dynein is a minus end-directed microtubule motor that can be activated by cargo adapters. In Aspergillus nidulans, overexpression of ΔC-HookA, the early endosomal adapter HookA missing its cargo-binding site, causes activated dynein to accumulate at septa and spindle pole bodies (SPBs) where the microtubule-organizing centers are located. Intriguingly, only some interphase nuclei show SPB signals of dynein. Here we present data demonstrating that localization of the activated dynein at SPBs is cell cycle-dependent: SPB dynein signals are seen to associate with nuclei at early G1 but disa...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 17, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Dowell Bieger B, Osmani AH, Xiang X, Egan MJ Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Diversity of Omega Glutathione Transferases in mushroom-forming fungi revealed by phylogenetic, transcriptomic, biochemical and structural approaches.
In this study, we re-assess the phylogeny and the classification of GSTOs based on 240 genomes of mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes). We observe that the number of GSTOs is not only extended in the order of Polypores but also in other orders such as Boletales. Our analysis leads to a new classification in which the fungal GSTOs are divided into two Types A and B. The catalytic residue of Type-A is either cysteine or serine, while that of Type-B is cysteine. The present study focuses on Trametes versicolor GSTO isoforms that possess a catalytic cysteine residue. Transcriptomic data show that Type-A GSTOs are constituti...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 12, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Perrot T, Schwartz M, Deroy A, Girardet JM, Kohler A, Morel-Rouhier M, Fa Vier F, Gelhaye E, Didierjean C Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Proteome adaptations under contrasting soil phosphate regimes of Rhizophagus irregularis engaged in a common mycorrhizal network.
Abstract For many plants, their symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi plays a key role in the acquisition of mineral nutrients such as inorganic phosphate (Pi), in exchange for assimilated carbon. To study gene regulation and function in the symbiotic partners, we and others have used compartmented microcosms in which the extra-radical mycelium (ERM), responsible for mineral nutrient supply for the plants, was separated by fine nylon nets from the associated host roots and could be harvested and analysed in isolation. Here, we used such a model system to perform a quantitative comparative protein profiling o...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 9, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Recorbet G, Calabrese S, Balliau T, Zivy M, Wipf D, Boller T, Courty PE Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Advances allowing feasible pyrG gene editing by a CRISPR-Cas9 system for the edible mushroom Pleurotus eryngii.
In this study, we identified the point-mutated variant of the endogenous sdhB gene (cbxr) as a more stable selection marker than hygromycin B resistance gene (hph) in P. eryngii. Furthermore, using a codon-optimized Cas9, a predicted native U6 promoter-guided sgRNA, as well as through an optimized protoplast transformation system, a highly efficient pyrG gene editing system was established in P. eryngii, that incorporated varied insertions and deletions (indels) by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR). Findings for a successful targeted gene editing strategy in the edible mushroom P. eryngii...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - January 2, 2021 Category: Biology Authors: Wang T, Yue S, Jin Y, Wei H, Lu L Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Identification of microRNA-like RNAs in Cordyceps guangdongensis and their expression profile under differential developmental stages.
This study is the first to report the milRNAs of C. guangdongensis, and provides important insights into studies of milRNA regulation pathways in ascomycete fungi. PMID: 33347973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - December 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wang G, Li M, Zhang C, Ning Z, Cheng H, Gao Y, Sun C, Deng W, Li T Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Asynchronous development of Zymoseptoria tritici infection in wheat.
We describe 6 morphologically distinct developmental stages, and determine their abundance in infected leaves, with time post inoculation. This demonstrates that 3-5 stages co-exist in infected tissues at any given time. Thus, later stages of pathogen development also occur asynchronously amongst the population of infecting cells. This merits consideration when interpreting transcriptomics or proteomics data gathered from infected plants. PMID: 33326850 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - December 13, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Fantozzi E, Kilaru S, Gurr SJ, Steinberg G Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Conditional promoters to investigate gene function during wheat infection by Zymoseptoria tritici.
Abstract The fungus Zymoseptoria tritici causes Septoria tritici leaf blotch, which poses a serious threat to temperate-grown wheat. Recently, we described a raft of cell molecular tools to study the biology of this fungus in vitro. Amongst these are 5 conditional promoters (Pnar1, Pex1A, Picl1, Pgal7, PlaraB), which allow controlled over-expression or repression of target genes in cells grown in liquid culture. However, their use in the host-pathogen interaction in planta was not tested. Here, we investigate the behaviour of these promoters by quantitative live cell imaging of green-fluorescent protein-expressing...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - December 9, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Fantozzi E, Kilaru S, Cannon S, Schuster M, Gurr SJ, Steinberg G Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Carbon catabolite repressor MoCreA is required for the asexual development and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus.
Abstract During the infection and colonization process, the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae faces various challenges from hostile environment, such as nutrient limitation and carbon stress, while carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mechanism would facilitate the fungus to shrewdly and efficiently utilize carbon nutrients under fickle nutritional conditions since it ensures the preferential utilization of most preferred carbon sources through repressing the expression of enzymes required for the utilization of less preferred carbon sources. Researches on M. oryzae CCR have made some progress, however the involv...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - December 5, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Hong Y, Cai R, Guo J, Zhong Z, Bao J, Wang Z, Chen X, Zhou J, Lu GD Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Biochemical characterization of the dicing activity of Dicer-like 2 in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa.
Abstract Dicing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNA is an essential process to trigger transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing. Using cell-free extracts of the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, we successfully detected the dicing activity of one of two N. crassa Dicers NcDCL2. The predominant 23-nucleotide (nt) cleavage product was always detected from 30-nt to 130-nt dsRNA substrates, and additional products of approximately 18 to 28 nt were occasionally produced. The enzymatic properties of NcDCL2 are different from those of insect and plant small interfering RNA (siRNA)-produ...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - December 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tabara M, Koiwa H, Suzuki N, Fukuhara T Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Chromosome-level de novo assembly of Coprinopsis cinerea A43mut B43mut pab1-1 #326 and genetic variant identification of mutants using Nanopore MinION sequencing.
This study showed the use of MinION to construct a fungal reference genome and to perform downstream studies in an individual laboratory. An experimental workflow was proposed, from DNA isolation and whole genome sequencing, to genome assembly and variant calling. Our results provided solutions and parameters for fungal genomic analysis on MinION sequencing platform. PMID: 33253902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - November 27, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Xie Y, Zhong Y, Chang J, Shan Kwan H Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Dual-specificity protein phosphatase Msg5 controls cell wall integrity and virulence in Fusarium oxysporum.
Di Pietro A Abstract Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are key signaling modules controlling development and virulence in fungal pathogens. Down-regulation of MAPK activity by protein phosphatases provides a critical layer of control during desensitization or adaptation to stimuli. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the dual-specificity phosphatase Msg5 dephosphorylates target threonine and tyrosine residues in the two MAPKs Mpk1 and Fus3, which regulate the cell wall integrity (CWI) and pheromone responses, respectively. Here we studied the role of the Msg5 ortholog in Fusarium oxysporum, a soilborne phy...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - November 21, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Fernandes TR, Sánchez Salvador E, Tapia ÁG, Di Pietro A Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Botrytis cinerea methyl isocitrate lyase mediates oxidative stress tolerance and programmed cell death by modulating cellular succinate levels.
Abstract Fungi lack the entire animal core apoptotic machinery. Nevertheless, regulated cell death with apoptotic markers occurs in multicellular as well as in unicellular fungi and is essential for proper fungal development and stress adaptation. The discrepancy between appearance of an apoptotic-like regulated cell death (RCD) in the absence of core apoptotic machinery is further complicated by the fact that heterologous expression of animal apoptotic genes in fungi affects fungal RCD. Here we describe the role of BcMcl, a methyl isocitrate lyase from the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea, in succinate me...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - November 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Oren-Young L, Llorens E, Bi K, Zhang M, Sharon A Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

FgPsd2, a phosphatidylserine decarboxylase of Fusarium graminearum, regulates development and virulence.
In this study, we have characterized two yeast Psd orthologues: FgPsd1 and FgPsd2, in Fusarium graminearum. Our results indicate that FgPsd1 and FgPsd2 are localized in mitochondria and Golgi, respectively. In addition, we have determined that FgPsd1 is a lethal gene and deletion of FgPsd2 resulted in a significant reduction of mycelial growth and conidiation. Futhermore, the FgPsd2 deletion mutant (ΔFgPsd2) is defective in ascospore production and virulence in wheat. Our study has also found that the ΔFgPsd2 mutant is more sensitive to osmotic and oxygen stresses. Moreover, deletion of FgPsd2 reduced the forma...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - November 8, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Tang L, Chi H, Li W, Zhang L, Zhang L, Chen L, Zou S, Liu H, Liang Y, Yu J, Dong H Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

The D-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway genes differentially regulate virulence and salinity response in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
This study is the first report revealing the versatile functions of D-galacturonic acid catabolic genes in S. sclerotiorum virulence, salinity response and cell wall integrity. PMID: 33137429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - October 30, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Wei W, Pierre-Pierre N, Peng H, Ellur V, Vandemark GJ, Chen W Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Development of a marker-free mutagenesis system using CRISPR-Cas9 in the pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus.
Abstract Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic fungal pathogen that is the cause of more than 300,000 life-threatening infections annually. Our understanding of pathogenesis and factors contributing to disease progression are limited. Development of rapid and versatile gene editing methodologies for A. fumigatus is essential. CRISPR-Cas9 mediated transformation has been widely used as a novel genome editing tool and has been used for a variety of editing techniques, such as protein tagging, gene deletions and site-directed mutagenesis in A. fumigatus. However, successful genome editing relies on time consuming, m...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - October 26, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: van Rhijn N, Furukawa T, Zhao C, McCann BL, Bignell E, Bromley MJ Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Genetic Map and Heritability of Aspergillus flavus.
Abstract The carcinogenic aflatoxins are a human health concern as well as an economic burden to corn, peanut and other crops grown within the United States and globally. Aflatoxins are produced by fungi species in Aspergillus section Flavi, primarily Aspergillus flavus. Though previously thought of as only asexual, A. flavus has recently been found to undergo sexual reproduction both in laboratory crosses and in the field. To elucidate the consequences of genetic exchange through a single generation of the sexual cycle within A. flavus, we constructed genetic maps based on three mapping populations, each composed...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - October 12, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Gell RM, Horn BW, Carbone I Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Fungi, fungicide discovery and global food security.
Abstract Securing sufficient food for a growing world population is of paramount importance for social stability and the well-being of mankind. Recently, it has become evident that fungal pathogens pose the greatest biotic challenge to our calorie crops. Moreover, the loss of commodity crops to fungal disease destabilises the economies of developing nations, thereby increasing the dimension of the threat. Our best weapon to control these pathogens is fungicides, but increasing resistance puts us in an arms race against them. New anti-fungal compounds need to be discovered, such as mono-alky lipophilic cations (MAL...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - October 11, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Steinberg G, Gurr SJ Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

In the fungus where it happens: history and future propelling Aspergillus nidulans as the archetype of natural products research.
Abstract In 1990 the first fungal secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene was cloned in Aspergillus nidulans. Thirty years later,>30 biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) have been linked to specific natural products in this one fungal species. While impressive, over half of the BGCs in A. nidulans remain uncharacterized and their compounds structurally and functionally unknown. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of past advances that have enabled A. nidulans to rise to its current status as a natural product powerhouse focusing on the discovery and annotation of secondary metabolite clusters. From genome seque...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - October 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Caesar LK, Kelleher NL, Keller NP Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Parallel evolution of multiple mechanisms for demethylase inhibitor fungicide resistance in the barley pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. sp. maculata.
Abstract The fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. sp. maculata (Ptm), responsible for spot-form of net blotch (SFNB), is currently the most significant disease of barley in Australia and a major disease worldwide. Management of SFNB relies heavily on fungicides and in Australia the demethylase inhibitors (DMIs) predominate. There have been sporadic reports of resistance to DMIs in Ptm but the mechanisms remain obscure. Ptm isolates collected from 1996 to 2019 in Western Australia were tested for fungicide sensitivity levels. Decreased sensitivity to DMIs was observed in isolates collected after 2015. Resistance fa...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - October 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Mair WJ, Thomas GJ, Dodhia K, Hills AL, Jayasena KW, Ellwood SR, Oliver RP, Lopez-Ruiz FJ Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

A SET domain-containing protein involved in cell wall integrity signaling and peroxisome biogenesis is essential for appressorium formation and pathogenicity of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.
Abstract The chromatin modulator Set5 plays important regulatory roles in both cell growth and stress responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, its function in filamentous fungi remains poorly understood. Here, we report the pathogenicity-related gene CgSET5 discovered in a T-DNA insertional mutant M285 of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that CgSET5 encodes a SET domain-containing protein that is a homolog of the budding yeast S. cerevisiae Set5. CgSET5 is important for hyphae growth and conidiation and is necessary for appressorium formation and pathogenicity. CgSet5 regulate...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 28, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Zhao X, Tang B, Xu J, Wang N, Zhou Z, Zhang J Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

The Sur7/PalI family transmembrane protein Tos7 (Yol019w) plays a role in secretion in budding yeast.
Abstract Tos7 (Yol019w) is a Sur7/PalI family transmembrane protein in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since the deletion of TOS7 did not affect growth or cell morphology, the cellular roles of Tos7 have not been established previously. Here, we show that high-copy TOS7 expression suppressed the growth defect of the secretion-defective RGA1-C term-overexpressing mutant and sec15-1 mutant. Moreover, Tos7 physically interacted with Boi2 and the Rho GTPase Rho3, two key regulators of exocyst assembly, suggesting that Tos7 plays a role in secretion. We also show that the deletion of TOS7 rendered the cells...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 27, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Zhu J, Jia ZW, Xia CY, Gao XD Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

F-box only and CUE proteins are crucial ubiquitination-associated components for conidiation and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae.
This study will provide not only comprehensive understanding of the role of ubiquitination but also new insights on crosstalk between ubiquitination and SUMOylation in rice blast fungus and other fungal pathogens. PMID: 32991996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 25, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Lim YJ, Lee YH Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Oral-fecal Mycobiome in Wild and Captive Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis).
In conclusion, the results of gut mycobiome analysis in Thai Cynomolgus macaques provide us with the basic information of oral and fecal fungi and for monitoring macaques' health status for animal care of research use. PMID: 32980453 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Sawaswong V, Chanchaem P, Khamwut A, Praianantathavorn K, Kemthong T, Malaivijitnond S, Payungporn S Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Nup84 persists within the nuclear envelope of the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, during mitosis.
Abstract The arrangement of the nuclear envelope in the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, was previously undetermined. Here, we identified two conserved components of the nuclear envelope, a core nucleoporin, Nup84, and an inner nuclear membrane protein, Src1. Live-cell super-resolution structured illumination microscopy revealed that Nup84-tdTomato and Src1-EGFP colocalized within the nuclear envelope during interphase and that Nup84-tdTomato remained associated with the dividing nucleus. We also found that appressorium development involved a mitotic nuclear migration event through the germ tube. PMID: ...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 23, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Pfeifer MA, Hyun Khang C Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Live-cell imaging of rapid calcium dynamics using fluorescent, genetically-encoded GCaMP probes with Aspergillus fumigatus.
ad ND Abstract Calcium signalling plays a fundamental role in fungal intracellular signalling. Previous approaches (fluorescent dyes, bioluminescent aequorin, genetically encoded cameleon probes) with imaging rapid subcellular changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]c) in fungal cells have produced inconsistent results. Recent data obtained with new fluorescent, genetically encoded GCaMP probes, that are very bright, have resolved this problem. Here, exposing conidia or conidial germlings to high external Ca2+, as an example of an external stressor, induced very dramatic, rapid and dynamic [Ca2+]c changes with lo...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 22, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Muñoz A, Bertuzzi M, Seidel C, Thomson D, Bignell EM, Read ND Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Characterization of microRNA-like RNAs associated with sclerotial development in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.
This study will facilitate the better understanding of the milRNA regulation associated with sclerotial development in S. sclerotiorum and even other sclerotium-forming fungi. This work will provide novel insights into the molecular regulations of fungal morphogenesis and the candidate targets of milRNAs used for the sustainable management of plant diseases caused by S. sclerotiorum. PMID: 32971275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 20, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Xia Z, Wang Z, Kav NNV, Ding C, Liang Y Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Pseudoflowers produced by Fusarium xyrophilum on yellow-eyed grass (Xyris spp.) in Guyana: a novel floral mimicry system?
Abstract Pseudoflower formation is arguably the rarest outcome of a plant-fungus interaction. Here we report on a novel putative floral mimicry system in which the pseudoflowers are composed entirely of fungal tissues in contrast to modified leaves documented in previous mimicry systems. Pseudoflowers on two perennial Xyris species (yellow-eyed grass, X. setigera and X. surinamensis) collected from savannas in Guyana were produced by Fusarium xyrophilum, a novel Fusarium species. These pseudoflowers mimic Xyris flowers in gross morphology and are ultraviolet reflective. Axenic cultures of F. xyrophilum produced tw...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Laraba I, McCormick SP, Vaughan MM, Proctor RH, Busman M, Appell M, O'Donnell K, Felker FC, Catherine Aime M, Wurdack KJ Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

The pheromone response module, a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway implicated in the regulation of fungal development, secondary metabolism and pathogenicity.
ml; Abstract Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are highly conserved from yeast to human and are required for the regulation of a multitude of biological processes in eukaryotes. A pentameric MAPK pathway known as the Fus3 pheromone module was initially characterised in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was shown to regulate cell fusion and sexual development. Individual orthologous pheromone module genes have since been found to be highly conserved in fungal genomes and have been shown to regulate a diverse array of cellular responses, such as cell growth, asexual and sexual development, secondary metabo...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Frawley D, Bayram Ö Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

The msh1 gene is responsible for short life span mutant natural death and functions to maintain mitochondrial DNA integrity.
Abstract Wild-type filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa continues to grow its hyphae for a very lengthy period of time (>2 years), whereas mutations at the natural death (nd) locus shorten life span (approximately 20 days). By positional cloning based on heat augmented mutagen sensitivity of the nd strain, we identified a nonsense mutation in the msh1 gene, an eukaryotic homolog of bacterial MutS, and this mutation resulted in encoding non-functional polypeptide. By tagging with GFP, subcellular localization of the MSH1 protein in the mitochondria was observed, and knock out of the msh1 gene caused severe growt...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 15, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Endo M, Yokoi T, Hatazawa S, Kojima Y, Takahama S, Yoshihara R, Tanaka S, Hatakeyama S Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

An intergenic "safe haven" region in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D genomes.
An intergenic "safe haven" region in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D genomes. Fungal Genet Biol. 2020 Sep 15;:103464 Authors: Fan Y, Lin X Abstract Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic human fungal pathogen and serves as a model organism for studies of eukaryotic microbiology and microbial pathogenesis. C. neoformans species complex is classified into serotype A, serotype D, and AD hybrids, which are currently considered different subspecies. Different serotype strains display varied phenotypes, virulence, and gene regulation. Genetic investigation of important pathways is often pe...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 14, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Fan Y, Lin X Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Insights into oleaginous phenotype of the yeast Papiliotrema laurentii.
ira W Abstract Oleaginous yeasts have stood out due to their ability to accumulate oil, which can be used for fatty acid-derived biofuel production. Papiliotrema laurentii UFV-1 is capable of starting the lipid accumulation in the late exponential growth phase and achieves maximum lipid content at 48 h of growth; it is, therefore, interesting to study how its oleaginous phenotype is regulated. Herein, we provide for the first time insights into the regulation of this phenotype in P. laurentii UFV-1. We sequenced and assembled its genome, performed comparative genomic analyses and investigated its phylogenetic rela...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 6, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Moreira Vieira N, Zandonade Ventorim R, Alexander de Moura Ferreira M, Barcelos de Souza G, Luís Menezes de Almeida E, Marcus Pereira Vidigal P, Nunes Nesi A, Gomes Fietto L, Batista da Silveira W Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

System-wide characterization of subtilases reveals that subtilisin-like protease FgPrb1 of Fusarium graminearum regulates fungal development and virulence.
Abstract Subtilases represent the second largest subfamily of serine proteases, and are important for various biological processes. However, the biological function of subtilases has not been systematically characterized in plant pathogens. In present study, 32 subtilases were identified in the genome of wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum, a devastating cereal plant pathogen. Deletion mutants of each subtilase were obtained and functionally characterized. Among them, the deletion of FgPrb1 resulted in greatly reduced virulence of F. graminearum. The regulatory mechanisms of FgPrb1 in virulence were investigate...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - September 1, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Xu L, Wang H, Zhang C, Wang J, Chen A, Chen Y, Ma Z Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Optimal timing for Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transformation of Trichoderma reesei conidia revealed by live cell imaging.
Abstract Trichoderma reesei is the foremost fungal producer of enzymes for industrial processes. Here, we use fluorescent live cell imaging of germinating conidia to improve Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) efficiency. We define the timing of (a) morphological changes and (b) nuclear reorganisation during initial conidia germination. This reveals that conidia swell for 7h, during which nuclei undergo 2 non-synchronised mitotic divisions. Histones are recruited to the nucleus during the first 2h, suggesting that conidia enter S-phase immediately after activation. This correlates with a signi...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - August 27, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Kilaru S, Schuster M, Murray R, Steinberg G Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Host-specificity factors in plant pathogenic fungi.
Abstract Fortunately, no fungus can cause disease on all plant species, and although some plant-pathogenic fungi have quite a broad host range, most are highly limited in the range of plant species or even cultivars that they cause disease in. The mechanisms of host specificity have been extensively studied in many plant-pathogenic fungi, especially in fungal pathogens causing disease on economically important crops. Specifically, genes involved in host specificity have been identified during the last few decades. In this overview, we describe and discuss these host-specificity genes. These genes encode avirulence...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - August 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Li J, Cornelissen B, Rep M Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Penicillium oxalicum putative methyltransferase Mtr23B has similarities and differences with LaeA in regulating conidium development and glycoside hydrolase gene expression.
In this study, we reported the biological function of a LaeA-like methyltransferase, Penicillium oxalicum Mtr23B, which contains a methyltransf_23 domain and an S-adenosylmethionine binding domain, in controlling spore pigment formation and in the expression of secondary metabolic gene cluster and glycoside hydrolase genes. Additionally, we compared Mtr23B and LaeA, and determined their similarities and differences in terms of their roles in regulating the above biological processes. mtr23B had the highest transcriptional level among the 12 members of the methyltransf_23 family in P. oxalicum. The colony color of Δmt...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - August 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Zhang X, Li M, Zhu Y, Yang L, Li Y, Qu J, Wang L, Zhao J, Qu Y, Qin Y Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Mating-type locus rearrangements and shifts in thallism states in Citrus-associated Phyllosticta species.
This study emphasizes the importance of studying Citrus-Phyllosticta interactions under evolutionary and genomic perspectives, as these approaches can provide valuable information about the association between Phyllosticta species and their hosts, and also serve as guidance for the improvement of disease management practices. PMID: 32822858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology)
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - August 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Alexia Lourenço Petters-Vandresen D, Janoski Rossi B, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW, Antonio Machado M, Stukenbrock EH, Glienke C Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

Characterization of a heme-protein responsive to hypoxia in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.
In this study, we predicted the structure of fungoglobin and determined its level of expression during hypoxic-mimetic conditions. Genomic screening revealed that the fungoglobin gene is conserved in all species of the Paracoccidioides genus. Molecular modeling showed biochemical and biophysical characteristics that support the hypothesis that FglA binds to the heme group and oxygen as well. The fungoglobin transcript and proteins are expressed at higher levels at the early treatment time, remaining elevated while oxygen is limited. A P. brasiliensis fglA knockdown strain depicted reduced growth in hypoxia indicating that ...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - August 17, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Nojosa Oliveira L, Aguiar Gonçales R, Garcia Silva M, Melo Lima R, Vieira Tomazett M, Santana de Curcio J, Domiraci Paccez J, Rafaela Milhomem Cruz-Leite V, Rodrigues F, de Sousa Lima P, Pereira M, Maria de Almeida Soares C Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research

The type II phosphoinositide 4-kinase FgLsb6 is important for the development and virulence of Fusarium graminearum.
In this study, we characterized the type II PI4K protein FgLsb6 in F. graminearum, a homolog of Lsb6 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unlike Lsb6, FgLsb6 localizes to the vacuoles and endosomes. The ΔFglsb6 mutant displayed defects in vegetative growth, deoxynivalenol (DON) production and pathogenicity. Furthermore, the ΔFglsb6 deletion mutant also exhibited increased resistance to osmotic, oxidative and cell wall stresses. Further analyses of the ΔFglsb6 mutant showed that it was defective in the generation of PI4P on endosomes and endocytosis. Collectively, our data suggest that the decreased vegetative gro...
Source: Fungal Genetics and Biology - August 11, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: Chen L, Zhang L, Mei X, Wang C, Guo Z, Li L, Li B, Liang Y, Zou S, Dong H Tags: Fungal Genet Biol Source Type: research