Ennio De Renzi (1924-2014). A loving remembrance.
Authors: Boller F PMID: 25803311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - March 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The urgent need for a systems biology approach to neurology.
Authors: D'Angelo E PMID: 25764251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions.
Authors: Torricelli A, Contini D, Dalla Mora A, Pifferi A, Re R, Zucchelli L, Caffini M, Farina A, Spinelli L Abstract The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an ...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Neuroimaging-based methods for autism identification: a possible translational application?
Authors: Retico A, Tosetti M, Muratori F, Calderoni S Abstract Classification methods based on machine learning (ML) techniques are becoming widespread analysis tools in neuroimaging studies. They have the potential to enhance the diagnostic power of brain data, by assigning a predictive index, either of pathology or of treatment response, to the single subject's acquisition. ML techniques are currently finding numerous applications in psychiatric illness, in addition to the widely studied neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we give a comprehensive account of the use of classification techniques applied to s...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Magnetoencephalography in the study of brain dynamics.
Authors: Pizzella V, Marzetti L, Della Penna S, De Pasquale F, Zappasodi F, Romani GL Abstract To progress toward understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional organization of the human brain, either a bottom-up or a top-down approach may be adopted. The former starts from the study of the detailed functioning of a small number of neuronal assemblies, while the latter tries to decode brain functioning by considering the brain as a whole. This review discusses the top-down approach and the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to describe global brain properties. The main idea behind this approach is that ...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Assessing and restoring cognitive functions early after stroke.
Authors: Zucchella C, Capone A, Codella V, Vecchione C, Buccino G, Sandrini G, Pierelli F, Bartolo M Abstract Cognitive impairment is a frequent complication of stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training performed early after stroke. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to either the study group (SG) or the control group (CG). Cognitive rehabilitation consisted of 16 individual one-hour sessions in which patients performed therapist- guided computer exercises. The patients in the CG performed a sham intervention. After four weeks all the patients were re-evaluated. I...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Excitability of spinal neural function during motor imagery in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Suzuki T, Bunno Y, Onigata C, Tani M, Uragami S, Yoshida S Abstract the median nerve at the wrist in subjects during two motor imagery conditions: holding and not holding the sensor of a pinch meter between the thumb and index finger. Our aim was to determine whether mental simulation without the muscle contraction associated with motion can increase the excitability of spinal neural function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). F-waves of the left thenar muscles were examined in 10 patients with PD under resting, holding and motor imagery conditions. For the holding condition, the subjects held the ...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and Thomsen's myotonia: a report of two cases.
Authors: Ashtari F, Bahreini SA, Zahednasab H Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which an abnormal immune system response results in damage to the myelin sheaths surrounding nerves. The etiology of MS remains elusive, although it has been suggested to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Here, we report two exceptional cases of patients affected by both MS and Thomsen's myotonia. Electromyography and MRI scans confirmed the presence of both diseases in the referred cases. Although the mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of MS a...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effect of cranioplasty on functional and neuro - psychological recovery after severe acquired brain injury: fact or fake? Considerations on a single case.
We describe the pre- and post-operative neuropsychological and functional evaluation of a 30-year-old male patient who underwent cranioplasty following previous craniectomy for a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery. PMID: 25764258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-Hu antibodies and benign ganglioneuroma.
We describe a case of cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-Hu antibodies and benign ganglioneuroma. A 28-year-old woman developed progressive ataxia with hyporeflexia at the age of 19. Brain MRI showed progressive cerebellar atrophy. Neurophysiological studies, screening of immune-mediated ataxias, oncological markers, vitamin E and genetic tests for spinocerebellar ataxia types 1,2,3, Friedreich ataxia and POLG1 were negative. Anti-Hu antibodies were positive in Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (1:640). Total-body computed tomography revealed a mediastinum mass; the histological diagnosis was maturing gangli...
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Takotsubo syndrome: consequence or cause of ischemic stroke.
Authors: Finsterer J, Aliyev R PMID: 25764260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Authors' reply to Finsterer and Aliyev.
Authors: Bersano A, Bassetti C PMID: 25764261 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - March 13, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Dual task-related gait changes in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
Authors: Nascimbeni A, Caruso S, Salatino A, Carenza M, Rigano M, Raviolo A, Ricci R Abstract Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) entails a high risk of developing Alzheimer's dementia. In MCI patients gait impairment, which increases the risk of falls and institutionalization, is an early motor sign. A dualtask (DT) paradigm might improve the observation of this phenomenon. The aim of this study was to investigate motor-cognitive interference in a sample of MCI patients and a group of matched healthy controls submitted to DT conditions. To this end, three different cognitive tasks were used: counting backwards, short ...
Source: Functional Neurology - February 6, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-Hu antibodies and benign ganglioneuroma.
We describe a case of cerebellar ataxia associated with anti-Hu antibodies and benign ganglioneuroma. A 28-year-old woman developed progressive ataxia with hyporeflexia at the age of 19. Brain MRI showed progressive cerebellar atrophy. Neurophysiological studies, screening of immune-mediated ataxias, oncological markers, vitamin E and genetic tests for spinocerebellar ataxia types 1,2,3, Friedreich ataxia and POLG1 were negative. Anti-Hu antibodies were positive in Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (1:640). Total-body computed tomography revealed a mediastinum mass; the histological diagnosis was maturing gangli...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Magnetoencephalography in the study of brain dynamics.
Authors: Pizzella V, Marzetti L, Della Penna S, De Pasquale F, Zappasodi F, Romani GL Abstract To progress toward understanding of the mechanisms underlying the functional organization of the human brain, either a bottom-up or a top-down approach may be adopted. The former starts from the study of the detailed functioning of a small number of neuronal assemblies, while the latter tries to decode brain functioning by considering the brain as a whole. This review discusses the top-down approach and the use of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to describe global brain properties. The main idea behind this approach is that ...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions.
Authors: Torricelli A, Contini D, Dalla Mora A, Pifferi A, Re R, Zucchelli L, Caffini M, Farina A, Spinelli L Abstract The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an ...
Source: Functional Neurology - January 25, 2015 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Excitability of spinal neural function during motor imagery in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Suzuki T, Bunno Y, Onigata C, Tani M, Uragami S, Yoshida S Abstract the median nerve at the wrist in subjects during two motor imagery conditions: holding and not holding the sensor of a pinch meter between the thumb and index finger. Our aim was to determine whether mental simulation without the muscle contraction associated with motion can increase the excitability of spinal neural function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). F-waves of the left thenar muscles were examined in 10 patients with PD under resting, holding and motor imagery conditions. For the holding condition, the subjects held the ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Takotsubo syndrome: consequence or cause of ischemic stroke.
Authors: Finsterer J, Aliyev R PMID: 25529301 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Authors' reply to Finsterer and Aliyev.
Authors: Bersano A, Bassetti C PMID: 25529302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 23, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Influence of intensive multifunctional neuro - rehabilitation on neuronal oxidative damage in patients with Huntington's disease.
Authors: Ciancarelli I, De Amicis D, Di Massimo C, Sandrini G, Carolei A, Ciancarelli MG Abstract The influence of intensive multifunctional neurorehabilitation on serum levels of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as markers of oxidative damage, was evaluated in symptomatic patients with Huntington's disease (HD). Improved clinical outcome measures were observed after neurorehabilitation. Baseline levels of Cu/Zn-SOD, NSE and 8-OHdG were higher than those observed in controls. Cu/Zn-SOD and NSE values decreased after neurorehabilitation, ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Assessing and restoring cognitive functions early after stroke.
Authors: Zucchella C, Capone A, Codella V, Vecchione C, Buccino G, Sandrini G, Pierelli F, Bartolo M Abstract Cognitive impairment is a frequent complication of stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive training performed early after stroke. Ninety-two patients were randomly assigned to either the study group (SG) or the control group (CG). Cognitive rehabilitation consisted of 16 individual one-hour sessions in which patients performed therapist- guided computer exercises. The patients in the CG performed a sham intervention. After four weeks all the patients were re-evaluated. I...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Effect of cranioplasty on functional and neuro - psychological recovery after severe acquired brain injury: fact or fake? Considerations on a single case.
We describe the pre- and post-operative neuropsychological and functional evaluation of a 30-year-old male patient who underwent cranioplasty following previous craniectomy for a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery. PMID: 25513715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 19, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Migraine in men: fact sheet. A publication to mark European Migraine Day of Action 2014.
Authors: Rossi P, Nappi G PMID: 25473733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Serious games for screening pre-dementia conditions: from virtuality to reality? A pilot project.
Authors: Zucchella C, Sinforiani E, Tassorelli C, Cavallini E, Tost-Pardell D, Grau S, Pazzi S, Puricelli S, Bernini S, Bottiroli S, Vecchi T, Sandrini G, Nappi G Abstract Conventional cognitive assessment is based on a pencil-and-paper neuropsychological evaluation, which is time consuming, expensive and requires the involvement of several professionals. Information and communication technology could be exploited to allow the development of tools that are easy to use, reduce the amount of data processing, and provide controllable test conditions. Serious games (SGs) have the potential to be new and effective tools...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

High prevalence of incomplete right bundle branch block in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy without cardiac symptoms.
This study in cardiac asymptomatic FSHD patients shows i) increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy; ii) no progression of these abnormalities during eight years of follow-up. We conclude that FSHD patients without cardiac complaints do not need specific cardiac screening or surveillance. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of incomplete RBBB in the absence of cardiomyopathy suggests a selective involvement of the His-Purkinje system in FSHD. PMID: 25473735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Health-related quality of life after traumatic brain injury: Italian validation of the QOLIBRI.
We report the results of the Italian validation of the QOLIBRI. A total of 147 participants with TBI who had previously been discharged from the Santa Lucia Foundation rehabilitation hospital were recruited to investigate the concurrent validity of the Italian version of the QOLIBRI and to compare this instrument with several functional and cognitivebehavioral scales, taking into account various clinical parameters. The QOLIBRI met the standard criteria for internal consistency, homogeneity and test-retest reliability. The results suggest that it is very sensitive in relation to outcome as measured by the Extended Glasgow ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Motor conduction measurement in myelopathy hand.
Authors: Shibuya R, Wada E, Iwasaki M, Yonenobu K, Yoshikawa H Abstract We studied the relationship between intramedullary high signal intensity (IMHSI) on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and motor conduction in the spinal cords of cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) patients. There was no significant difference between the biceps or triceps central motor conduction times (CMCTs) of the patients who did and did not exhibit IMHSI, whereas the abductor pollicis brevis CMCT was significantly longer in the patients who exhibited IMHSI (p
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Hypoglossal-facial nerve anastomosis and rehabilitation in patients with complete facial palsy: cohort study of 30 patients followed up for three years.
Authors: Dalla Toffola E, Pavese C, Cecini M, Petrucci L, Ricotti S, Bejor M, Salimbeni G, Biglioli F, Klersy C Abstract Our study evaluates the grade and timing of recovery in 30 patients with complete facial paralysis (House-Brackmann grade VI) treated with hypoglossal-facial nerve (XII-VII) anastomosis and a long-term rehabilitation program, consisting of exercises in facial muscle activation mediated by tongue movement and synkinesis control with mirror feedback. Reinnervation after XII-VII anastomosis occurred in 29 patients, on average 5.4 months after surgery. Three years after the anastomosis, 23.3% of pati...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex enhances memory-guided responses in a visuospatial working memory task.
Authors: Giglia G, Brighina F, Rizzo S, Puma A, Indovino S, Maccora S, Baschi R, Cosentino G, Fierro B Abstract Several studies have shown that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is able to enhance performances on verbal and visual working memory (WM) tasks. Available evidence points to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) as a critical area in visual WM, but to date direct comparisons of the effects obtained by stimulating the left versus the right DLPFC in the same subject are lacking. Our aim was to determine whether tDCS over the right DLPFC can differently affect performance as compared...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing EMG examinations.
Authors: Mondelli M, Aretini A, Greco G Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge of electromyography (EMG) in patients undergoing the procedure. In one year, 1,586 consecutive patients (mean age 56 years; 58.8% women) were admitted to two EMG labs to undergo EMG for the first time. The patients found to be "informed" about the how an EMG examination is performed and about the purpose of EMG numbered 448 (28.2%), while those found to be "informed" only about the manner of its execution or only about its purpose numbered 161 (10.2%) and 151 (9.5%), respectively. The remaining 826 (...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Long-lasting coma.
In this report, we describe the case of a patient who has remained in a comatose state for more than one year after a traumatic and hypoxic brain injury. This state, which we refer to as long-lasting coma (LLC), may be a disorder of consciousness with significantly different features from those of conventional coma, the vegetative state, or brain death. On the basis of clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging data, we hypothesize that a multilevel involvement of the ascending reticular activating system is required in LLC. This description may be useful for the identification of other patients suffering from this seve...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Cortical spreading depression: origins and paths as inferred from the sequence of events during migraine aura.
We report five cases of migraineurs who experience unusually abundant clinical phenomena during auras. These patients were selected from a cohort of migraine with aura patients who were interviewed, using a specially designed questionnaire, to evaluate the presence of higher cortical dysfunctions. On the basis of the aura symptoms they reported, we attempted to infer the origin and the possible paths of CSD in each patient. According to their reported symptoms, CSD could begin in the primary visual cortex, in the primary somatosensory cortex or simultaneously in both, and propagate to the posterior parietal cortex, the tem...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Chronobiological correlates of headache: three decades on.
Authors: Viana M, Nappi G Abstract In 1983 an international symposium entitled "Chronobiological Correlates of Headache" was held in Capri. This meeting provided an opportunity to debate new and stimulating aspects of headache, in particular the temporal pattern of headache and the periodicity of the underlying biological and environmental phenomena. Giuseppe Nappi presented his dyschronic hypothesis of primary headaches, which was based on the observation that these conditions involve not only a dysfunction in pain control systems, but also a vulnerability of the rhythmic physiological organization of th...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Co-occurrence of multiple sclerosis and Thomsen's myotonia: a report of two cases.
Authors: Ashtari F, Bahreiniv SA, Zahednasab H Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which an abnormal immune system response results in damage to the myelin sheaths surrounding nerves. The etiology of MS remains elusive, although it has been suggested to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Here, we report two exceptional cases of patients affected by both MS and Thomsen's myotonia. Electromyography and MRI scans confirmed the presence of both diseases in the referred cases. Although the mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of MS ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 5, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Survey of practices employed by neurologists for the definition and management of secondary non-response to botulinum toxin in cervical dystonia.
Authors: Ferreira JJ, Bhidayasiri R, Colosimo C, Marti MJ, Zakine B, Maisonobe P Abstract Secondary non-response (SNR) to botulinum toxin (BoNT) in cervical dystonia (CD) lacks a universal definition. We conducted a retrospective survey to develop a definition based on clinicians' practice. Fifty-seven neurologists completed a 17-item questionnaire. In defining SNR, insufficiently improved posture was considered to be more relevant (98% of physicians) than insufficiently improved pain (86%). The most frequently used diagnostic test for SNR was the frontalis test (68%); antibody testing was performed by only 13% of ...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal and kinematic aspects of obstacle avoidance in subjects with Down syndrome.
Authors: Vimercati SL, Galli M, Rigoldi C, Ancillao A, Albertini G Abstract Obstacle avoidance studies have been extensively performed in normally developed subjects (N), but little work has been done on the characterization of this task in subjects with Down syndrome (DS). The aim of this study was to describe the management of walking with obstacle avoidance in adults with DS and in age-matched N subjects, considering both the lower and upper limbs. Ten subjects with DS and 16 N subjects were evaluated. The subjects walked along a walkway in two conditions: level, unobstructed walking and walking with an obstacle...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

White matter integrity assessed by diffusion tensor tractography in a patient with a large tumor mass but minimal clinical and neuropsychological deficits.
Authors: Bozzali M, MacPherson SE, Cercignani M, Crum WR, Shallice T, Rees JH Abstract Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography and image registration were used to investigate a patient with a massive left-sided brain tumor, whose size was largely disproportionate to his subtle neurological deficits. MRI was obtained from the patient and his healthy identical twin, who acted as anatomical reference for DTI and as a control for quantitative measures. To compensate for the patient's altered anatomy, seed and way points for probabilistic tractography were drawn on the color-coded direction maps of the healthy twin....
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Considerations on a mutation in the NOTCH3 gene sparing a cysteine residue: a rare polymorphism rather than a CADASIL variant.
We describe a 49-year-old woman with a CADASIL-like phenotype, carrying a novel cysteine-sparing mutation in exon 29 of the NOTCH3 gene, and discuss the possible pathogenetic role of this molecular variant. Even though atypical clinical and MRI findings make a diagnosis of CADASIL unlikely in this patient, our report nevertheless underlines the intriguing genotype-phenotype relationship in NOTCH3 mutations and the importance of functional investigation to ascertain the role of new NOTCH3 mutations in CADASIL pathogenesis. PMID: 23597439 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

New trends in pain research: from basic research to clinical translation.
Authors: Berliocchi L, Maiarù M, Scuteri D, Corasaniti MT, Bagetta G PMID: 23597440 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

From bench to bedside: the importance for neurodegenerative disorders of crosstalk between basic and clinical research.
Authors: Blandini F PMID: 23731909 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The effectiveness of habit reversal therapy in the treatment of Tourette syndrome and other chronic tic disorders: a systematic review.
Authors: Dutta N, Cavanna AE Abstract Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple tics, which can require active intervention. It is recognized that behavioral techniques, especially habit reversal therapy (HRT), can offer an effective alternative or complement to pharmacotherapy in this setting. We conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the efficacy of HRT in TS and other chronic tic disorders (CTDs). Our search was restricted to randomized controlled trials that used standardized diagnostic and outcome measures to compare the efficacy of HRT against a control tr...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

The effect of dopamine agonists on cognitive functions in non-demented early-mild Parkinson's disease patients.
Authors: Brusa L, Pavino V, Massimetti MC, Bove R, Iani C, Stanzione P Abstract The effect of dopamine agonists (DAs) on cognition in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not yet completely established. Previous papers reported a worsening effect on some cognitive functions with some DAs, but not with others, suggesting that DAs may differently affect cognition in PD patients according to their pharmacological characteristics. We set out to test the effect of rotigotine and cabergoline on cognitive functions in a group of forty non-demented early-mild PD patients (H &Y
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents with Down syndrome.
This study is the first to use the high-resolution MRI VBM method to describe a whole-brain pattern of abnormalities in young DS patients falling within such a narrow age range and it provides new information on the neuroanatomically specific regional changes that occur during development in these patients. PMID: 23731912 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Evaluation of autonomies in the severely brain injured: the Progression of Autonomies Scale.
Authors: Arcuri F, Lucca LF, Rosadini V, Mercurio G, Mazzucchi A Abstract The aim of this study was to validate the Progression of Autonomies Scale (PAS) for the evaluation of autonomies in severe acquired brain injury patients. The PAS design is based on a model of progressive recovery of autonomies and is organized in three domains (Personal, Domestic and Extra-domestic). Scores assigned range from zero to three. The PAS items gather information about the patient's perception and awareness of his/her disability(ies) on admission and perception of his/her improvement at the end of a rehabilitation process. The PAS...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Comparison of active standing test, head-up tilt test and 24-h ambulatory heart rate and blood pressure monitoring in diagnosing postural tachycardia.
Authors: Kirbiš M, Grad A, Meglič B, Bajrović FF Abstract Protocols for the assessment of postural tachycardia differ in both type of orthostatic challenge and test duration. We therefore compared heart rate (HR) and blood pressure responses during an active standing test (AST) and a head-up tilt test (HUT) in 34 patients with orthostatic intolerance and 31 asymptomatic subjects. A subset also performed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). HR responses were similar between AST and HUT both in asymptomatic and in orthostatic intolerant subjects. Specificity of HR increase ≥30 bpm for orthost...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Sleep in ring chromosome 20 syndrome: a peculiar electroencephalographic pattern.
Authors: Zambrelli E, Vignoli A, Nobili L, Didato G, Mastrangelo M, Turner K, Canevini MP Abstract Ring chromosome 20 [r(20)] syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized by epilepsy and intellectual disability. Distinctive electroclinical features and wakefulness EEG patterns have been described. The EEG features of sleep have not yet been evaluated. We studied the pattern of sleep in six patients aged 2-59 years who underwent at least one polysomnographic recording. Their sleep pattern evolution is described as deterioration ranging from normal to destructured NREM/REM sleep. NREM sleep alterations were obser...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Atypical language lateralization: an fMRI study in patients with cerebral lesions.
Authors: Fakhri M, Oghabian MA, Vedaei F, Zandieh A, Masoom N, Sharifi G, Ghodsi M, Firouznia K Abstract Differences in the lateralization of language processes between healthy subjects and patients with neurological complaints other than epilepsy have been less documented than those between healthy subjects and epilepsy patients. Moreover, the contribution of factors such as the location and type of lesion in determining interhemispheric shift of language function is poorly understood. Sixty-seven patients who underwent presurgical evaluations at the Medical Imaging Center of the Imam Khomeini University Hospital,...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Two cases of cluster headache effectively treated with levetiracetam.
Authors: Palermo A, Giglia G, Cosentino G, Raieli V, Brighina F, Fierro B PMID: 23731917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Imaging multiple sclerosis outside the brain.
Authors: Miller DH PMID: 24125555 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Functional Neurology)
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research

Differences between conventional and nonconventional MRI techniques in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Baglieri A, Marino MA, Morabito R, Di Lorenzo G, Bramanti P, Marino S Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides an in vivo assessment of cortical and subcortical regions affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). This review summarizes the most important conventional and non-conventional MRI techniques applied in this field. Standard neuroimaging techniques have played a marginal role in the diagnosis and follow-up of PD, essentially being used only to discriminate atypical syndromes from PD, to exclude secondary causes such as vascular lesions, and to confirm the absence of specific imaging features f...
Source: Functional Neurology - December 2, 2014 Category: Neurology Tags: Funct Neurol Source Type: research