Positive stool culture could predict the clinical outcomes of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
AbstractWe aimed to identify the effect of positive stool cultures (PSCs) on the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) (n = 332). PSCs were observed in 61 patients (PSC group, 18.4%). Enterobacteriaceae in stool specimens was associated with a higher risk of bloodstream infection, andCandida in stool specimens was related to a higher risk of platelet engraftment failure. The cumulative incidence of infection-related mortality 1 year after haplo-HSCT in the PSC group was higher than that of the patients who showed persistently negative stool cultures (NS...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 4, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Autoimmunity in acute ischemic stroke and the role of blood-brain barrier: the dark side or the light one?
This article presents a synopsis of the current data on the mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) alteration and autoimmune response in acute ischemic stroke. Most researchers confirm the relationship between the severity of immunobiochemical changes and clinical outcome of acute ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke is accompanied by aseptic inflammation, which alters the brain tissue and exposes the co-stimulatory molecules of the immune system and the neuronal antigens. To date, BBB is not considered the border between the immune system and central nervous system, and the local immune subsystems are found within and behind...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 30, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

New incompatible pair of TCM: Epimedii Folium combined with Psoraleae Fructus induces idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity under immunological stress conditions
AbstractEpimedii Folium (EF) combined with Psoraleae Fructus (PF) is a common modern preparation, but liver injury caused by Chinese patent medicine preparations containing EF and PF has been frequently reported in recent years. Zhuangguguanjiewan pills (ZGW), which contain EF and PF, could induce immune idiosyncratic liver injury according to clinical case reports and a nonhepatotoxic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model. This present study evaluated the liver injury induced by EF or PF alone or in combination and investigated the related mechanism by using the LPS model. Liver function indexes and pathological results ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

PD-1/PD-L1 blockade in cervical cancer: current studies and perspectives
AbstractCervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most commonly diagnosed female malignancy and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, especially in developing countries. Despite the use of advanced screening and preventive vaccines, more than half of all CC cases are diagnosed at advanced stages, when therapeutic options are extremely limited and side effects are severe. Given these circumstances, new and effective treatments are needed. In recent years, exciting progress has been made in immunotherapies, including the rapid development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Checkpoint blockades targeting the PD-1/PD-L...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 2, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Prospects of immunotherapy for cancer
(Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 2, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Urotensin II receptor antagonist reduces hepatic resistance and portal pressure through enhanced eNOS-dependent HSC vasodilatation in CCl 4 -induced cirrhotic rats
AbstractIncreased serum urotensin II (UII) levels in human cirrhotic populations have been recently shown, but the long-term effects of UII receptor antagonist on the cirrhosis have not been investigated. To investigate the therapeutic effects of urotensin II receptor (UT) antagonist palosuran on rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhosis, the hepatic and systemic hemodynamics, liver fibrosis, the metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13)/ tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) ratio, hepatic Rho-kinase activity, and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity are measured in CCl4-cirrhotic rats treate...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Anti- β 2 GPI/β 2 GPI complexes induce platelet activation and promote thrombosis via p38MAPK: a pathway to targeted therapies
In conclusion, p38MAPK may be a treatment target for anti- β2GPI antibody-associated thrombotic events. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Targeted therapy of desmoid-type fibromatosis: mechanism, current situation, and future prospects
AbstractDesmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is a rare monoclonal fibroblastic proliferation that is characterized by locally infiltrative but rarely metastatic lesions. Tyrosine kinase and γ-secretase inhibitors are primarily used in the targeted therapy of DF. The use of these drugs, however, is mainly based on the recommendations of retrospective studies with small sample sizes. Previous studies that focused on the mechanism, efficacy, and safety of targeted therapy for DF were rev iewed to provide references for clinical applications and research. The efficacy and safety of targeted therapy were compared with those of ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Immunotherapy-based combination strategies for treatment of gastrointestinal cancers: current status and future prospects
AbstractStrategies in comprehensive therapy for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer have been optimized in the last decades to improve patients ’ outcomes. However, treatment options remain limited for late-stage or refractory diseases. The efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for treatment of refractory GI cancer has been confirmed by randomized clinical trials. In 2017, pembrolizumab was approved by the US Food and Drug Admin istration as the first agent for treatment of metastatic solid tumors with mismatch repair deficiency, especially for colorectal cancer. Given the different mechanisms, oncologists have fo...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

High-affinity T cell receptors redirect cytokine-activated T cells (CAT) to kill cancer cells
AbstractCytokine-activated T cells (CATs) can be easily expanded and are widely applied to cancer immunotherapy. However, the good efficacy of CATs is rarely reported in clinical applications because CATs have no or very low antigen specificity. The low-efficacy problem can be resolved using T cell antigen receptor-engineered CAT (TCR-CAT). Herein, we demonstrate that NY-ESO-1157 –165 HLA-A*02:01-specific high-affinity TCR (HAT)-transduced CATs can specifically kill cancer cells with good efficacy. With low micromolar range dissociation equilibrium constants, HAT-transduced CATs showed good specificity with no off-ta...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 5, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Chimeric antigen receptor T cell targeting EGFRvIII for metastatic lung cancer therapy
In this study, CAR vectors were constructed and transfected into virus-packaging cells. Then, activated T cells were infected with retrovirus harvested from stable virus-producing single clone cell lines. CAR expression on the surfaces of the T cells was detected by flow cytometry andWestern blot. The function of CAR-T targeting EGFRvIII was then evaluated. The EGFRvIII-CAR vector was successfully constructed and confirmed by DNA sequencing. A stable virus-producing cell line was produced from a single clone by limited dilution. The culture conditions for the cell line, including cell density, temperature, and culture medi...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 5, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Presence of multiple abnormal immunologic markers is an independent prognostic factor of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma
This study aims to analyze the prognostic value of pretreatment immunologic markers in newly diagnosed patients with diffuse large B-cel l lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively reviewed the data on 502 patients with DLBCL treated in our institution from January 2013 to March 2018. Survival functions were estimated using Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression model. The 3-year progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 70.2% and 80.9%, respectively, and the complete remission (CR) rate was 78.1%. Among the patients, those with multiple ( ≥ 3) abnormal immunologic markers had significantly s...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 31, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Monitoring checkpoint inhibitors: predictive biomarkers in immunotherapy
AbstractImmunotherapy has become the fourth cancer therapy after surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. In particular, immune checkpoint inhibitors are proved to be unprecedentedly in increasing the overall survival rates of patients with refractory cancers, such as advanced melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, and renal cell carcinoma. However, inhibitor therapies are only effective in a small proportion of patients with problems, such as side effects and high costs. Therefore, doctors urgently need reliable predictive biomarkers for checkpoint inhibitor therapies to choose the optimal therapies. Here, we review the bi...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 24, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Minimal residual disease-directed immunotherapy for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
AbstractThe efficacy of minimal residual disease (MRD)-directed immunotherapy, including interferon- α (IFN- α) treatment and chemotherapy plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-primed donor leukocyte infusion (chemo-DLI), was investigated in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who were MRDpositive after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). High-r isk MDS patients who received non-T-cell-depleted allo-HSCT at the Peking University Institute of Hematology and were MRD-positive after allo-HSCT were studied (n = 47). The MRD-positive status was considered if leukem...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 24, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Growth suppression of colorectal cancer expressing S492R EGFR by monoclonal antibody CH12
AbstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor in the digestive tract, and 30% –85% of CRCs express epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Recently, treatments using cetuximab, also named C225, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, for CRC have been demonstrated to cause an S492R mutation in EGFR. However, little is known about the biological function of S492R EGFR. Therefor e, we attempted to elucidate its biological function in CRC cells and explore new treatment strategies for this mutant form. Our study indicated that EGFR and S492R EGFR accelerate the growth of CRC cellsin vitro andin vivo and monoc...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 22, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Screening responsive or resistant biomarkers of immune checkpoint inhibitors based on online databases
AbstractImmune checkpoint inhibitors are a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer, especially advanced types. However, not all patients are responsive to immune checkpoint inhibitors. The response rate depends on the immune microenvironment, tumor mutational burden (TMB), expression level of immune checkpoint proteins, and molecular subtypes of cancers. Along with the Cancer Genome Project, various open access databases, including The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus, provide large volumes of data, which allow researchers to explore responsive or resistant biomarkers of immune checkpoint inhibitors. I...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 18, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Adoptive cell transfer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractHepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. This malignancy is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality. Novel approaches for prolonging the overall survival of patients with advanced HCC are urgently needed. The antitumor activities of adoptive cell transfer therapy (ACT), such as strategies based on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and cytokine-induced killer cells, are more effective than those of traditional strategies. Currently, chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy has achieved numerous breakthroughs in the treatment of hematological malignancies, inclu...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 18, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Genetic and clinical markers for predicting treatment responsiveness in rheumatoid arthritis
AbstractAlthough many drugs and therapeutic strategies have been developed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, numerous patients with RA fail to respond to currently available agents. In this review, we provide an overview of the complexity of this autoimmune disease by showing the rapidly increasing number of genes associated with RA.We then systematically review various factors that have a predictive value (predictors) for the response to different drugs in RA treatment, especially recent advances. These predictors include but are certainly not limited to genetic variations, clinical factors, and demographic factors...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 12, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Homoharringtonine is a safe and effective substitute for anthracyclines in children younger than 2 years old with acute myeloid leukemia
AbstractHomoharringtonine (HHT), a plant alkaloid fromCephalotaxus harringtonia, exhibits a unique anticancer mechanism and has been widely used in China to treat patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) since the 1970s. Trial SCMC-AML-2009 presented herein was a randomized clinical study designed based on our previous findings that pediatric AML patients younger than two years old may benefit from HHT-containing chemotherapy regimens. Patients randomized to arm A were treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen comprising mainly of anthracyclines and cytarabine (Ara-C), whereas patients in arm B were treated with HHT-c...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 12, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical risk score for invasive fungal diseases in patients with hematological malignancies undergoing chemotherapy: China Assessment of Antifungal Therapy in Hematological Diseases (CAESAR) study
In conclusion, an objective, weighted risk score for IFD was developed, and it may be useful in guiding antifungal prophylaxis. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 2, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Immunoregulatory effects of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F and its extracts in clinical practice
AbstractTripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) and its extracts have long been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune diseases, and kidney disease due to their anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and other pharmacological effects. However, the clinical immunoregulatory effects of TwHF and its extracts remain unclear, so we reviewed their effects for use in clinical practice. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the recent literature on the immunoregulatory effects of TwHF and its extracts in clinical studies. TwHF and its extracts affect the proliferation and activation of Tand B cells; ratio ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 2, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

BRD4 interacts with PML/RAR α in acute promyelocytic leukemia
AbstractBromodomain-containing 4 (BRD4) has been considered as an important requirement for disease maintenance and an attractive therapeutic target for cancer therapy. This protein can be targeted by JQ1, a selective small-molecule inhibitor. However, few studies have investigated whether BRD4 influenced acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and whether BRD4 had interaction with promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor α (PML/RARα) fusion protein to some extent. Results from cell viability assay, cell cycle analysis, and Annexin-V/PI analysis indicated that JQ1 inhibited the growth of NB4 cells, an APL-deri...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Platelet membrane-based and tumor-associated platelettargeted drug delivery systems for cancer therapy
AbstractPlatelets have long been known to play critical roles in hemostasis by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries. Recent experimental evidence strongly indicates that platelets can also interact with tumor cells by direct binding or secreting cytokines. For example, platelets have been shown to protect circulating cancer cells in blood circulation and to promote tumor metastasis. In-depth understanding of the role of platelets in cancer progression and metastasis provides promising approaches for platelet biomimetic drug delivery systems and functional platelet-targeting strategies for effective cancer treatment....
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Long-term effects of various types of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors on changes in glomerular filtration rate in Korea
AbstractFew long-term follow-up studies have compared the changes in renal function according to the type of statin used in Korea. We compared the long-term effects of statin intensity and type on the changes in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We extracted data of patients who took statin for the first time. We analyzed whether or not different statins affect the changes in GFR at 3 months after baseline and 4 years after. We included 3678 patients and analyzed the changes in GFR. The GFR decreased by 3.2% ±0.4% on average 4 years after the first statin prescription, indicating statistically significant deteri...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Calorie restriction and its impact on gut microbial composition and global metabolism
AbstractCalorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients. It has long been recognized as a natural strategy for promoting health, extending longevity, and prevents the development of metabolic and age-related diseases. In the present review, we focus on the general effect of CR on gut microbiota composition and global metabolism. We also propose mechanisms for its beneficial effect. Results showed that probiotic and butyrate-producing microbes increased their relative abundance, whereas proinflammatory strains exhibited suppressed...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes is causally associated with depression: a Mendelian randomization analysis
AbstractType 2 diabetes (T2D) has been associated with a high prevalence of depression.We aimed to determine the causal relation by performing a Mendelian randomization (MR) study using 34 T2D risk genetic variants validated in East Asians as the instrumental variable (IV). An MR analysis was performed involving 11 506 participants from a large longitudinal study. The T2D genetic risk score (GRS) was built using the 34 typical T2D common variants. We used T2D_GRS as the IV estimator and performed inverse-variance weighted (IVW) and Egger MR analysis. The T2D_GRS was found to be associated with depression with an OR of 1.21...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Xiao Ke Qing improves glycometabolism and ameliorates insulin resistance by regulating the PI3K/Akt pathway in KKAy mice
This study aims to investigate XKQ mechanisms on diabetes and diabetic liver disease by using the KKAy mice model. Our results indicate that XKQ can significantly reduce food and water intake. XKQ treatment also remarkably decreases both the fasting blood glucose and blood glucose in the oral glucose tolerance test. Additionally, XKQ can significantly decrease the serum alanine aminotransferase level and liver index and can alleviate the fat degeneration in liver tissues. Moreover, XKQ can ameliorate insulin resistance and upregulate the expression of IRS-1, PI3K (p85), p-Akt, and GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle of KKAy mice....
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 13, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Resveratrol reduces intracellular reactive oxygen species levels by inducing autophagy through the AMPK-mTOR pathway
This study determined whether resveratrol can reduce the palmitic acid (PA)-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and further explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that resveratrol significantly reduced the PA-induced endothelial ROS levels in human aortic endothelial cells. Resveratrol also induced endothelial cell autophagy, which mediated the effect of resveratrol on ROS reduction. Resveratrol stimulated autophagy via the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mTOR pathway. Taken together, these data suggest that resveratrol prevents PA-induced intracellular ROS by autophagy regulation via th...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 13, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Interplay between diet and genetic susceptibility in obesity and related traits
AbstractThe incidence of obesity has been rapidly increasing, and this condition has become a major public health threat. A substantial shift in environmental factors and lifestyle, such as unhealthy diet, is among the major driving forces of the global obesity pandemic. Longitudinal studies and randomized intervention trials have shown that genetic susceptibility to obesity may interact with dietary factors in relation to the body mass index and risk of obesity. This review summarized data from recent longitudinal studies and intervention studies on variations and diets and discussed the challenges and future prospects re...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Analyzing the distinguishing factors that affect childhood obesity in South Korea
In conclusion, physical factors directly affecting childhood obesity and psychological and environmental factors surrounding a child should be considered. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Early-onset diabetes: an epidemic in China
AbstractAlthough type 2 diabetes is a disease often associated with aging, the global prevalence of early-onset diabetes has been increasing due to man ’s sedentary lifestyle, low-physical activity, obesity, and some non-modifiable risk factors. Many studies have found that individuals with early-onset type 2 diabetes were at higher risk of developing vascular complications than those with late-onset diabetes. Individuals with early-onset diabete s are usually unwilling to visit hospital and have more confidence in their health, which results in poor glycemic control and the delayed detection of diabetes-related comp...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Hybrid polymer biomaterials for bone tissue regeneration
AbstractNative tissues possess unparalleled physiochemical and biological functions, which can be attributed to their hybrid polymer composition and intrinsic bioactivity. However, there are also various concerns or limitations over the use of natural materials derived from animals or cadavers, including the potential immunogenicity, pathogen transmission, batch to batch consistence and mismatch in properties for various applications. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing degradable hybrid polymer biomaterials with controlled properties for highly efficient biomedical applications. There have been effort...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Bile acids and their effects on diabetes
AbstractDiabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, “metabolic memory,” a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia. Manipulation of bile acid (B...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemic obesity in children and adolescents: risk factors and prevention
AbstractThe prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents (aged 2 –18 years) has increased rapidly, with more than 100 million affected in 2015. Moreover, the epidemic of obesity in this population has been an important public health problem in developed and developing countries for the following reasons. Childhood and adolescent obesity tracks adulthood obesity and has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, childhood and adolescent obesity is linked to adulthood mortality and premature death. Although an imbalance between cal...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Histone variants: critical determinants in tumour heterogeneity
AbstractMalignant cell transformation could be considered as a series of cell reprogramming events driven by oncogenic transcription factors and upstream signalling pathways. Chromatin plasticity and dynamics are critical determinants in the control of cell reprograming. An increase in chromatin dynamics could therefore constitute an essential step in driving oncogenesis and in generating tumour cell heterogeneity, which is indispensable for the selection of aggressive properties, including the ability of cells to disseminate and acquire resistance to treatments. Histone supply and dosage, as well as histone variants, are ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemic obesity in children and adolescents: risk factors and prevention
AbstractThe prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents (aged 2 –18 years) has increased rapidly, with more than 100 million affected in 2015. Moreover, the epidemic of obesity in this population has been an important public health problem in developed and developing countries for the following reasons. Childhood and adolescent obesity tracks adulthood obesity and has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, childhood and adolescent obesity is linked to adulthood mortality and premature death. Although an imbalance between cal...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Histone variants: critical determinants in tumour heterogeneity
AbstractMalignant cell transformation could be considered as a series of cell reprogramming events driven by oncogenic transcription factors and upstream signalling pathways. Chromatin plasticity and dynamics are critical determinants in the control of cell reprograming. An increase in chromatin dynamics could therefore constitute an essential step in driving oncogenesis and in generating tumour cell heterogeneity, which is indispensable for the selection of aggressive properties, including the ability of cells to disseminate and acquire resistance to treatments. Histone supply and dosage, as well as histone variants, are ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Homoharringtonine synergy with oridonin in treatment of t(8; 21) acute myeloid leukemia
In conclusion, oridonin and HHTexert synergistic effects against t(8; 21) leukemiain vivo andin vitro, thereby indicating that their combination may be an effective therapy for t(8; 21) leukemia. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Changes in public trust in physicians: empirical evidence from China
This study investigated changes in public trust in physicians in China based on two cross-sectional national surveys conducted in 2011 and 2016 and identified the determinants of these changes. The results indicated 83.4% of respondents in 2011 reported trust or strong trust in physicians in China, which decreased to 64.2% by 2016. The results of ordinal logistic regression demonstrated that public trust in physicians in China had decreased significantly from 2011 to 2016 (P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Mechanistic and therapeutic advances in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by targeting the gut microbiota
AbstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common metabolic diseases currently in the context of obesity worldwide, which contains a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic carcinoma. In addition to the classical “Two-hit” theory, NAFLD has been recognized as a typical gut microbiota-related disease because of the intricate role of gut microbiota in maintaining human health and disease formation. Moreover, gut microbiota is even regarded as a “metabolic organ” that play complementary roles to that of liver i...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Four-year follow-up of patients with imatinib-resistant or intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia receiving dasatinib: efficacy and safety
This report from the 4-year follow-up revealed that 73% of 59 patients in chronic phase (CML-CP) and 32% of 25 patients in accelerated phase (CML-AP) remained under treatment. The initial dosage of dasatinib for CML-CP and CML-AP patients were 100 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily (total = 140 mg/ day), respectively. The cumulative major cytogenetic response (MCyR) rate among patients with CML-CP was 66.1% (versus 50.8% at 18 months), and the median time to MCyR was 12.7 weeks. All CML-CP patients who achieved MCyR after a 4-year follow-up also achieved a complete cytogenetic response. The cumulative complete hematologic...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Combination of biomaterial transplantation and genetic enhancement of intrinsic growth capacities to promote CNS axon regeneration after spinal cord injury
AbstractThe inhibitory environment that surrounds the lesion site and the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) impede the regrowth of injured axons and thereby the reestablishment of neural circuits required for functional recovery after spinal cord injuries (SCI). To circumvent these barriers, biomaterial scaffolds are applied to bridge the lesion gaps for the regrowing axons to follow, and, often by combining stem cell transplantation, to enable the local environment in the growth-supportive direction. Manipulations, such as the modulation of PTEN/mTOR pathways, can ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Tprn is essential for the integrity of stereociliary rootlet in cochlear hair cells in mice
AbstractTprn encodes the taperin protein, which is concentrated in the tapered region of hair cell stereocilia in the inner ear. In humans,TPRN mutations cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB79) by an unknown mechanism. To determine the role ofTprn in hearing, we generatedTprn-null mice by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 genome-editing technology from a CBA/CaJ background. We observed significant hearing loss and progressive degeneration of stereocilia in the outer hair cells ofTprn-null mice starting from postnatal day 30. Transmission electron microscopy images of stereocilia...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Four-year follow-up of patients with imatinib-resistant or intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia receiving dasatinib: efficacy and safety
This report from the 4-year follow-up revealed that 73% of 59 patients in chronic phase (CML-CP) and 32% of 25 patients in accelerated phase (CML-AP) remained under treatment. The initial dosage of dasatinib for CML-CP and CML-AP patients were 100 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily (total = 140 mg/ day), respectively. The cumulative major cytogenetic response (MCyR) rate among patients with CML-CP was 66.1% (versus 50.8% at 18 months), and the median time to MCyR was 12.7 weeks. All CML-CP patients who achieved MCyR after a 4-year follow-up also achieved a complete cytogenetic response. The cumulative complete hematologic...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Combination of biomaterial transplantation and genetic enhancement of intrinsic growth capacities to promote CNS axon regeneration after spinal cord injury
AbstractThe inhibitory environment that surrounds the lesion site and the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) impede the regrowth of injured axons and thereby the reestablishment of neural circuits required for functional recovery after spinal cord injuries (SCI). To circumvent these barriers, biomaterial scaffolds are applied to bridge the lesion gaps for the regrowing axons to follow, and, often by combining stem cell transplantation, to enable the local environment in the growth-supportive direction. Manipulations, such as the modulation of PTEN/mTOR pathways, can ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Tprn is essential for the integrity of stereociliary rootlet in cochlear hair cells in mice
AbstractTprn encodes the taperin protein, which is concentrated in the tapered region of hair cell stereocilia in the inner ear. In humans,TPRN mutations cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB79) by an unknown mechanism. To determine the role ofTprn in hearing, we generatedTprn-null mice by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 genome-editing technology from a CBA/CaJ background. We observed significant hearing loss and progressive degeneration of stereocilia in the outer hair cells ofTprn-null mice starting from postnatal day 30. Transmission electron microscopy images of stereocilia...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Regulation of T cell immunity by cellular metabolism
AbstractT cells are an important adaptive immune response arm that mediates cell-mediated immunity. T cell metabolism plays a central role in T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Specific metabolic programs are tightly controlled to mediate Tcell immune responses, and alterations in Tcell metabolism may result in many immunological disorders. In this review, we will summarize the main Tcell metabolic pathways and the important factors participating in Tcell metabolic programming during Tcell homeostasis, differentiation, and function. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research