Taking advantage of drug resistance, a new approach in the war on cancer
AbstractIdentification of the driver mutations in cancer has resulted in the development of a new category of molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs. However, as was the case with conventional chemotherapies, the effectiveness of these drugs is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant variants. While most cancer therapies are given in combinations that are designed to avoid drug resistance, we discuss here therapeutic approaches that take advantage of the changes in cancer cells that arise upon development of drug resistance. This approach is based on notion that drug resistance comes at a fitness cost to the cancer cell...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 18, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

ECRG4: a new potential target in precision medicine
AbstractGiven the rapid development in precision medicine, tremendous efforts have been devoted to discovering new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment. Esophageal cancer-related gene-4 (ECRG4), which is initially known as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene, is emerging as a sentinel molecule for gauging tissue homeostasis. ECRG4 is unique in its cytokine-like functional pattern and epigenetically-regulated gene expression pattern. The gene can be released from the cell membrane upon activation and detected in liquid biopsy, thus offering considerable potential in precision medicine. This review provides an up...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 12, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

HLA and lung transplantation
AbstractLung transplantation is increasingly practiced for patients with end-stage lung disease. The successful outcome of solid organ transplantation today is severely impeded by the production of alloantibodies, mainly directed against the protein products of the HLA complex of the organ donor. While the association between antibody mediated rejection and allograft damage has been well established in renal and heart transplantation, it has not yet been well characterized in lung transplantation. This review addresses the question of HLA matching in lung transplantation and current knowledge of the allogenicity of differe...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

G protein-coupled receptor LGR6 is an independent risk factor for colon adenocarcinoma
This study aimed to clarify whether the expression level of LGR6 is correlated with colon adenocarcinoma progression. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LGR6 expression in colon adenoma tissues (n = 21), colon adenocarcinoma tissues (n = 156), and adjacent normal tissues (n = 124). The expression levels of LGR6 in colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those in normal colon epithelial tissues (P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Dental stem cell and dental tissue regeneration
AbstractThe teeth are highly differentiated chewing organs formed by the development of tooth germ tissue located in the jaw and consist of the enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp, and periodontal tissue. Moreover, the teeth have a complicated regulatory mechanism, special histologic origin, diverse structure, and important function in mastication, articulation, and aesthetics. These characteristics, to a certain extent, greatly complicate the research in tooth regeneration. Recently, new ideas for tooth and tissue regeneration have begun to appear with rapid developments in the theories and technologies in tissue engineering. ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of antitubercular treatment on the pregnancy outcomes and prognoses of patients with genital tuberculosis
This study included 78 patients with infertility and who were diagnosed with GTB through laparoscopy and/or hysteroscopy over the period of November 2005 to October 2015. The recruited patients were divided into ATT and nonATT groups on the basis of ATT duration. The GTB recurrence rates, menstrual patterns, and pregnancy outcomes of the patients were determined at follow-up. Among the 78 patients, 46 received ATT and 32 did not receive ATT. The menstrual volumes of patients in the ATT group significantly decreased relative to those of patients in the nonATT group. GTB did not recur among all patients regardless of treatme...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - June 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

White blood cell count and the incidence of hyperuricemia: insights from a community-based study
This study included 1024 participants. The prevalence of HUAwas 17.77%. Patients with HUA were more likely to have higher levels of WBC count, which was positively associated with HUA prevalence. This association was also observed in participants without CKD, diabetes mellitus, hyp erlipidemia, or obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that WBC count was independently associated with the risk for HUA in male and female participants. Compared with participants without HUA, inflammatory factors such as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor -α, and interleukin 6 increased in parti...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - June 23, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cholera: an overview with reference to the Yemen epidemic
AbstractCholera is a secretory diarrhoeal disease caused by infection withVibrio cholerae, primarily theV. cholerae O1 El Tor biotype. There are approximately 2.9 million cases in 69 endemic countries annually, resulting in 95 000 deaths. Cholera is associated with poor infrastructure and lack of access to sanitation and clean drinking water. The current cholera epidemic in Yemen, linked to spread ofV. cholerae O1 (Ogawa serotype), is associated with the ongoing war. This has devastated infrastructure and health services. The World Health Organization had estimated that 172 286 suspected cases arose between 27th April and ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - June 22, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

In silico design of novel proton-pump inhibitors with reduced adverse effects
AbstractThe development of new proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) with less adverse effects by lowering the pKa values of nitrogen atoms in pyrimidine rings has been previously suggested by our group. In this work, we proposed that new PPIs should have the following features: (1) number of ring II = number of ring I + 1; (2) preferably five, six, or seven-membered heteroatomic ring for stability; and (3) 1
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - May 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Overexpressed long noncoding RNA CRNDE with distinct alternatively spliced isoforms in multiple cancers
In this study, we report that CRNDE is aberrantly expressed in the majority of solid and hematopoietic malignancies. The investigation of CRNDE expression in normal samples revealed that CRNDE was expressed in a tissue- and cell-specific manner. Further comparison of CRNDE expression in 2938 patient samples from 15 solid and hematopoietic tumors showed that CRNDE was significantly overexpressed in 11 malignancies, including 3 reported and 8 unreported, and also implicated that the overexpressed isoforms differed in various cancer types. Furthermore, anti-cancer drugs could efficiently repress CRNDE overexpression in cancer...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - May 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Mutation profiling of 16 candidate genes in de novo acute myeloid leukemia patients
AbstractThis retrospective analysis aimed to investigate the mutation profile of 16 common mutated genes inde novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. A total of 259 patients who were diagnosed ofde novo AML were enrolled in this study. Mutation profiling of 16 candidate genes were performed in bone marrow samples by using Sanger sequencing.We identified at least 1 mutation in 199 of the 259 samples (76.8%), and 2 or more mutations in 31.7% of samples.FLT3-ITD was the most common mutated gene (16.2%, 42/259), followed byCEBPA (15.1%, 39/259),NRAS (14.7%, 38/259), andNPM1 (13.5%, 35/259). Concurrence was observed in 97.1...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - May 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Venetoclax and low-dose cytarabine induced complete remission in a patient with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia: a case report
AbstractConventional combination therapies have not resulted in considerable progress in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Elderly patients with AML and poor risk factors have grave prognosis. Midostaurin has been recently approved for the treatment of FLT-3-mutated AML. Venetoclax, a BCL-2 inhibitor, has been approved for the treatment of relapsed and/or refractory chronic lymphoid leukemia. Clinical trials on applying venetoclax in combination with cytarabine and other agents to treat various hematological malignancies are currently underway. Here, we present a case of a male patient with poor performance st...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - May 21, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Total pancreatic necrosis after organophosphate intoxication
AbstractCases of acute pancreatitis induced by organophosphate intoxication are encountered occasionally in clinics, but very few of them develop into severe pancreas necrosis and irreversible pancreatic function impairment. Here, we report a 47-year-old female organophosphate poisoning case after ingestion of massive insecticides; she was considered to have total necrosis and function failure of the pancreas via serum amylase test, glucose level test, and CT imaging. The patient exhibited no relief under the regular medicine treatment, which included sandostatin, antibiotics, intravenous atropine, and pralidoxime methiodi...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - May 18, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Post-surgical resection prognostic value of combined OPN, MMP7, and PSG9 plasma biomarkers in hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractBiomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following curative resection are not currently sufficient for prognostic indication of overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic performance of osteopontin (OPN), matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), and pregnancy specific glycoprotein 9 (PSG9) in patients with HCC. A total of 179 prospective patients with HCC provided plasma before hepatectomy. Plasma OPN, MMP7, and PSG9 levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlations between plasma levels, clinical parameters, and outcomes (OS...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - May 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Preventive effect of Shenkang injection against high glucose-induced senescence of renal tubular cells
This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of SKI against high glucose (HG)-induced renal tubular cell senescence and its underlying mechanism. Primary renal proximal tubule epithelial cells were cultured in (1) control medium (control group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose; (2) mannitol medium (mannitol group), medium containing 5 mmol/L glucose, and 25 mmol/L mannitol; (3) HG medium (HG group) containing 30 mmol/L glucose; (4) SKI treatment at high (200 mg/L), medium (100 mg/L), or low (50 mg/L) concentration in HG medium (HG + SKI group); or (5) 200 mg/L SKI treatment in control medium (control + SKI grou...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Physiological effects of weightlessness: countermeasure system development for a long-term Chinese manned spaceflight
AbstractThe Chinese space station will be built around 2020. As a national space laboratory, it will offer unique opportunities for studying the physiological effects of weightlessness and the efficacy of the countermeasures against such effects. In this paper, we described the development of countermeasure systems in the Chinese space program. To emphasize the need of the Chinese space program to implement its own program for developing countermeasures, we reviewed the literature on the negative physiological effects of weightlessness, the challenges of completing missions, the development of countermeasure devices, the e...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis-related pulmonary hypertension: an observation on 50 patients
This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of LAM with elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and evaluate the potential efficacy of sirolimus. The study involved 50 LAM patients who underwent echocardiography. According to the tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV), these patients were divided into the TRV ≤ 2.8 m/s group and TRV> 2.8 m/s group. Both groups comprised 25 females with an average age of 38.6 8.1 and 41.5 8.9 years. In the TRV> 2.8 m/s group, the estimated systolic PAP (SPAP) was significantly elevated (52.08 12.45 mmHg vs. 30.24 5.25 mmHg,P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Natural killer cells in liver diseases
AbstractThe liver has been characterized as a frontline lymphoid organ with complex immunological features such as liver immunity and liver tolerance. Liver tolerance plays an important role in liver diseases including acute inflammation, chronic infection, autoimmune disease, and tumors. The liver contains a large proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, which exhibit heterogeneity in phenotypic and functional characteristics. NK cell activation, well known for its role in the immune surveillance against tumor and pathogen-infected cells, depends on the balance between numerous activating and inhibitory signals. In additi...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Everyone has a donor: contribution of the Chinese experience to global practice of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
AbstractHuman leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have long been scarce in China. Haploidentical (haplo) donors are available for the vast majority of patients, but toxicity has limited this approach. Three new approaches for haplo-HSCT originated from Italy, China, and USA in 1990 and have been developed to world-renowned system up to now. The Chinese approach have been greatly improved by implementing new individualized conditioning regimens, donor selection based on non-HLA systems, risk-directed strategies for graft-versus-host disease and relapse, and infection man...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Interferon- α salvage treatment is effective for patients with acute leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome with unsatisfactory response to minimal residual disease-directed donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
AbstractThe efficacy of salvage interferon- α (IFN-α) treatment was investigated in patients with unsatisfactory response to minimal residual disease (MRD)-directed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) (n = 24). Patients who did not become MRD-negative at 1 month after DLI were those with unsatisfactory response and were eligible to receive salvage IFN- α treatment within 3 months of DLI. Recombinant human IFN-α-2b injections were subcutaneously administered 2–3 times a week for 6 months. Nine (37.5%), 6 (25.0%), and 3 (12.5%) patients became MRD-negative at 1, 2, and> 2 months after the salvage...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 14, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Rdh13 deficiency weakens carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury by regulating Spot14 and Cyp2e1 expression levels
In this study, considering that Rdh13 is highly expressed in mouse liver, we further evaluated the potential effect ofRdh13 on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). AlthoughRdh13 deficiency showed no significant effect on liver histology and physiological functions under regular culture, theRdh13–/– mice displayed an attenuated response to CCl4-induced liver injury. Their livers also exhibited less histological changes and contained lower levels of liver-related metabolism enzymes compared with the livers of wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, theRdh13–/– mice hadRdh13 deficiency and th...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 14, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Genome editing for the treatment of tumorigenic viral infections and virus-related carcinomas
AbstractViral infections cause at least 10% –15% of all human carcinomas. Over the last century, the elucidation of viral oncogenic roles in many cancer types has provided fundamental knowledge on carcinogenetic mechanisms and established a basis for the early intervention of virus-related cancers. Meanwhile, rapidly evolving genomeediting techniques targeting viral DNA/RNA have emerged as novel therapeutic strategies for treating virusrelated carcinogenesis and have begun showing promising results. This review discusses the recent advances of genome-editing tools for treating tumorigenic viruses and their correspond...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Characterization of hidden rules linking symptoms and selection of acupoint using an artificial neural network model
AbstractComprehension of the medical diagnoses of doctors and treatment of diseases is important to understand the underlying principle in selecting appropriate acupoints. The pattern recognition process that pertains to symptoms and diseases and informs acupuncture treatment in a clinical setting was explored. A total of 232 clinical records were collected using a Charting Language program. The relationship between symptom information and selected acupoints was trained using an artificial neural network (ANN). A total of 11 hidden nodes with the highest average precision score were selected through a tenfold cross-validat...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

NKT cells in liver diseases
In this study, we summarize recent findings on biology of natural killer T cells and their roles in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, autoimmune liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Controversial results from previous studies are discussed, and indicate the dynamic alteration in the role of natural killer T cells during the progression of liver diseases, which might be caused by changes in natural killer T subsets, factors skewing cytokine responses, and intercellular crosstalk between natural killer T cells and CD1d-expressing cells or by...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in pediatrics: a report of seven cases from Saudi Arabia
AbstractInfection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 as an important respiratory disease with high fatality rates of 40% –60%. Despite the increased number of cases over subsequent years, the number of pediatric cases remained low. A review of studies conducted from June 2012 to April 19, 2016 reported 31 pediatric MERS-CoV cases. In this paper, we present the clinical and laboratory features of seven patients with pediatric MERS. Five patients had no underlying medical illnesses, and three patients were asymptomatic. Of the seven cases, four (57%) patients sought medical adv...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Sensitivity of supplementation of thyroid hormone on treatment of idiopathic short-stature children during therapy with recombinant human growth hormone
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of thyroid hormone supplementation on growth rate of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and low-normal serum free thyroxine FT4 who were receiving growth hormone therapy. We selected 64 prepubertal children with FT4 levels in the lowest third of the normal range as the lower FT4 group, and these children were divided randomly into two subgroups: L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated subgroup was treated with L-T4 (0.5 –3.0 g/(kg·d)) from the beginning of the study, and the non-L-T4-treated subgroup received placebo. We also selected 39 ISS children with FT4 in the upper ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

DNA methylation-based subclassification of psoriasis in the Chinese Han population
This study is the first to profile Ps subclassifications based on DNAm data in the Chinese Han population. These results are useful in the treatment and management of Ps from the molecular and genetic perspectives. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Platelet membrane-based and tumor-associated platelet-targeted drug delivery systems for cancer therapy
AbstractPlatelets have long been known to play critical roles in hemostasis by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries. Recent experimental evidence strongly indicates that platelets can also interact with tumor cells by direct binding or secreting cytokines. For example, platelets have been shown to protect circulating cancer cells in blood circulation and to promote tumor metastasis. In-depth understanding of the role of platelets in cancer progression and metastasis provides promising approaches for platelet biomimetic drug delivery systems and functional platelet-targeting strategies for effective cancer treatment....
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Role of chemerin/CMKLR1 in the maintenance of early pregnancy
This study aimed to explore the effects of chemerin and its receptor chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) on the maintenance of early pregnancy. The expression levels of chemerin and CMKLR1 in the decidua tissues of 20 early normal pregnant women and 20 early spontaneous abortion women were examined byWestern blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. CMKLR1 receptor antagonist ( α-NETA) was then intrauterinely injected into normal pregnant mice model to assess its effect on the outcome of pregnancy and the phosphorylation rate of ERK1/2 in decidua tissues.We found that the expression level of chemerin in w...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 17, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical characterization and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis through exome sequencing in Chinese infants with Bartter-syndrome-like hypokalemia alkalosis
AbstractCystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal autosomal-recessive disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CF is characterized by recurrent pulmonary infection with obstructive pulmonary disease. CF is common in the Caucasian population but is rare in the Chinese population. The symptoms of early-stage CF are often untypical and may sometimes manifest as Bartter syndrome (BS)-like hypokalemic alkalosis. Therefore, the ability of doctors to differentiate CF from BS-like hypokalemic alkalosis in Chinese infants is a great challenge in the timely and accurate diagnosis of CF. In China, ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Gut microbiota and its implications in small bowel transplantation
AbstractThe gut microbiota is mainly composed of a diverse population of commensal bacterial species and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, immune modulation and metabolism. The influence of the gut microbiota on solid organ transplantation has recently been recognized. In fact, several studies indicated that acute and chronic allograft rejection in small bowel transplantation (SBT) is closely associated with the alterations in microbial patterns in the gut. In this review, we focused on the recent findings regarding alterations in the microbiota following SBTand the potential roles of these...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Alteration of heat shock protein 20 expression in preeclamptic patients and its effect in vascular and coagulation function
In this study, we collected chorionic plate resistance arteries (CPAs) and serum from 118 healthy pregnant women and 80 women with PE and detected the levels of HSP20 and its phosphorylated form. Both HSP20 and phosphorylated HSP20 were downregulated in CPAs from women with PE. Comparison of the vasodilative ability of CPAs from the two groups showed impaired relaxation responses to acetyl choline in preeclamptic vessels. In addition to the reduced HSP20 in serum from women with PE, the platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume were also decreased, and the activated partial thromboplastin time and thromboplastin...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

γδ T cells in liver diseases
In this study, we review the properties o f hepatic γδ T cells and summarize the roles of γδ T cells in liver diseases. We believe that determining the properties and functions of γδ T cells in liver diseases enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of liver diseases and is useful for the design of novel γδ T cell-based therap eutic regimens for liver diseases. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 14, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Learning curve of totally thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy
In this study, 128 patients who underwent TTPS between September 2010 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the learning curve and were divided chronologically into three phases, namely, ascending phase (A), plateau phase (B), and descending phase (C), through cumulative summation (CUSUM) for operative time (OT). Phases A, B, and C comprised 39, 33, and 56 cases, respectively. OT and blood loss decreased significantly from phases A to C (P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cyclospora cayetanensis infections among diarrheal outpatients in Shanghai: a retrospective case study
This study showed, for the first time, thatC. cayetanensis is a pathogen in outpatients with diarrhea in Shanghai, albeit at a low level. However, the transmission dynamics of this parasite in these patients remain uncertain. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked products and its comparison with isolates from listeriosis cases
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics ofListeria monocytogenes in cooked products in Zigong City, China. The overall occurrence of theL. monocytogenes in the ready-to-eat (RTE) shops and mutton restaurants surveyed was 16.2% (141/873). An occurrence of 13.5% was observed in RTE pork, 6.5% in RTE vegetables, and more than 24.0% in either cooked mutton or cooked haggis. Serotype 1/2b (45.4%), 1/2a (33.3%), and 1/2c (14.2%) were the predominant types. By comparing the clonal complexes (CCs) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of theL. monocytogenes from cooked foods in Zigong City...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Pneumonic plague epidemic in Northeast China in 1910 –1911: Dr. Wu Lien-Teh’s epidemic preventive system for plague control
AbstractPneumonic plague that originated in Russian Siberia broke out in Northeast China in October 1910 –March 1911. On the basis of field visits, autopsy, bacteriological identification, and close collaboration with local authorities and international colleagues, Dr. Wu Lien-Teh implemented a series of efficient antiplague measures, which successfully controlled the development of an extraordinary epidemic plague. In his subsequent work, Dr. Wu demonstrated the respiratory transmission of pneumonic plague and tarbagans’ role in this spread. Dr.Wu’s academic and cultural contributions are valuable in the...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Landscape of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in China: impact of ecology, climate, and behavior
AbstractFor the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported alm...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Responses to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: One world, One health
(Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 23, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum to: Irreversible phenotypic perturbation and functional impairment of B cells during HIV-1 infection
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. One of the authors of this article has been misspelled. Xiaoyang Zhang should be Xiaoyan Zhang. The update is also provided here. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Innate and adaptive T cells in influenza disease
AbstractInfluenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized. During natural ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Etiology of invasive candidosis agents in Russia: a multicenter epidemiological survey
AbstractA multicenter prospective epidemiological survey on the etiologic agents of invasive candidosis was conducted in Russia in the period of 2012 –2014. Samples were collected from 284 patients with invasive candidosis andCandida species isolated by culture. The species were identified by DNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF massspectrometry. A total of 322 isolates were recovered, in which 96% ofСandida species belonged to six major species, namely,C. albicans (43.2%),C. parapsilosis (20.2%),C. glabrata (11.5%),C. tropicalis (9.6%),C. krusei (6.2%), andC. guilliermondii (5.3%). MostCandida species were isolated from bl...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemiology of fungal infections in China
AbstractWith the increasing number of immunocompromised hosts, the epidemiological characteristics of fungal infections have undergone enormous changes worldwide, including in China. In this paper, we reviewed the existing data on mycosis across China to summarize available epidemiological profiles. We found that the general incidence of superficial fungal infections in China has been stable, but the incidence of tinea capitis has decreased and the transmission route has changed. By contrast, the overall incidence of invasive fungal infections has continued to rise. The occurrence of candidemia caused byCandida species oth...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China: the implication of molecular epidemiology for tuberculosis control
AbstractTuberculosis (TB) has remained an ongoing concern in China. The national scale-up of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) program has accelerated the fight against TB in China. Nevertheless, many challenges still remain, including the spread of drug-resistant strains, high disease burden in rural areas, and enormous rural-to-urban migrations. Whether incident active TB represents recent transmission or endogenous reactivation has helped to prioritize the strategies for TB control. Evidence from molecular epidemiology studies has delineated the recent transmission ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tub...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Transforming bacterial disease surveillance and investigation using whole-genome sequence to probe the trace
AbstractTwo decades have passed since the first bacterial whole-genome sequencing, which provides new opportunity for microbial genome. Consequently, considerable genetic diversity encoded by bacterial genomes and among the strains in the same species has been revealed. In recent years, genome sequencing techniques and bioinformatics have developed rapidly, which has resulted in transformation and expedited the application of strategy and methodology for bacterial genome comparison used in dissection of infectious disease epidemics. Bacterial whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic computing allow genotyping to satisfy t...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Associations between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype and drug resistance to four first-line drugs: A survey in China
AbstractInvestigations on the genetic diversity ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in China have shown that Beijing genotype strains play a dominant role. To study the association between theM. tuberculosis Beijing genotype and the drug-resistance phenotype, 1286M. tuberculosis clinical isolates together with epidemiological and clinical information of patients were collected from the center for tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control or TB hospitals in Beijing municipality and nine provinces or autonomous regions in China. Drug resistance testing was conducted on all the isolates to the four first-line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 29, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Trends of foodborne diseases in China: lessons from laboratory-based surveillance since 2011
AbstractFoodborne disease is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. China faces various and unprecedented challenges in all aspects of the food chain. Data from laboratory-based foodborne disease surveillance systems from 2013 to 2016, as well as different regions and ages, can be found along with differences in the patterns of pathogens detected with diverse characteristics.Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in China, especially among adults in coastal regions.Salmonella has been a serious and widely distributed pathogen responsible for substantial socioeconomic bu...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 27, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in granulosa cells contributes to poor oocyte quality and IVF-ET outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
In this study, we compared thein vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) results of 22 patients with PCOS and 25 patients with tubal factor infertility and detected the ROS levels in the GCs of these two groups. Results showed that the PCOS group had significantly larger follicles on the administration day for human chorionic gonadotropin than the tubal factor group (P 0.05). PCOS group had slightly lower fertilization, cleavage, grade I/II embryo, clinical pregnancy, and implantation rates and higher miscarriage rate than the tubal factor group (P> 0.05). We further found a significantly higher ROS level of GC...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 19, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Zfyve16 regulates the proliferation of B-lymphoid cells
In this study, we generated aZfyve16 knockout mouse strain (Zfyve16KO) and examined its hematopoietic phenotypes and hematopoietic reconstruction ability. The proportion of Tcells in the peripheral blood ofZfyve16KO mice increases compared with that in wild-type mice. This finding is consistent with the role of Zfyve16 in facilitating TGF- β signaling. Unpredictably, B cell proliferation is inhibited inZfyve16KO mice. The proliferation potential ofZfyve16KO B-lymphoid cells also significantly decreasesin vitro. These results suggest that Zfyve16 inhibits the proliferation of T cells, possibly through the TGF- β s...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 16, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Gut microbial balance and liver transplantation: alteration, management, and prediction
This article reviews the research progress for gut microbial a lterations and liver transplantation. Especially, this work also evaluates research on the management of gut microbial alteration and the prediction of possible injuries utilizing microbial alteration during liver transplantation. In addition, we propose possible directions for research on gut micro bial alteration during liver transplantation and offer a hypothesis on the utilization of microbial alteration in liver transplantation. The aim is not only to predict perioperative injuries but also to function as a method of treatment or even inhibit the rejection...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 12, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research