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Clinical characteristics in lymphangioleiomyomatosis-related pulmonary hypertension: an observation on 50 patients
This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of LAM with elevated pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and evaluate the potential efficacy of sirolimus. The study involved 50 LAM patients who underwent echocardiography. According to the tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV), these patients were divided into the TRV ≤ 2.8 m/s group and TRV> 2.8 m/s group. Both groups comprised 25 females with an average age of 38.6 8.1 and 41.5 8.9 years. In the TRV> 2.8 m/s group, the estimated systolic PAP (SPAP) was significantly elevated (52.08 12.45 mmHg vs. 30.24 5.25 mmHg,P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Natural killer cells in liver diseases
AbstractThe liver has been characterized as a frontline lymphoid organ with complex immunological features such as liver immunity and liver tolerance. Liver tolerance plays an important role in liver diseases including acute inflammation, chronic infection, autoimmune disease, and tumors. The liver contains a large proportion of natural killer (NK) cells, which exhibit heterogeneity in phenotypic and functional characteristics. NK cell activation, well known for its role in the immune surveillance against tumor and pathogen-infected cells, depends on the balance between numerous activating and inhibitory signals. In additi...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Everyone has a donor: contribution of the Chinese experience to global practice of haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
AbstractHuman leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donors for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have long been scarce in China. Haploidentical (haplo) donors are available for the vast majority of patients, but toxicity has limited this approach. Three new approaches for haplo-HSCT originated from Italy, China, and USA in 1990 and have been developed to world-renowned system up to now. The Chinese approach have been greatly improved by implementing new individualized conditioning regimens, donor selection based on non-HLA systems, risk-directed strategies for graft-versus-host disease and relapse, and infection man...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 19, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Interferon- α salvage treatment is effective for patients with acute leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome with unsatisfactory response to minimal residual disease-directed donor lymphocyte infusion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
AbstractThe efficacy of salvage interferon- α (IFN-α) treatment was investigated in patients with unsatisfactory response to minimal residual disease (MRD)-directed donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) (n = 24). Patients who did not become MRD-negative at 1 month after DLI were those with unsatisfactory response and were eligible to receive salvage IFN- α treatment within 3 months of DLI. Recombinant human IFN-α-2b injections were subcutaneously administered 2–3 times a week for 6 months. Nine (37.5%), 6 (25.0%), and 3 (12.5%) patients became MRD-negative at 1, 2, and> 2 months after the salvage...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 14, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Rdh13 deficiency weakens carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury by regulating Spot14 and Cyp2e1 expression levels
In this study, considering that Rdh13 is highly expressed in mouse liver, we further evaluated the potential effect ofRdh13 on liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). AlthoughRdh13 deficiency showed no significant effect on liver histology and physiological functions under regular culture, theRdh13–/– mice displayed an attenuated response to CCl4-induced liver injury. Their livers also exhibited less histological changes and contained lower levels of liver-related metabolism enzymes compared with the livers of wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, theRdh13–/– mice hadRdh13 deficiency and th...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 14, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Genome editing for the treatment of tumorigenic viral infections and virus-related carcinomas
AbstractViral infections cause at least 10% –15% of all human carcinomas. Over the last century, the elucidation of viral oncogenic roles in many cancer types has provided fundamental knowledge on carcinogenetic mechanisms and established a basis for the early intervention of virus-related cancers. Meanwhile, rapidly evolving genomeediting techniques targeting viral DNA/RNA have emerged as novel therapeutic strategies for treating virusrelated carcinogenesis and have begun showing promising results. This review discusses the recent advances of genome-editing tools for treating tumorigenic viruses and their correspond...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Characterization of hidden rules linking symptoms and selection of acupoint using an artificial neural network model
AbstractComprehension of the medical diagnoses of doctors and treatment of diseases is important to understand the underlying principle in selecting appropriate acupoints. The pattern recognition process that pertains to symptoms and diseases and informs acupuncture treatment in a clinical setting was explored. A total of 232 clinical records were collected using a Charting Language program. The relationship between symptom information and selected acupoints was trained using an artificial neural network (ANN). A total of 11 hidden nodes with the highest average precision score were selected through a tenfold cross-validat...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 12, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

NKT cells in liver diseases
In this study, we summarize recent findings on biology of natural killer T cells and their roles in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection, autoimmune liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Controversial results from previous studies are discussed, and indicate the dynamic alteration in the role of natural killer T cells during the progression of liver diseases, which might be caused by changes in natural killer T subsets, factors skewing cytokine responses, and intercellular crosstalk between natural killer T cells and CD1d-expressing cells or by...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in pediatrics: a report of seven cases from Saudi Arabia
AbstractInfection with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in 2012 as an important respiratory disease with high fatality rates of 40% –60%. Despite the increased number of cases over subsequent years, the number of pediatric cases remained low. A review of studies conducted from June 2012 to April 19, 2016 reported 31 pediatric MERS-CoV cases. In this paper, we present the clinical and laboratory features of seven patients with pediatric MERS. Five patients had no underlying medical illnesses, and three patients were asymptomatic. Of the seven cases, four (57%) patients sought medical adv...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Sensitivity of supplementation of thyroid hormone on treatment of idiopathic short-stature children during therapy with recombinant human growth hormone
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of thyroid hormone supplementation on growth rate of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and low-normal serum free thyroxine FT4 who were receiving growth hormone therapy. We selected 64 prepubertal children with FT4 levels in the lowest third of the normal range as the lower FT4 group, and these children were divided randomly into two subgroups: L-thyroxine (L-T4)-treated subgroup was treated with L-T4 (0.5 –3.0 g/(kg·d)) from the beginning of the study, and the non-L-T4-treated subgroup received placebo. We also selected 39 ISS children with FT4 in the upper ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 6, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

DNA methylation-based subclassification of psoriasis in the Chinese Han population
This study is the first to profile Ps subclassifications based on DNAm data in the Chinese Han population. These results are useful in the treatment and management of Ps from the molecular and genetic perspectives. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Platelet membrane-based and tumor-associated platelet-targeted drug delivery systems for cancer therapy
AbstractPlatelets have long been known to play critical roles in hemostasis by clumping and clotting blood vessel injuries. Recent experimental evidence strongly indicates that platelets can also interact with tumor cells by direct binding or secreting cytokines. For example, platelets have been shown to protect circulating cancer cells in blood circulation and to promote tumor metastasis. In-depth understanding of the role of platelets in cancer progression and metastasis provides promising approaches for platelet biomimetic drug delivery systems and functional platelet-targeting strategies for effective cancer treatment....
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Role of chemerin/CMKLR1 in the maintenance of early pregnancy
This study aimed to explore the effects of chemerin and its receptor chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) on the maintenance of early pregnancy. The expression levels of chemerin and CMKLR1 in the decidua tissues of 20 early normal pregnant women and 20 early spontaneous abortion women were examined byWestern blot and real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. CMKLR1 receptor antagonist ( α-NETA) was then intrauterinely injected into normal pregnant mice model to assess its effect on the outcome of pregnancy and the phosphorylation rate of ERK1/2 in decidua tissues.We found that the expression level of chemerin in w...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 17, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical characterization and diagnosis of cystic fibrosis through exome sequencing in Chinese infants with Bartter-syndrome-like hypokalemia alkalosis
AbstractCystic fibrosis (CF) is a fatal autosomal-recessive disease caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CF is characterized by recurrent pulmonary infection with obstructive pulmonary disease. CF is common in the Caucasian population but is rare in the Chinese population. The symptoms of early-stage CF are often untypical and may sometimes manifest as Bartter syndrome (BS)-like hypokalemic alkalosis. Therefore, the ability of doctors to differentiate CF from BS-like hypokalemic alkalosis in Chinese infants is a great challenge in the timely and accurate diagnosis of CF. In China, ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Gut microbiota and its implications in small bowel transplantation
AbstractThe gut microbiota is mainly composed of a diverse population of commensal bacterial species and plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, immune modulation and metabolism. The influence of the gut microbiota on solid organ transplantation has recently been recognized. In fact, several studies indicated that acute and chronic allograft rejection in small bowel transplantation (SBT) is closely associated with the alterations in microbial patterns in the gut. In this review, we focused on the recent findings regarding alterations in the microbiota following SBTand the potential roles of these...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Alteration of heat shock protein 20 expression in preeclamptic patients and its effect in vascular and coagulation function
In this study, we collected chorionic plate resistance arteries (CPAs) and serum from 118 healthy pregnant women and 80 women with PE and detected the levels of HSP20 and its phosphorylated form. Both HSP20 and phosphorylated HSP20 were downregulated in CPAs from women with PE. Comparison of the vasodilative ability of CPAs from the two groups showed impaired relaxation responses to acetyl choline in preeclamptic vessels. In addition to the reduced HSP20 in serum from women with PE, the platelet distribution width and mean platelet volume were also decreased, and the activated partial thromboplastin time and thromboplastin...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

γδ T cells in liver diseases
In this study, we review the properties o f hepatic γδ T cells and summarize the roles of γδ T cells in liver diseases. We believe that determining the properties and functions of γδ T cells in liver diseases enhances our understanding of the pathogenesis of liver diseases and is useful for the design of novel γδ T cell-based therap eutic regimens for liver diseases. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 14, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Learning curve of totally thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy
In this study, 128 patients who underwent TTPS between September 2010 and December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the learning curve and were divided chronologically into three phases, namely, ascending phase (A), plateau phase (B), and descending phase (C), through cumulative summation (CUSUM) for operative time (OT). Phases A, B, and C comprised 39, 33, and 56 cases, respectively. OT and blood loss decreased significantly from phases A to C (P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - February 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cyclospora cayetanensis infections among diarrheal outpatients in Shanghai: a retrospective case study
This study showed, for the first time, thatC. cayetanensis is a pathogen in outpatients with diarrhea in Shanghai, albeit at a low level. However, the transmission dynamics of this parasite in these patients remain uncertain. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 26, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in cooked products and its comparison with isolates from listeriosis cases
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characteristics ofListeria monocytogenes in cooked products in Zigong City, China. The overall occurrence of theL. monocytogenes in the ready-to-eat (RTE) shops and mutton restaurants surveyed was 16.2% (141/873). An occurrence of 13.5% was observed in RTE pork, 6.5% in RTE vegetables, and more than 24.0% in either cooked mutton or cooked haggis. Serotype 1/2b (45.4%), 1/2a (33.3%), and 1/2c (14.2%) were the predominant types. By comparing the clonal complexes (CCs) based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of theL. monocytogenes from cooked foods in Zigong City...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Pneumonic plague epidemic in Northeast China in 1910 –1911: Dr. Wu Lien-Teh’s epidemic preventive system for plague control
AbstractPneumonic plague that originated in Russian Siberia broke out in Northeast China in October 1910 –March 1911. On the basis of field visits, autopsy, bacteriological identification, and close collaboration with local authorities and international colleagues, Dr. Wu Lien-Teh implemented a series of efficient antiplague measures, which successfully controlled the development of an extraordinary epidemic plague. In his subsequent work, Dr. Wu demonstrated the respiratory transmission of pneumonic plague and tarbagans’ role in this spread. Dr.Wu’s academic and cultural contributions are valuable in the...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Landscape of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases in China: impact of ecology, climate, and behavior
AbstractFor the past several decades, the infectious disease profile in China has been shifting with rapid developments in social and economic aspects, environment, quality of food, water, housing, and public health infrastructure. Notably, 5 notifiable infectious diseases have been almost eradicated, and the incidence of 18 additional notifiable infectious diseases has been significantly reduced. Unexpectedly, the incidence of over 10 notifiable infectious diseases, including HIV, brucellosis, syphilis, and dengue fever, has been increasing. Nevertheless, frequent infectious disease outbreaks/events have been reported alm...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Responses to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: One world, One health
(Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 23, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Erratum to: Irreversible phenotypic perturbation and functional impairment of B cells during HIV-1 infection
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. One of the authors of this article has been misspelled. Xiaoyang Zhang should be Xiaoyan Zhang. The update is also provided here. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Innate and adaptive T cells in influenza disease
AbstractInfluenza is a major global health problem, causing infections of the respiratory tract, often leading to acute pneumonia, life-threatening complications and even deaths. Over the last seven decades, vaccination strategies have been utilized to protect people from complications of influenza, especially groups at high risk of severe disease. While current vaccination regimens elicit strain-specific antibody responses, they fail to generate cross-protection against seasonal, pandemic and avian viruses. Moreover, vaccines designed to generate influenza-specific T-cell responses are yet to be optimized. During natural ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 20, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Etiology of invasive candidosis agents in Russia: a multicenter epidemiological survey
AbstractA multicenter prospective epidemiological survey on the etiologic agents of invasive candidosis was conducted in Russia in the period of 2012 –2014. Samples were collected from 284 patients with invasive candidosis andCandida species isolated by culture. The species were identified by DNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF massspectrometry. A total of 322 isolates were recovered, in which 96% ofСandida species belonged to six major species, namely,C. albicans (43.2%),C. parapsilosis (20.2%),C. glabrata (11.5%),C. tropicalis (9.6%),C. krusei (6.2%), andC. guilliermondii (5.3%). MostCandida species were isolated from bl...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemiology of fungal infections in China
AbstractWith the increasing number of immunocompromised hosts, the epidemiological characteristics of fungal infections have undergone enormous changes worldwide, including in China. In this paper, we reviewed the existing data on mycosis across China to summarize available epidemiological profiles. We found that the general incidence of superficial fungal infections in China has been stable, but the incidence of tinea capitis has decreased and the transmission route has changed. By contrast, the overall incidence of invasive fungal infections has continued to rise. The occurrence of candidemia caused byCandida species oth...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Recent transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in China: the implication of molecular epidemiology for tuberculosis control
AbstractTuberculosis (TB) has remained an ongoing concern in China. The national scale-up of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short Course (DOTS) program has accelerated the fight against TB in China. Nevertheless, many challenges still remain, including the spread of drug-resistant strains, high disease burden in rural areas, and enormous rural-to-urban migrations. Whether incident active TB represents recent transmission or endogenous reactivation has helped to prioritize the strategies for TB control. Evidence from molecular epidemiology studies has delineated the recent transmission ofMycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tub...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Transforming bacterial disease surveillance and investigation using whole-genome sequence to probe the trace
AbstractTwo decades have passed since the first bacterial whole-genome sequencing, which provides new opportunity for microbial genome. Consequently, considerable genetic diversity encoded by bacterial genomes and among the strains in the same species has been revealed. In recent years, genome sequencing techniques and bioinformatics have developed rapidly, which has resulted in transformation and expedited the application of strategy and methodology for bacterial genome comparison used in dissection of infectious disease epidemics. Bacterial whole-genome sequencing and bioinformatic computing allow genotyping to satisfy t...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 9, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Associations between Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype and drug resistance to four first-line drugs: A survey in China
AbstractInvestigations on the genetic diversity ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in China have shown that Beijing genotype strains play a dominant role. To study the association between theM. tuberculosis Beijing genotype and the drug-resistance phenotype, 1286M. tuberculosis clinical isolates together with epidemiological and clinical information of patients were collected from the center for tuberculosis (TB) prevention and control or TB hospitals in Beijing municipality and nine provinces or autonomous regions in China. Drug resistance testing was conducted on all the isolates to the four first-line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 29, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Trends of foodborne diseases in China: lessons from laboratory-based surveillance since 2011
AbstractFoodborne disease is one of the most important public health issues worldwide. China faces various and unprecedented challenges in all aspects of the food chain. Data from laboratory-based foodborne disease surveillance systems from 2013 to 2016, as well as different regions and ages, can be found along with differences in the patterns of pathogens detected with diverse characteristics.Vibrio parahaemolyticus has been the leading cause of infectious diarrhea in China, especially among adults in coastal regions.Salmonella has been a serious and widely distributed pathogen responsible for substantial socioeconomic bu...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 27, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in granulosa cells contributes to poor oocyte quality and IVF-ET outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome
In this study, we compared thein vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) results of 22 patients with PCOS and 25 patients with tubal factor infertility and detected the ROS levels in the GCs of these two groups. Results showed that the PCOS group had significantly larger follicles on the administration day for human chorionic gonadotropin than the tubal factor group (P 0.05). PCOS group had slightly lower fertilization, cleavage, grade I/II embryo, clinical pregnancy, and implantation rates and higher miscarriage rate than the tubal factor group (P> 0.05). We further found a significantly higher ROS level of GC...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 19, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Zfyve16 regulates the proliferation of B-lymphoid cells
In this study, we generated aZfyve16 knockout mouse strain (Zfyve16KO) and examined its hematopoietic phenotypes and hematopoietic reconstruction ability. The proportion of Tcells in the peripheral blood ofZfyve16KO mice increases compared with that in wild-type mice. This finding is consistent with the role of Zfyve16 in facilitating TGF- β signaling. Unpredictably, B cell proliferation is inhibited inZfyve16KO mice. The proliferation potential ofZfyve16KO B-lymphoid cells also significantly decreasesin vitro. These results suggest that Zfyve16 inhibits the proliferation of T cells, possibly through the TGF- β s...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 16, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Gut microbial balance and liver transplantation: alteration, management, and prediction
This article reviews the research progress for gut microbial a lterations and liver transplantation. Especially, this work also evaluates research on the management of gut microbial alteration and the prediction of possible injuries utilizing microbial alteration during liver transplantation. In addition, we propose possible directions for research on gut micro bial alteration during liver transplantation and offer a hypothesis on the utilization of microbial alteration in liver transplantation. The aim is not only to predict perioperative injuries but also to function as a method of treatment or even inhibit the rejection...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 12, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Low-dose CT for lung cancer screening: opportunities and challenges
AbstractLung cancer is among the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death in both males and females. Screening for lung cancer coupled with earlier intervention has long been studied as an approach to mortality reduction. However, minimal progress was achieved until recently, when lowdose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) screening demonstrated a 20% reduction in mortality from lung cancer in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the National Lung Screening Trial, from the United States. On the basis of this finding, LDCT has been recommended for lung cancer screening in high-risk po...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 7, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Possibility of women treated with fertility-sparing surgery for non-epithelial ovarian tumors to safely and successfully become pregnant —a Chinese retrospective cohort study among 148 cases
This study was performed to evaluate the oncological and reproductive outcomes of childbearing-age women treated with fertility-sparing surgery (FSS) for non-epithelial ovarian tumors in China. One hundred and forty eight non-epithelial ovarian tumor women treated with FSS between January 1, 2000 and August 31, 2015 from two medical centers in China were identified. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 88.5%, whereas overall survival (OS) was 93.9%. Univariate analysis suggested that delivery after treatment is related to PFS (P = 0.023), whereas histology significantly influenced OS. Cox regression analysis suggested that ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 7, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cluster analysis for syndromes of real-world coronary heart disease with angina pectoris
AbstractSyndromes of coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were analyzed to provide guidance for clinical practice and to improve accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) diagnoses and efficacy of TCM treatment. A total of 860 cases with coronary heart disease with angina pectoris were selected from TCM Clinical Research Information Sharing System for TCM clinics and research. Syndromes were automatically extracted with the cluster method and were analyzed to provide objective evidence for clinical studies. Final syndrome classifications were recognized and confirmed by clinical experts. Popular syndromes inclu...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 5, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Molecular classification and precision therapy of cancer: immune checkpoint inhibitors
AbstractOn May 23, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a treatment for cancer patients with positive microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) markers or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) markers. This approach is the first approved tumor treatment using a common biomarker rather than specified tumor locations in the body. FDA previously approved Keytruda for treatment of several types of malignancies, such as metastatic melanoma, metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer, recurrent or metastatic head and neck cancer, refractory Hodgkin lymphoma, and urothelial carcinoma, all of which carry positive programme...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 5, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Carcinogens that induce the A:T & gt; T:A nucleotide substitutions in the genome
AbstractRecently, Nget al. reported that the A:T> T:A substitutions, proposed to be a signature of aristolochic acid (AA) exposure, were detected in 76/98 (78%) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from the Taiwan Province of China, and 47% to 1.7% of HCCs from the Chinese mainland and other countries harbored the nucleotide changes. However, other carcinogens, e.g., tobacco carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl and 1,3-butadiene, air toxic vinyl chloride and its reactive metabolites chloroethylene oxide, melphalan and chlorambucil, also cause this signature in the genome. Since tobacco smoke is a worldwide public heal...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 5, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Genomic variations in the counterpart normal controls of lung squamous cell carcinomas
In this study, we sequenced the whole genomes of three normal lung tissue samples and their paired adjacent squamous cell carcinomas.We then called genomic variations specific to the normal lung tissues through filtering the genomic sequence of the normal lung tissues against that of the paired tumors, the reference human genome, the dbSNP138 common germline variants, and the variations derived from sequencing artifacts. To expand these observations, the whole exome sequences of 478 counterpart normal controls (CNCs) and paired LUSCs of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset were analyzed. Sixteen genomic variations were c...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 28, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Association of maternal depression with dietary intake, growth, and development of preterm infants: a cohort study in Beijing, China
This study aimed to explore the association of maternal depression with nutrient intake, growth, and development of preterm infants. A cohort study of 201 infants was conducted in Beijing. Based on the gestational age of an infant and status of the mother, the infants were divided into four groups: non-depression-fullterm (64), non-depression-preterm (70), depression-fullterm (36), and depression-preterm (31). Data on sociodemographic characteristics, nutritional intake, growth, and developmental status of children at 8 months (corrected ages) were collected using a quantitative questionnaire, a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, ant...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 27, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Irreversible phenotypic perturbation and functional impairment of B cells during HIV-1 infection
In conclusion, this study identified irreversible B cell immune perturbations in chronic HIV-1 infections regardless of cART and proposed the potential strategy to enhance B cell functions through the improvement of cell survival. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 27, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of HBV replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cell on HBV intrauterine transmission
This study determined the effect of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from HBsAg-positive mothers on HBV intrauterine transmission. A total of 150 HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates were recruited in this study. Within 24 h after birth, HBV serological markers, serum HBV DNA, PBMC HBV relaxed circular DNA (rcDNA), and covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) were measured in the HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates before passive-active immune prophylaxis. The relationship between HBV replication in PBMC and HBV intrauterine transmission was examined through Chisquar...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Immunological and virological characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 superinfection: implications in vaccine design
AbstractSuperinfection is frequently detected among individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1). Superinfection occurs at similar frequencies at acute and chronic infection stages but less frequently than primary infection. This observation indicates that the immune responses elicited by natural HIV-1 infection may play a role in curb of superinfection; however, these responses are not sufficiently strong to completely prevent superinfection. Thus, a successful HIV-1 vaccine likely needs to induce more potent and broader immune responses than those elicited by primary infection. On the other hand, p...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Potential use of serum HBV RNA in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B in the era of nucleos(t)ide analogs
AbstractAlthough the efficacy of nucleos(t)ide analogue (NA) has been confirmed for treatment of chronic hepatitis B, long-term therapy has been recommended due to the high frequency of off-therapy viral DNA rebound and disease relapse. In this review, the RNA virion-like particles of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are integrated into the life cycle of HBV replication, and the potential significance of serum HBV RNA is systematically described. The production of HBV RNA virion-like particles should not be blocked by NA; in this regard, serum HBV RNA is found to be a suitable surrogate marker for the activity of intrahepatic coval...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Development of small-molecule viral inhibitors targeting various stages of the life cycle of emerging and re-emerging viruses
AbstractIn recent years, unexpected outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by emerging and re-emerging viruses have become more frequent, which is possibly due to environmental changes. These outbreaks result in the loss of life and economic hardship. Vaccines and therapeutics should be developed for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss the latest progress in the development of small-molecule viral inhibitors against highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus,...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Current advances in the elimination of hepatitis B in China by 2030
AbstractWith its 78 million chronic carriers, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is still one of the leading public health challenges in China. Over the last two decades, China has made great progress on the prevention of HBV transmission through national vaccination programs. Zero transmission from mother to infant has been proposed as the current goal. Available anti-HBV therapy is efficacious in suppressing HBV replication; however, it fails to completely cure patients with chronic hepatitis B and even requires lifelong treatment. To reduce the costs and improve the efficacy, several trials have been recently conducted i...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Determining “abnormal” levator hiatus distensibility using three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound in Chinese women
AbstractThe dimension of the levator hiatus is a possible predictor of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This retrospective study investigated 360 women who went to urogynecological clinic for pelvic floor discomfort. Levator hiatus dimensions were obtained by three-dimensional transperineal ultrasound and results were compared between women with and without significantly objective prolapse (International Continence Society POP quantification, grade 2 or higher). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed to determine valid screening index for detecting abnormal levator hiatus distensibility. Women wi...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Radical versus conservative surgical treatment of liver hydatid cysts: a meta-analysis
In conclusion, RS reduces the rates of postoperative complications and recurrence, whereas no trend toward such a reduction in mortality was observed in LHC patients. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 23, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Human monoclonal antibodies as candidate therapeutics against emerging viruses
AbstractThe emergence of new pathogens, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Ebola virus, poses serious challenges to global public health and highlights the urgent need for novel antiviral approaches. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been successfully used to treat various diseases, particularly cancer and immunological disorders. Antigen-specific mAbs have been isolated using several different approaches, including hybridoma, transgenic mice, phage display, yeast display, and single B-cell isolation. Consequently, an increasing num...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 20, 2017 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research