Bile acids and their effects on diabetes
AbstractDiabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, “metabolic memory,” a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia. Manipulation of bile acid (B...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemic obesity in children and adolescents: risk factors and prevention
AbstractThe prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents (aged 2 –18 years) has increased rapidly, with more than 100 million affected in 2015. Moreover, the epidemic of obesity in this population has been an important public health problem in developed and developing countries for the following reasons. Childhood and adolescent obesity tracks adulthood obesity and has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, childhood and adolescent obesity is linked to adulthood mortality and premature death. Although an imbalance between cal...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Histone variants: critical determinants in tumour heterogeneity
AbstractMalignant cell transformation could be considered as a series of cell reprogramming events driven by oncogenic transcription factors and upstream signalling pathways. Chromatin plasticity and dynamics are critical determinants in the control of cell reprograming. An increase in chromatin dynamics could therefore constitute an essential step in driving oncogenesis and in generating tumour cell heterogeneity, which is indispensable for the selection of aggressive properties, including the ability of cells to disseminate and acquire resistance to treatments. Histone supply and dosage, as well as histone variants, are ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epidemic obesity in children and adolescents: risk factors and prevention
AbstractThe prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents (aged 2 –18 years) has increased rapidly, with more than 100 million affected in 2015. Moreover, the epidemic of obesity in this population has been an important public health problem in developed and developing countries for the following reasons. Childhood and adolescent obesity tracks adulthood obesity and has been implicated in many chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, childhood and adolescent obesity is linked to adulthood mortality and premature death. Although an imbalance between cal...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Histone variants: critical determinants in tumour heterogeneity
AbstractMalignant cell transformation could be considered as a series of cell reprogramming events driven by oncogenic transcription factors and upstream signalling pathways. Chromatin plasticity and dynamics are critical determinants in the control of cell reprograming. An increase in chromatin dynamics could therefore constitute an essential step in driving oncogenesis and in generating tumour cell heterogeneity, which is indispensable for the selection of aggressive properties, including the ability of cells to disseminate and acquire resistance to treatments. Histone supply and dosage, as well as histone variants, are ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 2, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Homoharringtonine synergy with oridonin in treatment of t(8; 21) acute myeloid leukemia
In conclusion, oridonin and HHTexert synergistic effects against t(8; 21) leukemiain vivo andin vitro, thereby indicating that their combination may be an effective therapy for t(8; 21) leukemia. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 11, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Changes in public trust in physicians: empirical evidence from China
This study investigated changes in public trust in physicians in China based on two cross-sectional national surveys conducted in 2011 and 2016 and identified the determinants of these changes. The results indicated 83.4% of respondents in 2011 reported trust or strong trust in physicians in China, which decreased to 64.2% by 2016. The results of ordinal logistic regression demonstrated that public trust in physicians in China had decreased significantly from 2011 to 2016 (P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 7, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Mechanistic and therapeutic advances in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by targeting the gut microbiota
AbstractNon-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common metabolic diseases currently in the context of obesity worldwide, which contains a spectrum of chronic liver diseases, including hepatic steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatic carcinoma. In addition to the classical “Two-hit” theory, NAFLD has been recognized as a typical gut microbiota-related disease because of the intricate role of gut microbiota in maintaining human health and disease formation. Moreover, gut microbiota is even regarded as a “metabolic organ” that play complementary roles to that of liver i...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Four-year follow-up of patients with imatinib-resistant or intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia receiving dasatinib: efficacy and safety
This report from the 4-year follow-up revealed that 73% of 59 patients in chronic phase (CML-CP) and 32% of 25 patients in accelerated phase (CML-AP) remained under treatment. The initial dosage of dasatinib for CML-CP and CML-AP patients were 100 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily (total = 140 mg/ day), respectively. The cumulative major cytogenetic response (MCyR) rate among patients with CML-CP was 66.1% (versus 50.8% at 18 months), and the median time to MCyR was 12.7 weeks. All CML-CP patients who achieved MCyR after a 4-year follow-up also achieved a complete cytogenetic response. The cumulative complete hematologic...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Combination of biomaterial transplantation and genetic enhancement of intrinsic growth capacities to promote CNS axon regeneration after spinal cord injury
AbstractThe inhibitory environment that surrounds the lesion site and the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) impede the regrowth of injured axons and thereby the reestablishment of neural circuits required for functional recovery after spinal cord injuries (SCI). To circumvent these barriers, biomaterial scaffolds are applied to bridge the lesion gaps for the regrowing axons to follow, and, often by combining stem cell transplantation, to enable the local environment in the growth-supportive direction. Manipulations, such as the modulation of PTEN/mTOR pathways, can ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Tprn is essential for the integrity of stereociliary rootlet in cochlear hair cells in mice
AbstractTprn encodes the taperin protein, which is concentrated in the tapered region of hair cell stereocilia in the inner ear. In humans,TPRN mutations cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB79) by an unknown mechanism. To determine the role ofTprn in hearing, we generatedTprn-null mice by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 genome-editing technology from a CBA/CaJ background. We observed significant hearing loss and progressive degeneration of stereocilia in the outer hair cells ofTprn-null mice starting from postnatal day 30. Transmission electron microscopy images of stereocilia...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Four-year follow-up of patients with imatinib-resistant or intolerant chronic myeloid leukemia receiving dasatinib: efficacy and safety
This report from the 4-year follow-up revealed that 73% of 59 patients in chronic phase (CML-CP) and 32% of 25 patients in accelerated phase (CML-AP) remained under treatment. The initial dosage of dasatinib for CML-CP and CML-AP patients were 100 mg once daily and 70 mg twice daily (total = 140 mg/ day), respectively. The cumulative major cytogenetic response (MCyR) rate among patients with CML-CP was 66.1% (versus 50.8% at 18 months), and the median time to MCyR was 12.7 weeks. All CML-CP patients who achieved MCyR after a 4-year follow-up also achieved a complete cytogenetic response. The cumulative complete hematologic...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Combination of biomaterial transplantation and genetic enhancement of intrinsic growth capacities to promote CNS axon regeneration after spinal cord injury
AbstractThe inhibitory environment that surrounds the lesion site and the lack of intrinsic regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) impede the regrowth of injured axons and thereby the reestablishment of neural circuits required for functional recovery after spinal cord injuries (SCI). To circumvent these barriers, biomaterial scaffolds are applied to bridge the lesion gaps for the regrowing axons to follow, and, often by combining stem cell transplantation, to enable the local environment in the growth-supportive direction. Manipulations, such as the modulation of PTEN/mTOR pathways, can ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Tprn is essential for the integrity of stereociliary rootlet in cochlear hair cells in mice
AbstractTprn encodes the taperin protein, which is concentrated in the tapered region of hair cell stereocilia in the inner ear. In humans,TPRN mutations cause autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB79) by an unknown mechanism. To determine the role ofTprn in hearing, we generatedTprn-null mice by clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/Cas9 genome-editing technology from a CBA/CaJ background. We observed significant hearing loss and progressive degeneration of stereocilia in the outer hair cells ofTprn-null mice starting from postnatal day 30. Transmission electron microscopy images of stereocilia...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Regulation of T cell immunity by cellular metabolism
AbstractT cells are an important adaptive immune response arm that mediates cell-mediated immunity. T cell metabolism plays a central role in T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Specific metabolic programs are tightly controlled to mediate Tcell immune responses, and alterations in Tcell metabolism may result in many immunological disorders. In this review, we will summarize the main Tcell metabolic pathways and the important factors participating in Tcell metabolic programming during Tcell homeostasis, differentiation, and function. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 16, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Classification and treatment of orbital venous malformations: an updated review
This article summarizes the current classification and treatment advances in OVM. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of membranous and other nephropathy subtypes and establishment of a diagnostic model
This study aimed to compare clinical features between membranous nephropathy (MN) and nonmembranous nephropathy (non-MN), to explore the clinically differential diagnosis of these two types, and to establish a diagnostic model of MN. After renal biopsy was obtained, 798 patients were divided into two groups based on their examination results: primary MN group (n = 248) and non-MN group (n = 550). Their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis indicated that anti-PLA2R antibodies, IgG, and Cr were independently correlated with MN, and these three parameters were then used to establish the MN diagnostic...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Complex interplay between tumor microenvironment and cancer therapy
AbstractTumor microenvironment (TME) is comprised of cellular and non-cellular components that exist within and around the tumor mass. The TME is highly dynamic and its importance in different stages of cancer progression has been well recognized. A growing body of evidence suggests that TME also plays pivotal roles in cancer treatment responses. TME is significantly remodeled upon cancer therapies, and such change either enhances the responses or induces drug resistance. Given the importance of TME in tumor progression and therapy resistance, strategies that remodel TME to improve therapeutic responses are under developin...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Classification and treatment of orbital venous malformations: an updated review
This article summarizes the current classification and treatment advances in OVM. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of membranous and other nephropathy subtypes and establishment of a diagnostic model
This study aimed to compare clinical features between membranous nephropathy (MN) and nonmembranous nephropathy (non-MN), to explore the clinically differential diagnosis of these two types, and to establish a diagnostic model of MN. After renal biopsy was obtained, 798 patients were divided into two groups based on their examination results: primary MN group (n = 248) and non-MN group (n = 550). Their data were statistically analyzed. Logistic regression analysis indicated that anti-PLA2R antibodies, IgG, and Cr were independently correlated with MN, and these three parameters were then used to establish the MN diagnostic...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

RNA m 6 A modification and its function in diseases
AbstractN6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common post-transcriptional RNA modification throughout the transcriptome, affecting fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism. m6A modification could be installed by m6A “writers” composed of core catalytic components (METTL3/METTL14/WTAP) and newly defined regulators and removed by m6A “erasers” (FTO and ALKBH5). The function of m6A is executed by m6A “readers” that bind to m6A directly (YTH domain-containing proteins, eIF3 and IGF2BPs) or indirectly (HNRNPA2B1). In the past few years, advances in m6A modulators ( “writers,” “e...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 10, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Complex interplay between tumor microenvironment and cancer therapy
AbstractTumor microenvironment (TME) is comprised of cellular and non-cellular components that exist within and around the tumor mass. The TME is highly dynamic and its importance in different stages of cancer progression has been well recognized. A growing body of evidence suggests that TME also plays pivotal roles in cancer treatment responses. TME is significantly remodeled upon cancer therapies, and such change either enhances the responses or induces drug resistance. Given the importance of TME in tumor progression and therapy resistance, strategies that remodel TME to improve therapeutic responses are under developin...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer: complexity and opportunities
AbstractThe cell-biological program termed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in both development and cancer progression. Depending on the contextual signals and intracellular gene circuits of a particular cell, this program can drive fully epithelial cells to enter into a series of phenotypic states arrayed along the epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypic axis. These cell states display distinctive cellular characteristics, including stemness, invasiveness, drug-resistance and the ability to form metastases at distant organs, and thereby contribute to cancer metastasis and relapse. Currently...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Regulation of T cell immunity by cellular metabolism
AbstractT cells are an important adaptive immune response arm that mediates cell-mediated immunity. T cell metabolism plays a central role in T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and effector function. Specific metabolic programs are tightly controlled to mediate T cell immune responses, and alterations in T cell metabolism may result in many immunological disorders. In this review, we will summarize the main T cell metabolic pathways and the important factors participating in T cell metabolic programming during T cell homeostasis, differentiation, and function. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Paradoxical role of Id proteins in regulating tumorigenic potential of lymphoid cells
AbstractA family of transcription factors known as Id proteins, or inhibitor of DNA binding and differentiation, is capable of regulating cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, and is often upregulated in multiple types of tumors. Due to their ability to promote self-renewal, Id proteins have been considered as oncogenes, and potential therapeutic targets in cancer models. On the contrary, certain Id proteins are reported to act as tumor suppressors in the development of Burkitt ’s lymphoma in humans, and hepatosplenic and innate-like T cell lymphomas in mice. The contexts and mechanisms by which Id protei...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Challenges of NK cell-based immunotherapy in the new era
AbstractNatural killer cells (NKs) have a great potential for cancer immunotherapy because they can rapidly and directly kill transformed cells in the absence of antigen presensitization. Various cellular sources, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), stem cells, and NK cell lines, have been used for producing NK cells. In particular, NK cells that expanded from allogeneic PBMCs exhibit better efficacy than those that did not. However, considering the safety, activities, and reliability of the cell products, researchers must develop an optimal protocol for producing NK cells from PBMCs in the manufacture se...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Intracellular and extracellular TGF- β signaling in cancer: some recent topics
AbstractTransforming growth factor (TGF)- β regulates a wide variety of cellular responses, including cell growth arrest, apoptosis, cell differentiation, motility, invasion, extracellular matrix production, tissue fibrosis, angiogenesis, and immune function. Although tumor-suppressive roles of TGF-β have been extensively studied and well -characterized in many cancers, especially at early stages, accumulating evidence has revealed the critical roles of TGF-β as a pro-tumorigenic factor in various types of cancer. This review will focus on recent findings regarding epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) ind...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Deubiquitinases as pivotal regulators of T cell functions
AbstractT cells efficiently respond to foreign antigens to mediate immune responses against infections but are tolerant to self-tissues. Defect in T cell activation is associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas aberrant T cell activation contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. An emerging mechanism that regulates T cell activation and tolerance is ubiquitination, a reversible process of protein modification that is counter-regulated by ubiquitinating enzymes and deubiquitinases (DUBs). DUBs are isopeptidases that cleave polyubiquitin chains and remove ubiquitin from target ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Activation of phagocytosis by immune checkpoint blockade
AbstractInhibition of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis has emerged as an essential mechanism for tumor immune evasion. One mechanism inhibiting the innate response is the presence of the macrophage inhibitory molecule, signal regulatory protein- α (SIRPα), on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and its cognate ligand cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) on tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. On the basis of a recently discovered programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) in TAMs, we discuss the potential inhibitory receptors that possess ne w functions beyond T cell exhaustion in this review. As more and more imm...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cytokines and inflammation in adipogenesis: an updated review
AbstractThe biological relevance of cytokines is known for more than 20 years. Evidence suggests that adipogenesis is one of the biological events involved in the regulation of cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF α and IL-1β) inhibit adipogenesis through various pathways. This inhibitory effect can constrain the hyperplastic expandability of adipose tissues. Meanwhile, chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly observed in obese populations. In some individuals, the impaired ability of adipose tissues to r ecruit new adipocytes to adipose depots during overnutrition results in adipocyte hypertro...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

RNA m 6 A modification and its function in diseases
AbstractN6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common post-transcriptional RNA modification throughout the transcriptome, affecting fundamental aspects of RNA metabolism. m6A modification could be installed by m6A “writers” composed of core catalytic components (METTL3/METTL14/WTAP) and newly defined regulators and removed by m6A “erasers” (FTO and ALKBH5). The function of m6A is executed by m6A “readers” that bind to m6A directly (YTH domain-containing proteins, eIF3 and IGF2BPs) or indirectly (HNRNPA2B1). In the past few years, advances in m6A modulators ( “writers,” “e...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cytokines and inflammation in adipogenesis: an updated review
AbstractThe biological relevance of cytokines is known for more than 20 years. Evidence suggests that adipogenesis is one of the biological events involved in the regulation of cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF α and IL-1β) inhibit adipogenesis through various pathways. This inhibitory effect can constrain the hyperplastic expandability of adipose tissues. Meanwhile, chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly observed in obese populations. In some individuals, the impaired ability of adipose tissues to r ecruit new adipocytes to adipose depots during overnutrition results in adipocyte hypertro...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - August 1, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cells and immune disorders: from basic science to clinical transition
AbstractAs a promising candidate seed cell type in regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have attracted considerable attention. The unique capacity of MSCs to exert a regulatory effect on immunity in an autologous/allergenic manner makes them an attractive therapeutic cell type for immune disorders. In this review, we discussed the current knowledge of and advances in MSCs, including its basic biological properties, i.e., multilineage differentiation, secretome, and immunomodulation. Specifically, on the basis of our previous work, we proposed three new concepts of MSCs, i.e., “subtotipotent stem cell&...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Activation of phagocytosis by immune checkpoint blockade
AbstractInhibition of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis has emerged as an essential mechanism for tumor immune evasion. One mechanism inhibiting the innate response is the presence of the macrophage inhibitory molecule, signal regulatory protein- α (SIRPα), on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and its cognate ligand cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) on tumor cells in the tumor microenvironment. On the basis of a recently discovered programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) in TAMs, we discuss the potential inhibitory receptors that possess ne w functions beyond T cell exhaustion in this review. As more and more imm...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 30, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The MYC transcription factor network: balancing metabolism, proliferation and oncogenesis
AbstractTranscription factor networks have evolved in order to control, coordinate, and separate, the functions of distinct network modules spatially and temporally. In this review we focus on the MYC network (also known as the MAX-MLX Network), a highly conserved super-family of related basic-helix-loop-helix-zipper (bHLHZ) proteins that functions to integrate extracellular and intracellular signals and modulate global gene expression. Importantly the MYC network has been shown to be deeply involved in a broad spectrum of human and other animal cancers. Here we summarize molecular and biological properties of the network ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Deubiquitinases as pivotal regulators of T cell functions
AbstractT cells efficiently respond to foreign antigens to mediate immune responses against infections but are tolerant to self-tissues. Defect in Tcell activation is associated with severe immune deficiencies, whereas aberrant T cell activation contributes to the pathogenesis of diverse autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. An emerging mechanism that regulates T cell activation and tolerance is ubiquitination, a reversible process of protein modification that is counter-regulated by ubiquitinating enzymes and deubiquitinases (DUBs). DUBs are isopeptidases that cleave polyubiquitin chains and remove ubiquitin from target p...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Challenges of NK cell-based immunotherapy in the new era
AbstractNatural killer cells (NKs) have a great potential for cancer immunotherapy because they can rapidly and directly kill transformed cells in the absence of antigen presensitization. Various cellular sources, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), stem cells, and NK cell lines, have been used for producing NK cells. In particular, NK cells that expanded from allogeneic PBMCs exhibit better efficacy than those that did not. However, considering the safety, activities, and reliability of the cell products, researchers must develop an optimal protocol for producing NK cells from PBMCs in the manufacture se...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Current advances for bone regeneration based on tissue engineering strategies
We describe the cell sources, biology of seed cells, growth factors, vascular development, and the interactions of relevant molecules. Furthermore, we discuss the challenges and perspectives that may propel the direction of future clinical delivery in bone regeneration. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 25, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer: complexity and opportunities
AbstractThe cell-biological program termed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in both development and cancer progression. Depending on the contextual signals and intracellular gene circuits of a particular cell, this program can drive fully epithelial cells to enter into a series of phenotypic states arrayed along the epithelial-mesenchymal phenotypic axis. These cell states display distinctive cellular characteristics, including stemness, invasiveness, drug-resistance and the ability to form metastases at distant organs, and thereby contribute to cancer metastasis and relapse. Currently...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Paradoxical role of Id proteins in regulating tumorigenic potential of lymphoid cells
AbstractA family of transcription factors known as Id proteins, or inhibitor of DNA binding and differentiation, is capable of regulating cell proliferation, survival and differentiation, and is often upregulated in multiple types of tumors. Due to their ability to promote self-renewal, Id proteins have been considered as oncogenes, and potential therapeutic targets in cancer models. On the contrary, certain Id proteins are reported to act as tumor suppressors in the development of Burkitt ’s lymphoma in humans, and hepatosplenic and innate-like T cell lymphomas in mice. The contexts and mechanisms by which Id protei...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Intracellular and extracellular TGF- β signaling in cancer: some recent topics
AbstractTransforming growth factor (TGF)- β regulates a wide variety of cellular responses, including cell growth arrest, apoptosis, cell differentiation, motility, invasion, extracellular matrix production, tissue fibrosis, angiogenesis, and immune function. Although tumor-suppressive roles of TGF-β have been extensively studied and well -characterized in many cancers, especially at early stages, accumulating evidence has revealed the critical roles of TGF-β as a pro-tumorigenic factor in various types of cancer. This review will focus on recent findings regarding epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) ind...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 24, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Taking advantage of drug resistance, a new approach in the war on cancer
AbstractIdentification of the driver mutations in cancer has resulted in the development of a new category of molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs. However, as was the case with conventional chemotherapies, the effectiveness of these drugs is limited by the emergence of drug-resistant variants. While most cancer therapies are given in combinations that are designed to avoid drug resistance, we discuss here therapeutic approaches that take advantage of the changes in cancer cells that arise upon development of drug resistance. This approach is based on notion that drug resistance comes at a fitness cost to the cancer cell...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 18, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

ECRG4: a new potential target in precision medicine
AbstractGiven the rapid development in precision medicine, tremendous efforts have been devoted to discovering new biomarkers for disease diagnosis and treatment. Esophageal cancer-related gene-4 (ECRG4), which is initially known as a new candidate tumor suppressor gene, is emerging as a sentinel molecule for gauging tissue homeostasis. ECRG4 is unique in its cytokine-like functional pattern and epigenetically-regulated gene expression pattern. The gene can be released from the cell membrane upon activation and detected in liquid biopsy, thus offering considerable potential in precision medicine. This review provides an up...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 12, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

HLA and lung transplantation
AbstractLung transplantation is increasingly practiced for patients with end-stage lung disease. The successful outcome of solid organ transplantation today is severely impeded by the production of alloantibodies, mainly directed against the protein products of the HLA complex of the organ donor. While the association between antibody mediated rejection and allograft damage has been well established in renal and heart transplantation, it has not yet been well characterized in lung transplantation. This review addresses the question of HLA matching in lung transplantation and current knowledge of the allogenicity of differe...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 5, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

G protein-coupled receptor LGR6 is an independent risk factor for colon adenocarcinoma
This study aimed to clarify whether the expression level of LGR6 is correlated with colon adenocarcinoma progression. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect LGR6 expression in colon adenoma tissues (n = 21), colon adenocarcinoma tissues (n = 156), and adjacent normal tissues (n = 124). The expression levels of LGR6 in colon adenoma and adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those in normal colon epithelial tissues (P
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Dental stem cell and dental tissue regeneration
AbstractThe teeth are highly differentiated chewing organs formed by the development of tooth germ tissue located in the jaw and consist of the enamel, dentin, cementum, pulp, and periodontal tissue. Moreover, the teeth have a complicated regulatory mechanism, special histologic origin, diverse structure, and important function in mastication, articulation, and aesthetics. These characteristics, to a certain extent, greatly complicate the research in tooth regeneration. Recently, new ideas for tooth and tissue regeneration have begun to appear with rapid developments in the theories and technologies in tissue engineering. ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - July 4, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of antitubercular treatment on the pregnancy outcomes and prognoses of patients with genital tuberculosis
This study included 78 patients with infertility and who were diagnosed with GTB through laparoscopy and/or hysteroscopy over the period of November 2005 to October 2015. The recruited patients were divided into ATT and nonATT groups on the basis of ATT duration. The GTB recurrence rates, menstrual patterns, and pregnancy outcomes of the patients were determined at follow-up. Among the 78 patients, 46 received ATT and 32 did not receive ATT. The menstrual volumes of patients in the ATT group significantly decreased relative to those of patients in the nonATT group. GTB did not recur among all patients regardless of treatme...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - June 27, 2018 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research