Neurological manifestations of patients with COVID-19: potential routes of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion from the periphery to the brain
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic in only 3 months. In addition to major respiratory distress, characteristic neurological manifestations are also described, indicating that SARS-CoV-2 may be an underestimated opportunistic pathogen of the brain. Based on previous studies of neuroinvasive human respiratory coronaviruses, it is proposed that after physical contact with the nasal mucosa, laryngopharynx, trachea, lower respiratory tract, alveoli epithelium, or gastrointestinal mucosa, SARS-CoV-2 can induce intrinsic...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - May 4, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Serum uric acid and risk of incident diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults: prospective cohort study
This study aimed to investigate this association in a community-dwelling population aged ≥ 40 years in Shanghai, China. Oral glucose tole3rance test was conducted during baseline and follow-up visits. Relative risk regression was utilized to examine the associations between baseline gender-specific serum uric acid levels and incident diabetes risk. A total of 613 (10.3%) incident diab etes cases were identified during the follow-up visit after 4.5 years. Fasting plasma glucose, postload glucose, and glycated hemoglobin A1c during the follow-up visit progressively increased across the sex-specific quartiles of serum uric acid (allPs
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 29, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Biological properties and clinical applications of berberine
This article summarizes the main pharmacological actions of berberine and its mechanisms in cancer and digestive, metabolic, cardiovascular, and neurological diseases. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 25, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Thanks to all medical workers fighting against COVID-19
(Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 22, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Advances in COVID-19: the virus, the pathogenesis, and evidence-based control and therapeutic strategies
AbstractSince the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in early December 2019, 81 174 confirmed cases and 3242 deaths have been reported in China as of March 19, 2020. The Chinese people and government have contributed huge efforts to combat this disease, resulting in significant improvement of the situation, with 58 new cases (34 were imported cases) and 11 new deaths reported on March 19, 2020. However, as of March 19, 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to develop in 167 countries/territories outside of China, and 128 665 confirmed cases and 5536 deaths have been reported, with 16 498 new cases and 817 new deaths occurri...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 21, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics of 19 neonates born to mothers with COVID-19
AbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of neonates born to SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers and increase the current knowledge on the perinatal consequences of COVID-19. Nineteen neonates were admitted to Tongji Hospital from January 31 to February 29, 2020. Their mothers were clinically diagnosed or laboratory-confirmed with COVID-19. We prospectively collected and analyzed data of mothers and infants. There are 19 neonates included in the research. Among them, 10 mothers were confirmed COVID-19 by positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in throat swab, and 9 mothers were clinically diagnosed with COV...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Cerebral regional and network characteristics in asthma patients: a resting-state fMRI study
This study elucidated different patterns of regional and network changes, thereby suggesting that the two parameters reflect different brain characteristics of asthma. These findings provide evidence for further understanding the potential cerebral alterations in the pathophysiology of asthma. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 8, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and diabetes: antioxidative strategies
AbstractDiabetes mellitus is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Considerable recent evidence suggests that the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) imbalance leads to oxidative stress and subsequent occurrence and development of diabetes and related complications by regulating certain signaling pathways involved in β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance. Reactive oxide species (ROS) can also directly oxidize certain proteins (defined as redox modification) involved in the diabetes process. There are a number of potential problems in the clinical application of antioxidant therapies including poor so...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 4, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a clinical update
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a significant threat to global health. It caused a total of 80 868 confirmed cases and 3101 deaths in Chinese mainland until March 8, 2020. This novel virus spread mainly through respiratory droplets and close contact. As disease progressed, a series of complications tend to develop, especially in critically ill patients. Pathological findings showed representative features of acute respiratory distress syndrome and involvement of multiple organs. Apart from supportive care, no specific treatment has...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 2, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Back to the spring of 2020: facts and hope of COVID-19 outbreak
(Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Organ function support in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: Tongji experience
AbstractCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious disease and a serious threat to human health. COVID-19 can cause multiple organ dysfunction, such as respiratory and circulatory failure, liver and kidney injury, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and thromboembolism, and even death. The World Health Organization reports that the mortality rate of severe-type COVID-19 is over 50%. Currently, the number of severe cases worldwide has increased rapidly, but the experience in the treatment of infected patients is still limited. Given the lack of specific antiviral drugs, multi-organ function support treat...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Recent advances in “universal” influenza virus antibodies: the rise of a hidden trimeric interface in hemagglutinin globular head
AbstractInfluenza causes seasonal outbreaks yearly and unpredictable pandemics with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite significant efforts to address influenza, it remains a major threat to human public health. This issue is partially due to the lack of antiviral drugs with potent antiviral activity and broad reactivity against all influenza virus strains and the rapid emergence of drug-resistant variants. Moreover, designing a universal influenza vaccine that is sufficiently immunogenic to induce universal antibodies is difficult. Some novel epitopes hidden in the hemagglutinin (HA) trimeric interface have been d...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - April 1, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Phase- and epidemic region-adjusted estimation of the number of coronavirus disease 2019 cases in China
AbstractThe outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 was first reported in Wuhan in December 2019 and gradually spread to other areas in China. After implementation of prevention and control measures, the estimation of the epidemic trend is needed. A phase- and region-adjusted SEIR model was applied for modeling and predicting the number of cases in Wuhan, Hubei Province and regions outside Hubei Province in China. The estimated number of infections could reach its peak in late February 2020 in Wuhan and Hubei Province, which is 55 303 –84 520 and 83 944–129 312, respectively, while the epidemic peaks in region...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 31, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

COVID-19 containment: China provides important lessons for global response
AbstractThe world must act fast to contain wider international spread of the epidemic of COVID-19 now. The unprecedented public health efforts in China have contained the spread of this new virus. Measures taken in China are currently proven to reduce human-to-human transmission successfully. We summarized the effective intervention and prevention measures in the fields of public health response, clinical management, and research development in China, which may provide vital lessons for the global response. It is really important to take collaborative actions now to save more lives from the pandemic of COVID-19. (Source: F...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 25, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Protecting healthcare personnel from 2019-nCoV infection risks: lessons and suggestions
AbstractThe outbreak of a novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19, caused by the 2019-nCoV infection) in December 2019 is one of the most severe public health emergencies since the founding of People ’s Republic of China in 1949. Healthcare personnel (HCP) nationwide are facing heavy workloads and high risk of infection, especially those who care for patients at the epicenter of the outbreak, Hubei Province. Sadly, as of February 20, 2020, over two thousand COVID-19 cases are confirmed among H CP from 476 hospitals nationwide, with nearly 90% of them from Hubei Province. Based on literature search and interviews with som...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 23, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Molecular network-based intervention brings us closer to ending the HIV pandemic
AbstractPrecise identification of HIV transmission among populations is a key step in public health responses. However, the HIV transmission network is usually difficult to determine. HIV molecular networks can be determined by phylogenetic approach, genetic distance-based approach, and a combination of both approaches. These approaches are increasingly used to identify transmission networks among populations, reconstruct the history of HIV spread, monitor the dynamics of HIV transmission, guide targeted intervention on key subpopulations, and assess the effects of interventions. Simulation and retrospective studies have d...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 23, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

2019 novel Coronavirus outbreak: a quiz or final exam?
AbstractThe 2019 novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is an emerging pathogen and is threatening the global health. Strikingly, more than 28 000 cases and 550 deaths have been reported within two months from disease emergence. Armed with experience from previous epidemics in the last two decades, clinicians, scientists, officials, and citizens in China are all contributing to the prevention of further 2019-nCoV transmission. Efficient preliminary work has enabled us to understand the basic characteristics of 2019-nCoV, but there are still many unanswered questions. It is too early now to judge our performance in this outbreak. Co...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 20, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Back to the spring of Wuhan: facts and hope of COVID-19 outbreak
(Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 14, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Combination of western medicine and Chinese traditional patent medicine in treating a family case of COVID-19 in Wuhan
This report describes the identification, d iagnosis, clinical course, and management of three cases from a family, suggests the expected therapeutic effects of SHL on COVID-19, and warrants further clinical trials. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 13, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection
This study may provide potential clues for further investigation of the pathogenesis and route of 2019-nCoV infection. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 12, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

China ’s local governments are combating COVID-19 with unprecedented responses — from a Wenzhou governance perspective
AbstractThe COVID-19 caused by a novel strain of Coronavirus has been spreading rapidly since its onset in Wuhan, the capital city of central China ’s Hubei Province, in December 2019. It is highly communicable through human-to-human transmission. China has been making unprecedented efforts in treating the confirmed cases, identifying and isolating their close contacts and suspected cases to control the source of infection and cut the route o f transmission. China’s devotion in handling this epidemic has effectively and efficiently curbed communication domestically and across the border. Representative measures...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 12, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Development of oncolytic virotherapy: from genetic modification to combination therapy
AbstractOncolytic virotherapy (OVT) is a novel form of immunotherapy using natural or genetically modified viruses to selectively replicate in and kill malignant cells. Many genetically modified oncolytic viruses (OVs) with enhanced tumor targeting, antitumor efficacy, and safety have been generated, and some of which have been assessed in clinical trials. Combining OVT with other immunotherapies can remarkably enhance the antitumor efficacy. In this work, we review the use of wild-type viruses in OVT and the strategies for OV genetic modification. We also review and discuss the combinations of OVT with other immunotherapi...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - March 7, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Research progress on human infection with avian influenza H7N9
AbstractSince the first case of novel H7N9 infection was reported, China has experienced five epidemics of H7N9. During the fifth wave, a highly pathogenic H7N9 strain emerged. Meanwhile, the H7N9 virus continues to accumulate mutations, and its affinity for the human respiratory epithelial sialic acid 2 –6 receptor has increased. Therefore, a pandemic is still possible. In the past 6 years, we have accumulated rich experience in dealing with H7N9, especially in terms of virus tracing, epidemiological research, key site mutation monitoring, critical disease mechanisms, clinical treatment, and vacc ine development. In...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 23, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HBV: progress and challenges in China
AbstractChina has the world's largest burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but the country has made considerable progress in preventing its mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in the past three decades. This feat is made possible due to the high coverage of birth-dose hepatitis B vaccine (HepB,> 95%), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening for pregnant women (> 99%), and hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus HepB for newborns whose mothers are HBsAg positive (> 99%). Studies on the optimal antiviral treatment regimen for pregnant women with high HBV-DNA load have also been conducted. However, China still ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 22, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Correlation between serum miR-154-5p and urinary albumin excretion rates in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional cohort study
This study aimed to investigate the correlation between serum miR-154-5p and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the association with biomarkers of inflammation and fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). A total of 390 patients with T2DM were divided into three groups: normal albuminuria (UACR 300 mg/g,n = 122, CA). Circulating miR-154-5p, inflammatory (C-reactive protein (CRP); erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); and tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) and fibrotic markers (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF); transforming growth factor-&beta...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 16, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Characteristics of compensatory mutations in the rpoC gene and their association with compensated transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
AbstractThe aim of this study was to characterizerpoC gene mutations inMycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and investigate the factors associated withrpoC mutations and the relation betweenrpoC mutations and tuberculosis (TB) transmission. A total of 245 MTB clinical isolates from patients with TB in six provinces and two municipalities in China were characterized based on gene mutations through DNA sequencing ofrpoC andrpoB genes, phenotyping via standard drug susceptibility testing, and genotypic profiling by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Approximately 36.4% of ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 14, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Machine learning for detecting mesial temporal lobe epilepsy by structural and functional neuroimaging
AbstractMesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), the most common type of focal epilepsy, is associated with functional and structural brain alterations. Machine learning (ML) techniques have been successfully used in discriminating mTLE from healthy controls. However, either functional or structural neuroimaging data are mostly used separately as input, and the opportunity to combine both has not been exploited yet. We conducted a multimodal ML study based on functional and structural neuroimaging measures. We enrolled 37 patients with left mTLE, 37 patients with right mTLE, and 74 healthy controls and trained a support vecto...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 7, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Is tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility effective ? a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial
In this study, we assessed whether tailored therapy based on antibiotic susceptibility testing is more effective than traditional therapy. We also evaluated the factors that cause treatment failure in high-resistance areas. For this multicenter trial, we recruited 467H. pylori-positive patients. The patients were randomly assigned to receive tailored triple therapy (TATT), tailored bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (TABQT), or traditional bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (TRBQT). For the TATT and TABQT groups, antibiotic selection proceeded via susceptibility testing using an agar-dilution test. The patients in the ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

High-throughput metabolomics reveals the perturbed metabolic pathways and biomarkers of Yang Huang syndrome as potential targets for evaluating the therapeutic effects and mechanism of geniposide
This study used the established Yang Huang syndrome (YHS) mouse model to evaluate the efficacy of geniposide (GEN). Urine metabolic data were quantified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The non-target screening of the massive biological information dataset was performed, and a total of 33 metabolites, including tyramine glucuronide, aurine, and L-cysteine, were identified relating to YHS. These differential metabolites directly participated in the disturbance of phase I reaction and hydrophilic transformation of bilirubin. Interestingly, they were completely reversed by GEN. While, as the...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - January 3, 2020 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Keratin 5-Cre-driven deletion of Ncstn in an acne inversa-like mouse model leads to a markedly increased IL-36a and Sprr2 expression
In this study, we generated a keratin 5-Cre-driven epidermis-specificNcstn conditional knockout mutant in mice. We determined that this mutant recapitulated the major phenotypes of AI, including hyperkeratosis of hair follicles and inflammation. InNcstnflox/flox;K5-Cre mice, the IL-36a expression level markedly increased starting from postnatal day 0 (P0), and this increase occurred much earlier than those of TNF- α, IL-23A, IL-1β, and TLR4. RNA-Seq analysis indicated that Sprr2d, a member of the small proline-rich protein 2 family, in the skin tissues of theNcstnflox/flox;K5-Cre mice was also upregulated on P0....
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The function and regulation of OTU deubiquitinases
AbstractPost-translational modification of cellular proteins by ubiquitin regulates numerous cellular processes, including cell division, immune responses, and apoptosis. Ubiquitin-mediated control over these processes can be reversed by deubiquitinases (DUBs), which remove ubiquitin from target proteins and depolymerize polyubiquitin chains. Recently, much progress has been made in the DUBs. In humans, the ovarian tumor protease (OTU) subfamily of DUBs includes 16 members, most of which mediate cell signaling cascades. These OTUs show great variation in structure and function, which display a series of mechanistic feature...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Netrin-1 works with UNC5B to regulate angiogenesis in diabetic kidney disease
This study examined netrin-1 and UNC5B expression in kidneys with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and investigated their roles in angiogenesis. Netrin-1 and UNC5B were upregulated in streptozotocininduced DKD Wistar rats, and their expression was compared with that in healthy controls. However, exogenous netrin-1 in UNC5B-depleted human renal glomerular endothelial cells (HRGECs) inhibited cell migration and tubulogenesis. This effect was likely associated with SRC pathway deactivation. Netrin-1 treatment also eliminated the pro-angiogenic effects of exogenous VEGF-165 on UNC5B-silenced HRGECs. These results indicate that UN...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Medical oncology management of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma 2019: a reality check
AbstractIn terms of global cancer-related deaths, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has the fourth highest mortality rate. Up until 2017, treatment of advanced HCC was largely limited to sorafenib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor, with little to no success in the development of alternative treatment options. However, in the past two years, there has been an unprecedented increase in both the number and type of treatment options available for HCC. As of 2019, the US FDA has approved four oral tyrosine kinase inhibitors, two immune checkpoint inhibitors, and one anti-angiogenesis antibody for the treatment of HCC. Even with t...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 21, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Temporal echocardiography findings in patients with fulminant myocarditis: beyond ejection fraction decline
In conclusion, FM patients who received mechanical circulatory supports exhibited steep improvement in ventricular function within 6 days. The patchy and diffused distribution pattern of reduced RLS and equally and severely impaired strain in the endocardium and epicardium are valuable features in the diagnosis of FM. (Source: Frontiers of Medicine)
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 19, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Broadly neutralizing antibodies and vaccine design against HIV-1 infection
AbstractRemarkable progress has been achieved for prophylactic and therapeutic interventions against human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) through antiretroviral therapy. However, vaccine development has remained challenging. Recent discoveries in broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) has led to the development of multiple novel vaccine approaches for inducing bNAbs-like antibody response. Structural and dynamic studies revealed several vulnerable sites and states of the HIV-1 envelop glycoprotein (Env) during infection. Our review aims to highlight these discoveries and rejuvenate our endeavor in HIV-1 ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 19, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Prevention and treatment of pancreatic fistula after pancreatic body and tail resection: current status and future directions
AbstractPostoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most common and critical complication after pancreatic body and tail resection. How to effectively reduce the occurrence of pancreatic fistula and conduct timely treatment thereafter is an urgent clinical issue to be solved. Recent research standardized the definition of pancreatic fistula and stressed the correlation between POPF classification and patient prognosis. According to the literature, identification of the risk factors for pancreatic fistula contributed to lowering the rate of the complication. Appropriate management of the pancreatic stump and perioperativ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 16, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Survey on deep learning for pulmonary medical imaging
AbstractAs a promising method in artificial intelligence, deep learning has been proven successful in several domains ranging from acoustics and images to natural language processing. With medical imaging becoming an important part of disease screening and diagnosis, deep learning-based approaches have emerged as powerful techniques in medical image areas. In this process, feature representations are learned directly and automatically from data, leading to remarkable breakthroughs in the medical field. Deep learning has been widely applied in medical imaging for improved image analysis. This paper reviews the major deep le...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 16, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The epidemiology of norovirus gastroenteritis in China: disease burden and distribution of genotypes
AbstractWith the improvements of sanitation and nationwide safe water supply the occurrence of bacterial diarrhea declined remarkably, while viruses became the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Of these viruses, noroviruses (NoVs) are responsible for a considerable burden of gastroenteritis, especially in children
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - December 10, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and prognostic values of 1p32.3 deletion detected through fluorescence in situ hybridization in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a single-center study in China
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic impact of 1p32.3 deletion in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM). A retrospective analysis was conducted on 411 patients with newly diagnosed MM; among which, 270 received bortezomib-based therapies, and 141 received thalidomide-based therapies. Fluorescencein situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect six cytogenetic abnormalities, namely, del(1p32.3), gain(1q21), del(17p13), del(13q14), t(4;14), and t(11;14). Results showed that 8.3% of patients with MM were detected with del(1p32.3) and had significantly more ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 29, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Chinmedomics facilitated quality-marker discovery of Sijunzi decoction to treat spleen qi deficiency syndrome
In this study, we used Chinmedomics to evaluate the SJZD ’s efficacy against SQDS to discover the potential quality-markers (q-markers) for QC. A total of 56 compounds in SJZD were characterizedin vitro, and 23 compounds were discovered in vivo. A total of 58 biomarkers were related to SQDS, and SJZD can adjust a large proportion of marker metabolites to normal level and then regulate the metabolic profile to the health status. A total of 10 constituents were absorbed as effective ingredients that were associated with overall efficacy. We preliminarily determined malonyl-ginsenoside Rb2 and ginsenoside Ro as the q-ma...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 21, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Evidence for lung repair and regeneration in humans: key stem cells and therapeutic functions of fibroblast growth factors
We present evidence that the human adult lung does repair and regenerate and introduce different ways to harness this power. Various types of lung stem cells are capable of proliferating and differentiating upon injury driving the repair/regeneration process. Injury models, primarily in mice, combined with lineage tracing studies, have allowed the identification of these important cells. Some of these cells, such as basal cells, broncho-alveolar stem cells, and alveolar type 2 cells, rely on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling for their survival, proliferation and/or differentiation. While preclinical studies have sho...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - November 18, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

New spinal robotic technologies
AbstractRobotic systems in surgery have developed rapidly. Installations of the da Vinci Surgical System ® (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), widely used in urological and gynecological procedures, have nearly doubled in the United States from 2010 to 2017. Robotics systems in spine surgery have been adopted more slowly; however, users are enthusiastic about their applications in this subspecia lty. Spinal surgery often requires fine manipulation of vital structures that must be accessed via limited surgical corridors and can require repetitive tasks over lengthy periods of time — issues for which robotic ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 31, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Direct acting antiviral-induced dynamic reduction of serum α fetoprotein in hepatitis C patients without hepatocellular carcinoma
AbstractDirect acting antiviral (DAA) treatments may reduce the elevated α fetoprotein (AFP), but data on how these treatments affect elevated AFP in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) remain insufficient. In the present study, the frequency of baseline AFP elevations and their related factors, AFP dynamics during and after DAA treatment, and factors associated wit h AFP reduction was assessed. This retrospective study included 141 patients with CHC without hepatocellular carcinoma who received DAA and achieved sustained virological response. The details are as follows: mean post-treatment follow-up was 99 weeks...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 26, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Unidirectional and stage-dependent roles of Notch1 in Wnt-responsive Lgr5 + cells during mouse inner ear development
AbstractWnt and Notch signaling play crucial roles in the determination of the prosensory domain and in the differentiation of hair cells (HCs) and supporting cells during mouse inner ear development; however, the relationship between the two signaling pathways in the mouse cochlea remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the interactions between Notch and Wnt signaling on the basis of the bidirectional regulation of Notch1 specifically in Wnt-responsive Lgr5+ progenitors during different cochlear development stages. We found that the downregulation of Notch1 in Lgr5+ cells from embryonic day (E) 14.5 to E18.5 can dr...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - October 8, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Identification of an E3 ligase-encoding gene RFWD3 in non-small cell lung cancer
AbstractIn order to unveil ubiquitin pathway genes (UPGs) that are essential for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation, we recently conducted a siRNA screening experiment to knockdown the expression of 696 UPGs found in the human genome in A549 and H1975 NSCLC cells. We found that silencing of one of the candidates,RFWD3 that encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase essential for the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links in response to DNA damage, led to dramatic inhibition of NSCLC cell proliferation with significant Z-scores. Knockdown ofRFWD3 suppressed colony forming activity of NSCLC cells.We further evaluated t...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Management of cytokine release syndrome related to CAR-T cell therapy
In this study, we reported the management of a patient with recurrent and refractory multiple myeloma and three patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who suffered CRS during CAR-T treatment. The early application of tocilizumab, an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, according to toxicity grading and clinical manifestation is recommended especially for patients who suffer continuous hyperpyrexia, hypotensive shock, acute respiratory failure, and whose CRS toxicities deteriorated rapidly. Moreover, low doses of dexamethasone (5 –10 mg/day) were used for refractory CRS not responding to tocilizumab. The effective managemen...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 28, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of surgical factors on the augmentation of cement-injectable cannulated pedicle screw fixation by a novel calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite
AbstractBone cement-augmented pedicle screw system demonstrates great efficacy in spinal disease treatments. However, the intrinsic drawbacks associated with clinically used polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement demands for new bone cement formulations. On the basis of our previous studies, a novel injectable and biodegradable calcium phosphate-based nanocomposite (CPN) for the augmentation of pedicle screw fixation was systematically evaluated for its surgical feasibility and biomechanical performance by simulated and animal osteoporotic bone models, and the results were compared with those of clinical PMMA cement. ASTM-st...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 23, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Risk factors for chronic graft-versus-host disease after anti-thymocyte globulin-based haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia
AbstractChronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a major complication following unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT). We aimed to identify the risk factors for cGVHD in patients who underwent anti-thymocyte globulin-based haplo-HSCT for acute myeloid leukemia (n = 280). The diagnosis of cGVHD was in accordance with the National Institutes of Health consensus criteria. A total of 169 patients suffered from cGVHD. The patients who had 3 loci mismatched had a higher 8-year incidence of cGVHD (total, 66.0% vs. 53.7%,P = 0.031; moderate to severe, 42.4% vs. 30.1%,P = 0.036) than ...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 11, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

The FGF metabolic axis
AbstractMembers of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family play pleiotropic roles in cellular and metabolic homeostasis. During evolution, the ancestor FGF expands into multiple members by acquiring divergent structural elements that enable functional divergence and specification. Heparan sulfate-binding FGFs, which play critical roles in embryonic development and adult tissue remodeling homeostasis, adapt to an autocrine/paracrine mode of action to promote cell proliferation and population growth. By contrast, FGF19, 21, and 23 coevolve through losing binding affinity for extracellular matrix heparan sulfate while acqui...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 7, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research

Symptom network topological features predict the effectiveness of herbal treatment for pediatric cough
This study aims to investigate whether the network structure of pediatric cough symptoms is associated with the prognosis and outcome of patients. A total of 384 cases were derived from the electronic medical records of a highly experienced traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) physician. The data were divided into two groups according to the therapeutic effect, namely, an invalid group (group A with 40 cases of poor efficacy) and a valid group (group B with 344 cases of good efficacy). Several well-established analysis methods, namely, statistical test, correlation analysis, and complex network analysis, were used to analyze...
Source: Frontiers of Medicine - September 7, 2019 Category: General Medicine Source Type: research