Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Authors: Masi L Abstract The 4 parathyroid glands derive from the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches and descend caudally to the anterior neck. Through the secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), the parathyroid glands are primarily responsible for maintaining extracellular calcium and phosphorus concentrations. Hypercalcemia may be distinguished in parathyroid-hypercalcemia and nonparathyroid hypercalcemia. The most common disorders include primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT), malignancy, granulomatous diseases, and medications. PHPT is a disease characterized by excessive secretion of PTH. PHPT is most commonly d...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Secondary and Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism.
Authors: Messa P, Alfieri CM Abstract Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHP) is a frequent complication of kidney diseases. At variance with all the other forms of SHP, which are compensatory conditions, renal SHP has many pathogenetic peculiarities, which have been only in part defined. Furthermore, in the long course of chronic kidney diseases (CKD), SHP sometimes transforms into a hypercalcemic condition resembling the autonomous form of hyperparathyroidism (tertiary hyperparathyroidism; THP). The clinical consequences of SHP in CKD patients are manifold, encompassing not only bone and mineral disorders, but also o...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Classification of Hypoparathyroid Disorders.
Authors: Cianferotti L Abstract The term hypoparathyroidism encompasses a huge group of disorders all characterized by an abnormal mineral homeostasis determined by inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone. Postsurgical hypoparathyroidism is a complication of neck surgery (thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, lymph node, and cancer neck dissection), closely related to the extent of the surgical procedure and the experience of the surgeon. If lasting more than 6 months it is defined as chronic hypoparathyroidism, requiring life-long replacement therapy with active vitamin D metabolites. All the other forms of nonsur...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Familial and Hereditary Forms of Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Authors: Cetani F, Saponaro F, Borsari S, Marcocci C Abstract Individuals with a familial predisposition to the development of parathyroid tumors constitute a small minority of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). These familial syndromes exhibit Mendelian inheritance patterns and the main causative genes in most families have been identified. They include multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN; types 1, 2A, and 4), hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH), and neonatal severe PHPT. Each MEN type is associated with...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Clinical Presentation of Hypoparathyroidism.
Authors: Giusti F, Brandi ML Abstract Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is one of the major hormones that regulates serum calcium. Hypoparathyroidism occurs when PTH secretion is insufficient. The main symptoms of hypoparathyroidism are the result of low blood calcium levels, hypocalcemia, which interferes with normal muscle contraction and nerve conduction. As a result, people with hypoparathyroidism can experience paresthesia, an unpleasant tingling sensation around the mouth and in the hands and feet, as well as muscle cramps and severe spasms known as "tetany" that affect the hands and feet. Many also report ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia and Neonatal Severe Hyperparathyroidism.
Authors: Vannucci L, Brandi ML Abstract Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) and neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) are genetically determined variants of primary hyperparathyroidism. FHH usually has a benign course, and patients do not require treatment, whereas NSHPT is a severe disorder often requiring early parathyroidectomy for young patients to survive. Recent discoveries in the genetic basis and new findings in therapeutic approaches have led to a great interest in these rare diseases. PMID: 30641521 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research)
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Asymptomatic Primary Hyperparathyroidism.
Authors: Clarke BL Abstract Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism has become the most common presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism in Europe and North America, and an increasingly common presentation in other parts of the world. As many as 25% of asymptomatic patients may develop indications for parathyroidectomy when followed long-term for up to 15 years. Patients who remain asymptomatic should be monitored for the development of complications that justify surgery. Patients who become symptomatic should be referred for surgery. Surgery may improve quality of life even in patients who remain asymptomatic. ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Parathyroid Carcinoma.
Authors: Cetani F, Pardi E, Marcocci C Abstract Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare endocrine malignancy, accounting for
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Nonparathyroid Hypercalcemia.
Authors: Goltzman D Abstract Primary hyperparathyroidism is among the most common causes of hypercalcemia. However, ingestion of medication, including hydrochlorathiazide, lithium, and foscarnet, excessive vitamin A ingestion, endocrinopathies such as hyperthyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and acromegaly, abnormal nutrient intake such as parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and milk-alkali syndrome, and prolonged immobilization have all been associated with hypercalcemia. The most common cause of nonparathyroid hypercalcemia is neoplasia. Hypercalcemia is generally due to the secretion of parathyroid hormone (P...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism.
Authors: Corbetta S Abstract Parathyroid hormone (PTH) disorders are characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical and biochemical presentations. The increasing use of serum PTH assay in the set of the diagnostic workout in patients with osteoporosis has identified patients with features of surgically confirmed primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) associated with persistent normal serum calcium levels, which has been recognized as a distinct entity from hypercalcemic PHPT (HPHPT) by the last international consensus. Normocalcemic PHPT (NPHPT) affects about 6-8% of PHPT patients. Although hypercalcemia is absent, patie...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Hypoparathyroidism.
The objective of this chapter is to provide a comprehensive review of the physiology of calcium homeostasis, the causes of hypocalcemia, and the epidemiology of hypoparathyroidism. It is very important to determine the underlying cause of the hypoparathyroidism in order to effectively treat our patients and improve quality of life. PMID: 30641528 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research)
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

A New Era for Chronic Management of Hypoparathyroidism: Parathyroid Hormone Peptides.
Authors: Marcucci G, Brandi ML Abstract Several studies have investigated replacement therapy with recombinant human parathyroid hormone [rhPTH(1-84)] for patients affected by chronic hypoparathyroidism who are not adequately controlled with standard treatment. In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA approved rhPTH(1-84), named Natpara®, for the pharmacological management of hypoparathyroidism. In Europe, in February 2017, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) recommended granting a conditional marketing authorization in the European Union for rhPTH(1-84). Here we review the studies conducted w...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Conventional Treatment of Hypoparathyroidism.
Authors: Marcucci G, Brandi ML Abstract The treatment of hypoparathyroidism depends on the severity of hypocalcemia, how rapidly the hypocalcemia developed, and the symptomatology. Chronic hypoparathyroidism is usually treated with oral supplementations, including calcium, calcitriol, or other active vitamin D analogs, and at times, thiazide diuretics. Although the standard therapy can adequately control patients with this disease, sometimes very high doses are required to maintain serum calcium levels in the normal range, with poor compliance and risk of long-term complications. PMID: 30641530 [PubMed - in pro...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Inactivating PTH/PTHrP Signaling Disorders.
Authors: Mantovani G, Elli FM Abstract Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), pseudo-PHP, acrodysostosis, and progressive osseous heteroplasia are heterogeneous disorders characterized by physical findings, differently associated in each subtype, including short bones, short stature, a stocky build, ectopic ossifications (features associated with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy), as well as laboratory abnormalities consistent with hormone resistance, such as hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. All these disorders are caused by impairments in ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Preliminaries.
Authors: PMID: 30453291 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research)
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - November 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Cushing's Syndrome Patients.
Authors: Ferraù F, Korbonits M Abstract Cushing's syndrome (CS), including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes among its many manifestations, is "a model" of metabolic syndrome. Glucocorticoid (GC) excess, through a combination of effects on liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas, increases gluconeogenesis and impairs insulin sensitivity, leading to carbohydrate abnormalities. Dyslipidemia is a common finding in CS as a consequence of GC-related increased lipolysis, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. CS patients experience typical changes in body composition, with fat redistrib...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.
Authors: Pasquali R Abstract Both prevalence and incidence of the metabolic syndrome is very high in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Obesity and visceral fat enlargement play a dominant role in determining the final phenotype of PCOS. Androgen excess and insulin resistance may be responsible for the development of all features of the metabolic syndrome. The major factors responsible for this association seem to be related to a triumvirate including androgen excess, insulin resistance and associated hyperinsulinemia, and obesity, particularly the abdominal-visceral phenotype. With respect to obesity, it...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Complications in Adrenal Insufficiency.
Authors: Ueland GA, Husebye ES Abstract Pharmacological glucocorticoid treatment is associated with adverse metabolic consequences such as hypertension, overweight, reduced glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus and ultimately increased mortality in cardiovascular disease. Here we review the evidence of detrimental effects of hormone replacement therapy in adrenal insufficiency (AI). Registry studies indicate increased cardiovascular mortality, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia in both primary and secondary AI, but when cohorts with carefully characterized patients are studied the picture is less clear, and re...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Hyperprolactinemia.
Authors: Andersen M, Glintborg D Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a conglomerate of clinical findings that convey into increased morbidity and mortality from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease. Hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) is associated with components of MetS, especially during pregnancy. Endogenous levels of sex steroids are high during pregnancy in contrast to untreated or replaced hypogonadism in most patients with a prolactinoma and hypogonadism may confer increased risk of MetS in hyperPRL. Dopamine-D2-agonist therapy can improve MetS in patients with a prolactinoma and lower ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

The Metabolic Syndrome in Central Hypogonadotrophic Hypogonadism.
Authors: Dwyer AA, Quinton R Abstract The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a term used to describe the constellation of cardiometabolic risk factors including central adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and arterial hypertension. Notably, a number of studies have shown high rates of testosterone (T) deficiency in men with MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Both hypogonadism and MetS confer increased health risk for morbidity and mortality as men with the MetS are at twice the risk for developing cardiovascular disease and at 5-fold higher risk for developing T2DM. Moreo...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Thyroid Disease.
Authors: Iwen KA, Oelkrug R, Kalscheuer H, Brabant G Abstract Cardiometabolic risk factors like abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and hypertension are defined as metabolic syndrome (MetS), which represents one of the most frequent endocrine disorders particularly in a society with increasing weight problems. As more and more evidence is accumulated that thyroid hormones affect components of the MetS, the present review aims to summarize the rapidly expanding knowledge on the pathophysiological interaction between thyroid hormone status and MetS...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Complications of Acromegaly.
Authors: Mercado M, Ramírez-Rentería C Abstract Diabetes is recognized as one of the most common acromegaly co-morbidities with a prevalence ranging 20-53%, while over one-third of these patients have an altered lipid profile. In fact, as in the non-acromegalic population, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism abnormalities are closely linked. Long term exposure to an excess of growth hormone (GH) and Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations results in insulin resistance and an increased hepatic glucose production. The lipolytic effect of GH results in the mobilization of free fatty acids that further ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Male Hypogonadism.
Authors: Rastrelli G, Filippi S, Sforza A, Maggi M, Corona G Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and hypogonadism (HG) are frequently comorbid. In this review, we summarize interconnections between the construct of MetS and the presence of HG, as well as the effect of specific treatments for each condition on this association. Data from meta-analytic studies suggest a bidirectional pathogenic relationship. In fact, reduced T (-2.21 [-2.43 to -1.98] nmol/L) at baseline predicts incident MetS. On the other hand, MetS at study entry increases the risk of developing HG (OR 2.46 [1.77-3.42]). The bidirectional pathogenic...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Parathyroid Diseases.
Authors: Corbetta S, Mantovani G, Spada A Abstract Parathyroid glands are the main regulator of body mineral metabolism through parathormone (PTH) actions on bone and kidney. Experimental evidence suggests that PTH may have non-classical target organs such as adipose tissue, arterial vascular wall, cardiac muscle cells, and adrenal cortex cells, where it may play a role in controlling body energy, blood pressure, and metabolism. Cardiometabolic features have been investigated in the wide spectrum of clinical parathyroid disorders, from hyperparathyroidism to pseudohypoparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. Indeed, ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Syndrome in Hypopituitarism.
Authors: Miljić D, Popovic V Abstract Prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and mortality rates from cardiovascular causes are increased in patients with hypopituitarism. Features of obesity, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension are common in these patients. Unreplaced growth hormone (GH) deficiency and inadequate replacement of other hormone insufficiencies may be responsible for the adverse body composition and metabolic profile associated with hypopituitarism. Recently, fatty liver disease was added to this unfavorable metabolic phenotype. Long-term treatment with low-dose GH...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Preliminaries.
Authors: PMID: 29621766 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research)
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - April 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Physiology of the Calcium-Parathyroid Hormone-Vitamin D Axis.
Authors: Goltzman D, Mannstadt M, Marcocci C Abstract Classic endocrine feedback loops ensure the regulation of blood calcium. Calcium in the extracellular fluid (ECF) binds and activates the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) on the parathyroid cells, leading to an increase in intracellular calcium. This in turn leads to a reduced parathyroid hormone (PTH) release. Hypocalcemia leads to the opposite sequence of events, namely, lowered intracellular calcium and increased PTH production and secretion. PTH rapidly increases renal calcium reabsorption and, over hours to days, enhances osteoclastic bone resorption and lib...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Preliminaries.
Authors: PMID: 29597232 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research)
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Vitamin D Assays.
Authors: Bikle DD Abstract The number of requests for vitamin D metabolite measurements has increased dramatically over the past decade leading commercial laboratories to develop rapid high throughput assays. The measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and to a lesser extent 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) dominates these requests, but requests for multiple metabolite measurements in the same sample are also increasing. The most commonly used methods include immunoassays and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, but with improvements in technolo...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

New Concepts in Vitamin D Requirements for Children and Adolescents: A Controversy Revisited.
Authors: Laing EM, Lewis RD Abstract North American and European authorities have identified thresholds up to 50 nmol/L serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) as optimal for pediatric vitamin D status. These recommendations are relative to skeletal endpoints, as vitamin D plays a pivotal role in bone mineral content (BMC) accretion. Suboptimal vitamin D consumption during youth may therefore hinder BMC acquisition, and contribute to an increased fracture risk. Though vitamin D requirements range between 400 and 800 IU/day, not all children achieve this. To encourage adequate vitamin D consumption, strategies such as s...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Practical Issues in Vitamin D Replacement.
Authors: Adler RA Abstract Practical clinical guidance for vitamin D assessment and management relies on a strong evidence base, but unfortunately there are many deficiencies in our current knowledge. For the general population the Institute of Medicine recommendations are likely to provide adequate vitamin D levels without harms. Thus, most adults should ingest 600-800 IU (international units) in diet and supplements with up to 4,000 IU daily likely to be safe. In certain populations, such as those with osteoporosis or after bariatric surgery, it is important to know the levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Extra-Skeletal Effects of Vitamin D.
Authors: Bouillon R Abstract There are very solid data to confirm that the vitamin D endocrine system is important not only for calcium transport or bone homeostasis but also for operational functions in most cells of the body. Preclinical studies convincingly demonstrated coherent actions of the vitamin D endocrine system on the proliferation/differentiation of most cells (and thus possibly on the evolution of cancer). The most plausible target tissues include skeletal and cardiac muscle, all immune cells, many cells involved in cardiovascular homeostasis, brain cells, and reproductive tissues. These data have bee...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Vitamin D and Secondary Hyperparathyroid States.
Authors: Cipriani C, Pepe J, Colangelo L, Minisola S Abstract The interplay between vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) represents one of the most important metabolic mechanisms of regulation of the calcium/phosphorus homeostasis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is therefore a major complication that arises as a result of reduced vitamin D levels, both as primary 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25[OH]D) and/or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) reduction. Different metabolic pathways are involved, as well as target organs and tissues, with several clinical complications. The skeleton is primarily involved, but many other...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Vitamin D and Diabetes Mellitus.
Authors: Maddaloni E, Cavallari I, Napoli N, Conte C Abstract Vitamin D has been suggested as a protective compound for diabetes mellitus. Several mechanisms linking vitamin D to the regulation of the immune response support a role for vitamin D in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Epidemiological evidence and observational studies suggesting that adequate vitamin D status is related to decreased risk of developing type 1 diabetes further corroborates this concept. However, only few and mostly underpowered randomized clinical trials have been conducted to test the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation i...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Immune-Neuro-Endocrine Reflexes, Circuits, and Networks: Physiologic and Evolutionary Implications.
Authors: Del Rey A, Besedovsky HO Abstract The existence of a network of interactions between the immune and nervous systems that influences host defenses and brain functions is now well-established. Here we discuss how immune and classical neuro/sensorial signals are processed in the brain and how neuro-endocrine immunoregulatory and behavioral responses are integrated. Considering the ability of brain cells to produce cytokines, originally described as immune cell products, we propose that the tripartite synapse plays a central role in the integration of neuro-endocrine-immune interactions. We also propose that t...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Inflammation and Thymus Ageing.
Authors: Lepletier A, Alsharif A, Chidgey AP Abstract The thymus is primarily responsible for T cell production. However, it begins to recede in size and function, from early in life. This decreased generation of naive T cells during normal thymus ageing, or linked with pathology (i.e. chronic inflammation), leads to reduced T cell specificities, peripheral T cell imbalances, and higher susceptibilities to infections. Various clinical strategies for thymus and T cell recovery have been investigated, although no effective clinical treatments for the reconstitution of peripheral T cell diversity in severe immune defi...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Intrahypophyseal Immune-Endocrine Interactions: Endocrine Integration of the Inflammatory Inputs.
Authors: Renner U, Sapochnik M, Lucia K, Stalla GK, Arzt E Abstract Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) of gram-negative bacteria has been recognized for more than 40 years as a modulator of anterior pituitary hormone production. The action of LPS was thought to be predominantly mediated through LPS-stimulated immune cell-derived cytokines, and is part of the concept of immune-endocrine crosstalk, which regulates bidirectional adaptive processes between the endocrine and immune systems during inflammatory or infectious processes. With the detection of innate immune system components in the normal and tumoral pituit...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Pituitary Autoimmunity.
Authors: Guaraldi F, Giordano R, Grottoli S, Ghizzoni L, Arvat E, Ghigo E Abstract Pituitary autoimmunity, considered a synonym of autoimmune hypophysitis, defines a wide spectrum of conditions (neoplastic, functional, and iatrogenic pituitary disorders; and extra-pituitary autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases), and is characterized by the presence of antipituitary antibodies (APAs) at various titer and prevalence. These conditions have been increasingly recognized not only in adults, but also in children. The autoimmune pathogenesis, histological features of the primary (i.e. lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthoma...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Prolactin: An Immunomodulator in Health and Disease.
Authors: Savino W Abstract Various lines of evidence show that prolactin (PRL) is an immunomodulator in health and disease. Cells of the immune system express PRL receptors and respond to the cognate ligand. Also, PRL itself is produced by several immune cells, indicating that in addition to its classic endocrine effects, it may also act via paracrine/autocrine pathways. PRL stimulates B and T lymphocyte proliferation, and its excess is associated with the appearance or recrudescence of various systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases, as demonstrated by experimental studies performed in mice, and by human c...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

A Novel Clinical Entity of Autoimmune Endocrinopathy: Anti-PIT-1 Antibody Syndrome.
Authors: Iguchi G, Bando H, Takahashi Y Abstract Pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (PIT-1; POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (POU1F1)) is an essential transcription factor for the differentiation of somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and thyrotrophs, and for the expression of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Mutations in PIT-1 cause congenital defects in GH and PRL secretion and severe TSH insufficiency. Anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome, firstly reported in 2011, is characterized by acquired GH, PRL, and TSH deficiencies without PIT-1 mutation and is associated with...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Leptin, Neuroinflammation and Obesity.
Authors: Dragano NR, Haddad-Tovolli R, Velloso LA Abstract Hypothalamic resistance to adipostatic actions of leptin is a hallmark of obesity. Studies have revealed that hypothalamic inflammation, triggered in response to the consumption of large amounts of dietary fat, is an important mechanism in the development of leptin resistance. In this chapter, we will review the work that paved the way linking neuroinflammation of the hypothalamus and defective leptin action in obesity. PMID: 28245454 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research)
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Thyroid Autoimmunity and Cancer.
Authors: Felicetti F, Catalano MG, Fortunati N Abstract Cancer and autoimmune diseases are often associated in the same individual. The functional link between the immune system and cancer development is only partially known. Even though the immune system can control the development of cancer through immune surveillance, cancer cell can escape it. It is debated whether autoimmune diseases have to be regarded as a cancer cause or its consequence. In particular, the association between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer (TC; especially papillary carcinoma) is a fascinating model of this complex relationship. I...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Role of Cortistatin in the Stressed Immune System.
Authors: Delgado M, Gonzalez-Rey E Abstract The immune system is faced with the daunting job of defending the organism against invading pathogens, while at the same time preserving the body integrity and maintaining tolerance to its own tissues. Loss of self-tolerance compromises immune homeostasis and leads to the onset of autoimmune disorders. The identification of endogenous factors that control immune tolerance and inflammation is a key goal for immunologists. Evidences from the last decade indicate that the neuropeptide cortistatin is one of the endogenous factors. Cortistatin is produced by immune cells and t...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Steroids and Autoimmunity.
Authors: Trombetta AC, Meroni M, Cutolo M Abstract From the middle of the 19th century, it is known that endocrine and immune systems interact bi-directionally in different processes that ensure organism homeostasis. Endocrine and nervous systems have a pivotal role in the balancing of pro- and anti-inflammatory functions of immune system, and constitute a complex circadian neuroendocrine network. Autoimmune diseases have in fact a complex pathogenic origin in which the importance of endocrine system was demonstrated. In this chapter, we will mention the structure and function of steroidal hormones involved in the ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Endocrine Autoimmunity in Down's Syndrome.
Authors: Guaraldi F, Rossetto Giaccherino R, Lanfranco F, Motta G, Gori D, Arvat E, Ghigo E, Giordano R Abstract Since the mid 1900s, a significant increase of infectious, hematological, and autoimmune diseases has been reported in patients with Down's syndrome (DS), independent of sex, age, family history, and exposure to other risk factors, suggesting an intrinsic alteration of the immune system. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated alterations of both cellular and humoral immunological response mainly, although not exclusively, secondary to alterations of the expression of autoimmune regulator ...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

The Somatotrope Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone/Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Axis in Immunoregulation and Immunosenescence.
Authors: Bodart G, Farhat K, Charlet-Renard C, Salvatori R, Geenen V, Martens H Abstract Most scientific reports debate the thymotropic and immuno-stimulating properties of the somatotrope growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)/growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, but there is still some disagreement about the physiological role of this axis in basal conditions. Moreover, some authors have hypothesized that the physiological role of the somatotrope axis only appears in stressful conditions (such as sepsis or infective and inflammatory diseases). This chapter will provide an extended overvie...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Endocrine Immunology of Chagas Disease.
Authors: Savino W Abstract The concept of immunoendocrine interactions, existing in normal and pathological conditions, is relatively recent. Accordingly, cells from the immune system and from endocrine glands share common receptors for cytokines and hormones, allowing systemic and local regulatory mechanisms. In this context, lymphoid organs are under physiological hormonal control. Disturbances in these systems, as those caused by pathogens changes the physiological profile of these interactions, with the release of proinflammatory cytokines and hormones, and one example is the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - March 1, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Androgens.
Authors: Iyer R, Handelsman DJ Abstract Androgen abuse is the most potent and prevalent form of sports doping detected. It originated from the early years of the Cold War as an epidemic confined to drug cheating within elite power sports. In the decades following the end of the Cold War, it has become disseminated into an endemic based within the illicit drug subcultures serving recreational abusers seeking cosmetic body sculpting effects. Within sports, both direct androgen abuse (administration of androgens), as well as indirect androgen abuse (administration of nonandrogenic drugs to increase endogenous testoste...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1.
Authors: Nicholls AR, Holt RI Abstract Human growth hormone (GH) was first isolated from the human pituitary gland in 1945 and found to promote the growth of children with hypopituitarism. Since the formation of the World Anti-Doping Association, human GH has appeared on the list of forbidden substances. There is a significant amount of anecdotal evidence that human GH is misused by athletes to enhance performance, and there have been a number of high-profile cases of GH use in professional sport. GH secretagogues (GH-Ss), which increase GH secretion, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), which mediates many of t...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research

Erythropoietin.
Authors: Jelkmann W Abstract Total hemoglobin (Hb) mass is an important determinant of aerobic power. The glycoprotein erythropoietin (Epo) promotes the production of red blood cells (RBCs). The present article reviews the regulation of erythropoiesis and ways of its manipulation. The various Epos, e.g. recombinant human (rh)Epo and (epoetin), and their long-acting analogues can be misused by cheating athletes, but the drugs are detectable by chemical tests, because their glycan isoform structures differ from those of endogenous Epo. Still, anti-doping control has become more difficult, since additional erythropoie...
Source: Frontiers of Hormone Research - June 28, 2016 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Front Horm Res Source Type: research