Influence of ovarian hormones on value-based decision-making systems: contribution to sexual dimorphisms in mental disorders.
Abstract Women and men exhibit differences in behavior when making value-based decisions. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain these findings, stressing differences in functional lateralization of the brain, functional activation, neurotransmitter involvement and more recently, sex hormones. While a significant interaction of neurotransmitter systems and sex hormones has been shown for both sexes, decision-making in women might be particularly affected by variations of ovarian hormones. In this review we have gathered information from animal and human studies on how ovarian hormones affect decision-mak...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ambrase A, Lewis CA, Barth C, Derntl B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Hypothalamic neurogenesis and its implications for obesity-induced anxiety disorders.
Abstract Obesity and anxiety are public health problems that have no effective cure. Obesity-induced anxiety is also the most common behavioural trait exhibited amongst obese patients, with the mechanisms linking these disorders being poorly understood. The hypothalamus and hippocampus are reciprocally connected, important neurogenic brain regions that could be vital to understanding these disorders. Dietary, physical activity and lifestyle interventions have been shown to be able to enhance neurogenesis within the hippocampus, while the effects thereof within the hypothalamus is yet to be ascertained. This review...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Samodien E, Chellan N Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Animal models built for women's brain health: progress and potential.
Abstract Women and men have different levels of risk for a variety of brain disorders. Despite this well-known epidemiological finding, preclinical work utilizing animal models has historically only included male animals. The policies of funders to require consideration of sex as a biological variable has shifted the momentum to include female animals in preclinical neuroscience and to report findings by sex. However, there are many biological questions related to brain health that go beyond sex differences and are indeed specific to women. Here, the focus is on why animal models should be utilized in the pursuit ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Morrison KE Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Sex matters in stroke: a review of recent evidence on the differences between women and men.
Abstract For the most part, stroke is a disease of old age. With the predicted increase in the aged population and longer life expectancies, the number and proportion of people living with stroke is expected to increase, especially among women and the elderly. For those who suffer stroke, there is a high likelihood of experiencing death and severe disability. Therefore, the issue of stroke amongst women (and men) is a key priority in global public health. In this review, we consider sex and gender differences in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, and we summarize data that outlines the epidemiology, risk factor, tre...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Carcel C, Woodward M, Wang X, Bushnell C, Charlotte Sandset E Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric Effects of Tamoxifen: Challenges and Opportunities.
Abstract Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research over the past thirty years have described the benefits of estrogen on cognition, mood, and brain health. Less is known about tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modifier (SERM) commonly used in breast cancer that is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. In this article we review the basic pharmacology of tamoxifen, as well as its effects on cognition and mood. The literature reveals an overall impairing effect of tamoxifen on cognition in breast cancer patients, hinting at central antiestrogen activity. On the other hand, tamoxifen demonstrates promising...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Novick AM, Scott AT, Neill Epperson C, Schneck CD Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Blood-brain barrier integrity in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) tightly controls the molecular exchange between the brain parenchyma and blood. Accumulated evidence from transgenic animal Alzheimer's disease (AD) models and human AD patients have demonstrated that BBB dysfunction is a major player in AD pathology. In this review, we discuss the role of the BBB in maintaining brain integrity and how this is mediated by crosstalk between BBB-associated cells within the neurovascular unit (NVU). We then discuss the role of the NVU, in particular its endothelial cell, pericyte, and glial cell constituents, in AD pathogenesis. The effect of su...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Huang Z, Wong LW, Su Y, Huang X, Wang N, Chen H, Yi C Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

It takes a neural village: Circuit-based approaches for estrogenic regulation of episodic memory.
Abstract Cognitive behaviors, such as episodic memory formation, are complex processes involving coordinated activity in multiple brain regions. However, much of the research on hormonal regulation of cognition focuses on manipulation of one region at a time or provides a single snapshot of how a systemic treatment affects multiple brain regions without investigating how these regions might interact to mediate hormone effects. Here, we use estrogenic regulation of episodic memory as an example of how circuit-based approaches may be incorporated into future studies of hormones and cognition. We first review basic e...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Schwabe MR, Taxier LR, Frick KM Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Osteocalcin, Ovarian senescence, and Brain health.
Abstract Menopause, an inevitable event in a woman's life, significantly increases risk of bone resorption and diseases such as Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, cardiac arrest, and stroke. The sole role of bones, as traditionally regarded, is to provide structural support for skeletal muscles and allow for ambulation, however this concept is becoming quickly outdated. New literature has emerged that suggests the bone cell-derived hormone osteocalcin (OCN) plays a pivotal role in cognition. OCN levels are correlated with bone mass density and bone turnover, and thus are strongly influenced by the changes associated ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Schatz M, Saravanan S, d'Adesky ND, Bramlett H, Perez-Pinzon MA, Raval AP Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The peripartum human brain: current understanding and future perspectives.
Abstract The peripartum period offers a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of how dramatic fluctuations in endogenous ovarian hormones affect the human brain and behavior. This notwithstanding, peripartum depression remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated disorder. Here, we review recent neuroimaging findings with respect to the neuroplastic changes in the maternal brain during pregnancy and the postpartum period. We seek to provide an overview of multimodal neuroimaging designs of current peripartum depression models of hormone withdrawal, changes in monoaminergic signaling, and maladaptive neurop...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sacher J, Chechko N, Dannlowski U, Walter M, Derntl B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Allostatic load and women's brain health: A systematic review.
The objective of this systematic review was to (1) assess sex differences in allostatic load and (2) identify allostatic load associations that are specific to women. We systematically searched for allostatic load studies that included psychosocial causes and/or psychiatric consequences. Our search focused on allostatic load studies that disaggregated by sex and that include women. Sixty-two studies were included in this systematic review. First, men appear to have higher allostatic load than women. Second, women show gender-specific variation for numerous factors such as age, race/ethnicity, adversities, social support, a...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kerr P, Kheloui S, Rossi M, Désilets M, Juster RP Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Perinatal Depression: Heterogeneity of Disease and in Animal Models.
Abstract Perinatal depression (PND) can have either an antepartum or postpartum onset. Although the greatest risk factor for PND is previous depression history,de novoPND occurs with the majority of cases occurring in the postpartum. Timing of depression can impact etiology, prognosis, and response to treatment. Thus, it is crucial to study the impact of the heterogeneity of PND for better health outcomes. In this review, we outline the differences between antepartum and postpartum depression onset. We discuss maternal physiological changes that differ between pregnancy and postpartum and how these may differentia...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Qiu W, Hodges TE, Clark EL, Blankers SA, Galea LAM Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Fingernail cortisol - state of research and future directions.
Abstract The extraction of cortisol from fingernails represents a recent advancement in the retrospective, long-term assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity: Fingernail cortisol has the potential to overcome some of the major disadvantages of established HPA axis markers. However, the introduction of any novel methodology also raises certain caveats. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the current state of research on fingernail cortisol. It identifies a number of strengths of his novel methodology (e.g., its high feasibility), while also pointing out open questions which curre...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fischer S, Schumacher S, Skoluda N, Strahler J Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Progesterone - friend or foe?
s E Abstract Estradiol is the "prototypic" sex hormone of women. Yet, women have another sex hormone, which is often disregarded: Progesterone. The goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review on progesterone, and its metabolite allopregnanolone, emphasizing three key areas: biological properties, main functions, and effects on mood in women. Recent years of intensive research on progesterone and allopregnanolone have paved the way for new treatment of postpartum depression. However, treatment for premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder as well as contraception that women c...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sundström-Poromaa I, Comasco E, Sumners R, Luders E Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Gonadal Hormones and Stroke Risk: PCOS as a Case Study.
Abstract It is well known that stroke incidence and outcome is sex-dependent and influenced by age and gonadal hormones. In post-menopausal and/or aged females, declining estrogen levels increases stroke risk. However, women who experience early menopause also have an increase in stroke risk. This suggests that, regardless of age, gonadal hormones regulate stroke risk and severity. This review discusses prolonged gonadal hormone dysfunction in a common female endocrine disorder known as polycystic ovarian syndrome, PCOS, and the associated increased risk of stroke due to resulting hyperandrogenism and metabolic co...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Stewart CE, Sohrabji F Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The tumour microenvironment of pituitary neuroendocrine tumours.
THE TUMOUR MICROENVIRONMENT OF PITUITARY NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOURS. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2020 Jun 15;:100852 Authors: Marques P, Grossman AB, Korbonits M Abstract The tumour microenvironment (TME) includes a variety of non-neoplastic cells and non-cellular elements such as cytokines, growth factors and enzymes surrounding tumour cells. The TME emerged as a key modulator of tumour initiation, progression and invasion, with extensive data available in many cancers, but little is known in pituitary tumours. However, the understanding of the TME of pituitary tumours has advanced thanks to active research i...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - June 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marques P, Grossman AB, Korbonits M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Risk & Resilience: Neuroendocrine mediators across the lifespan.
Risk & Resilience: Neuroendocrine mediators across the lifespan. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2020 Jun 03;:100851 Authors: Glasper ER, Neigh GN PMID: 32504631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - June 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Glasper ER, Neigh GN Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Towards an understanding of women's brain aging: the immunology of pregnancy and menopause.
Abstract Women are at significantly greater risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and show higher prevalence of autoimmune conditions relative to men. Women's brain health is historically understudied, and little is therefore known about the mechanisms underlying epidemiological sex differences in neurodegenerative diseases, and how female-specific factors may influence women's brain health across the lifespan. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the immunology of pregnancy and menopause, emphasizing that these major immunological and hormonal transition phases may play a critical part in women's brain...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - June 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Barth C, de Lange AG Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Microbes and mental health: Can the microbiome help explain clinical heterogeneity in psychiatry?
Abstract Trillions of microbes cover the surfaces of our bodies and inhabit our gastrointestinal tract. In the past decade, research efforts examining the role of the microbiome in mental health have moved to the forefront of neuroscience and psychiatry. Based on a foundation of animal studies demonstrating the vital role for microbiota-brain communication in brain development, behavior, and brain function over the life span, clinical studies have started to consider the microbiome in psychiatric disorders. The composition, diversity and function of commensal microbes is influenced by genetic, lifestyle, and envir...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - June 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hayes CL, Peters BJ, Foster JA Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Effects of cannabis exposure in the prenatal and adolescent periods: preclinical and clinical studies in both sexes.
Viveros MP Abstract Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults, including pregnant women. There is substantial evidence for a significant association between prenatal cannabis exposure and lower birth weight in offspring, and mixed results regarding later behavioural outcomes in the offspring. Adolescent cannabis use, especially heavy use, has been associated with altered executive function, depression, psychosis and use of other drugs later in life. Human studies have limitations due to several confounding factors and have provided scarce information about sex differences....
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tirado Muñoz J, Belen Lopez-Rodriguez A, Fonseca F, Farré M, Torrens M, Viveros MP Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Adaptations in reward-related behaviors and mesolimbic dopamine function during motherhood and the postpartum period.
M, Grace AA Abstract Initiation and maintenance of maternal behavior is driven by a complex interaction between the physiology of parturition and offspring stimulation, causing functional changes in maternal brain and behavior. Maternal behaviors are among the most robust and rewarding motivated behaviors. Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system alterations during pregnancy and the postpartum enable enhanced reward-related responses to offspring stimuli. Here, we review behavioral evidence demonstrating postpartum rodents exhibit a bias towards pups and pup-related stimuli in reward-related tasks. Next, we provide an over...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rincón-Cortés M, Grace AA Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Sexual health of women with schizophrenia: a review.
Abstract Women with schizophrenia experience low rates of sexual satisfaction and high rates of sexual dysfunction. They are at high risk for adverse sexual health outcomes including unplanned pregnancies, induced abortions, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and face higher rates of sexual violence and various forms of intimate partner violence. This review explores the complex and intersecting biopsychosocial risk factors that explain these outcomes among women with schizophrenia, including factors related to the illness itself, antipsychotic medications, medical and psychiatric comorbidities, stigma, child...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Barker LC, Vigod SN Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neuroimaging premenstrual dysphoric disorder: A systematic and critical review.
o E Abstract Endocrine organizational and activational influences on cognitive and affective circuits are likely critical to the development of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), a sex-specific hormone-dependent mood disorder. An overview of the anatomical and functional neural characterization of this disorder is presented here by means of neuroimaging correlates, identified from eighteen publications (n = 361 subjects). While white matter integrity remains uninvestigated, greater cerebellar grey matter volume and metabolism were observed in patients with PMDD, along with altered serotonergic and GABAergic n...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Dubol M, Neill Epperson C, Lanzenberger R, Sundström-Poromaa I, Comasco E Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

A simple model of estrous cycle negative and positive feedback regulation of GnRH secretion.
Abstract The gonadal steroids estradiol and progesterone exert critical suppressive and stimulatory actions upon the brain to control gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release that drives the estrous/menstrual cycle. A simple model for understanding these interactions is proposed in which the activity of the "GnRH pulse generator" is restrained by post-ovulation progesterone secretion to bring about the estrus/luteal phase slowing of pulsatile gonadotropin release, while the activity of the "GnRH surge generator" is primed by the rising follicular phase levels of estradiol to generate the p...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - March 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Herbison AE Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Physiopathological role of the enzymatic complex 5 α-reductase and 3α/β- hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase in the generation of progesterone and testosterone neuroactive metabolites.
Physiopathological role of the enzymatic complex 5α-reductase and 3α/β- hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase in the generation of progesterone and testosterone neuroactive metabolites. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2020 Mar 23;:100836 Authors: Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Falvo E, Miguel Garcia-Segura L, Cosimo Melcangi R Abstract The enzymatic complex 5α-reductase (5α-R) and 3α/3β-hydroxysteroid oxidoreductase (HSOR) is expressed in the nervous system, where it transforms progesterone (PROG) and testosterone (T) into neuroactive metabolites. These metabolites regulate myelination,...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - March 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Falvo E, Miguel Garcia-Segura L, Cosimo Melcangi R Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Maternal stressors and the developmental origins of neuropsychiatric risk.
Abstract The maternal environment during pregnancy is critical for fetal development and perinatal perturbations can prime offspring disease risk. Here, we briefly review evidence linking two well-characterized maternal stressors - psychosocial stress and infection - to increased neuropsychiatric risk in offspring. In the current climate of increasing obesity and globalization of the Western-style diet, maternal overnutrition emerges as a pressing public health concern. We focus our attention on recent epidemiological and animal model evidence showing that, like psychosocial stress and infection, maternal overnutr...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - February 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Khambadkone SG, Cordner ZA, Tamashiro KLK Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Sex bias and omission in neuroscience research is influenced by research model and journal, but not reported NIH funding.
Abstract Neuroscience research has historically demonstrated sex bias that favors male over female research subjects, as well as sex omission, which is the lack of reporting sex. Here we analyzed the status of sex bias and omission in neuroscience research published across six different journals in 2017. Regarding sex omission, 16% of articles did not report sex. Regarding sex bias, 52% of neuroscience articles reported using both males and females, albeit only 15% of articles using both males and females reported assessing sex as an experimental variable. Overrepresentation of the sole use of males compared to fe...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - February 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mamlouk GM, Dorris DM, Barrett LR, Meitzen J Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling in motor neuron and polyglutamine diseases: From molecular pathogenesis to therapeutic perspectives.
nco M Abstract The pleiotropic peptide insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) regulates human body homeostasis and cell growth. IGF-I activates two major signaling pathways, namely phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which contribute to brain development, metabolism and function as well as to neuronal maintenance and survival. In this review, we discuss the general and tissue-specific effects of the IGF-I pathways. In addition, we present a comprehensive overview examining the role of IGF-I in neurodegenerative diseases, such as spinal and ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - January 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pennuto M, Bhan Pandey U, José Polanco M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Pregnancy, Postpartum and Parity: Resilience and Vulnerability in Brain Health and Disease.
Abstract Risk and resilience in brain health and disease can be influenced by a variety of factors. While there is a growing appreciation to consider sex as one of these factors, far less attention has been paid to sex-specific variables that may differentially impact females such as pregnancy and reproductive history. In this review, we focus on nervous system disorders which show a female bias and for which there is data from basic research and clinical studies pointing to modification in disease risk and progression during pregnancy, postpartum and/or as a result of parity: multiple sclerosis (MS), depression, ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - January 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Deems N, Leuner B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a substrate for stress resilience: Interactions with the circadian clock.
Abstract Stress, primarily processed via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, engages biological pathways throughout the brain and body which promote adaptation and survival to changing environmental demands. Adaptation to environmental challenges is compromised when these pathways are no longer functioning optimally. The physiological and behavioral mechanisms through which HPA axis function influences stress adaptation and resilience are not fully elucidated. Our understanding of stress biology and disease must take into account the complex interactions between the endocrine system, neural circuits, an...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kinlein SA, Karatsoreos IN Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The role of hippocampal estradiol in synaptic plasticity and memory: A systematic review.
Abstract The consolidation of long-term memory is influenced by various neuromodulators. One of these is estradiol, a steroid hormone that is synthesized both in peripheral endocrine tissue and in the brain, including the hippocampus. Here, we examine the evidence regarding the role of estradiol in the hippocampus, specifically, in memory formation and its effects on the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. We conclude that estradiol improves memory consolidation and, thereby, long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that it does this in three, interconnected ways : 1) via functional changes i...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Finney CA, Shvetcov A, Westbrook RF, Jones NM, Morris MJ Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The Promises and Pitfalls of Sex Difference Research.
Abstract Funding agencies in North America and Europe are recognizing the importance of the integration of sex differences into basic and clinical research. Although these mandates are in place to improve our knowledge of health for both men and women, there have been a number of implementation issues that require vigilance on the part of funders and the research community. Here we discuss issues on simple inclusion of both sexes in studies to specialisation of sex differences with attention paid to statistics and the need for sex-specific treatments. We suggest differing mandates need to be considered regarding s...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Am Galea L, Choleris E, Yk Albert A, McCarthy MM, Sohrabji F Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

You've Got Male: Sex and the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis Across the Lifespan.
Abstract Sex is a critical factor in the diagnosis and development of a number of mental health disorders including autism, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, anorexia nervosa and others; likely due to differences in sex steroid hormones and genetics. Recent evidence suggests that sex can also influence the complexity and diversity of microbes that we harbour in our gut; and reciprocally that our gut microbes can directly and indirectly influence sex steroid hormones and central gene activation. There is a growing emphasis on the role of gastrointestinal microbiota in the ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jaggar M, Rea K, Spicak S, Dinan TG, Cryan JF Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Central aromatization: a dramatic and responsive defense against threat and trauma to the vertebrate brain.
Abstract Aromatase is the requisite and limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens from androgens. Estrogens synthesized centrally have also emerged as a potent neuroprotectant in the vertebrate brain. Studies in rodents and songbirds have identified key mechanisms that underlie both; the injury-dependent induction of central aromatization, and the protective effects of centrally synthesized estrogens. Injury-induced aromatase expression in astrocytes occurs following a broad range of traumatic brain damage including excitotoxic, penetrating, and concussive injury. Responses to neural insult such as edema and ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Duncan KA, Saldanha CJ Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

In search of optimal resilience ratios: Differential influences of neurobehavioral factors contributing to stress-resilience spectra.
Abstract The ability to adapt to stressful circumstances, known as emotional resilience, is a key factor in the maintenance of mental health. Several individual biomarkers of the stress response (e.g., corticosterone) that influence an animal's position along the continuum that ranges from adaptive allostasis to maladaptive allostatic load have been identified. Extending beyond specific biomarkers of stress responses, however, it is also important to consider stress-related responses relative to other relevant responses for a thorough understanding of the underpinnings of adaptive allostasis. In this review, behav...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lambert K, Hunter RG, Bartlett AA, Lapp HE, Kent M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Galanin peptide family regulation of glucose metabolism.
Abstract Recent preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that the galanin peptide family may regulate glucose metabolism and alleviate insulin resistance, which diminishes the probability of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The galanin was discovered in 1983 as a gut-derived peptide hormone. Subsequently, galanin peptide family was found to exert a series of metabolic effects, including the regulation of gut motility, body weight and glucose metabolism. The galanin peptide family in modulating glucose metabolism received recently increasing recognition because pharmacological activiation of galanin signaling might...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fang P, Yu M, Shi M, Bo P, Zhang Z Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Individual differences in glucocorticoid regulation: Does it relate to disease risk and resilience?
Abstract Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling varies among individuals, and this variation may relate to individual differences in health outcomes. To determine if and which aspects of signaling (basal, circadian, integrative, or reactivity) are associated with specific health outcomes, we reviewed recent studies that relate GCs to health outcomes. We identified papers through PubMed and reviewed 100 original research articles related to mental health, cardiovascular health, cancer, diabetes, obesity, pulmonary health, sleep, and fitness. Many studies reported elevated GC secretion associated with worse health, but this ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Caulfield JI, A S, Cavigelli Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Sex differences in steroid levels and steroidogenesis in the nervous system: physiopathological role.
Abstract The nervous system, in addition to be a target for steroid hormones, is the source of a variety of neuroactive steroids, which are synthesized and metabolized by neurons and glial cells. Recent evidence indicates that the expression of neurosteroidogenic proteins and enzymes and the levels of neuroactive steroids are different in the nervous system of males and females. We here summarized the state of the art of neuroactive steroids, particularly taking in consideration sex differences occurring in the synthesis and levels of these molecules. In addition, we discuss the consequences of sex differences in ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Maria Serafini M, Caruso D, Miguel Garcia-Segura L, Viviani B, Melcangi RC Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Inflammation and the Dimensions of Depression: A Review.
Abstract Patients with depressive disorders show a wide range of clinical manifestations including cognitive and neurovegetative symptoms. Importantly, these symptoms can differ in terms of biological etiology, and deconstructing depression into specific symptoms may provide valuable insight into the underlying neurobiology. Little research has examined inflammation in the context of depressive dimensions. Here we conduct a narrative review of the existing literature (21 studies) to elucidate whether the depression-inflammation link is symptom specific. Overall, there is evidence that an association exists between...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - October 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Majd M, Saunders EFH, Engeland CG Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The brain as a target of hormonal contraceptives: evidence from animal studies.
We describe the current literature on preclinical studies in animals undertaken to investigate effects of hormonal contraceptives on brain function and behavior. These studies suggest that hormonal contraceptives influence neurohormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and emotional, cognitive, social and sexual behaviors. Animals allow examination of the basic biological mechanisms of these drugs, devoid of the psychological aspect often associated to hormonal contraceptives' use in women. Understanding the neurobiological effects of these drugs may improve women's health and may help women making informed choices on ho...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - October 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Porcu P, Serra M, Concas A Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The biological basis of sexual orientation: How hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors influence to whom we are sexually attracted.
Abstract Humans develop relatively stable attractions to sexual partners during maturation and present a spectrum of sexual orientation from homosexuality to heterosexuality encompassing varying degrees of bisexuality, with some individuals also displaying asexuality. Sexual orientation represents a basic life phenomenon for humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these diverse traits of sexual orientation remain highly controversial. In this review, we systematically discuss recent advancements in sexual orientation research, including those related to measurements and associated brain regions. Curre...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wang Y, Wu H, Sheng Sun Z Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neurobiological mechanisms underlying sex-related differences in stress-related disorders: Effects of neuroactive steroids on the hippocampus.
Abstract Men and women differ in their vulnerability to a variety of stress-related illnesses, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. This is likely due to a comparative dearth of neurobiological studies that assess male and female rodents at the same time, while human neuroimaging studies often don't model sex as a variable of interest. These sex differences are often attributed to the actions of sex hormones, i.e. estrogens, progestogens and androgens. In this review, we summarize the results on sex hormone actions in the hippocampus and seek to bridge the gap between animal model...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hillerer KM, Slattery DA, Pletzer B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Prenatal and postnatal contributions of the maternal microbiome on offspring programming.
le TL Abstract The maternal microbiota is positioned to regulate the development of offspring immunity, metabolism, as well as brain function and behavior. The mechanisms by which maternal microbial signals drive these processes are beginning to be elucidated. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the importance of the microbiome in brain function and behavior, define the maternal vaginal and gut microbiota as distinct influences on offspring development, and outline current concepts in microbial origins of offspring health outcomes. We propose that the maternal microbiota influences prenatal and early po...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jašarević E, Bale TL Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neurosteroids and Neuropathic Pain Management: basic evidence and therapeutic perspectives.
Abstract Complex mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain that represents a major health concern make its management complicated. Because neurosteroids are bioactive steroids endogenously synthesized in the nervous system, including in pain pathways, they appear relevant to develop effective treatments against neuropathic pain. Neurosteroids act in paracrine or autocrine manner through genomic mechanisms and/or via membrane receptors of neurotransmitters that pivotally modulate pain sensation. Basic studies which uncovered a direct link between neuropathic pain symptoms and endogenous neurosteroid production/regula...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Meyer L, Taleb O, Patte-Mensah C, Mensah-Nyagan AG Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The inflammatory event of birth: How oxytocin signaling may guide the development of the brain and gastrointestinal system.
Abstract The role of oxytocin (OT) as a neuropeptide that modulates social behavior has been extensively studied and reviewed, but beyond these functions, OT's adaptive functions at birth are quite numerous, as OT coordinates many physiological processes in the mother and fetus to ensure a successful delivery. In this review we explore in detail the potential adaptive roles of oxytocin as an anti-inflammatory, protective molecule at birth for the developing fetal brain and gastrointestinal system based on evidence that birth is a potent inflammatory/immune event. We discuss data with relevance for a number of neur...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kingsbury MA, Bilbo SD Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Lifelong consequences of brain injuries during development: from risk to resilience.
Abstract Traumatic brain injuries in children represent a major public health issue and even relatively mild injuries can have lifelong consequences. However, the outcomes from these injuries are highly heterogeneous, with most individuals recovering fully, but a substantial subset experiencing prolonged or permanent disabilities across a number of domains. Moreover, brain injuries predispose individuals to other kinds of neuropsychiatric and somatic illnesses. Critically, the severity of the injury only partially predicts subsequent outcomes, thus other factors must be involved. In this review, we discuss the psy...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Weil ZM, Karelina K Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in male depressive disorders - A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Sexual dysfunctions are common in men with depression. As the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a crucial regulator of sexual function, and also affects mood and cognition, the following question arises: Is the HPG axis altered in depressed men when compared to healthy controls? To answer this question, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Inclusion criteria for the systematic review and meta-analysis were: 1) case-control study including male patients with a depressive disorder and 2) assessment of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), oestradiol, or testosterone. Sevente...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fischer S, Ehlert U, Amiel Castro R Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Anxiety in Transition: Neuroendocrine Mechanisms Supporting the Development of Anxiety Pathology in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.
Abstract Adolescence marks a key developmental window during which emotion dysregulation increases, along with risk for the onset of anxiety and other affect-related pathologies. Although emotion dysregulation and related pathologies normatively decline during the transition into adulthood, this does not occur for a sizable minority of individuals. Finally, sex differences in anxiety emerge during adolescence, with females developing a 2-fold increase in risk relative to males. Unfortunately, a neurobiological model of the mechanisms that cause these changes during adolescence has yet to be proposed. In the presen...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Spielberg JM, Schwarz JM, Matyi MA Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine pathways underlying risk and resilience to PTSD in women.
Abstract Women are twice as likely than men to suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While women have increased exposure to traumatic events of many types and have greater prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders compared to men, these differences do not account for the overall sex difference in the prevalence of PTSD. The current review summarizes significant findings that implicate the role of estradiol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone in female risk for PTSD symptoms and dysregulation of fear psychophysiology that is cardinal to PTSD. We also discuss how these steroid hormones influence the s...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ravi M, Stevens JS, Michopoulos V Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Stress and drug abuse-related disorders: the promising therapeutic value of neurosteroids Focus on Pregnenolone-Progesterone-Allopregnanolone pathway.
e;e M Abstract The pregnenolone-progesterone-allopregnanolone pathway is receiving increasing attention in research on the role of neurosteroids in pathophysiology, particularly in stress-related and drug use disorders. These disorders involve an allostatic change that may result from deficiencies in allostasis or adaptive responses, and may be downregulated by adjustments in neurotransmission by neurosteroids. The following is an overview of findings that assess how pregnenolone and/or allopregnanolone concentrations are altered in animal models of stress and after consumption of alcohol or cannabis-type drugs, a...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tomaselli G, Vallée M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms and cellular events involved in the neuroprotective actions of estradiol. Analysis of sex differences.
Abstract Estradiol, either from peripheral or central origin, activates multiple molecular neuroprotective and neuroreparative responses that, being mediated by estrogen receptors or by estrogen receptor independent mechanisms, are initiated at the membrane, the cytoplasm or the cell nucleus of neural cells. Estrogen-dependent signaling regulates a variety of cellular events, such as intracellular Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial respiratory capacity, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, autophagy and apoptosis. In turn, these molecular and cellular actions of estradiol are integrated by neurons and non-neu...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Azcoitia I, Barreto GE, Garcia-Segura LM Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research