Insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling in motor neuron and polyglutamine diseases: From molecular pathogenesis to therapeutic perspectives.
nco M Abstract The pleiotropic peptide insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) regulates human body homeostasis and cell growth. IGF-I activates two major signaling pathways, namely phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and Ras/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which contribute to brain development, metabolism and function as well as to neuronal maintenance and survival. In this review, we discuss the general and tissue-specific effects of the IGF-I pathways. In addition, we present a comprehensive overview examining the role of IGF-I in neurodegenerative diseases, such as spinal and ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - January 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pennuto M, Bhan Pandey U, José Polanco M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Pregnancy, Postpartum and Parity: Resilience and Vulnerability in Brain Health and Disease.
Abstract Risk and resilience in brain health and disease can be influenced by a variety of factors. While there is a growing appreciation to consider sex as one of these factors, far less attention has been paid to sex-specific variables that may differentially impact females such as pregnancy and reproductive history. In this review, we focus on nervous system disorders which show a female bias and for which there is data from basic research and clinical studies pointing to modification in disease risk and progression during pregnancy, postpartum and/or as a result of parity: multiple sclerosis (MS), depression, ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - January 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Deems N, Leuner B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a substrate for stress resilience: Interactions with the circadian clock.
Abstract Stress, primarily processed via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, engages biological pathways throughout the brain and body which promote adaptation and survival to changing environmental demands. Adaptation to environmental challenges is compromised when these pathways are no longer functioning optimally. The physiological and behavioral mechanisms through which HPA axis function influences stress adaptation and resilience are not fully elucidated. Our understanding of stress biology and disease must take into account the complex interactions between the endocrine system, neural circuits, an...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kinlein SA, Karatsoreos IN Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The role of hippocampal estradiol in synaptic plasticity and memory: A systematic review.
Abstract The consolidation of long-term memory is influenced by various neuromodulators. One of these is estradiol, a steroid hormone that is synthesized both in peripheral endocrine tissue and in the brain, including the hippocampus. Here, we examine the evidence regarding the role of estradiol in the hippocampus, specifically, in memory formation and its effects on the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity. We conclude that estradiol improves memory consolidation and, thereby, long-term memory. Previous studies have shown that it does this in three, interconnected ways : 1) via functional changes i...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Finney CA, Shvetcov A, Westbrook RF, Jones NM, Morris MJ Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The Promises and Pitfalls of Sex Difference Research.
Abstract Funding agencies in North America and Europe are recognizing the importance of the integration of sex differences into basic and clinical research. Although these mandates are in place to improve our knowledge of health for both men and women, there have been a number of implementation issues that require vigilance on the part of funders and the research community. Here we discuss issues on simple inclusion of both sexes in studies to specialisation of sex differences with attention paid to statistics and the need for sex-specific treatments. We suggest differing mandates need to be considered regarding s...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Am Galea L, Choleris E, Yk Albert A, McCarthy MM, Sohrabji F Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

You've Got Male: Sex and the Microbiota-Gut Brain Axis Across the Lifespan.
Abstract Sex is a critical factor in the diagnosis and development of a number of mental health disorders including autism, schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, anorexia nervosa and others; likely due to differences in sex steroid hormones and genetics. Recent evidence suggests that sex can also influence the complexity and diversity of microbes that we harbour in our gut; and reciprocally that our gut microbes can directly and indirectly influence sex steroid hormones and central gene activation. There is a growing emphasis on the role of gastrointestinal microbiota in the ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - December 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jaggar M, Rea K, Spicak S, Dinan TG, Cryan JF Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Central aromatization: a dramatic and responsive defense against threat and trauma to the vertebrate brain.
Abstract Aromatase is the requisite and limiting enzyme in the production of estrogens from androgens. Estrogens synthesized centrally have also emerged as a potent neuroprotectant in the vertebrate brain. Studies in rodents and songbirds have identified key mechanisms that underlie both; the injury-dependent induction of central aromatization, and the protective effects of centrally synthesized estrogens. Injury-induced aromatase expression in astrocytes occurs following a broad range of traumatic brain damage including excitotoxic, penetrating, and concussive injury. Responses to neural insult such as edema and ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Duncan KA, Saldanha CJ Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

In search of optimal resilience ratios: Differential influences of neurobehavioral factors contributing to stress-resilience spectra.
Abstract The ability to adapt to stressful circumstances, known as emotional resilience, is a key factor in the maintenance of mental health. Several individual biomarkers of the stress response (e.g., corticosterone) that influence an animal's position along the continuum that ranges from adaptive allostasis to maladaptive allostatic load have been identified. Extending beyond specific biomarkers of stress responses, however, it is also important to consider stress-related responses relative to other relevant responses for a thorough understanding of the underpinnings of adaptive allostasis. In this review, behav...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lambert K, Hunter RG, Bartlett AA, Lapp HE, Kent M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Galanin peptide family regulation of glucose metabolism.
Abstract Recent preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that the galanin peptide family may regulate glucose metabolism and alleviate insulin resistance, which diminishes the probability of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The galanin was discovered in 1983 as a gut-derived peptide hormone. Subsequently, galanin peptide family was found to exert a series of metabolic effects, including the regulation of gut motility, body weight and glucose metabolism. The galanin peptide family in modulating glucose metabolism received recently increasing recognition because pharmacological activiation of galanin signaling might...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fang P, Yu M, Shi M, Bo P, Zhang Z Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Individual differences in glucocorticoid regulation: Does it relate to disease risk and resilience?
Abstract Glucocorticoid (GC) signaling varies among individuals, and this variation may relate to individual differences in health outcomes. To determine if and which aspects of signaling (basal, circadian, integrative, or reactivity) are associated with specific health outcomes, we reviewed recent studies that relate GCs to health outcomes. We identified papers through PubMed and reviewed 100 original research articles related to mental health, cardiovascular health, cancer, diabetes, obesity, pulmonary health, sleep, and fitness. Many studies reported elevated GC secretion associated with worse health, but this ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Caulfield JI, A S, Cavigelli Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Sex differences in steroid levels and steroidogenesis in the nervous system: physiopathological role.
Abstract The nervous system, in addition to be a target for steroid hormones, is the source of a variety of neuroactive steroids, which are synthesized and metabolized by neurons and glial cells. Recent evidence indicates that the expression of neurosteroidogenic proteins and enzymes and the levels of neuroactive steroids are different in the nervous system of males and females. We here summarized the state of the art of neuroactive steroids, particularly taking in consideration sex differences occurring in the synthesis and levels of these molecules. In addition, we discuss the consequences of sex differences in ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - November 2, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giatti S, Diviccaro S, Maria Serafini M, Caruso D, Miguel Garcia-Segura L, Viviani B, Melcangi RC Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Inflammation and the Dimensions of Depression: A Review.
Abstract Patients with depressive disorders show a wide range of clinical manifestations including cognitive and neurovegetative symptoms. Importantly, these symptoms can differ in terms of biological etiology, and deconstructing depression into specific symptoms may provide valuable insight into the underlying neurobiology. Little research has examined inflammation in the context of depressive dimensions. Here we conduct a narrative review of the existing literature (21 studies) to elucidate whether the depression-inflammation link is symptom specific. Overall, there is evidence that an association exists between...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - October 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Majd M, Saunders EFH, Engeland CG Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The brain as a target of hormonal contraceptives: evidence from animal studies.
We describe the current literature on preclinical studies in animals undertaken to investigate effects of hormonal contraceptives on brain function and behavior. These studies suggest that hormonal contraceptives influence neurohormones, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and emotional, cognitive, social and sexual behaviors. Animals allow examination of the basic biological mechanisms of these drugs, devoid of the psychological aspect often associated to hormonal contraceptives' use in women. Understanding the neurobiological effects of these drugs may improve women's health and may help women making informed choices on ho...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - October 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Porcu P, Serra M, Concas A Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The biological basis of sexual orientation: How hormonal, genetic, and environmental factors influence to whom we are sexually attracted.
Abstract Humans develop relatively stable attractions to sexual partners during maturation and present a spectrum of sexual orientation from homosexuality to heterosexuality encompassing varying degrees of bisexuality, with some individuals also displaying asexuality. Sexual orientation represents a basic life phenomenon for humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these diverse traits of sexual orientation remain highly controversial. In this review, we systematically discuss recent advancements in sexual orientation research, including those related to measurements and associated brain regions. Curre...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - October 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wang Y, Wu H, Sheng Sun Z Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neurobiological mechanisms underlying sex-related differences in stress-related disorders: Effects of neuroactive steroids on the hippocampus.
Abstract Men and women differ in their vulnerability to a variety of stress-related illnesses, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are not well understood. This is likely due to a comparative dearth of neurobiological studies that assess male and female rodents at the same time, while human neuroimaging studies often don't model sex as a variable of interest. These sex differences are often attributed to the actions of sex hormones, i.e. estrogens, progestogens and androgens. In this review, we summarize the results on sex hormone actions in the hippocampus and seek to bridge the gap between animal model...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hillerer KM, Slattery DA, Pletzer B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Prenatal and postnatal contributions of the maternal microbiome on offspring programming.
le TL Abstract The maternal microbiota is positioned to regulate the development of offspring immunity, metabolism, as well as brain function and behavior. The mechanisms by which maternal microbial signals drive these processes are beginning to be elucidated. In this review, we provide a brief overview on the importance of the microbiome in brain function and behavior, define the maternal vaginal and gut microbiota as distinct influences on offspring development, and outline current concepts in microbial origins of offspring health outcomes. We propose that the maternal microbiota influences prenatal and early po...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jašarević E, Bale TL Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neurosteroids and Neuropathic Pain Management: basic evidence and therapeutic perspectives.
Abstract Complex mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain that represents a major health concern make its management complicated. Because neurosteroids are bioactive steroids endogenously synthesized in the nervous system, including in pain pathways, they appear relevant to develop effective treatments against neuropathic pain. Neurosteroids act in paracrine or autocrine manner through genomic mechanisms and/or via membrane receptors of neurotransmitters that pivotally modulate pain sensation. Basic studies which uncovered a direct link between neuropathic pain symptoms and endogenous neurosteroid production/regula...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Meyer L, Taleb O, Patte-Mensah C, Mensah-Nyagan AG Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The inflammatory event of birth: How oxytocin signaling may guide the development of the brain and gastrointestinal system.
Abstract The role of oxytocin (OT) as a neuropeptide that modulates social behavior has been extensively studied and reviewed, but beyond these functions, OT's adaptive functions at birth are quite numerous, as OT coordinates many physiological processes in the mother and fetus to ensure a successful delivery. In this review we explore in detail the potential adaptive roles of oxytocin as an anti-inflammatory, protective molecule at birth for the developing fetal brain and gastrointestinal system based on evidence that birth is a potent inflammatory/immune event. We discuss data with relevance for a number of neur...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kingsbury MA, Bilbo SD Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Lifelong consequences of brain injuries during development: from risk to resilience.
Abstract Traumatic brain injuries in children represent a major public health issue and even relatively mild injuries can have lifelong consequences. However, the outcomes from these injuries are highly heterogeneous, with most individuals recovering fully, but a substantial subset experiencing prolonged or permanent disabilities across a number of domains. Moreover, brain injuries predispose individuals to other kinds of neuropsychiatric and somatic illnesses. Critically, the severity of the injury only partially predicts subsequent outcomes, thus other factors must be involved. In this review, we discuss the psy...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Weil ZM, Karelina K Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in male depressive disorders - A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Sexual dysfunctions are common in men with depression. As the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis is a crucial regulator of sexual function, and also affects mood and cognition, the following question arises: Is the HPG axis altered in depressed men when compared to healthy controls? To answer this question, PubMed and PsycINFO were searched. Inclusion criteria for the systematic review and meta-analysis were: 1) case-control study including male patients with a depressive disorder and 2) assessment of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), oestradiol, or testosterone. Sevente...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fischer S, Ehlert U, Amiel Castro R Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Anxiety in Transition: Neuroendocrine Mechanisms Supporting the Development of Anxiety Pathology in Adolescence and Young Adulthood.
Abstract Adolescence marks a key developmental window during which emotion dysregulation increases, along with risk for the onset of anxiety and other affect-related pathologies. Although emotion dysregulation and related pathologies normatively decline during the transition into adulthood, this does not occur for a sizable minority of individuals. Finally, sex differences in anxiety emerge during adolescence, with females developing a 2-fold increase in risk relative to males. Unfortunately, a neurobiological model of the mechanisms that cause these changes during adolescence has yet to be proposed. In the presen...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Spielberg JM, Schwarz JM, Matyi MA Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine pathways underlying risk and resilience to PTSD in women.
Abstract Women are twice as likely than men to suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While women have increased exposure to traumatic events of many types and have greater prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders compared to men, these differences do not account for the overall sex difference in the prevalence of PTSD. The current review summarizes significant findings that implicate the role of estradiol, progesterone, and allopregnanolone in female risk for PTSD symptoms and dysregulation of fear psychophysiology that is cardinal to PTSD. We also discuss how these steroid hormones influence the s...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ravi M, Stevens JS, Michopoulos V Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Stress and drug abuse-related disorders: the promising therapeutic value of neurosteroids Focus on Pregnenolone-Progesterone-Allopregnanolone pathway.
e;e M Abstract The pregnenolone-progesterone-allopregnanolone pathway is receiving increasing attention in research on the role of neurosteroids in pathophysiology, particularly in stress-related and drug use disorders. These disorders involve an allostatic change that may result from deficiencies in allostasis or adaptive responses, and may be downregulated by adjustments in neurotransmission by neurosteroids. The following is an overview of findings that assess how pregnenolone and/or allopregnanolone concentrations are altered in animal models of stress and after consumption of alcohol or cannabis-type drugs, a...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tomaselli G, Vallée M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms and cellular events involved in the neuroprotective actions of estradiol. Analysis of sex differences.
Abstract Estradiol, either from peripheral or central origin, activates multiple molecular neuroprotective and neuroreparative responses that, being mediated by estrogen receptors or by estrogen receptor independent mechanisms, are initiated at the membrane, the cytoplasm or the cell nucleus of neural cells. Estrogen-dependent signaling regulates a variety of cellular events, such as intracellular Ca2+ levels, mitochondrial respiratory capacity, ATP production, mitochondrial membrane potential, autophagy and apoptosis. In turn, these molecular and cellular actions of estradiol are integrated by neurons and non-neu...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Azcoitia I, Barreto GE, Garcia-Segura LM Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The role of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 on neurological disorders.
Abstract G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) is a membrane-associated estrogen receptor (ER) associated with rapid estrogen-mediated effects. Over recent years GPER emerged has a potential therapeutic target to induce neuroprotection, avoiding the side effects elicited by the activation of classical ERs. The putative neuroprotection triggered by GPER selective activation was demonstrated in mood disorders, Alzheimer's disease or Parkinsońs disease of male and female in vivo rodent models. In others, like ischemic stroke, the results are contradictory and currently there is no consensus on the role played...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Roque C, Mendes-Oliveira J, Duarte-Chendo C, Baltazar G Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neurosteroids as regulators of neuroinflammation.
Abstract Neuroinflammation is a physiological protective response in the context of infection and injury. However, neuroinflammation, especially if chronic, may also drive neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and traumatic brain injury (TBI), display inflammatory activation of microglia and astrocytes. Intriguingly, the central nervous system (CNS) is a highly steroidogenic environment synthesizing steroids de novo, as well as metabolizing steroids deriving from the circulation. Neurosteroid synthesis can be substantially...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - September 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Yilmaz C, Karali K, Fodelianaki G, Gravanis A, Chavakis T, Charalampopoulos I, Alexaki VI Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

New concepts in the study of the sexual differentiation and activation of reproductive behavior, a personal view.
Abstract Since the beginning of this century, research methods in neuroendocrinology enjoyed extensive refinements and innovation. These advances allowed collection of huge amounts of new data and the development of new ideas but have not led to this point, with a few exceptions, to the development of new conceptual advances. Conceptual advances that took place largely resulted from the ingenious insights of several investigators. I summarize here some of these new ideas as they relate to the sexual differentiation and activation by sex steroids of reproductive behaviors and I discuss how our research contributed ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jacques B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

BDNF and cortisol integrative system - plasticity vs. degeneration: implications of the Val66Met polymorphism.
DISCUSSION: BDNF and COR perform distinct roles in the physiology of the brain whose systems are integrated by glucocorticoid receptors dynamics. The BDNF polymorphism appears to have an influence on individual COR responsivity to stress. BDNF and COR play complementary roles in the nervous system where COR is a regulator of positive/negative effects. Exercise positively regulates both factors, regardless of BDNF polymorphism. PMID: 31425696 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gomes de Assis G Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Individual differences in inflammatory and oxidative mechanisms of stress-related mood disorders.
CP Abstract Emotional stress leads to the development of peripheral disorders and is recognized as a modifiable risk factor for psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety. However, not all individuals develop the negative consequences of emotional stress due to different stress coping strategies and resilience to stressful stimuli. In this review, we discuss individual differences in coping styles and the potential mechanisms that contribute to individual vulnerability to stress, such as parameters of the immune system and oxidative state. Initial differences in inflammatory and oxidative processe...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kalinichenko LS, Kornhuber J, Müller CP Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Brain Microstructural Abnormalities in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies.
Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with deficits in the structure and function of the brain. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a highly sensitive method for characterizing cerebral tissue microstructure. Using PRISMA guidelines, we identified 29 studies which have demonstrated widespread brain microstructural impairment and topological network disorganization in patients with T2DM. Most consistently reported structures with microstructural abnormalities were frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes in the lobar cluster; corpus callosum, cingulum, uncinate fasciculus, corona radiata, and internal a...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - August 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sanjari Moghadam H, Ghazi Sherbaf F, Hadi Aarabi M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Demographic, sampling- and assay-related confounders of endogenous oxytocin concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Studies on endogenous oxytocin concentrations are often criticized for the debatable comparability between specimens and the variation in reported values. We performed meta-regressions on k = 229 studies (n = 12 741 participants), testing whether specimen, extraction, sex, age, time of day, or fasting instructions influenced oxytocin measurements. Predicted oxytocin concentrations differed depending on specimen and extraction: Measurements were extremely high in unextracted blood, compared to extracted blood and other specimens. Measurements were higher in samples with more female participants and higher ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Engel S, Laufer S, Miller R, Niemeyer H, Knaevelsrud C, Schumacher S Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The cerebellum under stress.
Abstract Stress-related psychiatric conditions are one of the main causes of disability in developed countries. They account for a large portion of resource investment in stress-related disorders, become chronic, and remain difficult to treat. Research on the neurobehavioral effects of stress reveals how changes in certain brain areas, mediated by a number of neurochemical messengers, markedly alter behavior. The cerebellum is connected with stress-related brain areas and expresses the machinery required to process stress-related neurochemical mediators. Surprisingly, it is not regarded as a substrate of stress-re...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Moreno-Rius J Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Epigenetic regulation of POMC; implications for nutritional programming, obesity and metabolic disease.
r M Abstract Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a key mediator of satiety. Epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation may modulate POMC expression and provide a biological link between early life exposures and later phenotype. Animal studies suggest epigenetic marks at POMC are influenced by maternal energy excess and restriction, prenatal stress and Triclosan exposure. Postnatal factors including energy excess, folate, vitamin A, conjugated linoleic acid and leptin may also affect POMC methylation. Recent human studies suggest POMC DNA methylation is influenced by maternal nutrition in early pregnancy and associated wit...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Candler T, Kühnen P, Prentice AM, Silver M Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Immune mechanisms of stress susceptibility and resilience: Lessons from animal models.
Abstract Stress has an impact on the brain and the body. A growing literature demonstrates that feedback between the peripheral immune system and the brain contributes to individual differences in the behavioral response to stress. Here we examine preclinical literature to demonstrate a holistic vision of risk and resilience to stress. We identify a variety of cellular, cytokine and molecular mechanisms in adult animals that act in concert to produce a stress susceptible individual response. We discuss how cross talk between immune cells in the brain and in the periphery act together to increase permeability acros...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tsyglakova M, McDaniel D, Hodes GE Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Stress-induced disturbances along the gut microbiota-immune-brain axis and implications for mental health: Does sex matter?
Abstract Women are roughly twice as likely as men to suffer from stress-related disorders, especially major depression and generalized anxiety. Accumulating evidence suggest that microbes inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) interact with the host brain and may play a key role in the pathogenesis of mental illnesses. Here, the possibility that sexually dimorphic alterations along the gut microbiota-immune-brain axis could play a role in promoting this female bias of mood and anxiety disorders will be discussed. This review will also analyze the idea that gut microbes and sex hormones influenc...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Audet MC Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine Drivers of Risk and Resilience: The Influence of Metabolism & Mitochondria.
Neuroendocrine Drivers of Risk and Resilience: The Influence of Metabolism & Mitochondria. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2019 Jul 06;:100770 Authors: Turkson S, Kloster A, Hamilton PJ, Neigh GN Abstract The manifestation of risk versus resilience has been considered from varying perspectives including genetics, epigenetics, early life experiences, and type and intensity of the challenge with which the organism is faced. Although all of these factors are central to determining risk and resilience, the current review focuses on what may be a final common pathway: metabolism. When an organism is faced with ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - July 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Turkson S, Kloster A, Hamilton PJ, Neigh GN Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Sugar in mind: untangling a sweet and sour relationship beyond type 2 diabetes.
Abstract It is widely recognised that type 2 diabetes (T2D) represents a major disease burden but it is only recently that its role in neurodegeneration has attracted more attention. This research has shown that T2D is associated with impaired cerebral health, cognitive decline and dementia. However, the impact on the brain of progressive metabolic changes associated with the pre-clinical development of the disease is less clear. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarise how the emergence of risk factors and co-morbid conditions linked to the development of T2D impact cerebral health. Particular atten...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - June 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Cherbuin N, Walsh E Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Bundling the haystack to find the needle: challenges and opportunities in modeling risk and resilience following early life stress.
Abstract Various forms of early life adversity (ELA) have been linked with increased risk for negative health outcomes, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding how the complex interplay between types, timing, duration, and severity of ELA, together with individual differences in genetic, socio-cultural, and physiological differences can mediate risk and resilience has proven difficult in population based studies. Use of animal models provides a powerful toolset to isolate key variables underlying risk for altered neural and behavioral maturational trajectories. However, a lack of clarity regarding the ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - June 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Brenhouse HC, Bath KG Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Beyond the baby brain: Moving towards a better understanding of the parental brain and behavior.
PMID: 31150661 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - May 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Brummelte S, Leuner B Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Effects of Opioids on the Parental Brain in Health and Disease.
Abstract The epidemic of opioid use disorder (OUD) directly affects millions of women of child-bearing age. Unfortunately, parenting behaviors - among the most important processes for human survival - are vulnerable to the effects of OUD. The standard of care for pregnant women with OUD is opioid maintenance therapy (OMT), of which the primary objective is to mitigate addiction-related stress. The aim of this review is to synthesize current information specific to pregnancy and parenting affected by OUD. We first summarize a model of the parental brain supported by animal research and human neuroimaging. We then r...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - May 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Swain JE, Shaun Ho S, Fox H, Garry D, Brummelte S Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The parental brain and behavior: a target for endocrine disruption.
Abstract During pregnancy, the sequential release of progesterone, 17β-estradiol, prolactin, oxytocin and placental lactogens reorganize the female brain. Brain structures such as the medial preoptic area, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the motivation network including the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens are reorganized by this specific hormonal schedule such that the future mother will be ready to provide appropriate care for her offspring right at parturition. Any disruption to this hormone pattern, notably by exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC), is therefore like...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - May 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Keller M, Vandenberg LN, Charlier TD Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The Role of Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Rhythm Disruption as Risk Factors of Alzheimer's Disease.
Abstract Emerging evidence suggests that sleep deprivation (SD) and circadian rhythm disruption (CRD) may interact and increase the risk for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This review inspects different pathophysiological aspects of SD and CRD, and shows that the two may impair the glymphatic-vascular-lymphatic clearance of brain macromolecules (e.g., β-amyloid and microtubule associated protein tau), increase local brain oxidative stress and diminish circulatory melatonin levels. Lastly, this review looks into the potential association between sleep and circadian rhythm with stress granule form...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wu H, Dunnett S, Ho YS, Chuen-Chung Chnag R Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Emerging roles for hypothalamic microglia as regulators of physiological homeostasis.
Abstract The hypothalamus is a crucial brain region that responds to external stressors and functions to maintain physiological homeostatic processes, such as core body temperature and energy balance. The hypothalamus regulates homeostasis by producing hormones that thereby influence the production of other hormones that then control the internal milieu of the body. Microglia are resident macrophages and phagocytic immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), classically known for surveying the brain's environment, responding to neural insults, and disposing of cellular debris. Recent evidence has shown that ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - May 3, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rosin JM, Kurrasch DM Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Experience-dependent mechanisms in the regulation of parental care.
Abstract Maternal behavior is a defining characteristic of mammals, which is regulated by a core, conserved neural circuit. However, mothering behavior is not always a default response to infant conspecifics. For example, initial fearful, fragmented or aggressive responses toward infants in laboratory rats and mice can give way to highly motivated and organized caregiving behaviors following appropriate hormone exposure or repeated experience with infants. Therefore hormonal and/or experiential factors must be involved in gating infant access to central approach and avoidance neural systems. In this review we desc...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Stolzenberg DS, Mayer HS Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

REST: An epigenetic regulator of neuronal stress responses in the young and ageing brain.
Abstract The transcriptional repressor REST (Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription factor) is a key modulator of the neuronal epigenome and targets genes involved in neuronal differentiation, axonal growth, vesicular transport, ion channel conductance and synaptic plasticity. Whilst its gene expression-modifying properties have been examined extensively in neuronal development, REST's response towards stress-induced neuronal insults has only recently been explored. Overall, REST appears to be an ideal candidate to fine-tune neuronal gene expression following different forms of cellular, neuropathological, ps...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mampay M, Sheridan GK Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Challenges to the Parental Brain: Neuroethological and Translational Considerations.
Abstract Extending from research documenting adaptive parental responses in nonthreatening contexts, the influences of various neuroethological and physiological challenges on effective parenting responses are considered in the current review. In natural habitats, rodent family units are exposed to predators, compromised resources, and other environmental stressors that disrupt HPA axis functions. With the additional physiological demands associated with caring for offspring, alterations in stress-related neuroendocrine responsiveness contribute to adaptive responses in many challenging contexts. Some environmenta...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lambert KG, Byrnes EM Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Circadian regulation of depression: a role for serotonin.
Abstract Synchronizing circadian (24 h) rhythms in physiology and behavior with the environmental light-dark cycle is critical for maintaining optimal health. Dysregulation of the circadian system increases susceptibility to numerous pathological conditions including major depressive disorder. Stress is a common etiological factor in the development of depression and the circadian system is highly interconnected to stress-sensitive neurotransmitter systems such as the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Thus, here we propose that stress-induced perturbation of the 5-HT system disrupts circadian processes...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - April 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Daut RA, Fonken LK Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Estrogens and SERMS as Adjunctive Treatments for Schizophrenia.
r A Abstract More than thirty years have passed since sex and gender differences were noted in the age of onset, course and outcomes for schizophrenia. The 'estrogen hypothesis" was coined in the 1990's to describe neuroprotective effects of estrogen. Intervention studies in schizophrenia patients with estradiol and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are promising but psychiatrists and other health practitioners do not generally take up this useful adjunctive treatment for their female patients with schizophrenia. The reasons for this are manifold, but overall a cultural shift in the practice of p...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - March 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kulkarni J, Butler S, Riecher-Rössler A Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

Serotonin and Motherhood: From Molecules to Mood.
Abstract Emerging research points to a valuable role of the monoamine neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the display of maternal behaviors and reproduction-associated plasticity in the maternal brain. Serotonin is also implicated in the pathophysiology of numerous affective disorders and likely plays an important role in the pathophysiology of maternal mental illness. Therefore, the main goals of this review are to detail: 1) how the serotonin system of the female brain changes across pregnancy and postpartum; 2) the role of the central serotonergic system in maternal caregiving and maternal aggression; and 3) how th...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - March 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pawluski JL, Li M, Lonstein JS Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research

The long and short term effects of motherhood on the brain.
Abstract Becoming a mother is associated with dramatic changes in physiology, endocrinology, immune function, and behaviour that begins during pregnancy and persists into the postpartum. Evidence also suggests that motherhood is accompanied with long-term changes in brain function. In this review, we summarize the short (pregnancy and postpartum) and long-term (beyond the postpartum and into middle age) effects of pregnancy and motherhood on cognition, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmune signalling. We also discuss the effects of previous history of pregnancy and motherhood (parity) on brain health and disease (neuro...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology - February 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Duarte-Guterman P, Leuner B, Galea LAM Tags: Front Neuroendocrinol Source Type: research