Distribution of Molecules Related to Neurotransmission in the Nervous System of the Mussel Crenomytilus grayanus
In bivalves neurotransmitters are involved in a variety of behaviors, but their diversity and distribution in the nervous system of these organisms remains somewhat unclear. Here, we first examined immunohistochemically the distributions of neurons containing different neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and related enzymes, as well as the proliferative status of neurons in the ganglia of the mussel Crenomytilus grayanus. H-Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 (FMRFamide), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were found to be expressed by neurons in all the ganglia, whereas serotoni...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transient Hypothyroidism During Lactation Alters the Development of the Corpus Callosum in Rats. An in vivo Magnetic Resonance Image and Electron Microscopy Study
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of children with late diagnosed congenital hypothyroidism and cognitive alterations such as abnormal verbal memory processing suggest altered telencephalic commissural connections. The corpus callosum (CC) is the major inter-hemispheric commissure that contra-laterally connects neocortical areas. However, in late diagnosed neonates with congenital hypothyroidism, the possible effect of early transient and chronic postnatal hypothyroidism still remains unknown. We have studied the development of the anterior, middle and posterior CC, using in vivo MRI and electron microscopy in hypothyr...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evidence for Reciprocal Structural Network Interactions Between Bilateral Crus Lobes and Broca ’s Complex
While the proximal dentatothalamocortical tracts are considered pivotal in the occurrence of cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) after medulloblastoma resection, how the cerebellum participates in motor–speech networks through direct structural connectivity is still unclear. Via tractography, we provide evidence of cerebellar streamlines projecting into the left inferior frontal gyrus majorly connecting Broca’s complex and the bilateral Crus lobes. The streamlines, named Crus–Broca tracts, originated from the bilateral Crus lobes, synapsed onto the dentate nucleus, ascended into the superior cerebellar pedun...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuromechanisms of SARS-CoV-2: A Review
Recent studies have suggested the neuroinvasive potential of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Notably, neuroinvasiveness might be involved in the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some studies have demonstrated that synapse-connected routes may enable coronaviruses to access the central nervous system (CNS). However, evidence related to the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS, its direct impact on the CNS, and the contribution to symptoms suffered, remain sparse. Here, we review the current literature that indicates that SARS-CoV-2 can invade the nervous system. We also describe the ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Epilepsy and Neuroscience: Evolution and Interaction
Neuroscience is a relatively new and fashionable word that emerged in the 1950s in several countries, including the UK, to describe a multidisciplinary clinical and laboratory approach to the study of the brain, mind, and neuropsychiatric disorders. However collaborative study of neurological and psychiatric disorders can be traced to the 17th century with roots in antiquity. I describe the evolution of our understanding of epilepsy beginning with the first detailed clinical descriptions, associated with supernatural theories, in Babylonian medicine in the second millennium BC. Interest in natural causation arose in the Gr...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differential Susceptibility and Vulnerability of Brain Cells in C57BL/6 Mouse to Mitochondrial Dysfunction Induced by Short-Term Cuprizone Exposure
Cuprizone (CPZ) is a chemical chelator toxic to mitochondria of cells. While inducing oligodendrocyte (OL) loss and demyelination, CPZ caused no fatal damage to the other brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) in previous studies, suggesting differential susceptibility and vulnerability of brain cells to the CPZ intoxication. To demonstrate this interpretation, C57BL/6 mice were fed rodent chow without or with CPZ (0.2%, w/w) for 7 days. One day later, mitochondrial function of brain cells was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and biochemical analysis. Another batch of mice were processe...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurexin and Neuroligins Maintain the Balance of Ghost and Satellite Boutons at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction
Neurexins and neuroligins are common synaptic adhesion molecules that are associated with autism and interact with each other in the synaptic cleft. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) bouton is a well-known model system in neuroscience, and ghost and satellite boutons, respectively, indicate the poor development and overgrowth of the NMJ boutons. However, the Drosophila neurexin (DNrx) and Drosophila neuroligins (DNlgs) are mainly observed in type Ib boutons, indicating the ultrastructural and developmental phenotypes of the Drosophila NMJ. Here, we identified the ultrastructural and developmental features of ghos...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Gestational Exposure to Sodium Valproate Disrupts Fasciculation of the Mesotelencephalic Dopaminergic Tract, With a Selective Reduction of Dopaminergic Output From the Ventral Tegmental Area
Gestational exposure to valproic acid (VPA) is known to cause behavioral deficits of sociability, matching similar alterations in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Available data are scarce on the neuromorphological changes in VPA-exposed animals. Here, we focused on alterations of the dopaminergic system, which is implicated in motivation and reward, with relevance to social cohesion. Whole brains from 7-day-old mice born to mothers given a single injection of VPA (400 mg/kg b.wt.) on E13.5 were immunostained against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). They were scanned using the iDISCO method with a laser light-sheet microsco...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Interactions Between the Serotonergic and Other Neurotransmitter Systems in the Basal Ganglia: Role in Parkinson ’s Disease and Adverse Effects of L-DOPA
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. However, other non-dopaminergic neuronal systems such as the serotonergic system are also involved. Serotonergic dysfunction is associated with non-motor symptoms and complications, including anxiety, depression, dementia, and sleep disturbances. This pathology reduces patient quality of life. Interaction between the serotonergic and other neurotransmitters systems such as dopamine, noradrenaline, glutamate, and GABA controls the activity of striatal neurons and are particularly interesting for understan...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Location of the Cell Adhesion Molecule “Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor” in the Adult Mouse Brain
In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to document the global location of CAR in the healthy, young adult mouse brain. Globally, we found that CAR is expressed by maturing and mature neurons in the brain parenchyma and located on the soma and on projections. While CAR occasionally colocalizes with glial fibrillary acidic protein, this overlap was restricted to areas that are associated with adult neurogenesis. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - June 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Antennal Lobe Atlas of an Emerging Corn Pest, Athetis dissimilis
Moths develop sophisticated olfactory systems to sense the airborne chemical cues from the environment. Understanding the structural basis in the neuronal center is a fundamental neuroethological step. Little is known about the emerging crop pest Athetis dissimilis with regard to its morphology or its neuronal organizations. Through antibody staining and digital 3D modeling, we re-constructed the primary olfactory center—the antennal lobe of A. dissimilis. In the antennal lobes 68.8 ± 3.1 male glomeruli and 70.8 ± 1.0 female glomeruli were identified with obvious sexual dimorphism. In particular, male a...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Structural Covariance Changes of Anterior and Posterior Hippocampus During Musical Training in Young Adults
Musical training can induce the functional and structural changes of the hippocampus. The hippocampus is not a homogeneous structure which can be divided into anterior and posterior parts along its longitudinal axis, and the whole-brain structural covariances of anterior (aHC) and posterior hippocampus (pHC) show distinct patterns in young adults. However, little is known about whether the anterior and posterior hippocampal structural covariances change after long-term musical training. Here, we investigated the musical training-induced changes of the whole-brain structural covariances of bilateral aHC and pHC in a longitu...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

High-Resolution Episcopic Imaging for Visualization of Dermal Arteries and Nerves of the Auricular Cymba Conchae in Humans
Therapeutic applications of auricular vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) have drawn recent attention. Since the targeted stimulation process and parameters depend on the electrode–tissue interaction, the lack of structural anatomical information on innervation and vascularization of the auricle restrain the current optimization of stimulation paradigms. For the first time, we employed high-resolution episcopic imaging (HREM) to generate histologic volume data from donated human cadaver ears. Optimal parameters for specimen preparation were evaluated. Anatomical 3D vascular and nerve structures were reconstructed in one sa...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: The Anatomical Basis of the Cross Talk Between Immune System and Brain
(Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Anatomy and Connectivity of the Subthalamic Nucleus in Humans and Non-human Primates
The Subthalamic Nucleus (STh) is an oval-shaped diencephalic structure located ventrally to the thalamus, playing a fundamental role in the circuitry of the basal ganglia. In addition to being involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease, the STh is one of the target nuclei for deep brain stimulation. However, most of the anatomical evidence available derives from non-human primate studies. In this review, we will present the topographical and morphological organization of the nucleus and its connections to structurally and functionally rel...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Calsequestrins New Calcium Store Markers of Adult Zebrafish Cerebellum and Optic Tectum
Calcium stores in neurons are heterogeneous in compartmentalization and molecular composition. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is an animal model with a simply folded cerebellum similar in cellular organization to that of mammals. The aim of the study was to identify new endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium store markers in zebrafish adult brain with emphasis on cerebellum and optic tectum. By quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found three RNA transcripts coding for the intra-ER calcium binding protein calsequestrin: casq1a, casq1b, and casq2. In brain homogenates, two isoforms were detected by mass spectrometry and western ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distinct Components in the Right Extended Frontal Aslant Tract Mediate Language and Working Memory Performance: A Tractography-Informed VBM Study
We present a tractography-informed Voxel-Based Morphometry procedure capable of detecting local tract-specific structural differences in white matter regions and apply it in two maximum variation sampling studies by comparing local differences in diffusion-derived microstructural parameters and fiber density along the exFAT territory between top performers and bottom performers in language and working memory tasks. In the right hemisphere we were able to detect, without prior constraints, a vertical frontal aslant component approximating the original FAT trajectory whose fiber density was significantly correlated with lang...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Perivascular Unit: This Must Be the Place. The Anatomical Crossroad Between the Immune, Vascular and Nervous System
Most neurological disorders seemingly have heterogenous pathogenesis, with overlapping contribution of neuronal, immune and vascular mechanisms of brain injury. The perivascular space in the brain represents a crossroad where those mechanisms interact, as well as a key anatomical component of the recently discovered glymphatic pathway, which is considered to play a crucial role in the clearance of brain waste linked to neurodegenerative diseases. The pathological interplay between neuronal, immune and vascular factors can create an environment that promotes self-perpetration of mechanisms of brain injury across different n...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How Human Is Human Connectional Neuroanatomy?
The structure of the human brain has been studied extensively. Despite all the knowledge accrued, direct information about connections, from origin to termination, in the human brain is extremely limited. Yet there is a widespread misperception that human connectional neuroanatomy is well-established and validated. In this article, we consider what is known directly about human structural and connectional neuroanatomy. Information on neuroanatomical connections in the human brain is derived largely from studies in non-human experimental models in which the entire connectional pathway, including origins, course, and termina...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Understanding the Molecular and Cell Biological Mechanisms of Electrical Synapse Formation
In this review article, we will describe the recent advances made towards understanding the molecular and cell biological mechanisms of electrical synapse formation. New evidence indicates that electrical synapses, which are gap junctions between neurons, can have complex molecular compositions including protein asymmetries across joined cells, diverse morphological arrangements, and overlooked similarities with other junctions, all of which indicate new potential roles in neurodevelopmental disease. Aquatic organisms, and in particular the vertebrate zebrafish, have proven to be excellent models for elucidating the molecu...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differences in the Structure and Protein Expression of Femoral Nerve Branches in Rats
In conclusion, inherent differences in protein expression and ultrastructure were observed between the cutaneous and muscular branches of the femoral nerve in rats, which should be considered in future studies on the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Structure and Function of the Insula-Claustrum Region
(Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain and Behavioral Asymmetry: A Lesson From Fish
It is widely acknowledged that the left and right hemispheres of human brains display both anatomical and functional asymmetries. For more than a century, brain and behavioral lateralization have been considered a uniquely human feature linked to language and handedness. However, over the past decades this idea has been challenged by an increasing number of studies describing structural asymmetries and lateralized behaviors in non-human species extending from primates to fish. Evidence suggesting that a similar pattern of brain lateralization occurs in all vertebrates, humans included, has allowed the emergence of differen...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 26, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Inner SPACE: 400-Micron Isotropic Resolution MRI of the Human Brain
ConclusionWe created an unlabeled high-resolution digital 3D MRI dataset of neuroanatomy as an online resource for readers to download, manipulate, annotate and use for clinical practice, research, and teaching that is complementary to traditional histology-based atlases. Digital MRI contrast is quantifiable, reproducible across brains and could help validate novel MRI strategies for in vivo structure visualization. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Subplate Neurons as an Organizer of Mammalian Neocortical Development
Subplate neurons (SpNs) are one of the earliest born and matured neurons in the developing cerebral cortex and play an important role in the early development of the neocortex. It has been known that SpNs have an essential role in thalamocortical axon (TCA) pathfinding and the establishment of the first neural circuit from the thalamus towards cortical layer IV. In addition to this function, it has recently been revealed in mouse corticogenesis that SpNs play an important role in the regulation of radial neuronal migration during the mid-embryonic stage. Moreover, accumulating studies throw light on the possible roles of S...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 19, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Using Teleost Fish to Discern Developmental Signatures of Evolutionary Adaptation From Phenotypic Plasticity in Brain Structure
Traditionally, the impact of evolution on the central nervous system has been studied by comparing the sizes of brain regions between species. However, more recent work has demonstrated that environmental factors, such as sensory experience, modulate brain region sizes intraspecifically, clouding the distinction between evolutionary and environmental sources of neuroanatomical variation in a sampled brain. Here, we review how teleost fish have played a central role in shaping this traditional understanding of brain structure evolution between species as well as the capacity for the environment to shape brain structure simi...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Monosynaptic Input Mapping of Diencephalic Projections to the Cerebrospinal Fluid-Contacting Nucleus in the Rat
Conclusion: Based on the connectivity patterns of the CSF-contacting nucleus that receives anatomical inputs from the diencephalon, we preliminarily assume that the CSF-contacting nucleus participates in homeostasis regulation, visceral activity, stress, emotion, pain and addiction, and sleeping and arousal. The present study firstly illustrates the broad projections of the CSF-contacting nucleus from the diencephalon, which implies the complicated functions of the nucleus especially for the unique roles of coordination in neural and body fluids regulations. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Commentary: Mosaic and Concerted Brain Evolution: The Contribution of Microscopic Comparative Neuroanatomy in Lower Vertebrates
(Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 21, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mapping of Morphine-Induced OPRM1 Gene Expression Pattern in the Adult Zebrafish Brain
This study provides a detailed map of oprm1 localization in the brain, which includes previously unreported oprm1 in the habenula of teleost. Presence of oprm1 in multiple brain sites implies multiple action targets of morphine and potential brain functions which could include reward, cognitive and negative emotions. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Zebrafish Astroglial Morphology in the Olfactory Bulb Is Altered With Repetitive Peripheral Damage
Zebrafish do not possess the typical astrocytes that are found in mammalian systems. In some brain areas, this teleost has radial glia that appears to perform astrocyte-like functions, but these cells have not been described in the zebrafish olfactory bulb. Mammalian astrocytes facilitate neuroplasticity and undergo astrogliosis after insult. The role of these cells in the zebrafish olfactory system after the damage has been poorly explored. This is important to examine because zebrafish have a high degree of neuroplasticity and the olfactory bulb is a brain area renowned for plasticity. The goal of this study was to explo...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stereotaxic Diffusion Tensor Imaging White Matter Atlas for the in vivo Domestic Feline Brain
The cat brain is a useful model for neuroscientific research and with the increasing use of advanced neuroimaging techniques there is a need for an open-source stereotaxic white matter brain atlas to accompany the cortical gray matter atlas, currently available. A stereotaxic white matter atlas would facilitate anatomic registration and segmentation of the white matter to aid in lesion localization or standardized regional analysis of specific regions of the white matter. In this article, we document the creation of a stereotaxic feline white matter atlas from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from a population ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Conserved Genoarchitecture of the Basal Hypothalamus in Zebrafish Embryos
Analyses of genoarchitecture recently stimulated substantial revisions of anatomical models for the developing hypothalamus in mammalian and other vertebrate systems. The prosomeric model proposes the hypothalamus to be derived from the secondary prosencephalon, and to consist of alar and basal regions. The basal hypothalamus can further be subdivided into tuberal and mamillary regions, each with distinct subregions. Albeit being a widely used model system for neurodevelopmental studies, no detailed genoarchitectural maps exist for the zebrafish (Danio rerio) hypothalamus. Here, we compare expression domains of zebrafish g...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cytoarchitectonic Characterization and Functional Decoding of Four New Areas in the Human Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex
A comprehensive concept of the biological basis of reward, social and emotional behavior, and language requires a deeper understanding of the microstructure and connectivity of the underlying brain regions. Such understanding could provide deeper insights into their role in functional networks, and form the anatomical basis of the functional segregation of this region as shown in recent in vivo imaging studies. Here, we investigated the cytoarchitecture of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lateral OFC) in serial histological sections of 10 human postmortem brains by image analysis and a statistically reproducible approach ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Multiple Morphometric Assessment of Microglial Cells in Deafferented Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus
Microglia (MG) are the first cells to react to the abnormal incoming signals that follow an injury of sensory nerves and play a critical role in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain, a common sequel of nerve injuries. Here we present population data on cell number, soma size, and length of processes of MG in the caudal division of the spinal trigeminal nucleus (Sp5C) in control mice and at the peak of microgliosis (7 days) following unilateral transection of the infraorbital nerve (IoN). The study is performed combining several bias- and assumption-free imaging and stereological approaches with different imm...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - January 22, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuro-hormonal Regulation Is a Better Indicator of Human Cognitive Abilities Than Brain Anatomy: The Need for a New Paradigm
This article argues that fixation with anatomical features of the brain was tended to ignore the importance of neuro-hormonal regulation which is a more appropriate indicator of human cognitive abilities. The article challenges the correlation between brain size and human cognitive abilities while offering an alternate theory of human cognitive abilities which emphasizes the roles of neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, and enteric gut microbiome (EGM) regulation. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - January 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Reelin Immunoreactivity in the Adult Spinal Cord: A Comparative Study in Rodents, Carnivores, and Non-human Primates
Reelin is a large extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoprotein secreted by several neuronal populations in a specific manner in both the developing and the adult central nervous system. The extent of Reelin protein distribution and its functional role in the adult neocortex is well documented in different mammal models. However, its role in the adult spinal cord has not been well characterized and its distribution in the rodent spinal cord is fragmentary and has not been investigated in carnivores or primates as of yet. To gain insight into which neuronal populations and specific circuits may be influenced by Reelin in the adul...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - January 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Developmental Changes of Glutamate and GABA Receptor Densities in Wistar Rats
Neurotransmitters and their receptors are key molecules of signal transduction and subject to various changes during pre- and postnatal development. Previous studies addressed ontogeny at the level of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotransmitter receptor subunits. However, developmental changes in receptor densities to this day are not well understood. Here, we analyzed developmental changes in excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors in adjacent sections of the rat brain by means of quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Receptor densities of the ionotropic glutamater...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - December 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Subregional Density of Neurons, Neurofibrillary Tangles and Amyloid Plaques in the Hippocampus of Patients With Alzheimer ’s Disease
A variety of anatomical alterations have been reported in the hippocampal formation of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and these alterations have been correlated with cognitive symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Major hallmarks in AD are the presence of paired helical filaments of tau protein (PHFTau) within neurons, also known as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), and aggregates of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) which form plaques in the extracellular space. Nevertheless, how the density of plaques and NFTs relate to the severity of cell loss and cognitive decline is not yet clear. The aim of the pre...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - December 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Automated Individualization of Size-Varying and Touching Neurons in Macaque Cerebral Microscopic Images
In biomedical research, cell analysis is important to assess physiological and pathophysiological information. Virtual microscopy offers the unique possibility to study the compositions of tissues at a cellular scale. However, images acquired at such high spatial resolution are massive, contain complex information, and are therefore difficult to analyze automatically. In this article, we address the problem of individualization of size-varying and touching neurons in optical microscopy two-dimensional (2-D) images. Our approach is based on a series of processing steps that incorporate increasingly more information. (1) Aft...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - December 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Erratum: A Derived Positional Mapping of Inhibitory Subtypes in the Somatosensory Cortex
(Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - December 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Internal Subdivisions of the Marmoset Claustrum Complex: Identification by Myeloarchitectural Features and High Field Strength Imaging
In this study, we examined the cyto- and myelo-architecture of the claustrum of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), to determine whether the claustrum contains internal anatomical structures or compartments, which could facilitate studies focused on understanding its role in brain function. NeuN, Nissl, calbindin, parvalbumin, and myelin-stained sections from eight adult marmosets were studied using light microscopy and serial reconstruction to identify potential internal compartments. Ultra high resolution (9.4T) post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging was employed to identify tractographic differences between identi...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - November 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Characterization of the Human Insular Cortex and Claustrum
The insular cortex has been linked to a multitude of functions. In contrast, the nearby claustrum is a densely connected subcortical region with unclear function. To view the insula-claustrum region from the molecular perspective we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of these areas in six adult and four fetal human brains. We identified marker genes with specific expression and performed transcriptome-wide tests for enrichment of biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components. In addition, specific insular and claustral expression of genes pertaining to diseases, addiction, and depression was tested. A...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - November 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adeno-Associated Virus Technologies and Methods for Targeted Neuronal Manipulation
This report will discuss the theoretical and practical aspects of combining current technologies and establish best practices for achieving targeted manipulation of specific cell types. Novel applications and tools, as well as areas for development, will be envisioned and discussed. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - November 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Th17 and Cognitive Impairment: Possible Mechanisms of Action
T helper 17 (Th17) cells represent a distinct population of immune cells, important in the defense of the organism against extracellular infectious agents. Because of their cytokine profile and ability to recruit other immune cell types, they are highly pro-inflammatory and are involved in the induction of several autoimmune disorders. Recent studies show that Th17 cells and their signature cytokine IL-17 have also a role in a wide variety of neurological diseases. This review article will briefly summarize the evidence linking Th17 cells to brain diseases associated with cognitive impairment, including multiple sclerosis ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - November 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Golgi Apparatus of Neocortical Glial Cells During Hibernation in the Syrian Hamster
Hibernating mammals undergo torpor periods characterized by a general decrease in body temperature, metabolic rate, and brain activity accompanied by complex adaptive brain changes that appear to protect the brain from extreme conditions of hypoxia and low temperatures. These processes are accompanied by morphological and neurochemical changes in the brain including those in cortical neurons such as the fragmentation and reduction of the Golgi apparatus (GA), which both reverse a few hours after arousal from the torpor state. In the present study, we characterized – by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy &ndas...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - November 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Environmental Enrichment From Birth Impacts Parvalbumin Expressing Cells and Wisteria Floribunda Agglutinin Labelled Peri-Neuronal Nets Within the Developing Murine Striatum
We examined the effect of enriching mice from birth on parvalbumin expression and perineuronal net formation in developing and adult striatum. This input nucleus of the basal ganglia consists of topographically discernible regions that serve different functions, providing a means of simultaneously examining the influence of environmental factors on discrete, but related networks. Greater densities of striatal parvalbumin positive cells and wisteria floribunda agglutinin labelled perineuronal nets were present in enriched pups during the second postnatal week, primarily within the lateral portion of the nucleus. Housing con...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - October 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Response: Commentary: The Nomenclature of Human White Matter Association Pathways: Proposal for a Systematic Taxonomic Anatomical Classification
(Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - October 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An Adult Brain Atlas Reveals Broad Neuroanatomical Changes in Independently Evolved Populations of Mexican Cavefish
A shift in environmental conditions impacts the evolution of complex developmental and behavioral traits. The Mexican cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, is a powerful model for examining the evolution of development, physiology, and behavior because multiple cavefish populations can be compared to an extant, ancestral-like surface population of the same species. Many behaviors have diverged in cave populations of A. mexicanus, and previous studies have shown that cavefish have a loss of sleep, reduced stress, an absence of social behaviors, and hyperphagia. Despite these findings, surprisingly little is known about the changes ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - October 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Equine Stereotaxtic Population Average Brain Atlas With Neuroanatomic Correlation
In this study, we document the creation of a high-resolution stereotaxic population average brain atlas of the equine. The atlas was generated from nine unfixed equine cadaver brains imaged within 4 h of euthanasia in a 3-tesla MRI. The atlas was generated using linear and non-linear registration methods and quality assessed using signal and contrast to noise calculations. Tissue segmentation maps (TSMs) for white matter (WM), gray matter (GM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), were generated and manually segmented anatomic priors created for multiple subcortical brain structures. The resulting atlas was validated and correlat...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - October 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Mosaic and Concerted Brain Evolution: The Contribution of Microscopic Comparative Neuroanatomy in Lower Vertebrates
(Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - September 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research