Corticotectal Projections From the Premotor or Primary Motor Cortex After Cortical Lesion or Parkinsonian Symptoms in Adult Macaque Monkeys: A Pilot Tracing Study
The corticotectal projections, together with the corticobulbar (corticoreticular) projections, work in parallel with the corticospinal tract to influence motoneurons in the spinal cord both directly and indirectly via the brainstem descending pathways. The tectospinal tract originates in the deep layers of the superior colliculus. In the present study we analysed the corticotectal projections from two motor cortical areas, namely the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary motor cortex (M1) in eight macaque monkeys subjected to either a cortical lesion of the hand area in M1 (n=4) or Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms PD...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Effects of Amphetamine and Methamphetamine on the Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine and Acetylcholine From the Brainstem Reticular Formation
Amphetamine (AMPH) and methamphetamine (METH) are widely abused psychostimulants, which produce a variety of psychomotor, autonomic and neurotoxic effects. The behavioral and neurotoxic effects of both compounds (from now on defined as AMPHs) stem from a fair molecular and anatomical specificity for catecholamine-containing neurons, which are placed in the brainstem reticular formation. In fact, the structural cross-affinity joined with the presence of shared molecular targets between AMPHs and catecholamine provides the basis for a quite selective recruitment of brainstem catecholamine neurons following AMPHs administrati...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Stereotaxic Coordinates and Morphological Characterization of a Unique Nucleus (CSF-Contacting Nucleus) in Rat
This study provides an indispensable methodology and a significant reference for researchers interested in this unique nucleus. (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Organization of the Primate Insular Cortex
Long perceived as a primitive and poorly differentiated brain structure, the primate insular cortex recently emerged as a highly evolved, organized and richly connected cortical hub interfacing bodily states with sensorimotor, environmental and limbic activities. This insular interface likely substantiates emotional embodiment and has the potential to have a key role in the interoceptive shaping of cognitive processes, including perceptual awareness. In the present review, we present a novel working model of the insular cortex, based on an accumulation of neuroanatomical and functional evidence obtained essentially in the ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Kcnab1 Is Expressed in Subplate Neurons With Unilateral Long-Range Inter-Areal Projections
In this study, we analyzed the corticocortical projections of L6b/SP neurons in the mouse cortex and searched for a marker gene expressed in L6b/SP neurons that have ipsilateral inter-areal projections. Retrograde tracing experiments demonstrated that L6b/SP neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) projected to the primary motor cortex (M1) within the same cortical hemisphere at postnatal day (PD) 2 but did not show any callosal projection. This unilateral projection pattern persisted into adulthood. Our microarray analysis identified the gene encoding a β subunit of voltage-gated potassium channel (Kcnab1) as...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - May 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distribution Patterns of Three Molecularly Defined Classes of GABAergic Neurons Across Columnar Compartments in Mouse Barrel Cortex
This study was carried out in accordance with the principles of the Basel Declaration and German laws on animal research (TierSchG and TierSchVersV, 2013). The protocol was approved by the LAVES (Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit). Tissue Preparation and Immunocytochemistry The animals were anesthetized with an overdose of ketamin (Essex Tierarznei) and transcardially perfused with 0.9% NaCl solution to remove blood from vessels, followed by 4% paraformaldehyde dissolved in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.4). The brains were removed and the two hemispheres separated. ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

On the Necessity of Validating Antibodies in the Immunohistochemistry Literature
In conclusion, our survey indicates that most articles published in Frontiers journals clearly identified the antibodies used for IHC. In contrast, descriptions of antibody specificity remain variable between journals. The present survey is admittedly small and has limitations. In particular, my categorization was not blinded and based on a limited set of criteria. In addition, I may have occasionally missed relevant information. However, beyond this survey, my personal experience as a reviewer for Frontiers is that antibody validation remains an issue. On several occasions, I had to request evidence of specificity from in...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Dendritic and Synaptic Degeneration in Pyramidal Neurons of the Sensorimotor Cortex in Neonatal Mice With Kaolin-Induced Hydrocephalus
This study evaluated the effect of hydrocephalus on dendritic arborization and synaptic structure of the pyramidal neurons of the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal hydrocephalic mice. Sterile kaolin suspension (0.01 ml of 250 mg/mL) was injected intracisternally into day old mice. Control animals mice received sham injections. Pups were weighed and sacrificed on postnatal days (PND) 7, 14 and 21. Fixed brain tissue blocks were silver impregnated using a modified Golgi staining technique and immunolabeled with synaptophysin to determine dendritic morphology and synaptic integrity respectively. Data were analyzed using ANOVA a...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Whole Brain Mapping of Long-Range Direct Input to Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurons in Motor Cortex
In this study, we used a monosynaptic rabies tracing technique to label the whole-brain inputs to specific cell types in the MOp and MOs simultaneously in a same transgenic mouse. First, 150 nl AAV helper mixtures were injected into the ipsilateral MOp (AP:1.54 mm, ML:1.70 mm, DV:-1.50 mm) and MOs (AP:1.54 mm, ML:0.50 mm, DV:-1.35 mm) in Thy1-cre or Vgat-cre mice respectively, mixed with rAAV2/9-Ef1α-DIO-BFP-2a-TVA-WPRE-pA and rAAV2/9-Ef1α-DIO-RG-WPRE-pA as the ratio of 1:2. Three weeks later, 300 nl RV-ΔG-EnVA-EGFP and RV-ΔG-EnVA-Dsred were injected into the two subregions of the MC respectively. O...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Franz Joseph Gall on the Cerebellum as the Organ for the Reproductive Drive
This article examines Gall’s earlier subcortical organs, with an emphasis on why he associated the cerebellum with this drive. It draws from accounts by several physicians, who attended his Vienna lectures or heard him speak in Germany and the Netherlands in 1805–1806 [i.e., before he published his finalized list in his Anatomie et Physiologie (1810–1819)]. These early accounts show that early on he localized at least four faculties in brainstem structures, including a reproductive drive in the cerebellar cortex. He based his structure–function association primarily on cranial differences between me...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Neurostereology
Bente Pakkenberg1,2*, Mikkel Vestergaard Olesen1, Sanne Simone Kaalund1 and Karl-Anton Dorph-Petersen3,4,5 1Research Laboratory for Stereology and Neuroscience, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark 3Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 4Centre for Stochastic Geometry and Advanced Bioimaging, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark 5Translational Neuroscience Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Integrative Function of Silent Synapses on Subplate Neurons in Cortical Development and Dysfunction
Conclusion and Open Questions While SPNs as a population of neurons are coming into clearer view, many unknowns remain. SPNs as a group are both the target of initial thalamic inputs but also receive extensive cortical input. In particular, there is an extensive connectivity of SPNs with the cortical plate mediated by NMDAR-only containing “silent” synapses at the earliest ages. These synapses are very sensitive to the resting potential of the cell, thus subtle modulation of the resting potential can modulate their activity and thus their ability to integrate inputs. Activation of silent synapses on SPNs by hy...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Novel Antiserum Against a Predicted Human Peripheral Choline Acetyltransferase (hpChAT) for Labeling Neuronal Structures in Human Colon
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of “NIH Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animal protocols” and of the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Shiga University of Medical Science (SUMS). The protocol was approved by SUMS. Six adult male Balb/c mice (5-weeks-old) were purchased from Clea Japan Inc. (Konan, Japan). Each mouse (labeled H1-H6) received subcutaneous injections of 0.1 ml of TiterMax Gold adjuvant (Sigma-Aldrich, Saint-Louis, MO, USA) containing 5 mg/ml KLH-conjugated peptide into multiple sites of the neck and back skin with at a 2-week interval. Antisera, ...
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - April 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cyto- and Myelo-Architecture of the Amygdaloid Complex of the Common Marmoset Monkey (Callithrix jacchus)
Paulo Leonardo Ara újo Góis Morais, María García-Amado, Ruthnaldo Rodrigues Melo Lima, Angélica Córdoba-Claros, Jeferson Souza Cavalcante, Francisco Clascá, Expedito Silva Nascimento (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tailored Sample Mounting for Light-Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy of Clarified Specimens by Polydimethylsiloxane Casting
Antonino Paolo Di Giovanna, Caterina Credi, Alessandra Franceschini, Marie Caroline M üllenbroich, Ludovico Silvestri, Francesco Saverio Pavone (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Re-evaluation of the Anatomy of the Claustrum in Rodents and Primates —Analyzing the Effect of Pallial Expansion
Daniel Binks, Charles Watson, Luis Puelles (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Darwin and Neuroscience: The German Connection
Gabriel Finkelstein (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuron Names: A Gene- and Property-Based Name Format, With Special Reference to Cortical Neurons
Gordon M. Shepherd, Luis Marenco, Michael L. Hines, Michele Migliore, Robert A. McDougal, Nicholas T. Carnevale, Adam J. H. Newton, Monique Surles-Zeigler, Giorgio A. Ascoli (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Catalyzing Neurophysiology: Jacques Loeb, the Stazione Zoologica di Napoli, and a Growing Network of Brain Scientists, 1900s –1930s
Frank W. Stahnisch (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 19, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Distribution, Morphological Characterization, and Resiniferatoxin-Susceptibility of Sensory Neurons That Innervate Rat Perirenal Adipose Tissue
Bo-Xun Liu, Ming Qiu, Peng-Yu Zong, Xu-Guan Chen, Kun Zhao, Yong Li, Peng Li, Wei Sun, Xiang-Qing Kong (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Uncovering the Functional Link Between SHANK3 Deletions and Deficiency in Neurodevelopment Using iPSC-Derived Human Neurons
Guanqun Huang, Shuting Chen, Xiaoxia Chen, Jiajun Zheng, Zhuoran Xu, Abolfazl Doostparast Torshizi, Siyi Gong, Qingpei Chen, Xiaokuang Ma, Jiandong Yu, Libing Zhou, Shenfeng Qiu, Kai Wang, Lingling Shi (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Regional and Cellular Mapping of Sortilin Immunoreactivity in Adult Human Brain
Shu-Yin Xu, Qi-Lei Zhang, Qi Zhang, Lily Wan, Juan Jiang, Tian Tu, Jim Manavis, Aihua Pan, Yan Cai, Xiao-Xin Yan (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

InTool Explorer: An Interactive Exploratory Analysis Tool for Versatile Visualizations of Neuroscientific Data
Diana Furcila, Marcos Garc ía, Cosmin Toader, Juan Morales, Antonio LaTorre, Ángel Rodríguez, Luis Pastor, Javier DeFelipe, Lidia Alonso-Nanclares (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Septal GABA and Glutamate Neurons Express RXFP3 mRNA and Depletion of Septal RXFP3 Impaired Spatial Search Strategy and Long-Term Reference Memory in Adult Mice
Mouna Haidar, Kimberly Tin, Cary Zhang, Mohsen Nategh, Jo ão Covita, Alexander D. Wykes, Jake Rogers, Andrew L. Gundlach (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Development of Sample-Adaptable Holders for Lightsheet Microscopy
Thierry Laroche, Olivier Burri, Lalit Kumar Dubey, Arne Seitz (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

A Missing Connection: A Review of the Macrostructural Anatomy and Tractography of the Acoustic Radiation
Chiara Maffei, Silvio Sarubbo, Jorge Jovicich (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Superoanterior Fasciculus (SAF): A Novel White Matter Pathway in the Human Brain?
Szabolcs David, Anneriet M. Heemskerk, Francesco Corrivetti, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Silvio Sarubbo, Francesco Corsini, Alessandro De Benedictis, Laurent Petit, Max A. Viergever, Derek K. Jones, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Hubertus Axer, John Evans, Tom áš Paus, Alexander Leemans (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - March 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Survey of Midbrain, Diencephalon, and Hypothalamus Neuroanatomic Terms Whose Prosomeric Definition Conflicts With Columnar Tradition
Luis Puelles (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Adult islet1 Expression Outlines Ventralized Derivatives Along Zebrafish Neuraxis
Stephan W. Baeuml, Daniela Biechl, Mario F. Wullimann (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Resting State Functional Connectivity of the Rat Claustrum
Samuel R. Krimmel, Houman Qadir, Natalie Hesselgrave, Michael G. White, David H. Reser, Brian N. Mathur, David A. Seminowicz (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cytoarchitectonic Areas of the Gyrus ambiens in the Human Brain
Ricardo Insausti, Marta C órcoles-Parada, Mar Maria Ubero, Adriana Rodado, Ana Maria Insausti, Mónica Muñoz-López (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Optimization of Traced Neuron Skeleton Using Lasso-Based Model
Shiwei Li, Tingwei Quan, Cheng Xu, Qing Huang, Hongtao Kang, Yijun Chen, Anan Li, Ling Fu, Qingming Luo, Hui Gong, Shaoqun Zeng (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genetic Elimination of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in the Forebrain Affects Subplate Neurons in the Cortex and Oligodendrocytes in the Underlying White Matter
I-Shing Yu, Ho-Ching Chang, Ko-Chien Chen, Yi-Ling Lu, Horng-Tzer Shy, Chwen-Yu Chen, Kuang-Yung Lee, Li-Jen Lee (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Papez ’s Forgotten Tract: 80 Years of Unreconciled Findings Concerning the Thalamocingulate Tract
Joshua Weininger, Elena Roman, Paul Tierney, Denis Barry, Hugh Gallagher, Paul Murphy, Kirk J. Levins, Veronica O ’Keane, Erik O’Hanlon, Darren W. Roddy (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Original Histological Slides of Camillo Golgi and His Discoveries on Neuronal Structure
Marina Bentivoglio, Tiziana Cotrufo, Sergio Ferrari, Chiara Tesoriero, Sara Mariotto, Giuseppe Bertini, Antonella Berzero, Paolo Mazzarello (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Papez Circuit Observed by in vivo Human Brain With 7.0T MRI Super-Resolution Track Density Imaging and Track Tracing
Sang-Han Choi, Young-Bo Kim, Sun-Ha Paek, Zang-Hee Cho (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Editorial: Neuroscience in Africa
Nilesh B. Patel, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, Vivienne A. Russell (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Tissue Clearing and Light Sheet Microscopy: Imaging the Unsectioned Adult Zebra Finch Brain at Cellular Resolution
Mariana Diales Rocha, Daniel Normen D üring, Philipp Bethge, Fabian F. Voigt, Staffan Hildebrand, Fritjof Helmchen, Alexander Pfeifer, Richard Hans Robert Hahnloser, Manfred Gahr (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

iDISCO+ for the Study of Neuroimmune Architecture of the Rat Auditory Brainstem
Paola Perin, Fabian F. Voigt, Philipp Bethge, Fritjof Helmchen, Roberto Pizzala (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Berengario da Carpi and the Renaissance of Brain Anatomy
Andr é Parent (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Extreme Neuroplasticity of Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons in Hibernating Mammalian Species
John M. Horowitz, Barbara A. Horwitz (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Time for Radical Changes in Brain Stem Nomenclature —Applying the Lessons From Developmental Gene Patterns
Charles Watson, Caitlin Bartholomaeus, Luis Puelles (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Claustrum in Relation to Seizures and Electrical Stimulation
Lalitha Kurada, Arezou Bayat, Sweta Joshi, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Flexible Multi-Beam Light-Sheet Fluorescence Microscope for Live Imaging Without Striping Artifacts
Giuseppe Sancataldo, Vladislav Gavryusev, Giuseppe de Vito, Lapo Turrini, Massimiliano Locatelli, Chiara Fornetto, Natascia Tiso, Francesco Vanzi, Ludovico Silvestri, Francesco Saverio Pavone (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of the Genetic Depletion of Polysialyltransferases on the Structure and Connectivity of Interneurons in the Adult Prefrontal Cortex
Yasmina Curto, Julia Alcaide, Iris R öckle, Herbert Hildebrandt, Juan Nacher (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 6, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Glomerular Organization of the Antennal Lobes of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella L.
Xizhong Yan, Zhiyu Wang, Jiaoxin Xie, Caiping Deng, Xuejun Sun, Chi Hao (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - February 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Expansion Light Sheet Microscopy Resolves Subcellular Structures in Large Portions of the Songbird Brain
Daniel Normen D üring, Mariana Diales Rocha, Falk Dittrich, Manfred Gahr, Richard Hans Robert Hahnloser (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - January 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Non-destructive 3D Microtomography of Cerebral Angioarchitecture Changes Following Ischemic Stroke in Rats Using Synchrotron Radiation
Yonghong Luo, Xianzhen Yin, Shupeng Shi, Xiaolei Ren, Haoran Zhang, Zhuolu Wang, Yong Cao, Mimi Tang, Bo Xiao, Mengqi Zhang (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - January 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Applications of Light-Sheet Microscopy in Microdevices
Ignacio Albert-Smet, Asier Marcos-Vidal, Juan Jos é Vaquero, Manuel Desco, Arrate Muñoz-Barrutia, Jorge Ripoll (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - January 25, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Organization and Connections of Second Somatosensory Cortex in the Agouti
Lucidia F. Santiago, Marco Aurelio M. Freire, Cristovam W. Pican ço-Diniz, João G. Franca, Antonio Pereira (Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy)
Source: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy - January 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research