Non-genetic rats models for atherosclerosis research: from past to present.
Authors: Livero FADR, Gasparotto Junior A Abstract Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory, progressive, and chronic illness that involves several molecular and epigenetic factors. Despite treatment limitations, clinical and therapeutic approaches have undeniably changed radically in recent decades through better knowledge of the pathophysiological basis of the disease, which has considerably improved patients' survival and quality of life. Some of these advances are attributable to basic biomedical research that provides insights into a better understanding and identification of new molecular and cellular targets for a...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Detection to treatment and global impacts of algal toxins.
Authors: Parsaeimehr A, Lutzu GA, Rahman Shah M, Parra Saldivar R Abstract Harmful algal blooms in the past three decades appear to have grown in incidence, intensity and geographical distribution with negative impacts on public health and economy values. Each year the algal biotoxins are responsible for more than 60.000 intoxications with an associated mortality rate of 1.5%. The present review summarizes current knowledge and perspectives on marine and freshwater algal toxins with an emphasis on different genus of algae capable to produce toxins and their physiology. The typologies of toxins, their chemical struc...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Role of NO and other vascular mediators in the etiopathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis.
Authors: Nair J, Lakshminrusimha S Abstract The etio-pathogenesis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is complex and multifactorial. Decades of research have not identified a definite etiology. Prematurity, enteral feeding, intestinal hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation and an abnormal microbiome are potential risk factors for developing this multisystem illness. Lack of specific diagnostic and prognostic markers adds to the challenges faced in managing NEC. Vascular mediators such as Nitric oxide (NO), catecholamines and endothelin (ET) regulate neonatal intestinal vascular resistance and may influence the pathophysiolo...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

microRNAs: Epigenetic players in cancer and aging.
Authors: Iswariya GT, Paital B, Padma PR, Nirmaladevi R Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, small non-coding RNA molecules that play important regulatory roles in numerous biological processes, cellular pathways and networks. They do so by targeting specific mRNAs, directly degrading them and/or preventing their translation into proteins. The impaired function of miRNAs results in aberrant gene expression that promotes abnormal cell growth and differentiation. miRNAs, located at fragile sites or cancer associated regions of the genome, act as either tumor suppressor or tumor promoters. miRNAs also play sign...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

----Delivery of siRNA therapeutics: PLGA nanoparticles approach.
Authors: Matta J, Maalouf R Abstract RNA interference is currently one of the most advanced genomic tools providing promising insight to manage countless pathophysiological conditions that seemed unapproachable few years ago. Researchers across the globe have devised numerous methods in which small RNA molecules can be administered into target cells to manipulate cellular functions at the molecular level and eradicate defects that lead to pronounced phenotypes, which might sometimes be as fatal as malignant tumors. The present review provides an overview of the non-viral delivery approaches for siRNA therapeutics w...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

The persisting puzzle of racial disparity in triple negative breast cancer: looking through a new lens.
Authors: Garlapati C, Joshi S, Sahoo B, Kapoor S, Aneja R Abstract Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and absence of amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2). This disease has no approved treatment with a poor prognosis particularly in African-American (AA) as compared to European-American (EA) patients. Gene ontology analysis showed specific gene pathways that are differentially regulated and gene signatures that are differentially expressed in AA as compared to EA. Such differences might underlie the basis for the aggre...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Zebrafish embryo extract counteracts human stem cell senescence.
In conclusion, hASCs exposure to ZF1 is a feasible tool to counteract and reverse human stem cell senescence in long-term culturing conditions. PMID: 30844738 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

The collagen scaffold supports hiPSC-derived NSC growth and restricts hiPSC.
Authors: Zychowicz M, Pietrucha K, Podobinska M, Kowalska-Wlodarczyk M, Lenart J, Augustyniak J, Buzanska L Abstract The human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) are one of the promising candidates as patient specific cell source for autologous transplantation or modeling of diseases. The collagen (Col) scaffolds have been shown suitable to create in vitro biomimetic microenvironment for human neural stem cells, but their ability to accommodate stem cells at different stages of neural differentiation has not been verified yet. In this paper we compare lineage related hiPSC during neural differentiation for thei...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

An enzymatic paper-based biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of DNA.
In this study, a chemiluminescence-based lateral flow biosensor (CL-LFB) was developed for the quantitative analysis of DNA, without labeling and amplification. The developed biosensor employs a two-step hybridization, a primary hybridization of 5'-biotinylated detector probe to the target DNA and a secondary hybridization of the resulting complex with the immobilized capture probe. Quantitative analysis of DNA was provided via HRP-catalyzed reaction with the chemiluminescense substrate followed by imaging with a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) digital camera. The assay performance was investigated using a s...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Targeting risk factors for reducing the racially disparate burden in breast cancer.
Authors: Wright N, Akinyemiju T, Subhedar P, Rida P, Aneja R Abstract African-American (AA) women are more likely to die from breast cancer (BC), at any age, compared to European-American women. Although breakthroughs in pre-clinical studies have resulted in potentially actionable targets in AA BC, drugs that were rationally designed for these targets have performed poorly in clinical trials. Challenges with interpatient and intratumoral heterogeneity, lack of drug sensitivity and specificity, suboptimal biomarker cut-offs, lack of drug response predictive biomarkers, drug side effects, high costs of drug developme...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Anticancer potential of natural products: a review focusing on Sri Lankan plants.
Authors: Kuruppu A, Paranagama P, De Silva R Abstract In the pharmaceutical industry, the expected surge in production of new therapeutic entities promised by technological advances, such as high-throughput screening, synthetic libraries and advances in molecular biology and genomics, has not materialized. The unique structural diversity of natural products continues to provide opportunities to discover novel compounds. Secondary metabolites, active components of natural products such as marine organisms, microbial organisms and terrestrial plants, are particularly exciting untapped resources for exploration as med...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Time will tell: Circadian clock dysregulation in triple negative breast cancer.
Authors: Rida P, Syed MI, Aneja R Abstract Growing evidence now links circadian disruption (CD) to increased risk of developing multiple types of cancer, including breast cancer (BC). In the US, African-American (AA) BC patients have a higher mortality rate than European-Americans (EAs) with BC, and a prime suspect in this racially disparate burden has been the greater incidence of an aggressive and highly heterogeneous BC subtype called triple-negative BC (TNBC), among AAs. AAs are also more prone to CD as larger proportions of AAs engage in night shift work than EAs, and the chronotype of AAs makes it harder for ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Sorafenib induces synergistic effect on inhibition of vemurafenib resistant melanoma growth.
Authors: Srivastava A, Moorthy A Abstract Vemurafenib is a B-raf inhibitor which is widely used in treatment of melanoma patients with B-RAF V600E mutation. Majority of patients treated with vemurafenib develop resistance against the drug. Here, we asssessed the effectiveness of a combination drug therapy in vemurafenib resistant melanoma cells. Vemurafenib resistant A375 melanoma cells (A375Res cells) were developed by growing parental cells in increasing concentrations of the drug. The A375Res cells were 50 times more resistant (higher IC50 value), had reduced cell doubling time, were less responsive to the antip...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - March 9, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Nigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine induces changes in spatial arrangement of striatal neuron and glial cells.
Authors: Ebrahimi V, Aliaghaei A, Piryaei A, Haghir H, Abdollahifar MA, Sadeghi Y Abstract In Parkinson's disease, nigral dopamine neurons are lost and the structure of the striatum is progressively degraded. These events lead to a substantial neuronal loss in the striatum, changing spatial pattern of the neurons and glial cells, and associated cellular connections. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a new insight into whether the Parkinson's disease causes a change in the spatial arrangement of the neurons and glial cells in the striatum. Nigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine led to a significant redu...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - November 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Using neuroimaging to uncover awareness in brain-injured and anesthetized patients.
Authors: Graham M, Owen AM, Weijer C, Naci L Abstract We cast a novel perspective on two distinct populations: patients who become accidentally intraoperatively aware after receiving general anesthesia and severely brain-injured patients who are diagnosed as being in a vegetative state. In both cases, patients are behaviorally non-responsive -and on this basis presumed to lack consciousness- yet, retain covert awareness. In both contexts, detecting consciousness is highly challenging, yet highly important for ensuring adequate patient care. Although great strides have been made in the development of depth-of-anesth...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 19, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Assessment of different pretreatment technologies for efficient bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol.
Authors: Singh JK, Vyas P, Dubey A, Upadhyaya CP, Kothari R, Tyagi VV, Kumar A Abstract The future supply of energy to meet growing energy demand of rapidly exapanding populations is based on wide energy resources, particularly the renewable ones. Among all resources, lignocellulosic biomasses such as agriculture, forest, and agro-industrial residues are the most abundant and easily available bioresource for biorefineries to provide fuels, chemicals, and materials. However, pretreatment of biomass is required to overcome the physical and chemical barriers that exist in the lignin-carbohydrate composite and pretreat...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 19, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Impact of estrogen and photoperiod on arginine vasotocin and VT3 receptor expression in the shell gland of quail.
Authors: Srivastava R, Cornett LE, Chaturvedi CM Abstract Role of estrogen and photoperiod is well-established in avian reproduction. In addition, the distribution and the expression of arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its receptor VT3 to ensure reproductive/breeding conditions in Japanese quail influenced by them has been the main focus of this review. To consider this aspect the mRNA expression of VT3 receptor and its ligand AVT in the shell gland has been emphasized. In birds, AVT performs a dual role as an anti-diuretic hormone and the functions accomplished by oxytocin in mammals. The physiological actions of AVT ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - May 19, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Hypertension and atrial fibrillation: a bench to bedside perspective.
Authors: Andreadis EA, Geladari CV Abstract Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice and its prevalence increases markedly with advancing age, worldwide. Almost every primary care physician, internist, or cardiologist, has dealt with stroke or with other complications of AF. Still, its management remains a hot issue for clinicians and the debate over which treatment strategy is the best is ongoing. Moreover, AF increases significantly the total cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Despite a great bulk of data in the existing medical literature, the pathophysiology ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - January 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Protective effect of Zizyphus spinachristi on MPP+-induced oxidative stress.
Authors: Singh V, Mohamed Essa M, Guizani N, Balakrishnan R, Hemalatha T, Manivasagam T, Justin-Thenmozhi A, Elangovan N, Velusamy T Abstract Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated neuro apoptosis is reported to play a major role in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Zizyphus spina-christi fruits (ZSCF) are used as traditional medicines that are well-known for their high antioxidant properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of ZSCF extract against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell lines. The effect of ZCSF on MPP+ induced cell...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - January 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Activity of maltodextrin and vancomycin against staphylococcus aureus biofilm.
Authors: Alonso B, Cruces R, Perez A, Fernandez-Cruz A, Guembe M Abstract We aimed to assess the anti-biofilm activity of vancomycin, maltodextrin, and their combination against vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) strains based on an in vitro static model. Biofilms of 4 VSSA and 2 VRSA strains were grown in a 96-well static model. Vancomycin 2 mM, maltodextrin 10 mM, and both in combination were tested using tetrazolium salt (XTT), resazurin, and cfu/well counts. The efficacy of the antimicrobial solutions was expressed as the percentage reduction in me...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - January 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Molecular role of dopamine in anhedonia linked to reward deficiency syndrome (RDS) and anti- reward systems.
Authors: Gold MS, Blum K, Febo M, Baron D, Modestino EJ, Elman I, Badgaiyan RD Abstract Anhedonia is a condition that leads to the loss of feelings pleasure in response to natural reinforcers like food, sex, exercise, and social activities. This disorder occurs in addiction, and an array of related neuropsychiatric syndromes, including schizophrenia, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Anhedonia may by due to derangements in mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways and their terminal fields (e.g., striatum, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex) that persist long after the traces of the causative drugs are eli...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - January 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone-interacting cell and plasma proteins share a common motif.
In conclusion, proteins so genetically and functionally diverse share TH binding because they share a homologous region that remains conserved phylogenetically. PMID: 29293436 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - January 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Interaction of the renin angiotensin and cox systems in the kidney.
Authors: Quadri SS, Culver SA, Li C, Siragy HM Abstract Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in mediating actions of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This review sheds light on the recent developments regarding the complex interactions between components of RAS and COX-2; and their implications on renal function and disease. COX-2 is believed to counter regulate the effects of RAS activation and therefore counter balance the vasoconstriction effect of Ang II. In kidney, under normal conditions, these systems are essential for maintaining a balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction. However, r...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Interactions between bone cells and biomaterials: An update.
Authors: Beauvais S, Drevelle O, Jann J, Lauzon MA, Foruzanmehr M, Grenier G, Roux S, Faucheux N Abstract  As the populations of the Western world become older, they will suffer more and more from bone defects related to osteoporosis (non-union fractures, vertebral damages), cancers (malignant osteolysis) and infections (osteomyelitis). Autografts are usually used to fill these defects, but they have several drawbacks such as morbidity at the donor site and the amount and quality of bone that can be harvested. Recent scientific milestones made in biomaterials development were shown to be promising to overcome ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Anandamide and its metabolites: what are their roles in the kidney?
Authors: Ritter JK, Li G, Xia M, Boini K Abstract    Anandamide (AEA) is the N-acyl ethanolamide of arachidonic acid, an agonist of cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors in the body. The kidneys are enriched in AEA and in enzymes that metabolize AEA, but the roles of AEA and its metabolites in the kidney remain poorly understood. This system likely is involved in the regulation of renal blood flow and hemodynamics and of tubular sodium and fluid reabsorption. It may act as a neuromodulator of the renal sympathetic nervous system. AEA and its cyclooxygenase-2 metabolites, the prostamides, in the renal ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Moderate to high throughput in vitro binding kinetics for drug discovery.
Authors: Zhang R, Barbieri CM, Garcia-Calvo M, Myers RW, McLaren D, Kavana M Abstract This review provides a concise summary for state of the art, moderate to high throughput in vitro technologies being employed to study drug-target binding kinetics. These technologies cover a wide kinetic timescale spanning up to nine orders of magnitude from milliseconds to days. Automated stopped flow measures transient and (pre)steady state kinetics from milliseconds to seconds. For seconds to hours timescale kinetics we discuss surface plasmon resonance-based biosensor, global progress curve analysis for high throughput kineti...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Chromosome and genetic testing using ChIP assay.
Authors: Kohzaki H, Asano M Abstract Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay can be used to easily visualize information about proteins, DNA, and RNA on chromosomes and is widely used for analysis of genomes, epigenomes, mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs. The ChIP assay can detect, not only DNA-binding proteins of various organisms, but also the temporal and spatial regulating mechanisms of RNA-binding proteins. Because of these features, demand for ChIP assay is expected to grow. Here, by using yeast and Drosophila as examples, we describe the superiority of the improved ChIP assay that we have developed. PMID: 2...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Exosomes isolation protocols: facts and artifacts for cardiac regeneration.
Authors: Angelini F, Ionta V, Rossi F, Pagano F, Chimenti I, Messina E, Giacomello A Abstract In recent years, exosomes have attracted increasing scientific interest and are no longer considered just as containers for cell waste, but as important mediators of intercellular communication. Among many biomedical research topics, a possible direct role of exosomes in the regenerative medicine field has been underlined in recent studies, including those regarding the so called "paracrine hypothesis". In this perspective, a therapeutic role and/or use of exosomes for tissue regeneration seems to be plausible. H...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Role of mitochondria, ROS, and DNA damage in arsenic induced carcinogenesis.
Authors: Lee CH, Yu HS Abstract The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) declared arsenic a class I carcinogen. Arsenic exposure induces several forms of human cancers, including cancers of skin, lung, liver, and urinary bladder. The majority of the arsenic-induced cancers occur in skin. Among these, the most common is Bowen's disease, characterized by epidermal hyperplasia, full layer epidermal dysplasia, leading to intraepidermal carcinoma as well as apoptosis, and moderate dermal infiltrates, which require the participation of mitochondria. The exact mechanism underlying arsenic induced carcinogene...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 analytical determination in biological matrices and pharmaceuticals.
Authors: Lucangioli S, Martinefski M, Tripodi V Abstract In recent years, the analytical determination of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has gained importance in clinical diagnosis and in pharmaceutical quality control. CoQ10 is an important cofactor in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and a potent endogenous antioxidant. CoQ10 deficiency is often associated with numerous diseases and patients with these conditions may benefit from administration of supplements of CoQ10. In this regard, it has been observed that the best benefits are obtained when CoQ10 deficiency is diagnosed and treated early. Therefore, it is of great ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Potential benefits of colostrum in gastrointestinal diseases.
In conclusion, in the near future, colostrum-based supplements may play a complementary role to synthetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of various gastrointestinal disorders. PMID: 27100711 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar)
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - October 6, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

New targeted therapies and diagnostic methods for iron overload diseases.
Authors: Kolnagou A, Kontoghiorghe CN, Kontoghiorghes GJ Abstract Millions of people worldwide suffer from iron overload toxicity diseases such as transfusional iron overload in thalassaemia and hereditary haemochromatosis. The accumulation and presence of toxic focal iron deposits causing tissue damage can also be identified in Friedreich's ataxia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, renal and other diseases. Different diagnostic criteria of toxicity and therapeutic interventions apply to each disease of excess or misplaced iron. Magnetic resonance imaging relaxation times T2 and T2* for monitoring iron deposits in organs a...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

miRNA as viral transcription tuners in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis.
Authors: Shishodia G, Verma G, Das BC, Bharti AC Abstract High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are oncogenic DNA viruses that promote carcinogenic signaling by their oncoproteins mainly E6 and E7. A well-defined promoter regulates expression and enhancer region on HPV genome containing number of cis elements that essentially require a set of cognate host transcription factors to regulate viral promoter gene activity. Expression of these host factors is tightly regulated at multiple levels such as transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational level. Discovery of microRNAs (miRs) in recent years and...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Microperimetric biofeedback training: fundamentals, strategies and perspectives.
Authors: Vingolo EM, Napolitano G, Fragiotta S Abstract Microperimetric biofeedback training (MBFT) is a visual rehabilitative strategy based on fixation stability improvement reinforcing or creating a new preferential fixation locus. The rationale consists in reeducating visual system to a new visual condition, promoting retina-brain transmission, and thus cortical plasticity. The use of MBFT found is major application in visual diseases involving central vision, but later it revealed promising functional outcomes even in myopia, inherited retinal degenerations and nystagmus. However, the use of microperimetric bi...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Divergent impact of gender in advancement of liver injuries, diseases, and carcinogenesis.
Authors: Biswas S, Ghose S Abstract Several investigations have revealed that liver diseases exhibit gender biases, but identifying the root causes of such biases has been challenging. Evidence of gender differences in liver function is present from the early stage of embryonic development. The differences in access to care and treatment as well as diagnostic deliberation may affect gender-specific differences in liver disease progression. Apart from the pathogenesis, xenobiotic metabolism, immune responses, gene expressions, mitochondrial function, lipid composition, and enzyme activities also differ in this sexua...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Molecular evolution of hemagglutinin gene of Influenza A virus.
Authors: De A Abstract In the history of human civilization, influenza is the second most catastrophic killer disease for mankind with plague ranking first in the medieval times. The 1918-1919 'Spanish flu' killed 20-50 million people worldwide. According to a report from WHO, there have been four pandemics, several epidemics and recurrent seasonal outbreaks of influenza in different parts of the world. The virus is a potential bioterrorism threat with biological 'Chernobyl-like disaster' that occurred in Soviet Russia in 1977. Here, the author reviews the biology of the surface exposed hemagglutinin of the influen...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Multifactorial role of long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) in hematopoiesis.
Authors: Khawar MB, Mehmood R, Abbasi MH, Sheikh N Abstract   Human genome project unveiled that only 1.5.-2.0.% of the genome is protein coding. ENCODE and related studies showed that most part of the genome transcribed into RNAs, and most of them do not code for a functional proteins, hence the name non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). ncRNAs are small ncRNAs (less than 200 nucleotides) and long ncRNAs (longer than 200 nucleotides up to 10 kb). They act as a direct link between highly ordered chromosome structures, gene expression and serve as a bridge between genome and chromatin modification complexes as guides, scaf...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Advances in tick vaccinology in Brazil: from gene expression to immunoprotection.
Authors: Andreotti R, Giachetto PF, Cunha RC Abstract Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus has substantial economic impact on the cattle breeding industry and, chemical control and tick resistance development are the major concern. There is a worldwide search for new options, and control using vaccines has been the main focus nowadays. Studies performed in Brazil found that Bm86-based immunization of bovines reduced the infestation of R. (B.) microplus of vaccinated bovines by 45% to 60%. Native Boophilusmicroplus tripsin inhibitors (BmTIs) with trypsin-, kallikrein-, and elastase-inhibiting activities have been use...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

The evolving concept of the intrinsic hippocampal theta/gamma oscillator.
Authors: Cataldi M, Vigliotti C Abstract   Three main types of electrical oscillations are recorded from the hippocampus in vivo: theta (θ), gamma (γ) and sharp wave ripples with frequency bands of 4-12, 25-100 and 110-250 Hz, respectively. Theta activity is the more robust of them, and has important physiological roles because it is involved in spatial navigation, memory formation and memory retrieval. Classical lesion studies in vivo have suggested that the hippocampus passively follows the θ  rhythm generated in the septum by neurons that are synaptically connected with hippocampal ne...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Hypertension and cardiometabolic disease.
Authors: Tasic I, Lovic D Abstract Hypertension has  a central role in cardiometabolic disease and is usually associated with  metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Hyperinsulinemia may increase cardiovascular (CV) risk through its promotion of hypertension, which is possibly a result of chronic enhancement of sympathetic nervous system activity, stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system leading to increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption, modulating cation transport, or inducing vascular smooth muscle cell hypertrophy. The body mass index value is as...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Micronutrient formulations for prevention of complications of pregnancy.
Authors: Singh RB, Mishra S, Kumar S, Tiwari AM, De Meester F, Goyal RK, Kartikey K, Singh M Abstract According to a relatively recent UNICEF report, 15 percent of the infant population of the world is of low birth weight with India accounting for one third of all the world's low-weight newborns. Twenty percent of all low birth weight infants die within a month. This mortality figure is higher in developing countries due to inadequate nutritional intake by pregnant women. Development of a new package of nutrient-rich food based on egg or milk or soy bean proteins, containing multiple micronutrient supplements, avai...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Inflammatory biomarkers of coronary heart disease.
Authors: Li H, Sun K, Zhao R, Hu J, Hao Z, Wang F, Lu Y, Liu F, Zhang Y Abstract Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. CHD is characterized by formation of arterial plaques which are mainly comprised of lipids, calcium and inflammatory cells. These plaques narrow the lumen of coronary arteries leading to episodic or persistent angina. Rupture of these plaques leads to the formation of thrombus, which as a result of cessation of blood flow, causes myocardial infarct and death. CHD is exacerbated by risk factors including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Diagnosis ...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Microalgae as a source of high-value bioactive compounds.
Authors: Bule MH, Ahmed I, Maqbool F, Bilal M, Iqbal HMN Abstract Microalgae are one of the oldest microorganisms, that grow in various hostile environments, ranging from deserts to Antarctica. The microalgae sustain life in such harsh environments through generation of secondary metabolites. Microalgae biosynthesize a large number of diverse bioactive metabolites with activities on cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and infectious diseases. Here, we highlight the bioactive compounds that are isolated from microalgae for the purpose of using them as food, and as chemicals in pharmaceutical industry as new agents w...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Biotechnological improvement of nutritional and therapeutic value of cultivated potato.
Authors: Bagri DS, Upadhyay DC, Jain SK, Upadhyay CP Abstract Genetic engineering is recognized as a powerful tool for altering the genetic characteristic of crop plants. Genetic engineering has tremendous potential in developing improved potato varieties with desired agronomic traits and has been utilized for improvement of several crop plants including potato to enhance essential amino acid, protein and lipids/carbohydrates contents as well to improve stress tolerance. The pathway engineering of amino acid revealed dramatic changes in essential amino acid content and protein quality. Similarly, the vitamin pathwa...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

A protocol for investigating the association of vaccination and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.
Authors: Wang H Abstract Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder that can be triggered by virus, H1N1/tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines or by presence of a tumor. The association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and Japanese encephalitis vaccination was examined and a general protocol of phylogenetic method which details the steps and code and an example of its utility is provided. The approach used here is potentially useful for analyzing the relationship between vaccines and diseases. PMID: 28930529 [PubMed - in process] (So...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Genetic organization of Streptococcus salivarius 24SMBc blp-like bacteriocin locus.
Authors: Santagati M, Scillato M, Stefani S Abstract In this paper, we describe, for the first time, the genetic organization of the blpU-like cassette in Streptococcus salivarius24SMBc by entire genome sequencing. This strain has recently been found useful and widely applied as an oral probiotic in the prevention of recurrent otitis media. The 24SMBc blpU-like cassette  is 8,023 bp in length, organized in 11 orfs,of which orf8 encodes for the pore-forming peptide bacteriocin, belonging to class IIc, with a double-glycine leader peptide. The first characterization of blplocus was described inStreptococcus pneu...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Isolongifolene attenuates rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Authors: Balakrishnan R, Elangovan N, Mohankumar T, Nataraj J, Manivasagam T, Justin Thenmozhi A, Mohamed Essa M, Akbar M, Abdul Sattar Khan M Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the neuroprotective effects of isolongifolene (ILF), a tricyclic sesquiterpene of Murraya koenigii, against rotenone-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis in a cellular model. SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were divided into four experimental groups (control, rotenone (100 nM), ILF (10 microM) + rotenone (100 nanoM), ILF 10 microM alone treated) based on 3-(4, 5-dimethyl 2-yl)-2, 5-diphe...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Neuroprotective role of Asiatic acid in aluminium chloride induced rat model of Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Ahmad Rather M, Justin Thenmozhi A, Manivasagam T, Dhivya Bharathi M, Mohamed Essa M, Guillemin GJ Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by memory loss, cognitive impairment and personality disorders accompanied by diffuse structural abnormalities in the brain of elderly people. The current investigation explored the neuroprotective potential of asiatic acid (AA), a natural triterpene of Centella asiatica on aluminium chloride (AlCl3) induced rat model of AD. Oral administration of AlCl3 (100 mg/kg b.w.) for 42 days significantly elevated the levels of Al, act...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - September 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygenation for resuscitation and therapy of elderly patients with cerebral and cardio-respiratory dysfunction.
This article reviews the application of hyperbaric oxygenation as a method for resuscitation and therapy of elderly patients with cerebral and cardio-respiratory dysfunction, in acute as compared to chronic impairments. The vital role of proper dosage of HBO therapy to ensure both the efficacy and safety of the treatment is emphasized. We argue that in the acute stages of brain and cardiorespiratory impairment, the adequate hyperbaric oxygen dose is the most important condition for obtaining maximum therapeutic effect, due to the powerful anti-hypoxic capabilities of this method. In contrast, during the chronic course of s...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - April 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research

Racial disparities: disruptive genes in prostate carcinogenesis.
Authors: Singh S, Plaga A, Shukla GC Abstract Population specific studies in prostate cancer (PCa) reveal a unique heterogeneous etiology. Various factors, such as genetics, environment and dietary regimen seems to determine disease progression, therapeutic resistance and rate of mortality. Enormous disparity documented in disease incidences, aggressiveness and mortality in PCa among AAs (African Americans) and CAs (Caucasian Americans) is attributed to the variations in genetics, epigenetics and their association with metabolism. Scientific and clinical evidences have revealed the influence of variations in Androg...
Source: Frontiers in Bioscience - Scholar - April 16, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Front Biosci (Schol Ed) Source Type: research