Cellular adaptation mediated through Nrf2-mediated glutamate cysteine ligase upregulation against oxidative stress caused by iron overload in β-thalassemia/HbE patients.
In conclusion, β-Thal/HbE patients exhibit elevated plasma levels of GCLC expression and Nrf2-ARE binding activity, which may account for their adaptive survival response to oxidative stress. PMID: 31198069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Synergistic effects of geldanamycin with fluconazole are associated with reactive oxygen species in Candida tropicalis resistant to azoles and amphotericin B.
This study indicated that the oxidative stress mediated by fluconazole plus GdA played an important role in the antifungal activity, and targeting oxidative stress might extend target choices to treat fungal infections. PMID: 31185751 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Eclalbasaponin I causes mitophagy to repress oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via activation of p38 and ERK in SH-SY5Y cells.
In this study, pretreatment with EcI in SH-SY5Y cells significantly activated the p38-mitogenactivated protein kinase (p38), the extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK), whereas it did not affect the c-jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNK). In accordance with the initial findings, EcI-induced neuroprotective effect was attenuated by SB203580 (SB, a p38 inhibitor) or FR180204 (FR, an ERK inhibitor), being further confirmed by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA). Inhibition of either p38 or ERK up-regulated the apoptosis induction in EcI- and H2O2-cotreated cells. Furthermore, p38 or ERK suppression enhanced intracellular a...
Source: Free Radical Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome in acute ozone-induced murine model of airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.
Authors: Xu M, Wang L, Wang M, Wang H, Zhang H, Chen Y, Wang X, Gong J, Zhang JJ, Adcock IM, Chung KF, Li F Abstract Oxidative stress is a key mechanism underlying ozone-induced lung injury. Mitochondria can release mitochondrial reactive oxidative species (mtROS), which may lead to the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. The goal of this study was to examine the roles of mtROS and NLRP3 inflammasome in acute ozone-induced airway inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). C57/BL6 mice (n = 8/group) were intraperitoneally treated with vehicle (phosphate buffered saline, PBS) or Mito-TEMPO (mtROS i...
Source: Free Radical Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Ascorbate promotes the cellular accumulation of doxorubicin and reverses the multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells by inducing ROS-dependent ATP depletion.
In this study, we investigated the anticancer effects of combining chemotherapeutic drugs with ascorbate (AA) in human breast cancer cells. We found that combined administration of AA can improve the sensitivity of both MCF-7 and doxorubicin (Dox)-resistant MCF-7/Adr cells to Dox in vitro and in vivo by a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mechanism. Further studies proved that AA can promote the accumulation of Dox in MCF-7/Adr cells when combined with doxorubicin. AA had no effect on the expression of P-gp at the mRNA and protein levels, but could decrease its activity as demonstrated by an obvious inhibition of eff...
Source: Free Radical Research - June 8, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Urinary nucleic acid oxidation product levels show differential associations with pharmacological treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Kofoed Kjær L, Cejvanovic V, Henriksen T, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Kjeldahl Christensen C, Torp-Pedersen C, Alexander Gerds T, Brandslund I, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Enghusen Poulsen H Abstract The relationship between RNA and DNA oxidation and pharmacological treatment has not been systematically investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We aimed to investigate the association between pharmacological treatments and levels of urinary markers of nucleic acid oxidation in T2D patients. Vejle Diabetes Biobank cohort data was nested into nationwide registry data. Multiple logistic regression was used t...
Source: Free Radical Research - June 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Pioglitazone ameliorates hepatic damage in irradiated rats via regulating anti-inflammatory and antifibrogenic signaling pathways.
In conclusion, pioglitazone could serve as a promising therapeutic tool for attenuating radiation-induced liver injury in patients with radiotherapy which might be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic activities. PMID: 31146611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - June 1, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Formation of methyl radicals derived from cumene hydroperoxide in reconstructed human epidermis: an EPR spin trapping confirmation by using 13C-substitution.
Authors: Sahli F, Godard A, Vileno B, Lepoittevin JP, Giménez-Arnau E Abstract Dermal exposure to cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) during manufacturing processes is a toxicological issue for the industry. Its genotoxicity, mutagenic action, ability to promote skin tumor, capacity to induce epidermal hyperplasia and aptitude to induce allergic and irritant skin contact dermatitis are well known. These toxic effects appear to be mediated through the activation to free radical species such as hydroxyl, alkoxyl and alkyl radicals characterized basically by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and spin-trapping (ST...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Protective effect of hyperoside against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury via modulating mitochondrial fission, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Authors: Wu L, Li Q, Liu S, An X, Huang Z, Zhang B, Yuan Y, Xing C Abstract Ischemia/reperfusion (IR) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, effective therapies for IR-induced AKI are lacking. Hyperoside is an active constituent in the flowers of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic, which is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of various ischemic brain and heart diseases. Our previous study demonstrated that hyperoside inhibited adriamycin induced podocyte injury both in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of hyperoside in IR-induced AKI. In mice, p...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Effect of hyperoxia on the immune status of oxygen divers and endurance athletes.
Authors: Tillmans F, Sharghi R, Noy T, Kähler W, Klapa S, Sartisohn S, Sebens S, Koch A Abstract Physical activity, particularly that, exerted by endurance athletes, impacts the immune status of the human body. Prolonged duration and high-intensity endurance training lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thereby to oxidative stress. Military combat swimmers (O2-divers) are regularly exposed to hyperbaric hyperoxia (HBO) in addition to intensive endurance training intervals. They are, therefore, exposed to extreme levels of oxidative stress. Several studies support that the intensity...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The impact of aneuploidy on cellular homeostasis.
Authors: Newman DL, Thurgood LA, Gregory SL Abstract Genomic instability is a common feature of tumours that has a wide range of disruptive effects on cellular homeostasis. In this review we briefly discuss how instability comes about, then focus on the impact of gain or loss of DNA (aneuploidy) on oxidative stress. We discuss several mechanisms that lead from aneuploidy to the production of reactive oxygen species, including the effects on protein complex stoichiometry, endoplasmic reticulum stress and metabolic disruption. Each of these are involved in positive feedback loops that amplify relatively minor genetic...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Higher plasma levels of F2-isoprostanes are associated with slower psychomotor speed in healthy older adults.
Authors: Camfield DA, Nolidin K, Savage K, Timmer J, Croft K, Tangestani Fard M, Simpson T, Downey L, Scholey A, Pipingas A, Deleuil S, Stough C Abstract Oxidative stress has been identified as a process which is detrimental to brain health, and associated with age-related cognitive declines. Few studies to-date have examined the relationship between in vivo oxidative stress biomarkers and cognitive performance within healthy elderly populations. The current study investigated the relationship between reaction time and oxidative stress, as measured by blood plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes using a sample of...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and deregulations in base excision repair pathway as contributors to gallbladder anomalies and carcinoma - a study involving North-East Indian population.
This study involved patients from the North-East Indian population, where the numbers of reported cases are increasing rapidly and alarmingly. Oxidative stress, based on 8-OH-dG levels, was found to be significantly higher in gallbladder anomalies (cholelithiasis [CL] and cholecystitis [CS]) and GBC at the plasma and DNA level, and was associated with GBC severity. The expressions of key BER pathway genes were downregulated in gallbladder anomalies and GBC compared to controls, and in GBC compared to both non-neoplastic controls and gallbladder anomalies. Expression of XRCC1 and hOGG1 was significantly associated with both...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Chlorogenic acid prevents paraquat-induced apoptosis via Sirt1-mediated regulation of redox and mitochondrial function.
Authors: Kong D, Ding Y, Liu J, Liu R, Zhang J, Zhou Q, Long Z, Peng J, Li L, Bai H, Hai C Abstract Paraquat (PQ) is a widely used agro-chemical in agriculture and highly toxic to humans. Although the mechanism of PQ poisoning is not clear, it has been well documented that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and apoptosis play pivotal roles. Alternatively, chlorogenic acid (CA) is a biologically active dietary polyphenol, playing several therapeutic roles. However, it is not known whether CA has protective effect on PQ-induced apoptosis. Here, we investigated the effect of CA in preventing PQ-induced apoptosis...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The effect of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipoic acid on the heart in the ovariectomized rat model of menopause.
Authors: Marinho PM, Salomon TB, Andrade AS, Behling CS, Putti JS, Benfato MS, Schäfer Hackenhaar F Abstract Menopause occurs as consequence of ovarian senescence that leads to a drop of oestrogen hormone. The decreased oestrogen levels combined with the impairment of the redox system may contribute to the increased risk of postmenopausal cardiovascular disease. Supplementation with antioxidants may be an alternative to reduce cardiovascular risk. The study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and alpha-lipoic acid (LA) for a period of 16&...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The role of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress in cerebrovascular diseases.
Authors: Scicchitano P, Cortese F, Gesualdo M, De Palo M, Massari F, Giordano P, Ciccone MM Abstract Cerebrovascular diseases (CBD) are one of the most dangerous complications of atherosclerosis. The clinical consequences of CBD deeply impact quality of life and the prognosis of patients. Atherosclerosis is the main cause of CBD development. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoking, obesity, and other risk factors explain the higher CBD incidence in the general population, as they are able to anticipate the clinical expression of atherosclerosis. These risk factors are effectively able to promote endothelial d...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Wheat seed ageing viewed through the cellular redox environment and changes in pH.
Authors: Nagel M, Seal CE, Colville L, Rodenstein A, Un S, Richter J, Pritchard HW, Börner A, Kranner I Abstract To elucidate biochemical mechanisms leading to seed deterioration, we studied 23 wheat genotypes after exposure to seed bank storage for 6-16 years compared to controlled deterioration (CD) at 45 °C and 14 (CD14) and 18% (CD18) moisture content (MC) for up to 32 days. Under two seed bank storage conditions, seed viability was maintained in cold storage (CS) at 0 °C and 9% seed MC, but significantly decreased in ambient storage (AS) at 20 °C and 9% MC. Under AS and CS, organic f...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Antioxidative activity and health benefits of anthocyanin rich fruit juice in healthy volunteers.
Authors: Bakuradze T, Tausend A, Galan J, Maria Groh IA, Berry D, Tur JA, Marko D, Richling E Abstract Oxidative cell damage has been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The consumption of foods rich in polyphenols (eg anthocyanins) has been shown to exert preventive effects against such diseases. We investigated biological effects of anthocyanin-rich fruit juice in a 9-week, placebo-controlled intervention study with 57 healthy male volunteers. The study design encompassed an initial 1 week of wash-out, followed by 8 weeks of intervention ...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 16, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Formation of two centre three electron bond by hydroxyl radical induced reaction of thiocoumarin: evidence from experimental and theoretical studies.
Authors: Shinde RG, Khan AA, Barik A Abstract Radiation chemical studies of thioesculetin (1), a thioketone derivative of coumarin, were performed by both pulse radiolysis technique and DFT calculations. Hydroxyl (•OH) radical reaction with 1 resulted transients absorbing at 320, 360 and 500 nm. To identify the nature of the transients, the reaction was studied with specific one-electron oxidant (N3•) radical, where 360 nm band was absent. The transient absorption at 500 nm was concentration-dependent. The overall impression for •OH radical reaction was that the transient absorbing at ...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Editorial: A new chapter for Free Radical Research.
Authors: Uchida K PMID: 31074685 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - May 12, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Biotin attenuation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid metabolism alteration and 7 β-hydroxycholesterol-induced cell death in 158N murine oligodendrocytes.
Biotin attenuation of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, lipid metabolism alteration and 7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced cell death in 158N murine oligodendrocytes. Free Radic Res. 2019 May 01;:1-11 Authors: Sghaier R, Zarrouk A, Nury T, Ilham B, O'Brien N, Mackrill JJ, Vejux A, Samadi M, Nasser B, Caccia C, Leoni V, Moreau T, Cherkaoui-Malki M, Salhedine Masmoudi A, Lizard G Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are involved in neurodegenerative diseases associated with an enhancement of lipid peroxidation products such as 7β- hydroxycholesterol (7β-OHC). It is...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Radix Tetrastigma flavonoid ameliorates inflammation and prolongs the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans through JNK, p38 and Nrf2 pathways.
Authors: Li Y, Chu Q, Liu Y, Ye X, Jiang Y, Zheng X Abstract The main flavonoid components of Radix Tetrastigma (RTF) were extracted and identified by UPLC-TOF/MS. In vitro, RTF prevented inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing morphological (both cell and nucleus) changes, and decreasing nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contents. Exposure to LPS also leads to oxidant damage, and RTF alleviated damage to mitochondria, decreased O2- accumulation, and restored the glutathione level. RTF intervention decreased the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in biological systems and its relation with pathophysiological functions: the effect of physical activity on cellular redox homeostasis.
This study aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on the association between oxidative stress and the pathogenesis of some characteristic to the biological systems diseases and aging process. This review also presents the effect of physical activity on redox homeostasis. There is strong evidence from studies for participation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in pathogenesis of acute and chronic diseases based on animal models and human studies. Elevated levels of prooxidants and various markers of the oxidative stress and cells and tissues damage linked with pathogenesis of cancer, atherosclerosis, neurode...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

How efficient is resveratrol as an antioxidant of the Mediterranean Diet, towards alterations during the aging process?
Authors: Silva P, Sureda A, Tur JA, Andreoletti P, Cherkaoui-Malki M, Latruffe N Abstract Mediterranean diet (MD) is the most relevant nutritional aspect of the multisecular Mediterranean civilization which includes wine as an element of health and wellbeing when consumed with moderation. Mediterranean meals provide food micronutrients which include polyphenols, especially resveratrol from grape and red wine. MD, also called Cretan diet, has been proven to prevent diseases including cardiovascular pathologies, cancer, and to prevent aging. Interestingly, the grape and more precisely in grape skin contains the highe...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Short-term high salt intake impairs hepatic mitochondrial bioenergetics and biosynthesis in SIRT3 knockout mice.
This study provides evidence that short-term HS intake could cause the early hepatic metabolic changes, highlighting the importance of controlling salt intake especially in those patients with defects in SIRT3. Highlights High salt intake down-regulates SIRT3 protein level and increases oxidation. High salt intake activates AMPK via AMP-dependent pathway. High salt intake impairs energy metabolism. High salt combined with SIRT3 knockout results in glycogen accumulation. PMID: 31044629 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

In vitro phototoxicity of rhodopsin photobleaching products in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).
Authors: Olchawa M, Krzysztynska-Kuleta O, Duda M, Pawlak A, Pabisz P, Czuba-Pelech B, Sarna T Abstract Although the primary biological function of retinal photoreceptors is to absorb light and provide visual information, extensive exposure to intense light could increase the risk of phototoxic reactions mediated by products of rhodopsin bleaching that might accumulate in photoreceptor outer segments (POS). The phototoxicity of POS, isolated from bovine retinas, was examined in cultured retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) containing phagocytised POS and in selected model systems by determining POS ability to...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Oxalomalate suppresses metastatic melanoma through IDH-targeted stress response to ROS.
In this study, we investigated the therapeutic role of OMA in metastatic melanoma and the associated underlying mechanism of action. We report that OMA-mediated inhibition of IDH enzymes suppresses metastatic melanoma through inhibition of invasive cell migration based on MMP-9-mediated proteolytic remodeling of the ECM. In particular, our study provides the mechanistic foundation that OMA reduces the expression and secretion of MMP-9 through LKB1-mediated PEA3 degradation via the ROS-dependent ATM-Chk2-p53 signaling axis, resulting from inhibition of IDH enzymes. These results provide evidence that OMA targeting of the st...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of the therapeutic potential effect of Fas receptor gene Knockdown in experimental model of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis.
CONCLUSIONS: The suppression of Fas receptor signaling subsequent RNAi therapy may represent an applicable strategy to decline hepatocyte damages and so NASH progression in mice. PMID: 31010354 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Radiation-induced (5'R)-and (5'S)-purine 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyribonucleosides in human cells: a revisited analysis of HPLC-MS/MS measurements.
Authors: Cadet J, Di Mascio P, Wagner JR PMID: 30961398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - April 11, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of acute corneal damage induced by 222-nm and 254-nm ultraviolet light in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Authors: Kaidzu S, Sugihara K, Sasaki M, Nishiaki A, Igarashi T, Tanito M Abstract Two hundred twenty-two nanometers ultraviolet (UV) light produced by a krypton-chlorine excimer lamp is harmful to bacterial cells but not skin. However, the effects of 222-nm UV light exposure to the eye are not fully known. We evaluated acute corneal damage induced by 222- and 254-nm UV light in albino rats. Under deep anesthesia, 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley albino rats were exposed to UV light. The exposure levels of corneal radiation were 30, 150, and 600 mJ/cm2. Epithelial defects were detected by staining with fluorescein. ...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Silibinin induced apoptosis of human epidermal cancer A431 cells by promoting mitochondrial NOS.
This study showed that silibinin increased NO levels in A431 cells by activating the AMPK-eNOS pathway, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. In this mechanism of action, mitochondrial eNOS played an important role. The results provided new understanding of the functions of intracellular NO. PMID: 30947567 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - April 6, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Ozone-induced damage of fibrinogen molecules: identification of oxidation sites by high-resolution mass spectrometry.
Authors: Yurina L, Vasilyeva A, Indeykina M, Bugrova A, Biryukova M, Kononikhin A, Nikolaev E, Rosenfeld M Abstract Fibrinogen is highly susceptible to oxidation compared to other plasma proteins. Fibrinogen oxidation damages its structure and affects the protein function. Ozone-induced oxidative modifications of the fibrinogen Aα, Bβ, and γ polypeptide chains upon addition of various amounts of the oxidizer were studied by mass spectrometry. Amino acid residues located on all three chains and main structural parts of the protein were revealed to be involved in oxidation. The αC-connector was...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Tempus fugit ….
Tempus fugit…. Free Radic Res. 2019 Jan;53(1):1 Authors: Davies M PMID: 30900529 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - March 23, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Serum cholesterol positively associated with oxidative DNA damage: a propensity score-matched analysis.
This study aimed to comprehensively assess the association between serum total cholesterol (TC) and oxidative DNA damage based on propensity score matching (PSM) method. A total of 407 participants chronically exposed to arsenic via drinking water from China were enrolled. Oxidative DNA damage was determined with urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Serum TC was classified into favourable TC (FTC, TC 
Source: Free Radical Research - March 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Towards in vivo melanin radicals detection in melanomas by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy: a proof-of-concept study.
Authors: Desmet CM, Danhier P, Acciardo S, Levêque P, Gallez B Abstract Melanoma is the most aggressive skin tumor type. Although complete cure can be achieved when the whole tumor is resected, prognostic dramatically drops when melanoma cells reach deeper tissues and lymph nodes. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop accurate tools allowing (i) discriminating benign nevi from malignant tumors and (ii) being able to characterize melanoma infiltration. For that purpose, we exploited the paramagnetic properties of melanin by using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to measure the melanin con...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Rosmarinic acid exerts an antagonistic effect on vascular calcification by regulating the Nrf2 signalling pathway.
Authors: Ji R, Sun H, Peng J, Ma X, Bao L, Fu Y, Zhang X, Luo C, Gao C, Jin Y, Sun S Abstract Vascular calcification (VC) is a process in which calcium phosphate crystals deposit within the intima and middle membrane of the vascular wall. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a common phenolic compound. It possesses antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial effects. Our experiment aims to investigate the role and molecular mechanism of RA in VC. Rats were fed high-fat feed and injected with vitamin D3 to establish a VC model. β-Glyerophosphate (β GP) was selected to stimulate rat aortic smooth muscle cells (VSMCs...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Insulin resistance and diabetes in hyperthyroidism: a possible role for oxygen and nitrogen reactive species.
Authors: Venditti P, Reed TT, Victor VM, Di Meo S Abstract In addition to insulin, glycemic control involves thyroid hormones. However, an excess of thyroid hormone can disturb the blood glucose equilibrium, leading to alterations of carbohydrate metabolism and, eventually, diabetes. Indeed, experimental and clinical hyperthyroidism is often accompanied by abnormal glucose tolerance. A common characteristic of hyperthyroidism and type 2 diabetes is the altered mitochondrial efficiency caused by the enhanced production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. It is known that an excess of thyroid hormone leads to in...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 9, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Ciprofloxacin-induces free radical production in rat cerebral microsomes.
Authors: Gürbay A, Gonthier B, Daveloose D, Barret L, Favier A, Hıncal F Abstract In the presence of ciprofloxacin (CPFX), free radical adduct formation was demonstrated in rat cerebral microsomes using a spin trap 4-POBN by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Active microsomes, NADPH, and ciprofloxacin were necessary for the formation of a spin trap/radical adduct. Adduct formation increased dose-dependently at 0.5-1 mM CPFX concentration for 180 min, and 0.3-1-mM concentration level for 240 min. The addition of SKF 525A, ZnCl2 or desferrioxamine (DFO) to the incubation system caused c...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 9, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Circulating markers of nitric oxide homeostasis and cardiometabolic diseases: insights from population-based studies.
Authors: Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Jeddi S, Carlström M, Azizi F, Ghasemi A Abstract Emerging data suggest that impaired nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis has a key role in development of cardiometabolic disorders. The association between circulating levels of NO metabolites, ie nitrate and nitrite (NOx), and risk of chronic diseases has not yet been fully clarified. This work aims to address epidemiologic aspects of NO metabolism and discusses different physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions influencing circulating NOx. Further, cross-sectional associations of serum NOx with metabolic disorders are described ...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Advanced glycation end-products disrupt human endothelial cells redox homeostasis: new insights into reactive oxygen species production.
Authors: Dobi A, Bravo SB, Veeren B, Paradela-Dobarro B, Álvarez E, Meilhac O, Viranaicken W, Baret P, Devin A, Rondeau P Abstract Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) trigger multiple metabolic disorders in the vessel wall that may in turn lead to endothelial dysfunction. The molecular mechanisms by which AGEs generate these effects are not completely understood. Oxidative stress plays a key role in the development of deleterious effects that occur in endothelium during diabetes. Our main objectives were to further understand how AGEs contribute to reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in endotheli...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 5, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The preventive and therapeutic effects of molecular hydrogen in ocular diseases and injuries where oxidative stress is involved.
Authors: Cejka C, Kubinova S, Cejkova J Abstract Oxidative stress initiates, accompanies and contributes to the development of several human diseases and injuries, including ocular diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can generate oxidative stress via excessive ROS production and/or decreased physiologically occurring antioxidants. To replace these weakened antioxidants, substances with effective antioxidant properties are needed in order to suppress oxidative stress and enable healing. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is very suitable for this purpose due to its unique properties. H2 is the only antioxidant that crosses...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

An isopentenyl-substituted flavonoid norartocarpin activates Nrf2 signaling pathway and prevents oxidative insults in human lung epithelial cells.
Authors: Yang WJ, He JX, Zhou MX, Huang M, Wang SQ, Wang XN, Lou HX, Ren DM, Shen T Abstract The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a crucial role in regulating the intracellular oxidative stress, and thus activation of Nrf2 by nature-derived molecules effectively alleviates the pathological process of oxidative stress-induced chronic diseases. The isopentenyl-substituted flavonoid norartocarpin (NOR) induced the activity of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR), implying that it might be a potential Nrf2 activator. Further studies indicated that NOR upregulated the protein levels of Nrf2 and its do...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor protects against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury through activating Nrf2 signaling pathway.
This study aims to investigate the effects of EGF in I/R-induced heart injury and to demonstrate its mechanisms. H9c2 cells challenged with H2O2 were used for in vitro biological activity and mechanistic studies. The malondialdehyde (MDA) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) levels in H9c2 cells were determined, and the cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Myocardial I/R mouse administrated with or without EGF were used for in vivo studies. Pretreatment of H9c2 cells with EGF activated Nrf2 signaling pathway, attenuated H2O2-increased MDA and H2O2-reduced SOD level, followed by the inhibition of H2O2-induced cell death. In ...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Celastrol suppresses nitric oxide synthases and the angiogenesis pathway in colorectal cancer.
In this study, we investigated the effects and mechanism of celastrol on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the angiogenesis pathway in colorectal cancer. Our data show that celastrol inhibited HT-29 and HCT116 cell proliferation, migration, and NOS activity in the cytoplasm. The antiproliferation activity of celastrol was associated with the inhibition of iNOS and eNOS in colorectal cancer cells. Treatment with celastrol inhibited colorectal cancer cell growth and migration, and was associated with suppression of the expression of key genes (TYMP, CDH5, THBS2, LEP, MMP9, and TNF) and proteins (IL-1b, MMP-9, PDGF, Serpin E1, ...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Cold stress on Araucaria angustifolia embryogenic cells results in oxidative stress and induces adaptation: implications for conservation and propagation.
Authors: Dorigan de Matos Furlanetto AL, Valente C, Martinez GR, Merlin Rocha ME, Maurer JBB, Cadena SMSC Abstract Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze is a species critically endangered of extinction and its development and propagation is strongly affected by abiotic stress. We have previously shown the activation of uncoupling protein in A. angustifolia embryogenic stem cells subjected to cold stress. Now, we have furthered those studies by exposing these cells to cold stress (4 ± 1 °C for either 24 or 48 h) and evaluating parameters associated with oxidative stress and ...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 17, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Glutathione accelerates osteoclast differentiation and inflammatory bone destruction.
Authors: Fujita H, Ochi M, Ono M, Aoyama E, Ogino T, Kondo Y, Ohuchi H Abstract Chronic inflammation associated with bone tissues often destruct bones, which is essentially performed by osteoclasts in the presence of immunoregulatory molecules. Hence, regulating osteoclastogenesis is crucial to develop therapeutics for bone-destructive inflammatory diseases. It is believed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in RANK ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation, and, therefore, glutathione (GSH), the most abundant endogenous antioxidant, suppresses osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by R...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

15-Deoxy- Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 upregulates the expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase through DNA methyltransferase 1 inactivation.
In conclusion, 15d-PGJ2 plays as a hypomethylating agent through direct interaction with DNMT1 and consequently suppresses DNMT1-mediated hypermethylation of 15-PGDH promoter, leading to upregulation of 15-PGDH expression. PMID: 30717608 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial translation factor EF4 regulates oxidative phosphorylation complexes and the production of ROS.
Authors: Li G, Qin Y Abstract Mitochondrial translation system executes the biosynthesis of mitochondrial DNA encoded polypeptides that are the core subunits of oxidative phosphorylation complexes. Recently, we reported that elongation factor 4 (EF4) is a key quality control factor in bacterial and mitochondrial translation regulating tRNA translocation and modulating cellular responses via a direct cross-talk with cytoplasmic translation machinery. Here, we made a brief review on mtEF4-regulated mitochondrial translation, respiratory chain biogenesis and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We will dis...
Source: Free Radical Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

eIF2 alpha phosphorylation alleviates UVA-induced HO-1 expression in mouse epidermal cells.
Authors: Xue F, Chen S, Chunxiang B, Farrukh Nisar M, Liu Y, Sutrisno L, Xiang Y, Zhang Y, Diao Q, Lin M, Zhong JL Abstract Ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation is a potential environmental stressor, which contributes to inflammation, photoaging, and carcinogenesis. UVA causes endoplasmic reticulum stress, hence phosphorylates the α subunit of eIF2. Meanwhile, UVA also induces expression of haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid-derived two related factor 2 (Nrf2) in human skin cells. In mouse JB6 cell, we found high dose UVA could change cell morphology, cause cell viability loss. UVA irradiation ac...
Source: Free Radical Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol provides neuroprotective effects through modulation of mitochondrial dynamics and ERK1/2 regulated autophagy.
Authors: Lin KL, Lin KJ, Wang PW, Chuang JH, Lin HY, Chen SD, Chuang YC, Huang ST, Tiao MM, Chen JB, Huang PH, Liou CW, Lin TK Abstract Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are underlying contributors to Parkinson's disease (PD). The reduction of aberrant proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria through constitutive autophagy is essential for neuronal survival. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of the natural red wine extract, resveratrol, on the Complex I inhibitor, rotenone-induced oxidative stress SH-SY5Y cellular model. With rotenone exposure, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis...
Source: Free Radical Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research