Silencing of long non-coding RNA LINC00520 promotes radiosensitivity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Authors: Li J, Liu X, Nan S, Xu C Abstract Aberrant expression of LINC00520 has been identified in head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC). However, its function in the radiosensitivity of HNSCC remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to define the role LINC00520 in the radiosensitivity of HNSCC and identify the underlying mechanism. Tumour tissues and adjacent normal tissue were collected from HNSCC patients. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HNSCC tumour were obtained from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database. Interactions between LINC00520 and miR-195, homeobox A10 (HOXA10) and miR-195 were evaluated by dual...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 30, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Generation of Localized Highly Concentrated Hydrogen Peroxide Clusters in Water by X-Rays.
Authors: Ueno M, Nakanishi I, Matsumoto KI Abstract The formation of highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) clusters (localized circumstance) in an aqueous solution during X-ray irradiation was demonstrated. The relationship between H2O2 concentration and hydrogen donor-independent reduction of nitroxyl radicals was examined. The method to measure the distance between the clusters (localized circumstance) was assessed by comparing the simulation and the experimental results. Reaction mixtures containing a nitroxyl redox probe, 4-hydroxyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPOL) and 3-carbamoyl-2,2,5,5-te...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 28, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The New Era for Redox Research.
Authors: Naito Y, Toyokuni S, Uchida K PMID: 32450729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - May 28, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

In vivo analysis of redox status in organs - from bench to bedside.
Authors: Uchida T, Togashi H, Kuroda Y, Yamashita A, Itoh N, Haga K, Sadahiro M, Kayama T Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide play an important role in the maintenance of life. However, production of excessive ROS and/or deficiency of the antioxidant system lead to oxidative stress and cause a variety of diseases. In the present study, we used electron spin resonance (ESR) to detect ROS in vivo to clarify its roles in redox dynamics and organ damage. However, the limited permeability of microwaves and low anatomic resolution of ESR equipment made it dif...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 28, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Nucleoside transporters are critical to the uptake and antioxidant activity of 7,8-dihydroneopterin in monocytic cells.
Authors: Janmale TV, Lindsay A, Gieseg SP Abstract 7,8-Dihydroneopterin protects cells intracellularly from oxidative stress-induced death, but its mode of transport across the cell membrane is unknown. Nucleosides, such as guanosine, are transported via nucleoside transporters of the equilibrative and concentrative forms. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which membrane transporters are responsible for 7,8-dihydroneopterin transport in cells and whether this is necessary for protection against oxidative stress.Monocytic cell lines U937, THP-1 and human monocytes were incubated with varying con...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 8, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Protective effects of Zinc L-carnosine against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage and micronucleus formation in CCD-18co human colon fibroblast cells.
In conclusion, ZnC pretreatment was able to protect CCD-18co cells from H2O2-induced genomic damage via the activation of the MTF-1 signaling pathway and the induction of MT expression. PMID: 32366187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - May 7, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Protective effects of tiopronin on oxidatively challenged human lung carcinoma cells (A549).
Authors: Beltz J, Chernatynskaya A, Pfaff A, Ercal N Abstract Tiopronin (MPG) is a thiol antioxidant drug that has been explored as a treatment for various oxidative stress-related disorders. However, many of its antioxidant capabilities remain untested in well-validated cell models. To more thoroughly understand the action of this promising pharmaceutical compound against acute oxidative challenge, A549 human lung carcinoma cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) and treated with MPG. Analyses of cell viability, intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels, and prevalence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) a...
Source: Free Radical Research - May 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The positive feedback loop between Nrf2 and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase stimulates proliferation and clonogenicity of human hepatoma cells.
Authors: Ong AJ, Saeidi S, Chi NHK, Kim SJ, Kim DH, Kim SH, Park SA, Cha YN, Na HK, Surh YJ Abstract Recent studies report that nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) facilitates tumor progression through metabolic reprograming in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the oncogenic properties of Nrf2 is not yet well understood. Some of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) enzymes are considered to play a role in the cancer progression. The present study was intended to explore the potential role of phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), one of the PPP enzymes, in the proliferation and ...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 28, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Reaction targets of antioxidants in azo-initiator or lipid hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation.
In conclusion, we found that each antioxidant had different antioxidative activities that prevented the progression of LPO. We expect that these findings will contribute to the design of novel therapeutic strategies using an appropriate antioxidant targeted to each step of the development of oxidative stress diseases. PMID: 32338088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - April 28, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Relationship between hemodynamic alteration and sympathetic nerve activation following a single oral dose of cinnamtannin A2.
Authors: Koizumi R, Fushimi T, Sato Y, Fujii Y, Sato H, Osakabe N Abstract We previously found that a single dose of B type procyanidin mixture increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (BF). We compared BF changes following administration of (-)-epicatechin (EC, monomer) and the B type procyanidins procyanidin B2 (B2, dimer), procyanidin C1 (C1, trimer), and cinnamtannin A2 (A2, tetramer). Each chemical was administered orally to rats, followed by BF measurement in cremaster arteriole for 60 min. 10 and 100 µg/kg of B2 and C1 elicited BF increase, the effect was potent at 100µg/kg. BF also increase...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 25, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Effect of mitoquinone (Mito-Q) on neuropathic endpoints in an obese and type 2 diabetic rat model.
This study sought to determine whether the addition of mitoquinone (Mito-Q) in the diet is an effective treatment for peripheral neuropathy in animal models of diet-induced obesity (pre-diabetes) and type 2 diabetes. Unlike other anti-oxidative stress compounds investigated as a treatment for peripheral neuropathy, Mito-Q specifically targets mitochondria. Although mito-Q has been shown to reduce oxidative stress generated by mitochondria there have been no studies performed of the effect of Mito-Q on peripheral neuropathy induced by diet-induced obesity or type 2 diabetes. Diet-induced obese (12 weeks after high fa...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 25, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

MnSOD Val16Ala gene polymorphism is associated with REDOX biomarkers in the elderly of primary health care in the city of Porto Alegre.
This study aimed to verify the occurrence of the MnSOD Val16Ala gene polymorphism association with markers of REDOX metabolism in the elderly of primary health care. A cross-sectional study was performed. The sample consisted of 270 elderly individuals from Family Health Strategy in the city of Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (EMISUS). The following variables were investigated in all subjects: sociodemographic: gender, age, marital status, schooling and income; Anthropometric: weight, height, body mass index (BMI); REDOX markers: Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), nitric ox...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 25, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Quantifying mitochondrial respiration in human lymphocytes and monocytes challenged with hydrogen peroxide.
Authors: Pearson AG, Zawari M, Pearson JF, Hampton MB Abstract Improved technology for the bioenergetic profiling of human blood cells enables population-based screening for alterations in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria are sensitive to oxidative stress, and the aim of this study was to quantify mitochondrial respiration in freshly isolated lymphocytes and monocytes challenged with a bolus of H2O2. Mitochondrial reserve capacity, calculated as the difference between basal oxygen consumption and maximal activity after uncoupling of the electron transport chain, was the most sensitive to H2O2. Treatment of l...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 25, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Environmental aircraft noise aggravates oxidative DNA damage, granulocyte oxidative burst and nitrate resistance in Ogg1-/- mice.
Conclusions: The finding that chronic noise exposure causes oxidative DNA damage in mice is worrisome since these potential mutagenic lesions could contribute to cancer progression. Human field studies have to demonstrate whether oxidative DNA damage is also found in urban populations with high levels of noise exposure as recently shown for workers with high occupational noise exposure. PMID: 32326776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - April 25, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Emerging connections between oxidative stress, defective proteolysis, and metabolic diseases.
Authors: Homma T, Fujii J Abstract The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are two major intracellular proteolytic systems that are closely associated with each other. Because UPS and autophagy are involved in the clearance of oxidised and/or aggregated proteins, it would be logical to assume that alterations in proteolysis would accompany pathological conditions. Indeed, both systems are themselves susceptible to oxidative modification and therefore could be a prominent target of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Oxidative stress appears to be a common underlying factor in the development of and the patho...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 21, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

BSC2 enhances cell resistance to AmB by inhibiting oxidative damage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Authors: Kong Y, Wang Q, Cao F, Zhang X, Fang Z, Shi P, Wang H, Shen Y, Huang Z Abstract Amphotericin B has been the gold standard for the treatment of invasive mycosis for many years. Its resistance mechanisms are reported to be mainly related to the decrease of ergosterol content or the changes of cell wall. Previous study has shown that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain lack of BSC2 was sensitive significantly to Amphotericin B. In the present study, the role of BSC2 on Amphotericin B resistance were investigated. We found that BSC2 enhanced the resistance of yeast cells to Amphotericin B, which was not related to...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 18, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Augmented oxidative stress increases 8-oxoguanine preferentially in the transcriptionally active genomic regions.
Authors: Akatsuka S, Li GH, Kawaguchi S, Takahashi T, Yoshihara M, Suyama M, Toyokuni S Abstract 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is the most common DNA base modification in the mammalian genome, associated with oxidative stress. Here we analysed the alterations in the distribution of 8-oxoG across the entire murine genome, before and after an elevation of oxidative stress by the use of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) as an oxidative stress inducer in the renal proximal tubules. We isolated DNA fragments containing 8-oxoGs with immunoprecipitation from the murine genome, and amplified them by PCR for a distribution analysis...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 18, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Oxidative stress and endoplasmic stress in calcium oxalate stone disease: the chicken or the egg?
Authors: Albert A, Paul E, Rajakumar S, Saso L Abstract Crystal modulators play a significant role in the formation of calcium oxalate stone disease. When renal cells are subjected to oxalate stress, the loss in cell integrity leads to exposure of multiple proteins that assist and/or inhibit crystal attachment and retention. Contact between oxalate and calcium oxalate with urothelium proves fatal to cells as a result of reactive oxygen species generation and onset of oxidative stress. Hence, as a therapeutic strategy it was hypothesised that supplementation of antioxidants would suffice. On the contrary to popular ...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 17, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Peroxiredoxin 4 attenuates glutamate-induced neuronal cell death through inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Authors: Kang JH, Kim MH, Lee HJ, Huh JW, Lee HS, Lee DS Abstract High concentrations of glutamate induce neurotoxicity by eliciting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and intracellular Ca2+ influx. The disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) evokes ER stress, ultimately resulting in neuronal dysfunction. Additionally, glutamate participates in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are members of a family of antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from neurotoxic factor-induced apoptosis by scavenging hydrogen...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

CO ameliorates cellular senescence and aging by modulating the miR-34a/Sirt1 pathway.
Authors: Park J, Kim J, Chen Y, Song HC, Chen Y, Zheng M, Surh YJ, Kim UH, Park JW, Joe Y, Chung HT Abstract Oxidative stress is recognised as a key factor that can lead to cellular senescence and aging. Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced by haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), which exerts cytoprotective effects in aging-related diseases, whereas the effect of CO on cellular senescence and aging has not been elucidated. In the current study, we clearly demonstrated that CO delays the process of cellular senescence and aging through regulation of miR-34a and Sirt1 expression. CO reduced H2O2-induced premature senescence in human ...
Source: Free Radical Research - April 2, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Theoretical Insights into the Antioxidant Activity of Moracin T.
Authors: Boulebd H Abstract Moracin T is a natural product isolated from Morus mesozygia (Moraceae), which acts as potent antioxidant agent. In the present study, DFT-based computational methods have been performed to evaluate systematically the radical scavenging behavior of this compound. Structural characteristics such as frontier molecular orbitals and molecular electrostatic potential mapping have been investigated. Thermodynamic parameters related to the three main antiradical mechanisms, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), sequential electron transfer proton transfer (SETPT) and sequential proton loss electron tra...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 29, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Redox regulation of regulatory T cell differentiation and functions.
Authors: Patwardhan RS, Singh B, Pal D, Checker R, Bandekar M, Sharma D, Sandur SK Abstract The choice between immunity or tolerance is a consequence of T-cell fate determined by T cell receptor affinity to cognate MHC-peptide complex, costimulatory molecules and cytokines from antigen presenting cells. While activated, effector and memory T cells provide immunity against antigens, regulatory T cells play a pivotal non-redundant role in immune tolerance and tissue repair. T-cell differentiation and functions are also well known to be governed by the redox status. Physiological redox status is determined by oxygen c...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 28, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of MEK/ERK upregulates GSH production and increases RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells.
This study aimed to determine the molecular mechanisms regulating OC differentiation. The mitogen-activated protein kinases and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) are recognized to be crucial factors regulating OC differentiation and activation. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated into OCs in the presence of RANKL and were treated with inhibitors of several signal pathways. Although PD98059 is an ERK inhibitor, it inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, Akt, and Src kinase. PD98059 increased OC differentiation and expression of OC markers, such as TRAP, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, and increased the ex...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

High-energy ionizing radiation-induced degradation of amodiaquine in dilute aqueous solution: radical reactions and kinetics.
Authors: Kovács K, Simon Á, Balogh GT, Tóth T, Wojnárovits L Abstract The widely used antimalarial drug amodiaquine (AQ) contains a 7-Cl-quinoline unit, a substituted 4-aminophenol part connected through the amino group and a tertiary amine part. The 4-aminophenol unit can be easily oxidized through radical intermediates to iminoquinone. This reaction also takes place in vitro and in vivo enzymatic reactions. The reaction is expected to have an important role in degradation of AQ in surface waters and also during degradation in advanced oxidation processes. In this paper by mea...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Labile iron affects pharmacological ascorbate-induced toxicity in osteosarcoma cell lines.
In this study, we demonstrated that the levels of H2O2 in cells were significantly raised after treated with pharmacological ascorbate, and intracellular labile iron could increase pharmacological ascorbate-mediated oxidative stress by Fenton reaction. Catalytic metal iron plays opposite roles in and outside cells. Intracellular excess labile iron improved ascorbate-induced toxicity, while the excess labile iron in the medium abolished ascorbate-induced toxicity. Fe3+ and Fe2+ have the same effect on ascorbate-induced toxicity, but Fe3+ chelator deferoxamine (DFO) has a profound inhibition effect than Fe2+ chelator 2,2'-bi...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Mth1 deficiency provides longer survival upon intraperitoneal crocidolite injection in female mice.
Authors: Funahashi S, Okazaki Y, Akatsuka S, Takahashi T, Sakumi K, Nakabeppu Y, Toyokuni S Abstract Exposure to asbestos fiber is central to mesothelial carcinogenesis. Recent sequencing studies on human and rodent malignant mesothelioma (MM) revealed frequently mutated genes, including CDKN2A, BAP1 and NF2. Crocidolite directly or indirectly catalyzes the generation of hydroxyl radicals, which appears to be the major driving force for mesothelial mutations. DNA base modification is an oxidative DNA damage mechanism, where 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is the most abundant modification both physiologically ...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-214 protects L6 skeletal myoblasts against hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis.
In this study, we sought to investigate the expression of miR-214 in L6 skeletal myoblast (SKM), the regulatory effect of miR-214 on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cell apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms of the antiapoptotic effect. MiR-214 expression was up-regulated by H2O2 in a dose and time-dependent manner in L6 SKMs. To investigate the regulatory effects of miR-214 on L6 SKM, both gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were applied. The results showed that miR-214 improved cell survival and inhibited cell apoptosis, and blockage of miR-214 abrogated the protective effect on cell survival and resistan...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 8, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Regulation of NRF2 by Na+/K+-ATPase: implication of tyrosine phosphorylation of Src.
Authors: Nam LB, Keum YS Abstract Tumors adapt well to the imbalanced redox status created by rapid growth and limited nutrient availability because they highly express high levels of NRF2 to counteract oxidative stress. Therefore, inhibition of NRF2 is currently considered a feasible strategy for development of chemotherapeutic agents. In the present study, we identified that Na+/K+-ATPase regulates NRF2 in A549 cells. Suppression of Na+/K+-ATPase by convallatoxin or siRNAs downregulates NRF2 in A549 cells, and this event is mediated by Ca2+-dependent induction of CSK1 and subsequent phosphorylation of SRC at Tyr ...
Source: Free Radical Research - March 4, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Early reductive stress and late onset overexpression of antioxidant enzymes in experimental myocardial infarction.
We describe an early reductive, followed by a late onset oxidative stress (1 week and 1 month after reperfusion) in a swine myocardial infarction model. The occurrence of an early reductive phase may explain the lack of effectiveness of antioxidant therapies when administered in the early phases after reperfusion of ischemic hearts. PMID: 32103692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - February 28, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Inhibitors of the protein-protein interaction between phosphorylated p62 and Keap1 attenuate chemoresistance in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.
Authors: Yasuda D, Ohe T, Takahashi K, Imamura R, Kojima H, Okabe T, Ichimura Y, Komatsu M, Yamamoto M, Nagano T, Mashino T Abstract Resistance to anticancer agents has been an obstacle to developing therapeutics and reducing medical costs. Whereas sorafenib is used for the treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), resistance limits its efficacy. p62, a multifunctional protein, is overexpressed in several HCC cell lines, such as Huh-1 cells. Phosphorylated p62 (p-p62) inhibits the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between Keap1 and Nrf2, resulting in the Nrf2 overactivation that causes drug resistance. We ...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 23, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

A single muscle contusion promotes an immediate alteration in mitochondrial bioenergetics response in skeletal muscle fibres with different metabolism.
Authors: Hartmann DD, Gonçalves DF, Da Rosa PC, Martins RP, Courtes AA, Franco JL, A Soares FA, Puntel GO Abstract Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the human body and mechanical injuries are common; these are frequently of mechanical origins, such as contusion. However, the immediate mitochondrial response to injury and energetic substrate utilisation is still unclear. We evaluated the acute response in mitochondrial function after a single muscle contusion, either in fast twitch fibres (glycolytic metabolism), fast and slow twitch (oxidative and glycolytic metabolism), or slow twitch fibres (o...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 11, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Physical exercise and catecholamines response: benefits and health risk: possible mechanisms.
Authors: Kruk J, Kotarska K, Aboul-Enein BH Abstract Beneficial effect of regular moderate physical exercise (PE) and negative effect of severe exercise and/or overtraining as an activator of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) have been shown in numerous aspects of human health, including reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, depression, and some types of cancer. Moderate-to-vigorous PE stimulates the SNS activation, releasing catecholamines (CATs) adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine that play an important regulatory and modulatory actions by affecting metabolic processes and the immune sy...
Source: Free Radical Research - February 7, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The discovery of antioxidants in marine microorganisms and their protective effects on  the Hepatic cells from chemical-induced oxidative stress.
This study suggests that these short peptides from K.marina CDMP 10 may serve as a potential pharmaceutical candidate with antioxidant activity. PMID: 32013646 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - February 5, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Activation of STAT-3 signaling by RECK downregulation via ROS is involved in the 27-hydroxycholesterol-induced invasion in breast cancer cells.
Authors: Shen Z, Jiao K, Teng M, Li Z Abstract Breast cancer is an important and common tumor among women worldwide. We previously showed that 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) promoted the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells and activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT-3) signaling through reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the regulation of STAT-3 signaling by ROS needs to be further explored. Here, we showed that 27HC caused the accumulation of cellular ROS, which upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and increased the invasive ability of MCF7 and T47D cells. 27HC decr...
Source: Free Radical Research - January 15, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Hypochlorous acid reversibly inhibits caspase-3: a potential regulator of apoptosis.
We examined whether hypochlorous acid (HOCl), generated by MPO, is a modulator of caspase-3.Caspase-3 activity showed a dose dependent decrease with HOCl and this reaction was reversible.HOCl modulates caspase-3 activity and may play a physiological role in regulating apoptosis. PMID: 31909639 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - January 9, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Cotreatments with Dex and Na2SeO3 further improved antioxidant and anti-inflammatory protection of myocardial cells from I/R injury compared to their individual treatments.
This study aimed to determine whether the protective effects on myocardial cells against I/R injury were further improved when treatment with Dex and Se in combination. H9C2 cells were treated with Dex and Na2SeO3, alone or in combination, before oxygen glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). OGD/R-induced myocardial cell injury was evaluated using cell viability, apoptosis rate, the release of LDH, and intracellular ROS levels. Both Dex and Na2SeO3 improved cell viability and reduced the apoptosis rate, LDH release, and intracellular ROS. This cytoprotection was higher with Dex and Na2SeO3 cotreatment than their indivi...
Source: Free Radical Research - January 9, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Oxidation of cysteine 34 of plasma albumin as a biomarker of oxidative stress.
Conclusion: The mPEG assay is a user-friendly, highly sensitive, specific, cost-effective gel electrophoresis-based method for the assay of the oxidations state of albumin Cys34 as a biomarker of oxidative stress.HighlightsProtein thiol groups are sensitive to oxidation by reactive oxygen species.Plasma albumin contains a reduced cysteine residue (Cys34) sensitive to oxidation.A novel gel electrophoresis-based method (mPEG) has been developed to measure the oxidation state of Cys34.The mPEG assay can be run on a drop of blood collected by fingerprick. PMID: 31903812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - January 8, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Metformin protects Escherichia coli from bleomycin-induced bactericide via enhanced generation of hydrogen peroxide.
Authors: Li J, Wang J, Liu W, Hayashi T, Itoh K, Onodera S, Ikejima T Abstract Bleomycin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that is widely employed in the therapy of a range of lymphomas and germ cell tumours. But the therapeutic efficacy of bleomycin is limited by development of lung fibrosis. The cytotoxicity of bleomycin is mostly ascribed to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, while a protective effect of metformin against bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis results from the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Since mitochondria and bacteria have certain similarities in structure and function, we used Escherichia coli f...
Source: Free Radical Research - January 8, 2020 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Hormones and oxidative stress: an overview.
Authors: Chainy GBN, Sahoo DK Abstract In aerobes, oxygen is essential for maintenance of life. However, incomplete reduction of oxygen leads to generation of reactive oxygen species. These oxidants oxidise biological macromolecules present in their vicinity and thereby impair cellular functions causing oxidative stress (OS). Aerobes have evolved both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defences to protect themselves from OS. Although hormones as means of biological coordination involve in regulation of physiological activities of tissues by regulating metabolism, any change in their normal titre leads to pathop...
Source: Free Radical Research - December 25, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31841099 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - December 18, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Suboptimal health pregnant women are associated with increased oxidative stress and unbalanced pro- and antiangiogenic growth mediators: a cross-sectional study in a Ghanaian population.
In this study, we explored the association between SHS, biomarkers of OS (BOS) and AGMs among normotensive pregnant women (NTN-PW) in a Ghanaian Suboptimal Health Cohort Study (GHOACS). This comparative GHOACS recruited 593 NTN-PW from the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana. SHS was measured using a Suboptimal Health Status Questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25). Along with the subjective SHS measure, objective BOS: 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-epiprostaglandinF2 alpha (8-epi-PGF2α), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and AGMs: vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 1...
Source: Free Radical Research - December 10, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The potential of lipid-polymer nanoparticles as epigenetic and ROS control approaches for COPD.
In this study, we developed a codelivery system using core-shell type lipid-polymer nanoparticles (LPNs) composed of a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) core encapsulating a potent antioxidant Mn-porphyrin dimer (MnPD) and a cationic lipid (DOTAP) shell that binds HDAC2-encoding plasmid DNA (pHDAC2), as a new therapeutic approach toward COPD. The transfection of pHDAC2 combined with the elimination of ROS by MnPD exhibited a significant enhancement of intracellular HDAC2 expression levels, suggesting that the multi-antioxidative activity of MnPD plays a crucial role in the expression of HDAC2. Moreover, treatment with LPNs efficient...
Source: Free Radical Research - December 8, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Methionine sulfoxide reductase (Msr) dysfunction in human brain disease.
This article focuses on experimental and genetic research performed on Msr and its link to brain diseases. Studies on several model systems as well as genome-wide association studies are compiled to highlight the role of MSRA in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Genetic variation of MSRA may also contribute to the risk of psychosis, personality traits, and metabolic factors. PMID: 31775527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - November 30, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31782332 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - November 30, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Association between genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase M1/T1 and psoriasis in a population from the area of the Strict of Messina (Southern Italy).
Conclusions: The remarkable differences among the few available data on the association between GSTM1/GSTT1 polymorphisms and psoriasis suggest the need for further studies, on different and larger populations, to improve knowledge on the pathogenesis of psoriasis and possibly provide more precise and personalized prevention and treatment in the future. PMID: 31774007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - November 29, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

The role of pigment epithelium-derived factor in protecting against cellular stress.
Authors: Brook N, Brook E, Dharmarajan A, Chan A, Dass CR Abstract Since its discovery as a neurotrophic factor in retinal pigmented epithelium cells in the late 1980s, there has been an increase in understanding of the role that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) plays in cellular functions. PEDF plays an important role in mediating cellular protection during exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation by preventing stress-induced angiogenesis and apoptosis. PEDF acts to reduce oxidative stress by promoting mitochondrial stability and by regulating the expression of enzymes involved in ROS accumulation and...
Source: Free Radical Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31762347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Free Radical Research)
Source: Free Radical Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in exercise training: the involvement of inflammation and peripheral signals.
Authors: Francesca M, Tania F, Riccardo M, Michele M, Tania G, Pietro M, Alessandra M Abstract The evidence about the health benefits of regular physical activity is well established. Exercise intensity is a significant variable and structured high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve both whole-body and skeletal muscle metabolic health in different populations. Conversely, fatigue accumulation, if not resolved, leads to overwork, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), overtraining syndrome up to alterations of endocrine function, immune, systemic inflammation, and organic diseases with heal...
Source: Free Radical Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of the relationship between paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms and cancer.
Authors: Liu P, Wang Q, Cui Y, Wang J Abstract Some previous studies already explored associations between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms and cancer, with conflicting findings. Here, we aimed to better analyse the relationship between PON1 polymorphisms and cancer in a larger combined population by performing a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science for related articles. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to estimate whether there are genetic associations between PON1 polymorphisms and cancer. Forty studies were included for this meta-analysis. The PON1 rs85456...
Source: Free Radical Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research

S-nitrosylated L-serine-modified dendrimer as a kidney-targeting nitric oxide donor for prevention of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Authors: Katsumi H, Takashima R, Suzuki H, Hirai N, Matsuura S, Kimura H, Morishita M, Yamamoto A Abstract Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is known to play a role in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury; therefore, kidney-targeting NO donor is expected to prevent renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. We therefore developed an S-nitrosylated L-serine-modified polyamidoamine dendrimer (SNO-Ser-PAMAM), in which multiple S-nitrosothiols (NO donors) were covalently bound to L-serine-modified dendrimer, as a kidney-targeting NO donor. In the pharmacokinetic study, approximately 76% of 111In-SNO-Ser-PAMAM accumulated in the kidney...
Source: Free Radical Research - November 26, 2019 Category: Research Tags: Free Radic Res Source Type: research