Worldwide poisoning potential of Brugmansia and Datura
ConclusionsAngel ’s trumpets have high toxicological significance both in their native and non-native regions, mainly due to their hallucinogenic property and accidental ingestion. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - September 7, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

In vitro toxicokinetics and analytical toxicology of three novel NBOMe derivatives: phase I and II metabolism, plasma protein binding, and detectability in standard urine screening approaches studied by means of hyphenated mass spectrometry
ConclusionsThe toxicokinetic data provided by this study will help forensic and clinical toxicologists to reliably identify these substances in case of abuse and/or intoxication and will allow them a thorough risk assessment. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - August 26, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Determination of drug distributions in decomposed and buried postmortem tissues and bones of pigs administered of drugs
ConclusionsDrug distribution in organ and bone of decomposed and burial corpses vary due to unknown mechanisms and completely unexplained conditions such as postmortem redistribution. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - August 24, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Antagonists for serotonin receptors ameliorate rhabdomyolysis induced by 25D-NBOMe, a psychoactive designer drug
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that multiple 5-HT receptors have important roles in NBOMes-induced rhabdomyolysis together with other serotonin-related symptoms. Zebrafish is a highly useful model for therapeutic studies of rhabdomyolysis induced by psychoactive designer drugs. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - August 19, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A low-voltage paper spray ionization QTOF-MS method for the qualitative analysis of NPS in street drug blotter samples
ConclusionsThis technique was successfully applied for the analysis of NPS and allowed for fast and accurate analytical method that can be highly exploited in forensic screening purposes. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - August 19, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicity of the new psychoactive substance 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC)
ConclusionsThere is a wide scope to be explored on the effects of 3,4-DMMC. Clinicians and pathologists should be encouraged to report their findings in scientific literature, as this will aid in evaluating potential detrimental effects of the drug in further clinical and forensic investigations. Further studies on pharmacokinetic properties of 3,4-DMMC are also necessary to improve the methods of drug detection. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - August 6, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic study of xylazine in a zebrafish water tank, a human-like surrogate, by liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap mass spectrometry
ConclusionsXylazine was the subject of extensive metabolism in zebrafish. 4-Hydroxylated (M2) and oxygenated (M1) derivatives were the most abundant phase I metabolites as the main targets for doping control. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - July 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Attempt of scopolamine-facilitated robbery: an original case of poisoning by inhalation confirmed by LC –MS/MS and review of the literature
ConclusionsScopolamine poisoning remains rare, as its half-life is short; blood and urine should be collected as soon as possible for toxicological analysis. This case is, to our knowledge, the first described case of inhaled scopolamine robbery attempt, with quantitative toxicological findings. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - July 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Evidence of enzyme-mediated transesterification of synthetic cannabinoids with ethanol: potential toxicological impact
ConclusionsThese novel ethyl esters may be useful additional markers of cannabinoid administration, and especially so if they prove to have longer half-lives than their parent compounds. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - July 13, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Metabolism of the benzodiazepines norflurazepam, flurazepam, fludiazepam and cinolazepam by human hepatocytes using high-resolution mass spectrometry and distinguishing their intake in authentic urine samples
ConclusionsBased on the results, hydroxy metabolites for norflurazepam,N-(hydroxyethyl), desethyl and didesethyl for flurazepam, hydroxy for fludiazepam and glucuronides andN-(hydroxyethyl) for cinolazepam are recommended for monitoring. While flurazepam, fludiazepam and cinolazepam were metabolised by hepatocytes at side chain, norflurazepam was not, which seems to indicate that hepatocytes have difficulty in modifying the benzene/diazepine rings of some 1,4-benzodiazepines. As for confirming the intake of norflurazepam, the urine ratio of 3-hydroxy-norflurazepam/norflurazepam might be the key; a high ratio might be corre...
Source: Forensic Toxicology - July 3, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

What are the limitations of methods to measure carbon monoxide in biological samples?
ConclusionsAn alternative biomarker is needed, such as determining the total amount of CO in blood. Although further research is required, we recommend that toxicologists consider all sources of error that can alter COHb concentrations, and in more challenging cases, they should use GC –MS methods to confirm the results obtained by spectrophotometry. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - July 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Case report on two-cathinones abuse: MPHP and N -ethyl-4 ′methylnorpentedrone, with a fatal outcome
ConclusionsThe number of fatalities related to cathinones use is expected to increase in the coming years. This manuscript reports useful analytical data about MPHP, one of its metabolites (4 ′-carboxy-PHP) and 4-MEAP. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - June 17, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Fatal intoxication with N -ethylpentylone: a case report and method for determining N -ethylpentylone in biological material
ConclusionThe developed method enables the determination ofN-ethylpentylone with high sensitivity and selectivity. The method was used to make determinations in biological material in the case of fatal intoxication withN-ethylpentylone. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - June 4, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A pilot study of non-targeted screening for stimulant misuse using high-resolution mass spectrometry
ConclusionsNon-targeted analysis of stimulants by PCA as applied to athlete urine samples was demonstrated for the first time to be capable of flagging positive samples in sport competitions, showing its promise as a complementary screening tool alongside classical methods and as a straightforward approach for selecting samples for long-term storage. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - June 3, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Determination of ocfentanil and W-18 in a suspicious heroin-like powder in Belgium
ConclusionThe unknown powder tested positive for ocfentanil and W-18. To the authors ’ best knowledge this is the first case of the combined detection of these two new psychoactive substances in the same powder. We additionally demonstrate the advantage of building an in-house reference library beyond retention time. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - June 3, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Norcarfentanil: carfentanil misuse or remifentanil treatment?
ConclusionsIn the first two cases, norcarfentanil was present as the metabolite of carfentanil, whereas in the last case, norcarfentanil was the metabolite of remifentanil. Without the identification of remifentanil, confusion could occur, and norcarfentanil could be attributed to carfentanil misuse. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

In vitro and in vivo human metabolism of a synthetic cannabinoid EAM-2201 detected by LC –quadrupole-ion trap-MS/MS and high-resolution LC–Orbitrap-MS/MS
ConclusionsTwelve metabolites of a synthetic cannabinoid, EAM-2201, were tentatively identified in human hepatocytes in vitro, and in human liver and urine specimens in vivo for the first time. There was a distinct difference in metabolism profile between the in vitro and in vivo results. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - May 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Rapid and robust speciation/quantitative analysis of arsenous acid and related metabolites in serum by liquid chromatography –inductively coupled plasma-tandem mass spectrometry
ConclusionsA rapid, sensitive, interference-free and robust speciation/quantitative analysis of toxic arsenous acid and related metabolites in serum by LC –ICP-MS/MS was developed. To our knowledge, this is the first report to use LC–ICP-MS/MS for analysis of arsenic species in human blood/serum samples. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - May 31, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

CYP2B6 , ABCB1 and OPRM1 profile in a stillborn affected by chronic methadone intoxication
(Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - May 17, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Spectroscopic characterization and crystal structures of four hydrochloride cathinones: N -ethyl-2-amino-1-phenylhexan-1-one ( hexen, NEH ), N -methyl-2-amino-1-(4-methylphenyl)-3-methoxypropan-1-one ( mexedrone ), N -ethyl-2-amino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)pentan-1-one ( ephylone ) and N -butyl-2-amino-1-(4-chlorophenyl)propan-1-one ( 4 - chlorobutylcathinone )
ConclusionsX-ray crystallography is especially useful for identifying the new and unknown designer drugs and their enantiomeric forms. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - May 14, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Hyperreflexia induced by XLR-11 smoke is caused by the pyrolytic degradant
ConclusionsThe hyperreflexic effect of XLR-11 degradant is mediated by the CB1 receptor and possibly by GABAergic function. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - May 7, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Suicidal deaths due to helium inhalation
ConclusionsDeaths due to helium asphyxiation are still a problem for modern forensic toxicology. Most current methods  for collecting biological specimens and identifying the gas seem to be insufficient to give definite opinions in cases of helium asphyxiation. More attempts should be made to modify these methods in order to improve and facilitate detection and quantitative determination of helium and other inert gases. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - May 7, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Cytotoxicity of the synthetic cannabinoids 5C-AKB48, 5F-MDMB-PINACA, ADB-CHMINACA, MDMB-CHMICA and NM-2201 in A549 and TR146 cell lines
ConclusionsThis is the first study to investigate the comparative cytotoxicity of reference standards, herbal blend extracts and smoke condensates of synthetic cannabinoids. The data showed  that the presence of damiana plant contributed to enhancing the cytotoxicity of 5C-AKB48, 5F-MDMB-PINACA, and MDMB-CHMICA. The plant effects were generally more marked for smoke condensates. MDMB-CHMICA was the most potent substance. The NM-2201 reference standard and extract led to an increase i n cell viability as compared to the control. This is of special interest, because the NM-2201 herbal blend extract seemed to abroga...
Source: Forensic Toxicology - April 26, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Comments on the paper entitled “Rapid tentative identification of synthetic cathinones in seized products taking advantage of the full capabilities of triple quadrupole analyzer”
(Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - April 19, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Strong evidence of drug-facilitated crimes by hair analysis using LC –MS/MS after micro-segmentation
ConclusionsThe combination of drug screening by LC –HR-MS and determination of the day of drug ingestion using micro-segmental analysis by sensitive LC–MS/MS would be useful for elucidating the relationship between the drug and the incident when investigating DFCs. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - March 27, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Quantification of clitidine in caps and stems of poisonous mushroom Paralepistopsis acromelalga by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography –tandem mass spectrometry
ConclusionsThis is the first report to present a detailed quantitative analysis of clitidine by MS and the distribution of clitidine in stems and caps ofP. acromelalga. This analytical method for clitidine was thought to be useful inP. acromelalga poisoning cases to identify the causative toxic mushroom. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - March 27, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A new method for high-resolution and high-precision analysis of flunitrazepam and 7-aminoflunitrazepam in human body fluids using a Monolithic SPE SpinTip and UPLC –Q-ToF–MS
ConclusionsThe method was successfully applied to determine the level of flunitrazepam and its metabolites in human plasma and urine, respectively, after oral administration to a volunteer. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - March 20, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Comparison of measurement methods for carboxyhemoglobin in blood samples based on visible spectra with 17 institutions
ConclusionsProcedure (4) was considered sufficiently accurate and thus recommendable for use in forensic science laboratories. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - March 7, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Methylone and pentylone: structural analysis of new psychoactive substances
ConclusionVibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy seems to be the best of the methods employed to distinguish structurally similar chiral substances, especially in combination with quantum chemical calculations. According to the structural analysis, 5 and 9 stable conformers of methylone and pentylone, respectively, were revealed in an aqueous solution. Finally, very good agreement between the experimental and simulated spectra was achieved. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - March 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Cannabidiol metabolism revisited: tentative identification of novel decarbonylated metabolites of cannabidiol formed by human liver microsomes and recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4
ConclusionsCBD was biotransformed to two decarbonylated metabolites, an enol-form (cyclopentadienol structure), and a keto-form (cyclopentenone structure) by human liver microsomes and CYP3A4. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - March 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

New-generation azaindole-adamantyl-derived synthetic cannabinoids
ConclusionsFurther investigation into receptor selectivity surrounding these bicyclic cores could prove useful for future therapeutic applications. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - February 28, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Quantification of U-47700 and its metabolites: N -desmethyl-U-47700 and N , N -didesmethyl-U-47700 in 12 autopsy blood samples employing SPE/LC –ESI-MS-MS
ConclusionsThe simultaneous quantification of U-47700,N-desmethyl-U-47700 andN,N-didesmethyl-U-47700 seems very useful to confirm the cause of death and to estimate antemortem interval. To our knowledge this is the first trial to measure phase I metabolites of U-47700 in authentic human blood samples. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - February 26, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Synovial fluid as an alternative specimen for quantification of drugs of abuse by GC –MS
(Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - February 22, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Identification and structural characterization of synthetic cathinones: N -propylcathinone, 2,4-dimethylmethcathinone, 2,4-dimethylethcathinone, 2,4-dimethyl- α -pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 4-bromo- α -pyrrolidinopropiophenone, 1-(2,3-dihydro-1 H -inden-5-yl)-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)hexan-1-one and 2,4-dimethylisocathinone
ConclusionsNew derivatives of cathinone still appear on the market, mainly due to their legal status. This situation clearly indicates and alarms that permanent recognition of the designer drug market should be conducted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive report to fully characterize these cathinones; however, some analytical data have been published recently. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - February 8, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Structure-metabolism relationships of valine and tert -leucine-derived synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists: a systematic comparison of the in vitro phase I metabolism using pooled human liver microsomes and high-resolution mass spectrometry
ConclusionsThe presented pHLM approach proved to be an effective tool for systematic investigation of SMRs. The information gained from this work may be useful for predicting potential SC metabolites for urine analysis. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - January 8, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Species identification of white false hellebore ( Veratrum album subsp. oxysepalum ) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)
ConclusionsThe present LAMP assay is a highly sensitive, rapid, and specific method for identifyingV. album andV. stamineum. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - January 7, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Toxic by design? Formation of thermal degradants and cyanide from carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids CUMYL-PICA, 5F-CUMYL-PICA, AMB-FUBINACA, MDMB-FUBINACA, NNEI, and MN-18 during exposure to high temperatures
ConclusionsPeople who smoke carboxamide-type synthetic cannabinoids are likely to be exposed to a range of potentially toxic thermal degradants, including cyanide. These degradants could have significant health impacts in human users. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - January 1, 2019 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A rapid screening color test for glyphosate using dabsyl derivatization
ConclusionsA simple screening method for glyphosate based on a color test was established. The method is rapid and requires less than 30 μL of samples. The sensitivity was sufficient for most cases of moderate to severe poisoning. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - December 19, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Profile of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and other synthetic drugs in seized materials analysed in a Brazilian forensic laboratory
(Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 28, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The search for the “next” euphoric non-fentanil novel synthetic opioids on the illicit drugs market: current status and horizon scanning
ConclusionsInternational early warning systems are an essential part of tracking emerging psychoactive substances and allow responsive action to be taken to facilitate the gathering of relevant data for detailed risk assessments. Pre-emptive research on the most likely compounds to emerge next, so providing drug metabolism and pharmacokinetic data to ensure that new substances are detected early in toxicological samples is recommended. As these compounds are chiral compounds and stereochemistry has a large effect on their potency, it is recommended that detection methods consider the determination of configuration. (Source...
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 28, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Use of polysaccharide-based chiral columns: enantiomeric separation of seven pairs of abused drugs by high-performance liquid chromatography –mass spectrometry
(Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 24, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

∆ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol, a major marijuana component, enhances the anesthetic effect of pentobarbital through the CB 1 receptor
ConclusionsThese results suggest that binding of ∆9-THC to the CB1 receptor is involved in the synergism with pentobarbital, and that potentiating effect of CBD with pentobarbital may differ from that of ∆9-THC. We successfully demonstrated that ∆9-THC enhanced the anesthetic effect of pentobarbital through the CB1 receptor. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 24, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Quantification of seven novel synthetic opioids in blood using LC –MS/MS
ConclusionsA quantification method for seven synthetic opioids (U-47700, AH-7921, U-49900, U-50488, MT-45, W-18, and W-15) in whole blood was developed, optimized, and validated in accordance with SWGTOX standard practices for method validation in forensic toxicology. This sensitive method was successfully applied to postmortem casework. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 22, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Forensic analysis using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography –tandem mass spectrometry with solid-phase extraction of α-solanine and α-chaconine in whole blood
ConclusionsThis validated UHPLC –MS/MS with SPE for quantitative analysis of PGAs could be useful in forensic toxicology. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 19, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Unstability of 4-CMC in human serum specimen
(Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 19, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

5F-Cumyl-PINACA in ‘e-liquids’ for electronic cigarettes: comprehensive characterization of a new type of synthetic cannabinoid in a trendy product including investigations on the in vitro and in vivo phase I metabolism of 5F-Cumyl-PINACA and its non-fluorinated analog Cumyl-PINACA
ConclusionsThe increasing popularity of e-liquids particularly among young people, and the extreme potency of the added SCs, pose a serious threat to public health. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the tentative identification of human in vivo metabolites of Cumyl-PINACA and 5F-Cumyl-PINACA. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 13, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Metabolism of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) by canine cytochrome P450 2B11
ConclusionsTATP does not react as MEKP suggesting that TATP does not ring-open to form hydroperoxides. TATP and TATP-OH compete for the same enzyme, with TATP dominating this competition. Failure to detect additional metabolite(s) suggests they may be too small to detect by our system or bound covalently to a protein or polymer in the incubation reaction. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - November 9, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

A GC –MS method for the determination of furanylfentanyl and ocfentanil in whole blood with full validation
ConclusionsThe developed method is the first one in the literature for the detection of furanylfentanyl and ocfentanil in biological fluids by GC –MS, and it provides very high sensitivity comparable to that by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - October 22, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sensitive quantification of BB-22 and its metabolite BB-22 3-carboxyindole, and characterization of new metabolites in authentic urine and/or serum specimens obtained from three individuals by LC –QTRAP-MS/MS and high-resolution LC–Orbitrap-MS/MS
ConclusionsThe synthetic cannabinoid BB-22 and its metabolite BB-22 3-carboxyindole were identified and quantified in authentic human serum and urine specimens for the first time, and new metabolites of BB-22 were tentatively identified in authentic urine specimens obtained from three drug users  in this study. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - October 16, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Human phase I metabolism of the novel synthetic cannabinoid 5F-CUMYL-PEGACLONE
Conclusions5F-CUMYL-PEGACLONE was subject to extensive metabolism in humans. The propionic acid metabolite was the most abundant metabolite in all urine samples and should be targeted when maximum sensitivity is needed (e.g., drug abstinence control). However, this metabolite also occurs in the biotransformation of the non-fluorinated analog and is, therefore, not a compound-specific marker. For differentiation, a metabolite hydroxylated at theγ-carbolinone core showed to be the most reliable marker and should be used as an additional target analyte. (Source: Forensic Toxicology)
Source: Forensic Toxicology - October 5, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research