Off-target phenotypes in forensic DNA phenotyping and biogeographic ancestry inference: A resource
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Cedric Bradbury, Anna Köttgen, Fabian StaubachAbstractWith recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies it has become feasible and cost effective to genotype larger marker sets for forensic purposes. Two technologies that make use of the larger marker sets have come into focus in forensic research and applications; inference of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) and forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). These methods hold the promise to reveal information about a yet unknown perpetrator from a DNA sample. In contrast, DN...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 16, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: November 2018Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics, Volume 37Author(s): (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 14, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Developmental validation of a custom panel including 165 Y-SNPs for Chinese Y-chromosomal haplogroups dissection using the Ion S5 XL System
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Mengge Wang, Zheng Wang, Guanglin He, Jing Liu, Shouyu Wang, Xiaoqing Qian, Min Lang, Jienan Li, Mingkun Xie, Chengtao Li, Yiping HouAbstractMassively parallel sequencing (MPS) technology has the capability to genotype hundreds to thousands of SNPs from multiple samples, with high coverage in a single experimental run. MPS, which enables high-resolution Y haplogrouping from limited DNA resources, has attracted much interest in Y-chromosomal applications, particularly human forensics and anthropological studies. Prev...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 12, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Developmental Validation of the DNATyperTMY26 PCR Amplification Kit: An enhanced Y-STR multiplex for familial searching
Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Xiao-Ting Mo, Jian Zhang, Wen-Hua Ma, Xue Bai, Wan-Shui Li, Xing-Chun Zhao, Jian YeAbstractThe DNATyperTMY26 PCR Amplification kit, which including 26 low-medium mutating Y-STRs, is designed for Y-STR familial searching casework. The kit combines nine new Y-STR loci in addition to the 17 Y-STR loci from the commercially available AmpFlSTR®Yfiler® kit. The validation of the DNATyperTM Y26 kit was performed in terms of technical index, including accuracy, stability, species specificity, sensitivity, adaptabili...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 12, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Development of a modified p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde solution for touch DNA analysis and its application to STR analysis
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Ryohei Yano, Osamu Shimoda, Takaaki Okitsu, Makoto Sakurada, Yasuhiro UenoAbstractWe developed an acid-free p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) solution containing silicone oil that was suitable for spraying on clothing for analysis of biological samples such as touch DNA. We investigated the effect of this solution and irradiation with blue light emitting diode (LED) light on short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. To examine the effect of adding acid to the DMAC solution on visualizing biological samples, saliva samp...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 12, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Improved pairwise kinship analysis using massively parallel sequencing
In conclusion, STR typing according to the sequence information is more polymorphic, which increases the discrimination power for kinship testing. Compared to these 27 STR markers, 94 SNP markers in this panel have advantages in paternity testing especially when mutated STRs are involved or when a relative is an alleged parent. This panel is powerful enough to resolve paternity and full sibling testing. Most of the second-degree relationships could be identified with low error rate while more markers are still needed for first-cousins testing. (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 12, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Platform-independent models for age prediction using DNA methylation data
In this study, bisulfite sequencing data for 95 saliva samples were generated using massively parallel sequencing (MPS) and compared with methylation SNaPshot data from the same 95 individuals. The predicted age obtained by applying MPS data to an age-prediction model built for methylation SNaPshot data differed greatly from the chronological age due to platform differences. Therefore, novel variables were introduced to indicate the platform type, and construct platform-independent age predictive models using a neural network and multivariate linear regression. The final neural network model had a mean absolute deviation (...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 10, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Y-profile evidence: close paternal relatives and mixtures
We describe this approach and illustrate how the WoE that a man was the source of an observed Y-profile changes when the Y-profiles of some of his male-line relatives are also available. Secondly, we extend our new approach to mixtures of Y-profiles from two or more males. Surprisingly, our simulation-based approach reveals that observing a 2-male mixture that includes an alleged contributor's profile is almost as strong evidence as observing a matching single-contributor evidence sample, and even 3-male and 4-male mixtures are only slightly weaker. (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 10, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Forensic human identification with targeted microbiome markers using nearest neighbor classification
This study attempts to address this question by contrasting two prediction strategies. The first approach uses phylogenetic distance to predict the host individual; thus it operates under the premise that microbes within individuals are more closely related than microbes between/among individuals. The second approach uses population genetic measures of diversity at clade-specific markers, serving as a fine-grained assessment of microbial composition and quantification. Both assessments were performed using targeted sequencing of 286 markers from 22 microbial taxa sampled in 51 individuals across three body sites measured i...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 6, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Estimating Number of Contributors in Massively Parallel Sequencing Data of STR loci
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Brian A Young, Katherine Butler Gettings, Bruce McCord, Peter M. ValloneAbstractIn recent years a number of computer-based algorithms have been developed for the deconvolution of complex DNA mixtures in forensic science. These procedures utilize likelihood ratios that quantify the evidence for a hypothesis for the presence of a suspect in a DNA profile compared to an alternative hypothesis. Proper operation of these software systems requires an assumption regarding the total number of contributors present in the m...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

DNA methylation of the ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14, C1orf132/MIR29B2C, and TRIM59 genes for age prediction from blood, saliva, and buccal swab samples
In this study, DNA methylation at 5 CpG sites from the ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14, C1orf132/MIR29B2C, and TRIM59 genes were investigated in 448 samples from blood, saliva, and buccal swabs. A multiplex methylation SNaPshot assay was developed to measure DNA methylation simultaneously at the 5 CpG sites. Among the 5 CpG sites, 3 CpG sites in the ELOVL2, KLF14 and TRIM59 genes demonstrated strong correlation between DNA methylation and age in all 3 sample types. Age prediction models built separately for each sample type using the DNA methylation values at the 5 CpG sites showed high prediction accuracy with a Mean Absolute Deviati...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

The evaluation of forensic characteristics and the phylogenetic analysis of the Ong Be language-speaking population based on Y-STR
In this study, 487 unrelated male individuals residing in the Lingao district volunteered, and their Y-STR haplotypes were investigated using the Yfiler and Yfiler Plus with 17 and 27 Y-STR loci, respectively. Furthermore, we combined our population data on the Lingao people with existing datasets from Asian nations (East, South and Southeast Asia) to explore the genetic variance and relationships with Han Chinese from different administrative regions in Northern and Southern China and Chinese ethnic minorities officially recognized by the PRC.Population comparisons demonstrated that the Lingao people had distant relations...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

MicroRNA profile analysis for discrimination of monozygotic twins using massively parallel sequencing and real-time PCR
In this study, we utilized massively parallel sequencing technology to perform genome-wide profiling of miRNAs in the blood from four pairs of healthy MZTs. On average, 158 miRNAs were detected in each individual and 14% of which were differentially expressed within each pair of MZTs. The miRNAs with the most significant differences in expression between the twins were confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our results demonstrated that miRNAs have potential for use as molecular markers in MZTs discrimination. (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Microhaplotypes in forensic genetics
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Fabio Oldoni, Kenneth K. Kidd, Daniele PodiniAbstractMicrohaplotype loci (microhaps, MHs) are a novel type of molecular marker of less than 300 nucleotides, defined by two or more closely linked SNPs associated in multiple allelic combinations. The value of these markers is enhanced by massively parallel sequencing (MPS), which allows the sequencing of both parental haplotypes at each many multiplexed loci. This review describes the features of these multi-SNP markers and documents their value in forensic genetics, f...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Massively parallel sequencing of microRNA in bloodstains and evaluation of environmental influences on miRNA candidates using realtime polymerase chain reaction
This study not only provides a novel method to explore miRNA profiles in bloodstains using MPS, but also points to the circumstantial influences on miRNA expression, which are an important consideration for practical application. Collectively, our work may shed light on MPS-based approaches with miRNA analysis of bloodstains in forensics. (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Repeatedly washed semen stains: optimal screening and sampling strategies for DNA analysis
Publication date: Available online 4 October 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Sarah Noël, Karine Lagacé, Sylvain Raymond, Dominic Granger, Magali Loyer, Sarah Bourgoin, Christine Jolicoeur, Diane SéguinAbstractIn many sexual assault cases, bedding and clothing are essential pieces of evidence that are screened for semen stains to gather DNA from the assailant. In some cases, these items have been washed before being seized and sent to the forensic lab. However, few data exist on the optimal methods for detecting and sampling semen stains on washed fabrics. In this paper, we ...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - October 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sharing data on DNA transfer, persistence, prevalence and recovery: Arguments for harmonization and standardization
We present the results of a collaborative exercise on reporting forensic genetics findings given activity level propositions. This exercise outlined differences in the methodology that was applied by the participating laboratories, as well as limitations to the use of published data on DNA TPPR. We demonstrate how publication of scientific results in scientific journals can be further improved to allow for an adequate use of these data. Steps that can be taken to share and use these data for research and casework purposes are outlined, and the prospects for future sharing of data through publicly accessible databases are d...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 22, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Differentially methylated CpG regions analyzed by PCR-high resolution melting for monozygotic twin pair discrimination
Publication date: Available online 21 September 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): José Javier Marqueta-Gracia, Maite Álvarez-Álvarez, Miriam Baeta, Leire Palencia-Madrid, Endika Prieto-Fernández, Juan Ramón Ordoñana, Marian M. de PancorboAbstractDiscrimination between monozygotic (MZ) twins is a forensic limitation when using conventional DNA profiling techniques for human identification. Recent works based on epigenetics seem to open a new way to solve this issue due to methylation status of MZ twins change during their lifetime. Methylation analysis t...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 22, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Detection of offender DNA following skin-to-skin contact with a victim
This study investigated the transfer and persistence of offender DNA on a victim following a mock physical assault and further transfer of the offender DNA onto clothing worn over the assaulted area. Mock assault scenarios were conducted with the offender using medium pressure without friction and heavy pressure with friction on the wrist and upper arm of the victim. Samples were taken at either 0 h, 3 h or 24 h post assault, with 18 assault scenarios conducted at each time point. Samples from the victim’s skin where the assault had taken place and, where applicable, clothing worn over the assaul...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 18, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Development of a DNA methylation-based semen-specific SNP typing method: a new approach for genotyping from a mixture of body fluids
In this study, we hypothesized that the simultaneous analysis of CpGs and neighboring polymorphic sites on the same molecule could be useful for individual DNA typing from mixed samples. We performed a proof-of-concept study of this approach by searching the genome-wide methylation dataset deposited at the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus repository for semen-specific CpG markers adjacent to common single nucleotide polymorphisms. From the identified candidates, we selected 5 regions on different chromosomes and validated the presence of semen-specific methylation or unmethylation in ea...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 17, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Determination of the possible number of genotypes which can contribute to DNA mixtures: Non-computer assisted deconvolution should not be attempted for greater than two person mixtures
Publication date: Available online 13 September 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Phillip C. Lynch, Robin W. CottonAbstractWhen DNA profiles contain a mixture of contributors (N), the maximum number of alleles observed at any locus is 2 N with the number of alleles varying between 1 and 2 N. The number of possible combinations of the genotypes of the N contributors increases as N increases. The number of possible combinations of genotypes that may occur among the N contributors can be enumerated using the mathematical concept of ordered partitions. Thus the number of possible geno...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 14, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Next generation database search algorithm for forensic mitogenome analyses
Publication date: Available online 9 September 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Nicole Huber, Walther Parson, Arne Dür (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 10, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

DNA methylation-based age prediction using massively parallel sequencing data and multiple machine learning models
In this study, 110 whole blood samples from individuals aged 11-93 years were analysed using a DNA methylation quantification assay based on bisulphite conversion and massively parallel sequencing (Illumina MiSeq) of 12 CpG sites. Using this data, 17 different statistical modelling approaches were compared based on root mean square error (RMSE) and a Support Vector Machine with polynomial function (SVMp) model was selected for further testing. For the selected model (RMSE = 4.9 years) the mean average error (MAE) of the blind test (n = 33) was calculated at 4.1 years, with 52% of the samples pre...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 9, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Combining human STR and microbial population profiling: two case reports
In this report two criminal cases are described where both human STR profiling and microbial population profiling were applied to the same trace sample. Human STR profiling was used to evaluate the sub-source question and microbial population profiling was used to evaluate the source question. The Bayesian framework was used to evaluate the evidence. (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 1, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Developmental validation of the ParaDNA® Body Fluid ID System—A rapid multiplex mRNA-profiling system for the forensic identification of body fluids
Publication date: November 2018Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics, Volume 37Author(s): Stephen Blackman, Beccy Stafford-Allen, Erin K. Hanson, Monika Panasiuk, Amber-Louise Brooker, Paul Rendell, Jack Ballantyne, Simon WellsAbstractIdentifying the biological origin of forensic traces can provide crucial evidence to aid criminal investigations. Current forensic practice for the identification of body fluids mostly uses protein-based presumptive tests. Such tests cannot identify all of the forensically relevant fluids and have issues of cross-reactivity. More recently, messenger RNA methods have been developed ...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - September 1, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Match Probabilities for Y-Chromosomal Profiles: A Paradigm Shift
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Amke Caliebe, Michael KrawczakAbstractCalculating match probabilities for genetic profiles under the hypothesis that a person of interest (henceforth the ‘suspect’) is not the donor of a particular forensic trace is challenging because the reference population is usually not clear-defined in such cases. Hence, the concept of ‘suspect population’ was introduced to allow for the fact that possible alternative trace donors often resemble the suspect in terms of their geographic, ethnic and social...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 31, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: September 2018Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics, Volume 36Author(s): (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 31, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Towards broadening Forensic DNA Phenotyping beyond pigmentation: Improving the prediction of head hair shape from DNA
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Ewelina Pośpiech, Yan Chen, Magdalena Kukla-Bartoszek, Krystal Breslin, Anastasia Aliferi, Jeppe D. Andersen, David Ballard, Lakshmi Chaitanya, Ana Freire-Aradas, Kristiaan J. van der Gaag, Lorena Girón-Santamaría, Theresa E. Gross, Mario Gysi, Gabriela Huber, Ana Mosquera-Miguel, Charanya Muralidharan, Małgorzata Skowron, Ángel Carracedo, Cordula Haas, Niels MorlingAbstractHuman head hair shape, commonly classified as straight, wavy, curly or frizzy, is an attractive target for Forensic DNA Ph...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 30, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Current and emerging tools for the recovery of genetic information from post mortem samples: New directions for disaster victim identification
Publication date: Available online 28 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): J. Watherston, D. McNevin, M.E. Gahan, D. Bruce, J. WardAbstractDNA profiling has emerged as the gold standard for the identification of victims in mass disaster events providing an ability to identify victims, reassociate remains and provide investigative leads at a relatively low cost, and with a high degree of discrimination. For the majority of samples, DNA-based identification can be achieved in a fast, streamlined and high-throughput manner. However, a large number of remains will be extremely compromised, char...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 29, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Genetic diversity of 21 forensic autosomal STRs and DYS391 in the Han population from Shanghai, Eastern China
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Xiang Sheng, Yun Bao, Ruiyang Tao, Jiashuo Zhang, Jingyi Zhang, Zihao Yang, Chengtao Li, Suhua Zhang (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 28, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

NIST Interlaboratory Studies Involving DNA Mixtures (MIX13): A modern analysis
Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): John S. Buckleton, Jo-Anne Bright, Kevin Cheng, Bruce Budowle, Michael D. CobleAbstractMIX13 was an interlaboratory exercise directed by NIST in 2013. The goal of the exercise was to evaluate the general state of interpretation methods in use at the time across the forensic community within the US and Canada and to measure the consistency in mixture interpretation. The findings were that there was a large variation in analysts’ interpretations between and within laboratories.Within this work, we sought to evalu...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 28, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Developmental Validation of the ParaDNA® Body Fluid ID System - A rapid multiplex mRNA-profiling system for the forensic identification of body fluids
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Stephen Blackman, Beccy Stafford-Allen, Erin K. Hanson, Monika Panasiuk, Amber-Louise Brooker, Paul Rendell, Jack Ballantyne, Simon WellsAbstractIdentifying the biological origin of forensic traces can provide crucial evidence to aid criminal investigations. Current forensic practice for the identification of body fluids mostly uses protein-based presumptive tests. Such tests cannot identify all of the forensically relevant fluids and have issues of cross-reactivity. More recently, messenger RNA methods have been dev...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 24, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Potential highly polymorphic short tandem repeat markers for enhanced forensic identity testing
In this study, STRs were explored in public datasets that displayed sequence variation and may have limited allele length spread. STRs were first selected using fundamental criteria of high heterozygosity, tetra-, penta-, or hexanucleotide repeat length, and overall relative narrow allele spread (based on length). All candidates were further scrutinized for chemistry compatibility. The resulting STRs were multiplexed and sequenced by massively parallel sequencing in a limited sample population set. Each candidate STR was evaluated for analytical performance and desired biological properties. The findings presented describe...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 23, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Sequence-based U.S. population data for 27 autosomal STR loci
Discussion includes the utility of this data in understanding traditional CE results, such as informing stutter models and understanding migration challenges, and considerations for population sampling strategies in light of the marked increase in rare alleles for several of the sequence-based STR loci. This NIST 1036 data set is expected to support the implementation of STR sequencing forensic casework by providing high-confidence sequence-based allele frequencies for the same sample set which are already the basis for population statistics in many U.S. forensic laboratories. (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 23, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Optimal small-molecular reference RNA for RT-qPCR-based body fluid identification
In this study, we first examined sample quality using RNA integrity number, then evaluated the consistency of expression of candidate reference RNAs in 4 forensically relevant body fluids using NormFinder and BestKeeper, and lastly used each rank and index output from these tools for selecting the optimal reference RNA and the combination of the multiple RNAs using the RankAggreg package of R. We found that RNA integrity number was small in our samples, despite the use of pristine body fluids; 5S-rRNA was the optimal reference RNA for the identification of forensically relevant body fluids; and the combination of 5S-rRNA a...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 18, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Recent progress, methods and perspectives in forensic epigenetics
Publication date: Available online 17 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Athina Vidaki, Manfred KayserAbstractForensic epigenetics, i.e., investigating epigenetics variation to resolve forensically relevant questions unanswerable with standard forensic DNA profiling has been gaining substantial ground over the last few years. Differential DNA methylation among tissues and individuals has been proposed as useful resource for three forensic applications i) determining the tissue type of a human biological trace, ii) estimating the age of an unknown trace donor, and iii) differentiating betw...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 18, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Forensic efficiency and genetic divergence of 30 autosomal InDels in Chinese Han population from Jiangsu province
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Zheng Li, Jianping Xu, Caiyong Yin, Li Hu, Huijie Huang, Rong Li, Dongtao Jia, Peng Chen, Feng Chen (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 16, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Dog breed affiliation with a forensically validated canine STR set
Publication date: Available online 16 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Burkhard Berger, Cordula Berger, Josephin Heinrich, Harald Niederstätter, Werner Hecht, Andreas Hellmann, Udo Rohleder, Uwe Schleenbecker, Nadja Morf, Ana Freire-Aradas, Dennis McNevin, Christopher Phillips, Walther Parson (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 16, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Analysis of 23 Y-STRs in a population sample from eastern Paraguay
Publication date: Available online 15 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Julyana Ribeiro, Magdalena Romero, Filipa Simão, Ana Paula Ferreira Almeida, Alfredo Quiroz, Patricia Machado, Vanessa Velázquez, Elizeu Fagundes de Carvalho, Carlos Vullo, Leonor Gusmão, Julyana Ribeiro (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 15, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Considerations for the need of recommendations for the research and publication of DNA methylation results
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Jana Naue, Hwan Young Lee (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 10, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Detection of Latent DNA
This report demonstrates the effective use of Diamond Dye to bind to DNA and allow visualisation of deposited cellular material using a mini-fluorescence microscope. Volunteers made contact with a range of items typical of those submitted as part of a forensic investigation. Contact was for less than 5 seconds and occurred either 15 minutes after hands were washed to remove any traces of DNA, and therefore under controlled conditions, or at an undefined time post handwashing to mimic real-world scenarios. Diamond Dye bound to cellular material on all the items used and in all cases it was clear where the volunteers ...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 9, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

DNA mixtures interpretation – a proof-of-concept multi-software comparison highlighting different probabilistic methods’ performances on challenging samples
Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): E. Alladio, M. Omedei, G. D’Amico, D. Caneparo, M. Vincent, P. GarofanoAbstractThe present study investigated the capabilities and performances of semi-continuous and fully-continuous probabilistic approaches to DNA mixtures interpretation, particularly when dealing with Low-Template DNA mixtures. Five statistical interpretation software, such as Lab Retriever and LRmix Studio – involving semi-continuous algorithms – and DNA•VIEW®, EuroForMix and STRmixTM – employing fully-continuous f...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 4, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Big data in forensic genetics
Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): António Amorim, Nadia Pinto (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 2, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

NIST Interlaboratory Studies Involving DNA Mixtures (MIX05 and MIX13): Variation Observed and Lessons Learned
Publication date: Available online 1 August 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): John M. Butler, Margaret C. Kline, Michael D. CobleAbstractInterlaboratory studies are a type of collaborative exercise in which many laboratories are presented with the same set of data to interpret, and the results they produce are examined to get a “big picture” view of the effectiveness and accuracy of analytical protocols used across participating laboratories. In 2005 and again in 2013, the Applied Genetics Group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) conducted interlaboratory s...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 2, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Molecular autopsy in a cohort of infants died suddenly at rest
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Oscar Campuzano, Pilar Beltramo, Anna Fernandez, Anna Iglesias, Laura García, Catarina Allegue, Georgia Sarquella-Brugada, Monica Coll, Alexandra Perez-Serra, Irene Mademont-Soler, Jesus Mates, Bernat del Olmo, Ángeles Rodríguez, Natalia Maciel, Marta Puigmulé, Ferran Pico, Sergi Cesar, Josep Brugada, Alejandro Cuesta, Carmen GutierrezABSTRACTSudden infant death syndrome is the leading cause of death during the first year of life. A large part of cases remains without a conclusive cause of d...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 1, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Genetic analysis of 26 Y-STR loci in Han population from Leshan, Southwest China
Publication date: Available online 31 July 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Jian Zhang, Xiaoting Mo, Yiwen Zhang, Guangshu Ding, Xi Wang, Wanshui Li, Xingchun Zhao, Jian Ye (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - August 1, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Optimizing body fluid recognition from microbial taxonomic profiles
Publication date: November 2018Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics, Volume 37Author(s): Eirik Nataas Hanssen, Kristian Hovde Liland, Peter Gill, Lars SnipenAbstractIn forensics the DNA-profile is used to identify the person who left a biological trace, but information on body fluid can also be essential in the evidence evaluation process. Microbial composition data could potentially be used for body fluid recognition as an improved alternative to the currently used presumptive tests. We have developed a customized workflow for interpretation of bacterial 16S sequence data based on a model composed of Partial L...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - July 30, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Two-person DNA mixture interpretation based on a novel set of SNP-STR markers
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Yu Tan, Peng Bai, Li Wang, Hui Wang, Huan Tian, Hui Jian, Ranran Zhang, Yuqing Liu, Weibo Liang, Lin ZhangAbstractAutosomal short tandem repeats (STR) markers analysed by PCR and capillary electrophoresis (CE) represent the gold-standard for forensic DNA analysis. With the improved sensitivity of detection equipment, a larger number of mixed DNA profiles can be obtained from trace amounts of DNA that conventionally used to appear as a single source. More specifically, two-source DNA mixtures, comprising the victim&rsqu...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - July 27, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Impact of sample degradation and inhibition on field-based DNA identification of human remains
Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Forensic Science International: GeneticsAuthor(s): Nick Dawnay, Robyn Flamson, Martin J.R. Hall, Dawnie W. SteadmanAbstractThe advent of DNA technologies for field-based application promises to provide rapid intelligence to aid investigations. Their validation and adoption by enforcement groups have demonstrated utility in sample screening and prioritisation, but field application in some areas of forensic science, such as human remains identification, is little evidenced. Assessing the ability of such approaches to provide meaningful data is critical as decomposition ...
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - July 26, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research

Non-specific peaks generated by animal DNA during human STR analysis: peak characteristics and a novel analysis method for mixed human/animal samples
This study enabled recovery of more information from limited quantities of casework samples contaminated with animal DNA, which would be useful for forensic HID scientists.Graphical abstract (Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics)
Source: Forensic Science International: Genetics - July 26, 2018 Category: Forensic Medicine Source Type: research