Modeling the Transport of Human Rotavirus and Norovirus in Standardized and in Natural Soil Matrix-Water Systems
AbstractWe modeled Group A Rotavirus (RVA) and Norovirus genogroup II (GII NoV) transport experiments in standardized (crystal quartz sand and deionized water with adjusted pH and ionic strength) and natural soil matrix-water systems (MWS). On the one hand, in the standardized MWS, Rotavirus and Norovirus showed very similar breakthrough curves (BTCs), showing a removal rate of 2 and 1.7 log10, respectively. From the numerical modeling of the experiment, transport parameters of the same order of magnitude were obtained for both viruses. On the other hand, in the natural MWS, the two viruses show very different BTCs. The No...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Accumulation and Depuration Kinetics of Rotavirus in Mussels Experimentally Contaminated
AbstractBivalve mollusks as filter-feeders concentrate in their digestive tissue microorganisms likely present in the harvesting water, thus becoming risky food especially if consumed raw or poorly cooked. To eliminate bacteria and viruses eventually accumulated, they must undergo a depuration process which efficacy on viruses is on debate. To better clarify the worth of the depuration process on virus elimination from mussels, in this study we investigated rotavirus kinetics of accumulation and depuration inMytilus galloprovincialis experimentally contaminated. Depuration process was monitored for 9  days and virus r...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Feasibility of the Bag-Mediated Filtration System for Environmental Surveillance of Poliovirus in Kenya
This study demonstrated that BMFS can be used for PV environmental surveillance and established a feasible study design for future research. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Inactivation and Genome Damage of Human Enteroviruses Upon Treatment by UV 254 , Free Chlorine, and Ozone
AbstractQuantitative PCR (qPCR) is a convenient tool for monitoring virus concentrations in water and wastewater treatment trains, though it only informs about virus presence, but not infectivity. This limitation can be overcome if the relationship between infectivity loss and genome decay induced by a given disinfectant is known. Here, we performed inactivation experiments using two human enteroviruses, Coxsackievirus B5 and Echovirus 11, with three disinfection methods: low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV254), free chlorine (FC), and ozone. We compared the inactivation rates as measured by culturing to the decay rates of ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Secretor Status is Associated with Susceptibility to Disease in a Large GII.6 Norovirus Foodborne Outbreak
AbstractNorovirus is commonly associated with food and waterborne outbreaks. Genetic susceptibility to norovirus is largely dependent on presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), specifically ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes. The aim of the study was to determine the association between HBGAs to norovirus susceptibility during a large norovirus foodborne outbreak linked to genotype GII.6 in an office-based company in Stockholm, Sweden, 2015. A two-episode outbreak with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting occurred in 2015. An online questionnaire was sent to all 1109 employees that had worked during the first outbreak...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Human Salivirus in Italy Through Monitoring of Urban Sewages
AbstractSalivirus (SalV) is a newly discovered virus associated to acute gastroenteritis in humans. In Italy, its prevalence and genetic diversity is unknown. To reduce this knowledge gap, 124 sewage samples collected throughout the country were analyzed for SalV by two nested RT-PCRs targeting the 5 ′UTR and the 3D regions and by real-time RT-qPCR. Virus RNA was detected in 37 (29.8%) samples; of these, 24 could be characterized and all belonged to genotype A1. Viral concentrations ranged between 2.8 × 103 and 1.9  × 105 genome copies per liter. This is the first report of Sal...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

No Evidence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Farmed Deer in Germany
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent, which is mainly transmitted by consumption of undercooked meat products originating from infected animals. Domestic pigs and wild boars are the major animal reservoirs, but HEV infections have been also repeatedly described in wild deer species. However, farmed deer has been only sparsely investigated so far. Here, 108 blood and 106 liver samples from fallow deer, red deer, and sika deer strictly hold in game enclosures from 11 farms in Germany were analyzed for markers of HEV infection. Using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA, 3/108 (2.7%) serum samples were sc...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antiviral Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Tea Extract Against Human Influenza A Virus Rely Largely on Acidic pH but Partially on a Low-pH-Independent Mechanism
AbstractInfluenza A virus (IAV) infection is perennially one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Effective therapy and vaccination are needed to control viral expansion. However, current anti-IAV drugs risk inducing drug-resistant virus emergence. Although intranasal administration of whole inactivated virus vaccine can induce efficient protective immunity, formalin and β-propiolactone are the currently used and harmful inactivating agents. Here, we analyzed the antiviral activity of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) tea extract against human IAV and evaluated its potential as a novel anti-IAV drug and a safe in...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 16, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Field Performance of Two Methods for Detection of Poliovirus in Wastewater Samples, Mexico 2016 –2017
Abstract To enhance our ability to monitor poliovirus circulation and certify eradication, we evaluated the performance of the bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) against the two-phase separation (TPS) method for concentrating wastewater samples for poliovirus detection. Sequential samples were collected at two sites in Mexico; one L was collected by grab and  ~ 5 L were collected and filtered in situ with the BMFS. In the laboratory, 500 mL collected by grab were concentrated using TPS and the sample contained in the filter of the BMFS was eluted without secondary concentration. Concentrates were te...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Involvement of Egyptian Foods in Foodborne Viral Illnesses: The Burden on Public Health and Related Environmental Risk Factors: An Overview
AbstractFoodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different enteric virus infections among Egyptian population such as Hepatitis A and E viruses, human rotaviruses, human noroviruses, human astroviruses, and human adenovirus. Recently, a number of foodborne gastroenteritis and acute ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 27, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Airborne Transmission of Influenza Virus in a Hospital of Qinhuangdao During 2017 –2018 Flu Season
AbstractThe 2017 –2018 flu season is considered to be one of the most severe, with numerous influenza outbreaks worldwide. In an infectious disease hospital of Qinhuangdao, air samples were collected daily from outpatient hall, clinical laboratory, fever clinic, children's ward (Children's Ward I/Children's Ward I I), and adult ward during 23–29 January 2018 (peak flu activity) and 9–15 April 2018 (low flu activity). The air samples were collected with SLC-SiOH magnetic beads using impingement samplers. Real-time PCR assay was used to detect the RNA of airborne influenza (IFVA and IFVB) in the 91 collecte...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Occurrence of HEV-RNA in Italian Regional Pork and Wild Boar Food Products
AbstractHepatitis E is an emerging threat in industrialized countries. The foodborne transmission linked to consumption of pork and game meat is considered the main source of autochthonous infection. In Europe, small outbreaks have been reported linked to the consumption of pork liver sausages and wild boar meat. Based on previous findings and on increasing evidence of pork and game meat as a vehicle for HEV infections, the present study investigated the occurrence of HEV in 99 pork and 63 wild boar sausages and salami sold in Southern Italy. The HEV genome was detected in four wild boar sausages. Sequencing from 2 wild bo...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Livers and Muscle Tissues of Wild Boars in Italy
In this study, we investigated the presence of HEV RNA by a real-time RT-PCR assay in paired liver and muscle samples collected from 196 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in the two areas of Central and Southern Italy. Twenty animals (10.2%) were HEV RNA positive in livers, 11 of which were also positive in muscles. The ORF2 and ORF1 partial viral sequences were obtained for nine paired livers and muscles, and when aligned were identical to each other. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed detection of different HEV-3 subtypes: 3c, 3f, 3i and some that were not assigned to any subtypes that have so far been identified. Results need...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of Norovirus and Other Human Enteric Viruses in Sewage and Stool Samples Through Next-Generation Sequencing
This study aimed to optimize a method to identify human enteric viruses in sewage and stool samples using random primed next-generation sequencing. We tested three methods, two employed virus enrichment based on the binding properties of the viral capsid using pig-mucin capture or by selecting viral RNA prior to library preparation through a capture using the SureSelect target enrichment. The third method was based on a non-specific biophysical precipitation with polyethylene glycol. Full genomes of a number of common human enteric viruses including norovirus, rotavirus, husavirus, enterovirus and astrovirus were obtained....
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Armored RNA Technology Using Bacteriophage Q β
In this study, we report a novel technology for preparing AR using bacteriophage Q β and compare its stability with AR prepared using the MS2 phage system for packaging norovirus detection target RNA. AR could be successfully and efficiently produced using the developed bacteriophage Qβ system. Two types of AR–AR-QNoV prepared using the Qβ system and AR-MNoV prepared using th e MS2 system—were stored at different temperatures for different durations. After incubating at − 20 °C for 360 days, the copy numbers of AR-QNoV and AR-MNoV decreased by 8.9% and 35.9%, respectively...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Enteroviruses and Hepatitis A Viruses in Sewage Samples, Northern Italy, 2016
This study focused on the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the EVs and HAVs identified in 33 sewage samples collected every 15  days at the influent of a wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy from March to October 2016. According to the results of the molecular characterization, the most frequently identified viruses were Echovirus 6 (E-6), E-11 and HAV-IA. The phylogenetic analyses indicated the rapid genet ic evolution of E-6 and E-1; noteworthy, most E-11 strains clustered with a strain isolated from a clinical sample collected in the same geographical area over the same period...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 16, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Human- and Animal-Specific Viral Markers and Application of CrAssphage, Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, and Tobacco Mosaic Virus as Potential Fecal Pollution Markers to River Water in Japan
AbstractFive human-specific markers were detected in 59 –74% of 27 human fecal-source samples collected in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Similarly, potential human-specific markers, crAssphage, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus were detected in 96–100% of samples, with crAssphage showing the maximum concentration of 12.03 log copies/L. However, these markers were detected in 100% (3/3) of pig fecal-source samples, suggesting their applicability as general fecal pollution markers. Microbial source tracking analysis demonstrated that the rivers are contaminated by human and pig fecal ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Year-Long Rhinovirus Infection is Influenced by Atmospheric Conditions, Outdoor Air Virus Presence, and Immune System-Related Genetic Polymorphisms
AbstractRhinovirus is a common picornavirus with over 150 serotypes and three species, which is responsible for half of the human common cold cases. In people with chronic respiratory conditions and elders, it may also cause life-threatening diseases. Transmission routes are not definitively established but may involve direct human-to-human and indirect transmission (surfaces and aerosols based). In the present study, year-long presence of virus was tested by qPCR in the nostrils of young healthy volunteers and indoor and outdoor air samples. Results were correlated to atmospheric conditions (meteorological and air quality...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Coxsackievirus B5 Isolates from Sewage, Italy 2016 –2017
AbstractHereby, the partial Viral Protein 1 sequences of Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) from sewage samples, collected in Italy from 2016 to 2017, were compared with those available in GenBank from clinical samples. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted: (I) the predominant circulation of CV-B5 genogroup B in Italy, and (II) the presence of two new sub-genogroups. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus Monitoring in Oysters Using Two Different Extraction Methods
This study aimed to assess the presence of noroviruses in oysters extracted using a proteinase K extraction (ISO 15216 method) and an adsorption –elution method. Seventy oyster samples were extracted using the two extraction methods and evaluated using RT-nested PCR. The results showed norovirus detection rates at an equal frequency of 28.6%, of which a total of 48 (68.6%) samples had corresponding positive or negative results, while there were 22 (31.4%) samples with discrepant results. Norovirus genogroup (G)I, GII, and mixed GI and GII were detected in 20%, 4.3%, and 4.3% of samples, respectively, by the proteinas...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Screening and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus in Slaughter Pigs in Serbia
This study provides the first analysis of the genetic diver sity and circulation dynamics of HEV in pigs at slaughterhouses in Serbia. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Assessment of the Applicability of Capsid-Integrity Assays for Detecting Infectious Norovirus Inactivated by Heat or UV Irradiation
In this study, two such methods (RNase and porcine gastric mucin) which were designed to remove viruses with compromised capsids (and therefore assumed to be non-viable), were assessed for their ability to quantify viable F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNAP) and human norovirus following inactivation by UV-C or heat. It was found that while both methods could remove a proportion of non-viable viruses, a large proportion of non-viable virus remained to be detected by RT-qPCR, leading to overestimations of the viable population. A model was then developed to determine the proportion of RT-qPCR detectable RNA from non-viable ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Interlaboratory Comparative Study to Detect Potentially Infectious Human Enteric Viruses in Influent and Effluent Waters
In this study, we evaluated a protocol based on aluminum adsorption –precipitation to concentrate several human enteric viruses, including norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), NoV GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus (HAstV), and rotavirus (RV), with limits of detection of 4.08, 4.64, 5.46 log genomic copies (gc)/L, 3.31, and 5.41 log PCR units (PCRU)/L, respectiv ely. Furthermore, the method was applied in two independent laboratories to monitor the presence of NoV GI, NoV GII, and HAV in effluent and influent waters collected from five WWTPs at two different sampling dates. Concomitantly, a viability PMAxx-RT-q...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Surface Water and Bivalves from a Mangrove Estuary in Southeastern Brazil
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of a mangrove estuary in the Vit ória Bay region, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We analyzed the presence and concentration of enteric viruses and thermotolerant coliforms in water, mussels (Mytella charruana andMytella guyanensis), and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), collected over a 13-month period. Human adenovirus, rotavirus A (RVA), and norovirus genogroup II were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The highest viral load was found in RVA-positive samples with a concentration of 3.0  × 104 genome copies (GC) L−1 in...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Use of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophage to Estimate Infectious Norovirus Levels in Oysters
In this study, we investigated the relationships between F-RNA phage and norovirus in digestive tissues from two sets of oyster samples, one randomly collected at retail (630 samples), and one linked to suspected norovirus illness outbreaks (nine samples). A positive association and correlation between PCR-detectable levels of genogroup II F-RNA bacteriophage (associated with human faecal contamination) and norovirus was found in both sets of samples, with more samples positive for genogroup II phage, at generally higher levels than norovirus. Levels of both viruses were higher in outbreak-related than retail samples. Infe...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of Human-Specific Viral Markers and Application of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus and CrAssphage to Environmental Water Samples as Fecal Pollution Markers in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
AbstractMonitoring of environmental water is crucial to protecting humans and animals from possible health risks. Although numerous human-specific viral markers have been designed to track the presence of human fecal contamination in water, they lack adequate sensitivity and specificity in different geographical regions. We evaluated the performances of six human-specific viral markers [Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), human adenoviruses (HAdVs), BK and JC polyomaviruses (BKPyVs and JCPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and crAssphage] using 122 fecal-source samples collected from humans and five animal hosts in the Kathmandu V...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Cold Atmospheric Plasma as a Novel Method for Inactivation of Potato Virus Y in Water Samples
AbstractWhile one of the biggest problems we are facing today is water scarcity, enormous quantities of water are still being used in irrigation. If contaminated, this water can act as an effective pathway for the spread of disease-causing agents, like viruses. Here, we present a novel, environmentally friendly method known as cold atmospheric plasma for inactivation of viruses in water used in closed irrigation systems. We measured the plasma-mediated viral RNA degradation as well as the plasma-induced loss of viral infectivity using potato virus Y as a model virus due to its confirmed water transmissibility and economic ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Missing the Match Might Not Cost You the Game: Primer-Template Mismatches Studied in Different Hepatitis A Virus Variants
AbstractMismatches between template sequences and reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can lead to underestimation or false negative results during detection and quantification of sequence-diverse viruses. We performed an in silico inclusivity analysis of a widely used RT-PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food, described in ISO 15216-1. One of the most common mismatches found was a single G (primer) to U (template) mismatch located at the terminal 3 ′-end of the reverse primer region. This mismatch was present in all genotype III sequences available in GenBank. Par...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 19, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus Detection at Oualidia Lagoon, a Moroccan Shellfish Harvesting Area, by Reverse Transcription PCR Analysis
AbstractNorovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in the world. These outbreaks are frequently associated with bivalve shellfish consumption, particularly because these products are often eaten raw or only slightly cooked. In Morocco, regulations concerning the acceptable levels of enteric bacteria indicator organisms in these products have been put in place. However, these regulations do not take into account the risk of viral contamination, and many gastroenteritis outbreaks have been linked to the ingestion of bivalve shellfish from areas that comply with the current food safety crite...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Assessment of the Incidence of Human Adenovirus in Surface Waters of Southwest Greece: Vouraikos River as a Case Study
AbstractThe purpose of this study is to assess the overall impact of different anthropogenic activities in the Vouraikos River basin (southwestern Greece, Natura 2000 area). Virological quality of river water samples was investigated. Positive samples for human adenoviruses were found occasionally, while porcine adenoviruses and bovine polyoma viruses were not detected. It is the first time that virological data are collected in the study area. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Steady-State Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment for the Inactivation of Tulane virus on Berry Fruits
AbstractThe effectiveness of steady-state levels of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against Tulane virus (TV), a human norovirus surrogate, on berries was determined. The generated ClO2 was maintained at 1  mg/L inside a 269 L glove box to treat two 50 g batches of blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries, and two 100 g batches of strawberries that were immersion coated with TV. The standardized/normalized treatment concentrations of ClO2 ranging from 0.63 to 4.40  ppm-h/g berry were evaluated. When compared to untreated TV contaminated berries, log reductions of TV were in excess of 2.9 log PFU/...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 4, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Microbial Source Tracking Analysis Using Viral Indicators in Santa Luc ía and Uruguay Rivers, Uruguay
AbstractThe aim of this study was to determine the origin (human, bovine or porcine) and the concentration of the fecal sources of contamination in waters from Santa Luc ía basin and Uruguay River in Uruguay by using host-specific viral markers (adenoviruses and polyomaviruses) as microbial source tracking (MST). Between June 2015 and May 2016, monthly collections of surface water samples were performed in six sites in Santa Lucía basin and four sites in Uruguay R iver (n = 120 samples). Viral concentration was carried out using an absorption-elution method. Detection and quantification of human...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 3, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Male-Specific DNA Coliphage Persistence Within Eastern Oysters ( Crassostrea virginica )
AbstractMale-specific coliphages (MSCs) are currently used to assess the virologic quality of shellfish-growing waters and to assess the impact of sewage release or adverse weather events on bivalve shellfish. Since MSC can have either DNA or RNA genomes, and most research has been performed exclusively on RNA MSCs, persistence of M13, a DNA MSC, was evaluated for its persistence as a function of time and temperature within Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Oysters were individually exposed to seawater containing a total of 1010 to 1012 pfu of M13 for 24  h at 15 °C followed by maintenance in tanks wit...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 27, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Co-culture with Enterobacter cloacae does not Enhance Virus Resistance to Thermal and Chemical Treatments
This study investigated the persistence of hNoV surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and Tulane virus (TuV), along with Aichi virus (AiV) under thermal and chemical inactivation in association with Gram-negative (Enterobacter cloacae) bacteria. Thermal inactivation of viruses in co-culture withE. cloacae revealed no protective effects of bacteria. At 56  °C, AiV with and without bacteria was completely inactivated by 10 min with decimal reduction values (D-values) of 41 and 43  s, respectively. Similar results were also observed for TuV. Conversely, MNV with bacteria was completely inactivated by 10 m...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Synergistic Effects of Combined Chlorine and Vitamin B 1 on the Reduction of Murine Norovirus-1 on the Oyster ( Crassostrea gigas ) Surface
This study investigated the synergistic effects of combined chlorine (200, 500, 700, and 1000  ppm) and vitamin B1 (1000, 2000, and 3000  ppm) on the murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus (NoV) surrogate, on oyster surface. Vitamin B1 slightly reduced MNV-1 (0.04 –0.3 log-reduction), whereas chlorine significantly reduced MNV-1 (0.4–1.0 log-reduction). The combined chlorine and vitamin B1 resulted in a 0.52 –1.97 log-reduction of MNV-1. The synergistic reduction in the MNV titer was not dependent on the concentrations of chlorine and vitamin B1, and it ranged between 0.08 and 1.03 log10 ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Glass Wool Concentration Optimization for the Detection of Enveloped and Non-enveloped Waterborne Viruses
AbstractAn extremely affordable virus concentration method based on adsorption-elution to glass wool and subsequent reconcentration through polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) precipitation was optimized to recover not only non-enveloped viruses but also enveloped viruses. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) were employed as surrogates for naked and enveloped viruses, respectively, to set up the methodology. Initial experimentation in small-volume samples showed that both types of particles readily adsorbed to the positively charged glass wool but were poorly detached from it through standard ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Outbreaks of Norovirus and Acute Gastroenteritis Associated with British Columbia Oysters, 2016 –2017
AbstractTwo outbreaks of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis took place in Canada between November 2016 and April 2017. Both outbreaks were linked to oysters from British Columbia (BC) coastal waters. This paper describes the multi-agency investigations to identify the source and control the outbreak. Public health officials conducted interviews to determine case exposures. Traceback was conducted by collecting oyster tags from restaurants and analyzing them to determine the most common farms. Oyster samples were collected from case homes, restaurants, and harvest sites and tested for the presence of norovirus. Potential e...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Occurrence of Salivirus in Sewage and River Water Samples in Karaj, Iran
AbstractSalivirus is a newly discovered virus which seems to be related to acute gastroenteritis in children. Salivirus may infect susceptible children by fecal –oral route after exposure to contaminated water. The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence and quantity of Salivirus in treated and untreated sewage water and river water samples collected in the city of Karaj, Iran by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR assay. A total of 50 samples we re collected from environmental waters containing 22 treated and untreated sewage water in volume of 1 l and 28 river water samples in volume of 5 l were ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Environmental Surveillance of Human Enteroviruses in C órdoba City, Argentina: Prevalence and Detection of Serotypes from 2009 to 2014
AbstractEnvironmental surveillance is an effective approach to investigate the circulation of human enteroviruses (EVs) in the population. EVs excreted by patients who present diverse clinical syndromes can remain infectious in the environment for several weeks, and limited data on circulating environmental EVs are available. A 6-year (2009 –2014) surveillance study was conducted to detect non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) in the urban sewage of Cordoba city, Argentina. Echovirus 6 (E-6) was the most prevalent (28%), followed by E-14 (17%), E-16 (14%), Coxsackievirus (CV) A9 (11%), E-20 (9%), and CVA24 (6%). Other mino...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 20, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis A Outbreak in the General Population due to a MSM-Associated HAV Genotype Linked to a Food Handler, November 2017 –February 2018, Germany
We report here on the first spillover outbreak of the MSM-associated HAV genotype RIVM-HAV16-090 in the German general population in November 2017 –February 2018. In total, twelve cases could be attributed to the outbreak with the index case and a coworker in a butchers shop being the most probable source of the outbreak. The identical HAV genotype was detected in two environmental samples in the premises of the butchers shop and in nine cas es. Outbreak control measures included detailed contact tracing and stool examinations, several environmental investigations, thorough cleaning, and disinfection of the premises ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Critical Evaluation of CrAssphage as a Molecular Marker for Human-Derived Wastewater Contamination in the Aquatic Environment
In this study, we used crAssphage, a recently discovered human-specific gut-associated bacteriophage, for the surveillance of wastewater-derived viral contamination. Untreated and treated wastewater, surface water, sediment and mussel samples were collected monthly over 1 year from the Conwy River and estuary (UK) and were analyzed for crAssphage marker by quantitative PCR. This is the first long-term catchment-to-coast scale study of environmental crAssphage concentrations. CrAssphage was detected in all sample types and showed no distinct seasonal pattern. CrAssphage concentrations were 2  × 105&ndash...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Mineral Waste Containing High Levels of Iron from an Environmental Disaster (Bento Rodrigues, Mariana, Brazil) is Associated with Higher Titers of Enteric Viruses
We report an investigation of effects on the biosynthesis of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and hepatitis A (HAV) of waters contaminated with mineral waste following an environmental disaster in Mariana City, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The study area was affected on November 5, 2015, by 60  million m3 of mud (containing very high concentrations of iron salts) from a mining reservoir (Fund ão), reaching the Gualaxo do Norte River (sites evaluated in this study), the “Rio Doce” River and finally the Atlantic Ocean. We found substantial counts of infectious HAdV and HAV (by qPCR) in all sampled sites from ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

How Fiber Breakage Reduces Microorganism Removal in Ultrafiltration for Wastewater Reclamation
AbstractUltrafiltration (UF) membranes are increasingly being used for wastewater reclamation treatment for their high removal of pathogens and suspended solids. However, breakage of UF membrane fibers could allow leakage of pathogens into the permeate and create health risks in the use of reclaimed water. Here, we assessed the log10 reduction value (LRV) of human enteric viruses and microbial indicators of new and aged UF modules in a pilot-scale UF process to evaluate the influence of fiber breakage. Norovirus genotypes I and II, Aichi virus, andEscherichia coli were not detected in any permeate samples of intact UF modu...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Gastroenteritis Associated with GII.17 Norovirus -Contaminated Secondary Water Supply System in Wuhan, China, 2017
AbstractA gastroenteritis outbreak occurred in a university in May, 2017, Wuhan, China. The epidemiological survey and pathogen analysis were conducted to identify the pathogen and control this outbreak. Feces or anal swabs from individuals, water, and swabs taken from tap surfaces of the secondary water supply system (SWSS) and foods were collected for the detection of viruses and pathogenic enteric bacteria by real-time RT-PCR and culture, respectively. Nucleotide sequences were determined by RT-PCR and direct sequencing. Genotyping, phylogenetic, and recombination analyses were conducted by a web-based genotyping tool, ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 9, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Inactivation of Adenovirus in Water by Natural and Synthetic Compounds
AbstractMillions of people use contaminated water sources for direct consumption. Chlorine is the most widely disinfection product but can produce toxic by-products. In this context, natural and synthetic compounds can be an alternative to water disinfection. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the inactivation of human adenovirus by N-chlorotaurine (NCT), bromamine-T (BAT) and Grape seed extract (GSE) in water. Distilled water artificially contaminated with recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (rAdV-GFP) was treated with different concentrations of each compound for up to 120  min, and viral infectivity was...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 4, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Bacteriophages Against Pathogenic Vibrios in Delaware Bay Oysters ( Crassostrea virginica ) During a Period of High Levels of Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus
In conclusion, vibriophages were detected against pandemicV. parahaemolyticus O3:K6 and O1:KUT, suggesting that phage monitoring in specific host cells may be a useful technique to assess public health risks from oyster consumption. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 31, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antiviral Activity of Essential Oils Against Hepatitis A Virus in Soft Fruits
AbstractBerries have repeatedly been associated with outbreaks of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. The fruits are usually minimally processed in the food industry due to their delicate nature. While washing treatments partially remove enteric viruses, the commonly used chemical additives produce toxic by-products. A valid alternative to preserve the food safety of these products could be the use of essential oils (EOs). EOs exert antimicrobial activity and do not interfere with the nutritional characteristics of food products. We investigated the efficacy of four essential oils, lemon (Citrus limon), sweet orange (Citrus...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 25, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viability RT-qPCR Combined with Sodium Deoxycholate Pre-treatment for Selective Quantification of Infectious Viruses in Drinking Water Samples
In this study, sodium deoxycholate (SD) pre-treatment was used to improve the efficiency of viability RT-qPCR methods with respect to exclusive quantification of infectious viruses. The ability of SD pre-treatment to enhance the penetration of three viability markers, namely, ethidium monoazide (EMA, 100  µM), propidium monoazide (PMA, 100 µM), andcis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (CDDP, 1000  µM), into heat-treated (90 °C for 1 min) Aichi virus at various concentrations (0.01–0.5%) was evaluated. The optimal SD concentration was found to be 0.1% for all markers. EMA/PMA/CDDP...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Comparative Assessment of BGM and PLC/PRF/5 Cell Lines for Enteric Virus Detection in Biosolids
In conclusion, PLC/PRF/5 cells were superior for the detection of adenoviruses in both raw sludge and Class B biosolids. Thus, the use of BGM cells alone for TCVA may underestimate the viral concentration in s ludge/biosolid samples. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Secondary Concentration Methods for Poliovirus Detection in Wastewater
This study sought to evaluate simple, effective, and inexpensive secondary concentration methods for use with ViroCap ™ filter eluate for environmental surveillance of poliovirus. Wastewater was primary concentrated using cartridge ViroCap filters, seeded with poliovirus type 1 (PV1), and then concentrated using five secondary concentration methods (beef extract-Celite, ViroCap flat disc filter, InnovaPrep® Conc entrating Pipette, polyethylene glycol [PEG]/sodium chloride [NaCl] precipitation, and skimmed-milk flocculation). PV1 was enumerated in secondary concentrates by plaque assay on BGMK cells. Of the five t...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research