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Reduction of Norovirus Surrogates Alone and in Association with Bacteria on Leaf Lettuce and Tomatoes During Application of Aqueous Ozone
This study evaluated the efficacy of ozonated water on the inactivation of viruses, bacteria, and viruses in association with bacteria on produce surfaces. Boston bibb lettuce (BB) and cherry tomatoes were spot inoculated with viruses (murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage), bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae andBacillus cereus), or MNV associated withE. cloacae orB. cereus. Following inoculation, produce was held at 4  °C for 90 min (virus, virus + bacteria) or 24 h (virus, bacteria) prior to treatment. A batch wash ozone sanitation system (BWOSS) was prepared with ice (3–5 &...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 20, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Peracetic Acid Sanitation on Arugula Microgreens Contaminated with Surface-Attached and Internalized Tulane Virus and Rotavirus
In this study, we determined if the effectiveness of peracetic acid (PAA), a sanitizer used in the vegetable industry, is affected by the location of viruses (produce surface or interior tissue) in microgreen arugula. Either internally or externally contaminated hydroponically grown microgreen arugula was then treated with PAA at either 30 or 80  ppm for up to 3 min. The PAA disinfection efficacy was higher when the RV was on the arugula surface (approximately 5-log10 in PFU after 3  min of exposure), instead of the arugula interior (1.5-log10 in PFU after 3  min of exposure). However, PAA disinfection ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 19, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Novel Dicistroviruses in an Unexpected Wide Range of Invertebrates
In this study, we performed a systematic search against the publicly available transcriptome database, and identified large numbers of dicistrovirus-like sequences in a wide variety of eukaryotic species. The origins of these sequences were 108 invertebrates (including 77 insect species belonging to 18 orders) and 11 plants, revealing new associations between dicistroviruses and hosts. Finally, 83 transcripts corresponding to nearly-complete viral genomes were retrieved from the RNA-seq data, of which most sequences showed limited similarity to known dicistroviruses and might present previously unreported virus species. Ph...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 10, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Adhesion of Norovirus to Surfaces: Contribution of Thermodynamic and Molecular Properties Using Virus-Like Particles
According to this study, all the materials assessed are of low-energy and hydrophobic nature except GI.1 VLPs. Interfacial free energies of interaction were favorable for spontaneous adhesion ($${\Delta G}_{132}^{\mathrm{IF}}$$
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 23, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection of Human Sapoviruses in Sewage in China by Next Generation Sequencing
AbstractHuman sapovirus (SaV) is an important causative agent of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. However, little is known about its circulation in China. To study the prevalence and diversity of human SaV genotypes circulating in eastern China, a 3-year environmental surveillance combined with next generation sequencing (NGS) technology was conducted. A total of 36 raw sewage samples were collected from January 2017 to December 2019 in Jinan and processed. Thirty-five (97.22%) samples were positive for human SaV genome in quantitative RT-PCR assay; 33 (91.67%) samples were positive in nested RT-PCR assay on partial...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 23, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Foodborne Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus to Humans
AbstractGlobally, Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes over 20 million cases worldwide. HEV is an emerging and endemic pathogen within economically developed countries, chiefly resulting from infections with genotype 3 (G3) HEV. G3 HEV is known to be a zoonotic pathogen, with a broad host range. The primary source of HEV within more economically developed countries is considered to be pigs, and consumption of pork products is a significant risk factor and known transmission route for the virus to humans. However, other foods have also been implicated in the transmission of HEV to humans. This review consolidates the information ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 18, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Quantitative Real-Time PCR and Digital PCR to Evaluate Residual Quantity of HAV in Experimentally Depurated Mussels
AbstractKinetics of hepatitis A virus (HAV) accumulation and depuration from mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) was studied in an experimental depuration system. Different parameters likely to influence the rate of virus accumulation and elimination were evaluated. Analyses were carried out by both real-time RT-qPCR and digital PCR. Results demonstrated that the animals start to concentrate the virus already after one hour and reach the maximum level of contamination in 6  h of experiment. With respect to depuration, HAV showed a rapid reduction of the concentration (89%) during the first 24–48 h of experi...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 17, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide Gas Against Hepatitis A Virus on Blueberries, Blackberries, Raspberries, and Strawberries
AbstractSeeking a means of sanitizing berries, the effectiveness of steady state levels of gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) on laboratory-contaminated berries was determined. The generated ClO2 was maintained with 1 or 2  mg/l air inside a 269-l glove box to treat 50 g batches of blueberries, raspberries, and blackberries, and 100 g batches of strawberries that were immersion coated with HAV. Normalized data for ClO2 (ppm-h/g product) is reported as a function of ClO2 concentration, treatment time, and weight of treated product. Treatments of ClO2 ranging from 1.00 to 6.27 &nbs...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 10, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Human Enterovirus Diversity by Next-Generation Sequencing Analysis in Urban Sewage Samples From Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, Argentina: A Retrospective Study
In this study, sewage samples collected in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area (Argentina) were retrospectively st udied through an amplicon-deep sequencing approach and phylogenetic analyses to characterize hEVs spread. We identified 17 different hEVs types belonging to A, B, and C species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in Buenos Aires for 7 identified hEV-C types. Phylogenetic analyses suggest several introductions of coxsackievirus B4, echovirus 1, and echovirus 9 in the country, along with the national spread reached by some variants. Besides, well-supported monophyletic groups of Argentine, Uruguay...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 6, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus Extraction from Frozen Raspberries Using Magnetic Silica Beads
AbstractHuman noroviruses (HuNoV) are among the main causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Frozen raspberries have been linked to several HuNoV food-related outbreaks. However, the extraction of HuNoV RNA from frozen raspberries remains challenging. Recovery yields are low, and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) inhibitors limit the sensitivity of the detection methodologies. A new approach using fine magnetic silica beads was developed for the extraction of HuNoV spiked on frozen raspberries. Relatively low recovery yields were observed with both the magnetic silica bead and the reference ISO ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 2, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Norovirus Reduction in Environmentally Contaminated Pacific Oysters During Laboratory Controlled and Commercial Depuration
AbstractNorovirus contamination of oysters is the lead cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and a significant food safety concern for the oyster industry. Here, norovirus reduction from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), contaminated in the marine environment, was studied in laboratory depuration trials and in two commercial settings. Norovirus concentrations were measured in oyster digestive tissue before, during and post-depuration using the ISO 15216-1 quantitative real-time RT-PCR method. Results of the laboratory-based studies demonstrate that statistically significant reductions of up to 74% of the initial norovi...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 2, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) Spread and Genetic Diversity in Game Animals in Northern Italy
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging public health infection which has an increasing incidence across Europe. Because of the apparent lack of species barriers, HEV was characterized as a zoonotic agent. Swine are recognized as the main reservoir, but HEV is also found in wild animals such as ungulates, lagomorphs, and bats. Our work aimed at detecting the HEV presence in wild fauna in two hunting areas of Northern Italy (Parma and Sondrio areas) with different environmental and anthropic characteristics to investigate its possible role as reservoir. Liver samples were collected...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 25, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Quantification and Trends of Rotavirus and Enterovirus in Untreated Sewage Using Reverse Transcription Droplet Digital PCR
This study provides useful data on RV and EV concentrations in untreated sewage in Kenya and the USA. It also highlights on the usefulness of the RT-ddPCR for absolute quantification of RV and EV in sewage samples. The BMFS using ViroCap filters while less efficient compared to the more tr aditional PEG precipitation method was able to recover RVs and EVs in untreated sewage and may be useful in poor resource settings while underestimating viruses by 1 to 1.5 logs. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 16, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Electron Beam Susceptibility of Enteric Viruses and Surrogate Organisms on Fruit, Seed and Spice Matrices
The objective of this study was to use high-energy electron beam (HEEB) treatments to find surrogate microorganisms for enteric viruses and to use the selected surrogates as proof of concept to investigate low-energy electron beam (LEEB) treatments for enteric virus inactivation at industrial scale on frozen blueberries. Six food matrices inoculated with HAV (hepatitis A virus), MNV S99 (murine norovirus), bacteriophages MS2 and Q β, andGeobacillus stearothermophilus spores were treated with HEEB at 10  MeV using 4, 8 and 16 kGy doses.G. stearothermophilus spores showed the highest inactivation on all matric...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 10, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Investigation of F-RNA Bacteriophage as a Tool in Re-Opening Australian Oyster Growing Areas Following Sewage Spills
This study aimed to determine the background levels of F-RNA phage in five Australian oyster growing areas with a history of sewage spills and closures, over an 18-month period. In addition, oysters from five growing areas impacted by adverse sewage events were investigated for F-RNA phage,Escherichia coli, norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). F-RNA phage  ≤ 60 pfu/100 gm shellfish flesh were found to represent a conservative background level in the surveyed areas. Following two of the five sewage spills, elevated phage levels were observed in most sample sites less than 4 days post spill. By ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 6, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Survival and Inactivation by Advanced Oxidative Process of Foodborne Viruses in Model Low-Moisture Foods
The objective of this study was to examine the survival of foodborne viruses in LMFs during 4-week storage at ambient temperature and to evaluate the efficacy of advanced oxidative process (AOP) treatment in the inactivation of these viruses. For this purpose, select LMFs such as pistachios, chocolate, and cereal were inoculated with HAV and the norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), then viral survival on these food matrices was measured over a four-week incubation at ambient temperature, by both plaque assay and droplet-digital RT-PCR (ddRT-PCR) using the modified ISO-15216 method as w...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 27, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Occurrence of Human Enteric Viruses in Water Sources and Shellfish: A Focus on Africa
AbstractEnteric viruses are a diverse group of human pathogens which are primarily transmitted by the faecal –oral route and are a major cause of non-bacterial diarrhoeal disease in both developed and developing countries. Because they are shed in high numbers by infected individuals and can persist for a long time in the environment, they pose a serious threat to human health globally. Enteric viruses e nd up in the environment mainly through discharge or leakage of raw or inadequately treated sewage into water sources such as springs, rivers, dams, or marine estuaries. Human exposure then follows when contaminated ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 27, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Bi- and Multi-directional Gene Transfer in the Natural Populations of Polyvalent Bacteriophages, and Their Host Species Spectrum Representing Foodborne Versus Other Human and/or Animal Pathogens
AbstractUnraveling the trends of phage-host versus phage-phage coevolution is critical for avoiding possible undesirable outcomes from the use of phage preparations intended for therapeutic, food safety or environmental safety purposes. We aimed to investigate a phenomenon of intergeneric recombination and its trajectories across the natural populations of phages predominantly linked to foodborne pathogens. The results from the recombination analyses, using a large array of the recombination detection algorithms imbedded in SplitsTree, RDP4, and Simplot software packages, provided strong evidence (fit: 100;P &thinsp...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 23, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Optimization and Implementation of the Virus Extraction Method for Hepatitis E Virus Detection from Raw Pork Liver
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) has been frequently detected from pork liver and liver products, which can usually cause self-limiting diseases in healthy adults, yet may result in fatality in immunosuppressed groups. Nevertheless, there is so far no standardized method for HEV detection available from pork liver and/or liver products. The present study aimed to optimize the virus extraction method of HEV from raw pork liver, which is often consumed in Asia undercooked to avoid a grainy texture. By comparing different sample preparation protocols and by applying the selected protocol to 60 samples collected from Singapore ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 15, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Pepper Mild Mottle Virus as Indicator of Pollution: Assessment of Prevalence and Concentration in Different Water Environments in Italy
This study represents the first report on the occurrence and quantification PMMoV in different water environments in Italy. Further studies are required to evaluate the suitability of PMMoV as a viral indicator for human faecal pollution and for viral pathogens in waters. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Coliphages as Indicators for the Microbial Quality of Treated Wastewater Effluents
This study was performed to develop and optimize a procedure to concentrate coliphages from 100  L of treated effluent. Moreover, the reduction of coliphages by filtration and disinfection by either chlorine or UV was compared with that of fecal coliform (FC). The adsorption efficiency of MS2 and Qβ coliphages by the NanoCeram filter was similar and reached 99.8%. Elution efficiency of MS2 c oliphage from the NanoCeram filters by a solution of 1% NaPP and 0.05 M glycine, pH 9.5, was 74  ±  9.5%. The highest reconcentration efficiency of MS2 and Qβ coliphages was obtained w...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 11, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Viral Interference as a Factor of False-Negative in the Infectious Adenovirus Detection Using Integrated Cell Culture-PCR with a BGM Cell Line
This study investigated the influence of viral interference on the detection of enteric viruses using the integrated cell culture (ICC)-PCR with a BGM cell line. It was possible to detect 102 plaque-forming units (PFU)/flask of enterovirus 71 (EV71) in spite of the presence of 104 PFU/flask of adenovirus 40 (AdV40). Meanwhile, 104 PFU/flask of AdV40 was not detected in the presence of 102 PFU/flask of EV71. This inhibition of AdV40 detection using ICC-PCR was attributable to the growth of EV71, because the addition of a growth inhibitor of EV71 (rupintrivir) neutralized the detection inhibition of AdV40. The growth inhibit...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 4, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Optimisation of a PMAxx ™ -RT-qPCR Assay and the Preceding Extraction Method to Selectively Detect Infectious Murine Norovirus Particles in Mussels
AbstractHuman noroviruses are a major cause for gastroenteritis outbreaks. Filter-feeding bivalve molluscs, which accumulate noroviruses in their digestive tissues, are a typical vector for human infection. RT-qPCR, the established method for human norovirus detection in food, does not allow discrimination between infectious and non-infectious viruses and can overestimate potentially infectious viral loads. To develop a more accurate method of infectious norovirus load estimation, we combined intercalating agent propidium monoazide (PMAxx ™)-pre-treatment with RT-qPCR assay using in vitro-cultivable murine norovirus....
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 3, 2021 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus, and Enterovirus in Tap Water and Their Association with the Overall Quality of Water in Karachi, Pakistan
AbstractDrinking water supplies in the developing world often serve as a biosphere for various organisms. Viral gastroenteritis is a neglected area of research in Pakistan, there are no data for the prevalence of enteric viruses in drinking water of the largest city of Karachi. The present study aimed to provide a survey of the existence of enteric viruses: human adenovirus (HAdV), human enteroviruses (hEV), and genotype A rotavirus (GARV) in tap water. Using a simple PCR approach, we detected 20%, 43%, and 23% of HAdV, hEV, and GARV in tap water samples, respectively. We have also shown an overall quality deficit of tap w...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 12, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Persistent Detection of Cosavirus and Saffold Cardiovirus in Riachuelo River, Argentina
AbstractCosaviruses (CoSV) and Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) are novel members of thePicornaviridae family. The Matanza-Riachuelo river basin covers a total area of 2200 km2 with approximately 60  km long. Its last section is called Riachuelo River. The aim of this study was to describe the circulation of both picornaviruses and their relationship with the environmental situation of the Riachuelo River using 274 samples collected from 2005 to 2015. CoSV and SAFV were investigated in samples available by two periods: 2005–2006 and 2014–2015 (103 and 101, respectively). Physicochemical and bacteriological param...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Human Enteric Adenoviruses in Water Samples Collected from Lake Victoria Waters Along Homa Bay Town, Homa Bay County, Kenya
AbstractLake Victoria is the primary source of water for millions of people in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. In recent years, population development around the lake has resulted in compromised sanitation standards resulting in increased faecal pollution of the lake. Consequently, this condition has increased the chances of waterborne enteric viruses, such as adenoviruses ’ circulation in the community. Adenoviruses can affect health in both humans and animals by causing a myriad of diseases including the gastrointestinal infections. The study aimed to detect contamination of the lake water with pathogenic human aden...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 3, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Rotavirus Surveillance in Tap Water, Recycled Water, and Sewage Sludge in Thailand: A Longitudinal Study, 2007 –2018
The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and molecular surveillance of rotaviruses in tap water, recycled water, and sewage sludge in Thailand from 2007 to 2018. Three hundred and seventy tap water, 202 recycled water, and 72 sewage sludge samples were collected and processed to detect the rotavirus VP7 gene using RT-nested PCR. Rotavirus G genotypes were identified by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The frequency of rotavirus detection was 0.54% of the tap water samples, 30.2% of the recycled water samples, and 50.0% of the sewage sludge samples. During the 12-year surveillance, G1 was pre...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 31, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Bayesian Phylogenetics of Enteroviruses Derived From Environmental Surveillance Around Polio Vaccine Switch Period in Shandong Province, China
In conclusion, our study described the changes of PVs and NPEVs around the polio vaccine switch period and provided meaningful global molecular epidemiological data for further studies of EV-related diseases among the population. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 27, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Coronavirus Persistence on a Plastic Carrier Under Refrigeration Conditions and Its Reduction Using Wet Wiping Technique, with Respect to Food Safety
In this study, a surrogate virus,Alphacoronavirus 1, was used to investigate the persistence of coronavirus dried on a plastic carrier at 4  °C. Techniques of wet wiping, with or without disinfectant saturation, were employed to evaluate their effectiveness in the elimination of the virus. If not wiped, the loss of infectivity of the virus on plastic surfaces was, on average, 0.93 log10 (i.e. 83%) per day of storage at 4  °C. Wiping with water-saturated material reduced the initial virus titre on the plastic carrier by 2.4 log10 (99.6%); the same results were achieved through wiping with bactericidal wipe...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 15, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Aichivirus in Environmental Waters in Thailand
This study aimed to investigate the p revalence and genetic diversity of AiV-1 in environmental water samples in Thailand. A total of 126 samples were collected monthly from November 2016 to July 2018 from various sources of environmental water including irrigation water, reservoir, river, and wastewater. The presence of AiV-1 was detec ted by RT-nested PCR of the 3CD region and further analyzed by phylogenetic analysis. The AiV-1 was detected in 28 out of 126 (22.2%) of tested samples. A high frequency of AiV-1 detection was in wastewater (52.4%). All 28 AiV-1 strains detected in this study belonged to the genotype B and ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 12, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Norovirus Circulating in Northwest Mexico During 2013 –2014
In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of gastroenteritis due to NoV in the northwest of Mexico, including genotypes that have not been reported previously in Mexico. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 6, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Thermal Inactivation of Hepatitis A Virus, Noroviruses, and Simian Rotavirus in Cows' Milk
In this study, milk was treated with several temperature and time combinations chosen by performing a preliminary experiment to evaluate the intervals needed to inactivate Hepatitis A virus (HAV) HM175 strain, noroviruses genogroups I and II (GI and GII), and simian rotavirus SA11 at different temperatures. Results were obtained by measuring the genome copies and infectious units by real-time PCR and plaque assays respectively. At 85  °C, one minute and two minutes were needed to achieve 6.6 log10 ± 0.2 and 8 log10 ± 0 reductions of genome copies of HAV respectively. Simil...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 14, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antibodies Against Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) in European Moose and White-Tailed Deer in Finland
In this study, we estimated the prevalence of HEV in Finnish cervid species that are commonly hunted for human consumption. We investigated sera from 342 European moose (Alces alces), 70 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 12 European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). The samples had been collected from legally hunted animals from different districts of Finland during 2008 –2009. We analysed the samples for total anti-HEV antibodies using a double-sandwich ELISA assay. Seropositive sera were analysed with RT-qPCR for HEV RNA. HEV seroprevalence was 9.1% (31/342) in moose and 1.4% (1/70) in white-tailed deer...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 6, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and murine norovirus on surfaces of plastic, steel and raspberries using steam-ultrasound treatment
In conclusion, steam-ultrasound treatment can within seconds reduce the titre of foodborne viruses on surfaces of plastic, steel and raspberries. This may particularly benefit industrial scale production of soft fruits for raw consumption and for swift non-hazardo us decontamination of industrial kitchen surfaces. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 2, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Effect of Sodium Chloride, Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Nitrate on the Infectivity of Hepatitis E Virus
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3, which is highly prevalent in Europe, is mainly transmitted by consumption of raw meat and raw meat products produced from infected pigs or wild boars. High salt concentrations represent an important measure to preserve meat products and to inactivate foodborne pathogens. Here, an HEV preparation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was subjected to different salt concentrations and the remaining infectivity was measured in a cell culture assay. Treatments with up to 20% sodium chloride for 24  h at 23&...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 26, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Energy Requirements for Loss of Viral Infectivity
In this study, data from the literature is used to calculate the energy required for viral inactivation for a variety of different viruses by means of the Arrhenius equation. We find that some viruses (rhinovirus, poliovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus, and hepatitis A virus) have high inactivation energies, indicative of breaking of a chemical double bond. We also find that several viruses (respiratory syncytial virus, poliovirus, and norovirus) have nonlinear Arrhenius plots, suggesting that there is more than a single pathway for inactivation of these viruses. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 4, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Environmental Integrants Affecting the Spreadability of SARS-CoV-12
(Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 27, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Reduction of Pathogenic and Indicator Viruses at a Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Southern Louisiana, USA
AbstractMonthly sampling was conducted at a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Southern Louisiana, USA from March 2017 to February 2018 to determine the prevalence and reduction efficiency of pathogenic and indicator viruses. Water samples were collected from the DWTP at three different treatment stages (raw, secondary-treated, and chlorinated drinking water) and subjected to quantification of seven pathogenic viruses and three indicator viruses [pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and crAssphage] based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Among the seven pathogenic viruses tested, onl...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Male-Specific and Somatic Coliphage Profiles from Major Aquaculture Areas in Republic of Korea
AbstractHuman and animal feces are important sources of various types of microbial contamination in water. Especially, enteric viruses, the major agents of waterborne infection, can attain long-term survival in water environments due to their strong resistance to various environmental factors including pH, salinity, and temperature. Coliphages are promising viral indicators for fecal contamination in water environments. Here, we investigated the seasonal and spatial distribution of male-specific and somatic coliphages in surface water and seawater at three major aquaculture areas, including Goseong Bay, Aphae Island, and G...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 13, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An Optimised Direct Lysis Method for Viral RNA Extraction and Detection of Foodborne Viruses on Fruits and Vegetables
In conclusion, the new direct lysis method showed an overall better performance compared to the modified ISO 15216 standard and should be validated for implementation in analysis of viruses in foods of plant origin. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Reduction of Human Enteric and Indicator Viruses at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Southern Louisiana, USA
This study assessed wastewater quality through the quantification of four human enteric viruses and the applicability of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of viral reduction during wastewater treatment. Thirty-three samples were collected from three steps of a wastewater treatment plant in Southern Louisiana, USA for a  year between March 2017 and February 2018. Noroviruses of genogroup I were the most prevalent human enteric viruses in influent samples. The concentrations of PMMoV in influent samples (5.9 ± 0.7 log10 copies/L) and biologically treated e...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 30, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Activated Sludge Procedure and UV-C 254 in Norovirus Inactivation in a Tunisian Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant
AbstractThe molecular detection of Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII in the Tunisian industrial wastewater treatment plant of Charguia I was conducted to test the effectiveness of secondary biological treatment using the activated sludge procedure and the UV-C254 tertiary treatment radiation using a UV disinfection prototype to upgrade the quality of the purified wastewater. A total of 140 sewage samples were collected from the two lines of sewage treatment procedures. Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII have been found and quantified using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) in 66.4 and 86.4% of th...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 30, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contamination of Clams with Human Norovirus and a Novel Hepatitis A Virus in Cameroon
AbstractShellfish constitute an important protein source but may be contaminated by viruses from various origins. A study performed on clams collected in Cameroon showed a high prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus. After sequencing, the hepatitis A virus showed similarities with the genotype V simian strains. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 26, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Viral Recovery Methodologies from Solid Waste Landfill Leachate
This study aims to assess skimmed milk flocculation and ultracentrifugation as viral concentration methods associated to different nucleic acid extraction protocols in order to establish a methodology for virus recovery from sanitary landfill leachate. Spiking experiments using human adenovirus (HAdV) and bacteriophage PP7 revealed the association of QIAamp Fast DNA Stool mini kit ® nucleic acid extraction and ultracentrifugation as an effective method for recovering HAdV (346.18%) and PP7 (523.97%) when compared to organic flocculation method (162.64% for HAdV and 0.61% for PP7) that presented PCR inhibition in all un...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 22, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Optimization of Methods for the Collection of Aerosolized Murine Norovirus
AbstractGlobally, norovirus is the most common gastroenteritis causing pathogen. Annually, norovirus causes 685 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and 200,000 deaths, worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that norovirus can also be spread via aerosolization; however, an indoor generation source has yet to be determined. We optimized a sampling method for the collection of aerosolized norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate. Optimization of the sampling method was performed using two bioaerosol samplers (SKC BioSampler and the NIOSH Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler 251) and two sampling media (Hanks Balanced ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Survival of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Goat Cheese and Milk
AbstractSurvival of tick-borne encephalitis virus was studied from pasteurized and unpasteurized goat milk and from salted/unsalted and spiced/unspiced cheese made from goat milk inoculated with low and high litres of infective virus. Both soft (63  °C, 30 min) and fast (72 °C, 15 s) pasteurization conditions destroyed viable virus particles. A small amount of infective virus could be detected only for 5‒10 days from milk, and from unsalted cheese. From milk inoculated with a higher amount of virus, infectious viral particles were det ectable for 20‒25 days and from unsalted cheese...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 8, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Quantitative Detection of Human Adenovirus and Human Rotavirus Group A in Wastewater and El-Rahawy Drainage Canal Influencing River Nile in the North of Giza, Egypt
In conclusion, Abu-Rawash WWTP acts as a source of HAdV and RVA, releasing them into El-Rahawy drain then to the River Nile Rosetta branch. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 8, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Discovery of Components Acting as the Obstacles in the Detection of Enteric Viruses from Berries
This study investigated the obstacles in detecting enteric viruses from berry fruits, which are on the one hand often associated with outbreaks of viral enteric disease, and on the other hand recognized as a challenging food matrix for molecular detection of enteric viruses. According to the ISO 15216 protocol, for soft fruit samples, virus extraction is by elution with agitation followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol/NaCl. As a result, first, the phenolic content in the berry eluate was found to be weakly correlated with the detection of coliphage MS2 spiked in the berry samples. Second and more importantly, i...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 21, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Clinical and Environmental Surveillance of Rotavirus Common Genotypes Showed High Prevalence of Common P Genotypes in Egypt
The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of human rotavirus group A common G and P genotypes in human Egyptian stool specimens and raw sewage samples to determine the most common genotypes for future vaccine development. From 1026 stool specimens of children with acute diarrhea and using nested RT-PCR, 250 samples (24.37%) were positive for human rotavirus group A. Using multiplex RT-PCR, rotavirus common P and G genotypes were detected as 89.20% and 46.40% of the positive clinical specimens respectively. This low percentage of common G genotypes frequency may affect the efficiency of the available live at...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 10, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Application of an Improved Micro-amount of Virion Enrichment Technique (MiVET) for the Detection of Avian Influenza A Virus in Spiked Chicken Meat Samples
AbstractHighly sensitive detection of pathogens is effective for screening meat during quarantine inspection and export. The “micro-amount of virion enrichment technique” (MiVET) was recently developed, which is a new method combining virus concentration with immunomagnetic beads and simple RNA extraction with sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) for the specific and sensitive detection of avian influenza viruses (A IVs). AIV subtypes H3N2 and H4N2 were used to spike the surface of chicken breast meat samples. The modified MiVET protocol was tested by comparing it against three different homogenate preparatio...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 18, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research