Environmental Integrants Affecting the Spreadability of SARS-CoV-12
(Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 28, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Reduction of Pathogenic and Indicator Viruses at a Drinking Water Treatment Plant in Southern Louisiana, USA
AbstractMonthly sampling was conducted at a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) in Southern Louisiana, USA from March 2017 to February 2018 to determine the prevalence and reduction efficiency of pathogenic and indicator viruses. Water samples were collected from the DWTP at three different treatment stages (raw, secondary-treated, and chlorinated drinking water) and subjected to quantification of seven pathogenic viruses and three indicator viruses [pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and crAssphage] based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Among the seven pathogenic viruses tested, onl...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 14, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Male-Specific and Somatic Coliphage Profiles from Major Aquaculture Areas in Republic of Korea
AbstractHuman and animal feces are important sources of various types of microbial contamination in water. Especially, enteric viruses, the major agents of waterborne infection, can attain long-term survival in water environments due to their strong resistance to various environmental factors including pH, salinity, and temperature. Coliphages are promising viral indicators for fecal contamination in water environments. Here, we investigated the seasonal and spatial distribution of male-specific and somatic coliphages in surface water and seawater at three major aquaculture areas, including Goseong Bay, Aphae Island, and G...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 14, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

An Optimised Direct Lysis Method for Viral RNA Extraction and Detection of Foodborne Viruses on Fruits and Vegetables
In conclusion, the new direct lysis method showed an overall better performance compared to the modified ISO 15216 standard and should be validated for implementation in analysis of viruses in foods of plant origin. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 10, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Reduction of Human Enteric and Indicator Viruses at a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Southern Louisiana, USA
This study assessed wastewater quality through the quantification of four human enteric viruses and the applicability of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of viral reduction during wastewater treatment. Thirty-three samples were collected from three steps of a wastewater treatment plant in Southern Louisiana, USA for a  year between March 2017 and February 2018. Noroviruses of genogroup I were the most prevalent human enteric viruses in influent samples. The concentrations of PMMoV in influent samples (5.9 ± 0.7 log10 copies/L) and biologically treated e...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 1, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Effectiveness of Activated Sludge Procedure and UV-C 254 in Norovirus Inactivation in a Tunisian Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant
AbstractThe molecular detection of Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII in the Tunisian industrial wastewater treatment plant of Charguia I was conducted to test the effectiveness of secondary biological treatment using the activated sludge procedure and the UV-C254 tertiary treatment radiation using a UV disinfection prototype to upgrade the quality of the purified wastewater. A total of 140 sewage samples were collected from the two lines of sewage treatment procedures. Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII have been found and quantified using Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) in 66.4 and 86.4% of th...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 1, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Contamination of Clams with Human Norovirus and a Novel Hepatitis A Virus in Cameroon
AbstractShellfish constitute an important protein source but may be contaminated by viruses from various origins. A study performed on clams collected in Cameroon showed a high prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus. After sequencing, the hepatitis A virus showed similarities with the genotype V simian strains. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 27, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Viral Recovery Methodologies from Solid Waste Landfill Leachate
This study aims to assess skimmed milk flocculation and ultracentrifugation as viral concentration methods associated to different nucleic acid extraction protocols in order to establish a methodology for virus recovery from sanitary landfill leachate. Spiking experiments using human adenovirus (HAdV) and bacteriophage PP7 revealed the association of QIAamp Fast DNA Stool mini kit ® nucleic acid extraction and ultracentrifugation as an effective method for recovering HAdV (346.18%) and PP7 (523.97%) when compared to organic flocculation method (162.64% for HAdV and 0.61% for PP7) that presented PCR inhibition in all un...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 23, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The Optimization of Methods for the Collection of Aerosolized Murine Norovirus
AbstractGlobally, norovirus is the most common gastroenteritis causing pathogen. Annually, norovirus causes 685 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and 200,000 deaths, worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that norovirus can also be spread via aerosolization; however, an indoor generation source has yet to be determined. We optimized a sampling method for the collection of aerosolized norovirus using murine norovirus (MNV) as a surrogate. Optimization of the sampling method was performed using two bioaerosol samplers (SKC BioSampler and the NIOSH Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler 251) and two sampling media (Hanks Balanced ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 10, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Survival of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Goat Cheese and Milk
AbstractSurvival of tick-borne encephalitis virus was studied from pasteurized and unpasteurized goat milk and from salted/unsalted and spiced/unspiced cheese made from goat milk inoculated with low and high litres of infective virus. Both soft (63  °C, 30 min) and fast (72 °C, 15 s) pasteurization conditions destroyed viable virus particles. A small amount of infective virus could be detected only for 5‒10 days from milk, and from unsalted cheese. From milk inoculated with a higher amount of virus, infectious viral particles were det ectable for 20‒25 days and from unsalted cheese...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Quantitative Detection of Human Adenovirus and Human Rotavirus Group A in Wastewater and El-Rahawy Drainage Canal Influencing River Nile in the North of Giza, Egypt
In conclusion, Abu-Rawash WWTP acts as a source of HAdV and RVA, releasing them into El-Rahawy drain then to the River Nile Rosetta branch. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Discovery of Components Acting as the Obstacles in the Detection of Enteric Viruses from Berries
This study investigated the obstacles in detecting enteric viruses from berry fruits, which are on the one hand often associated with outbreaks of viral enteric disease, and on the other hand recognized as a challenging food matrix for molecular detection of enteric viruses. According to the ISO 15216 protocol, for soft fruit samples, virus extraction is by elution with agitation followed by precipitation with polyethylene glycol/NaCl. As a result, first, the phenolic content in the berry eluate was found to be weakly correlated with the detection of coliphage MS2 spiked in the berry samples. Second and more importantly, i...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 22, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Clinical and Environmental Surveillance of Rotavirus Common Genotypes Showed High Prevalence of Common P Genotypes in Egypt
The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of human rotavirus group A common G and P genotypes in human Egyptian stool specimens and raw sewage samples to determine the most common genotypes for future vaccine development. From 1026 stool specimens of children with acute diarrhea and using nested RT-PCR, 250 samples (24.37%) were positive for human rotavirus group A. Using multiplex RT-PCR, rotavirus common P and G genotypes were detected as 89.20% and 46.40% of the positive clinical specimens respectively. This low percentage of common G genotypes frequency may affect the efficiency of the available live at...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - April 11, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Application of an Improved Micro-amount of Virion Enrichment Technique (MiVET) for the Detection of Avian Influenza A Virus in Spiked Chicken Meat Samples
AbstractHighly sensitive detection of pathogens is effective for screening meat during quarantine inspection and export. The “micro-amount of virion enrichment technique” (MiVET) was recently developed, which is a new method combining virus concentration with immunomagnetic beads and simple RNA extraction with sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) for the specific and sensitive detection of avian influenza viruses (A IVs). AIV subtypes H3N2 and H4N2 were used to spike the surface of chicken breast meat samples. The modified MiVET protocol was tested by comparing it against three different homogenate preparatio...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 19, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection and Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 in Wastewater and Urban Surface Waters in Germany
AbstractIn highly populated areas, environmental surveillance of wastewater and surface waters is a key factor to control the circulation of viruses and risks for public health. Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype 3 is considered as an emerging pathogen in industrialized countries. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence of HEV in environmental waters in urban and suburban regions in Germany. HEV was monitored in water samples using quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) and nested RT-PCR without or with virus concentration via polyethylene glycol precipitation or ultracentrifugation. By RT-qPCR, 84 –10...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 14, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Gastroenteric Viruses Detection in a Drinking Water Distribution-to-Consumption System in a Low-Income Community in Rio de Janeiro
This study aimed to investigate viruses ’ presence as an indicator of drinking water quality in low-income communities in the Manguinhos area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Three hundred and four drinking water samples (2L/each) were collected along the drinking water distribution-to-consumption pathway in households, as well as healthcare an d school units. Water samples were collected both directly from the water supply prior to distribution and after storage in tanks and filtration units. Using qPCR, viruses were detected 50 times in 45 water samples (15%), 19 of these being human adenovirus, 17 rotavirus A and 14 norov...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 9, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Virucidal Efficacy of Olanexidine Gluconate as a Hand Antiseptic Against Human Norovirus
This study showed that olanexidine gluconate has the potential to become a strong tool for the prevention of human norovirus infection. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - March 2, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Persistence of Lymphocystis Disease Virus (LCDV) in Seawater
In this study, the persistence of LCDV in natural (raw), treated (autoclaved and filtered) and synthetic seawater held at 22 and 18  °C has been evaluated. The estimated T99 values for LCDV in seawater ranged from 2.7 to 242 days depending on seawater type and temperature, with the highest value recorded at 22  °C in autoclaved seawater. Microbiota and temperature seem to be the main factors affecting the persistence of LCDV in seawater. The results indicated that LCDV is more stable in treated seawater than most of the fish pathogenic viruses studied so far, supporting the relevance of this medium for th...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 21, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of Polyurethane Foam Environmental Monitoring Tools for the Recovery and Release of Viruses
This study aims to characterize polyurethane foam (PUF) EM tools —currently used in the food industry for the recovery of bacteria from food contact surfaces—for their efficacy in the release and recovery of human enteric viruses. Two viruses (human norovirus [hNoV] and Tulane virus [TV]) were compared at varying inoculum levels, with two EM tools (PUF swab a nd sponge), two delayed processing times (24 h and 72 h), and one surface type (stainless steel [SS]). Specifically, the objectives were to (1) determine the ability of PUF devices to release viruses for detection and (2) assess the ability of PU...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - February 21, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of New Components in Modified Scholten ’s Medium for the Detection of Somatic Coliphages
This study explored reducing the concentration of nutrients in the current formulation and/or incorporating new components to improve the host bacterial growth and/or the enumeration of somatic coliphages at an affordable analytical cost. A twofold dilution of the original MS media was found not to affect the bacterial growth rate. The addition of combinations of assayed compounds to twofold diluted MS media slightly enhanced its analytical performance without altering bacterial growth. By generating savings in both cost and time while maintaining optimal results, media dilution could be applied to design new simple applic...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 31, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Hydrophobic Organic Matter Promotes Coxsackievirus B5 Stabilization and Protection from Heat
This study suggests that local conditions encountered by viruses in the environment could greatly impact their persistence. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - January 7, 2020 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection, Quantification, and Microbial Risk Assessment of Group A Rotavirus in Rivers from Uruguay
AbstractThe aim of this study was to detect, quantify, and assess the risk of infection and illness for Group A Rotavirus (RVA) in the watersheds of the Santa Lucia and Uruguay rivers in Uruguay. Monthly sampling was carried out for one year in six sites in the watershed of the Santa Luc ía River and four in the Uruguay River. All the collection sites are used for recreational activities. Viral concentration was performed with the adsorption–elution method, and detection and quantification of RVA was carried out by TaqMan quantitative PCR (qPCR). Quantitative microbial risk asses sment was applied to estimate ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - December 3, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

The First Detection of Human Bocavirus Species 2 and 3 in Raw Sewage and Mussels in South Africa
In this study, raw sewage and mussel samples were analysed for the presence of HBoV using nested PCR with primers targeting the VP1/VP2 junction. Amplification and sequencing of the 382  bp region followed by phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of HBoV 2 in mussel samples and HBoV 3 in sewage samples. This is the first report describing the presence of enteric-associated HBoV in environmental samples from South Africa and in mussel samples from the African continent. The results signify the need for further studies examining the potential risk of foodborne transmission of HBoV and highlight the importance of ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

First Occurrence of Saffold Virus in Sewage and River Water Samples in Karaj, Iran
AbstractSaffold virus as a newly discovered virus, which seems to be related to acute gastroenteritis as with other enteric viruses and to human airway diseases in children belongs toCardiovirus genus inpicornaviridae family with 11 genotypes. Saffold virus initially was detected in America from infant stool sample. Saffold virus has also been detected in environmental water samples. Until now, two reports have demonstrated that sewage water sources are contaminated with Saffold viruses. Molecular detection of Saffold virus mostly depended on reverse transcription PCR methods and RT-qPCR, which had targeted 5 ′UTR re...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 15, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Modeling the Transport of Human Rotavirus and Norovirus in Standardized and in Natural Soil Matrix-Water Systems
AbstractWe modeled Group A Rotavirus (RVA) and Norovirus genogroup II (GII NoV) transport experiments in standardized (crystal quartz sand and deionized water with adjusted pH and ionic strength) and natural soil matrix-water systems (MWS). On the one hand, in the standardized MWS, Rotavirus and Norovirus showed very similar breakthrough curves (BTCs), showing a removal rate of 2 and 1.7 log10, respectively. From the numerical modeling of the experiment, transport parameters of the same order of magnitude were obtained for both viruses. On the other hand, in the natural MWS, the two viruses show very different BTCs. The No...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 12, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Accumulation and Depuration Kinetics of Rotavirus in Mussels Experimentally Contaminated
AbstractBivalve mollusks as filter-feeders concentrate in their digestive tissue microorganisms likely present in the harvesting water, thus becoming risky food especially if consumed raw or poorly cooked. To eliminate bacteria and viruses eventually accumulated, they must undergo a depuration process which efficacy on viruses is on debate. To better clarify the worth of the depuration process on virus elimination from mussels, in this study we investigated rotavirus kinetics of accumulation and depuration inMytilus galloprovincialis experimentally contaminated. Depuration process was monitored for 9  days and virus r...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 6, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Feasibility of the Bag-Mediated Filtration System for Environmental Surveillance of Poliovirus in Kenya
This study demonstrated that BMFS can be used for PV environmental surveillance and established a feasible study design for future research. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - November 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Inactivation and Genome Damage of Human Enteroviruses Upon Treatment by UV 254 , Free Chlorine, and Ozone
AbstractQuantitative PCR (qPCR) is a convenient tool for monitoring virus concentrations in water and wastewater treatment trains, though it only informs about virus presence, but not infectivity. This limitation can be overcome if the relationship between infectivity loss and genome decay induced by a given disinfectant is known. Here, we performed inactivation experiments using two human enteroviruses, Coxsackievirus B5 and Echovirus 11, with three disinfection methods: low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV254), free chlorine (FC), and ozone. We compared the inactivation rates as measured by culturing to the decay rates of ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Secretor Status is Associated with Susceptibility to Disease in a Large GII.6 Norovirus Foodborne Outbreak
AbstractNorovirus is commonly associated with food and waterborne outbreaks. Genetic susceptibility to norovirus is largely dependent on presence of histo-blood group antigens (HBGA), specifically ABO, secretor, and Lewis phenotypes. The aim of the study was to determine the association between HBGAs to norovirus susceptibility during a large norovirus foodborne outbreak linked to genotype GII.6 in an office-based company in Stockholm, Sweden, 2015. A two-episode outbreak with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting occurred in 2015. An online questionnaire was sent to all 1109 employees that had worked during the first outbreak...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 29, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Detection of Human Salivirus in Italy Through Monitoring of Urban Sewages
AbstractSalivirus (SalV) is a newly discovered virus associated to acute gastroenteritis in humans. In Italy, its prevalence and genetic diversity is unknown. To reduce this knowledge gap, 124 sewage samples collected throughout the country were analyzed for SalV by two nested RT-PCRs targeting the 5 ′UTR and the 3D regions and by real-time RT-qPCR. Virus RNA was detected in 37 (29.8%) samples; of these, 24 could be characterized and all belonged to genotype A1. Viral concentrations ranged between 2.8 × 103 and 1.9  × 105 genome copies per liter. This is the first report of Sal...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 22, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

No Evidence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Farmed Deer in Germany
AbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic agent, which is mainly transmitted by consumption of undercooked meat products originating from infected animals. Domestic pigs and wild boars are the major animal reservoirs, but HEV infections have been also repeatedly described in wild deer species. However, farmed deer has been only sparsely investigated so far. Here, 108 blood and 106 liver samples from fallow deer, red deer, and sika deer strictly hold in game enclosures from 11 farms in Germany were analyzed for markers of HEV infection. Using a commercial double antigen sandwich ELISA, 3/108 (2.7%) serum samples were sc...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 17, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Antiviral Activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Tea Extract Against Human Influenza A Virus Rely Largely on Acidic pH but Partially on a Low-pH-Independent Mechanism
AbstractInfluenza A virus (IAV) infection is perennially one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Effective therapy and vaccination are needed to control viral expansion. However, current anti-IAV drugs risk inducing drug-resistant virus emergence. Although intranasal administration of whole inactivated virus vaccine can induce efficient protective immunity, formalin and β-propiolactone are the currently used and harmful inactivating agents. Here, we analyzed the antiviral activity of hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) tea extract against human IAV and evaluated its potential as a novel anti-IAV drug and a safe in...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - October 16, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Field Performance of Two Methods for Detection of Poliovirus in Wastewater Samples, Mexico 2016 –2017
Abstract To enhance our ability to monitor poliovirus circulation and certify eradication, we evaluated the performance of the bag-mediated filtration system (BMFS) against the two-phase separation (TPS) method for concentrating wastewater samples for poliovirus detection. Sequential samples were collected at two sites in Mexico; one L was collected by grab and  ~ 5 L were collected and filtered in situ with the BMFS. In the laboratory, 500 mL collected by grab were concentrated using TPS and the sample contained in the filter of the BMFS was eluted without secondary concentration. Concentrates were te...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 30, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Involvement of Egyptian Foods in Foodborne Viral Illnesses: The Burden on Public Health and Related Environmental Risk Factors: An Overview
AbstractFoodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different enteric virus infections among Egyptian population such as Hepatitis A and E viruses, human rotaviruses, human noroviruses, human astroviruses, and human adenovirus. Recently, a number of foodborne gastroenteritis and acute ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 27, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Airborne Transmission of Influenza Virus in a Hospital of Qinhuangdao During 2017 –2018 Flu Season
AbstractThe 2017 –2018 flu season is considered to be one of the most severe, with numerous influenza outbreaks worldwide. In an infectious disease hospital of Qinhuangdao, air samples were collected daily from outpatient hall, clinical laboratory, fever clinic, children's ward (Children's Ward I/Children's Ward I I), and adult ward during 23–29 January 2018 (peak flu activity) and 9–15 April 2018 (low flu activity). The air samples were collected with SLC-SiOH magnetic beads using impingement samplers. Real-time PCR assay was used to detect the RNA of airborne influenza (IFVA and IFVB) in the 91 collecte...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 23, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Occurrence of HEV-RNA in Italian Regional Pork and Wild Boar Food Products
AbstractHepatitis E is an emerging threat in industrialized countries. The foodborne transmission linked to consumption of pork and game meat is considered the main source of autochthonous infection. In Europe, small outbreaks have been reported linked to the consumption of pork liver sausages and wild boar meat. Based on previous findings and on increasing evidence of pork and game meat as a vehicle for HEV infections, the present study investigated the occurrence of HEV in 99 pork and 63 wild boar sausages and salami sold in Southern Italy. The HEV genome was detected in four wild boar sausages. Sequencing from 2 wild bo...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 11, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Detection of Hepatitis E Virus in Livers and Muscle Tissues of Wild Boars in Italy
In this study, we investigated the presence of HEV RNA by a real-time RT-PCR assay in paired liver and muscle samples collected from 196 wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in the two areas of Central and Southern Italy. Twenty animals (10.2%) were HEV RNA positive in livers, 11 of which were also positive in muscles. The ORF2 and ORF1 partial viral sequences were obtained for nine paired livers and muscles, and when aligned were identical to each other. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed detection of different HEV-3 subtypes: 3c, 3f, 3i and some that were not assigned to any subtypes that have so far been identified. Results need...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - September 10, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Characterization of Norovirus and Other Human Enteric Viruses in Sewage and Stool Samples Through Next-Generation Sequencing
This study aimed to optimize a method to identify human enteric viruses in sewage and stool samples using random primed next-generation sequencing. We tested three methods, two employed virus enrichment based on the binding properties of the viral capsid using pig-mucin capture or by selecting viral RNA prior to library preparation through a capture using the SureSelect target enrichment. The third method was based on a non-specific biophysical precipitation with polyethylene glycol. Full genomes of a number of common human enteric viruses including norovirus, rotavirus, husavirus, enterovirus and astrovirus were obtained....
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Armored RNA Technology Using Bacteriophage Q β
In this study, we report a novel technology for preparing AR using bacteriophage Q β and compare its stability with AR prepared using the MS2 phage system for packaging norovirus detection target RNA. AR could be successfully and efficiently produced using the developed bacteriophage Qβ system. Two types of AR–AR-QNoV prepared using the Qβ system and AR-MNoV prepared using th e MS2 system—were stored at different temperatures for different durations. After incubating at − 20 °C for 360 days, the copy numbers of AR-QNoV and AR-MNoV decreased by 8.9% and 35.9%, respectively...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Enteroviruses and Hepatitis A Viruses in Sewage Samples, Northern Italy, 2016
This study focused on the molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the EVs and HAVs identified in 33 sewage samples collected every 15  days at the influent of a wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy from March to October 2016. According to the results of the molecular characterization, the most frequently identified viruses were Echovirus 6 (E-6), E-11 and HAV-IA. The phylogenetic analyses indicated the rapid genet ic evolution of E-6 and E-1; noteworthy, most E-11 strains clustered with a strain isolated from a clinical sample collected in the same geographical area over the same period...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 16, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Human- and Animal-Specific Viral Markers and Application of CrAssphage, Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, and Tobacco Mosaic Virus as Potential Fecal Pollution Markers to River Water in Japan
AbstractFive human-specific markers were detected in 59 –74% of 27 human fecal-source samples collected in Yamanashi Prefecture, Japan. Similarly, potential human-specific markers, crAssphage, pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and tobacco mosaic virus were detected in 96–100% of samples, with crAssphage showing the maximum concentration of 12.03 log copies/L. However, these markers were detected in 100% (3/3) of pig fecal-source samples, suggesting their applicability as general fecal pollution markers. Microbial source tracking analysis demonstrated that the rivers are contaminated by human and pig fecal ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - August 2, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Year-Long Rhinovirus Infection is Influenced by Atmospheric Conditions, Outdoor Air Virus Presence, and Immune System-Related Genetic Polymorphisms
AbstractRhinovirus is a common picornavirus with over 150 serotypes and three species, which is responsible for half of the human common cold cases. In people with chronic respiratory conditions and elders, it may also cause life-threatening diseases. Transmission routes are not definitively established but may involve direct human-to-human and indirect transmission (surfaces and aerosols based). In the present study, year-long presence of virus was tested by qPCR in the nostrils of young healthy volunteers and indoor and outdoor air samples. Results were correlated to atmospheric conditions (meteorological and air quality...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Coxsackievirus B5 Isolates from Sewage, Italy 2016 –2017
AbstractHereby, the partial Viral Protein 1 sequences of Coxsackievirus B5 (CV-B5) from sewage samples, collected in Italy from 2016 to 2017, were compared with those available in GenBank from clinical samples. Phylogenetic analysis highlighted: (I) the predominant circulation of CV-B5 genogroup B in Italy, and (II) the presence of two new sub-genogroups. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Norovirus Monitoring in Oysters Using Two Different Extraction Methods
This study aimed to assess the presence of noroviruses in oysters extracted using a proteinase K extraction (ISO 15216 method) and an adsorption –elution method. Seventy oyster samples were extracted using the two extraction methods and evaluated using RT-nested PCR. The results showed norovirus detection rates at an equal frequency of 28.6%, of which a total of 48 (68.6%) samples had corresponding positive or negative results, while there were 22 (31.4%) samples with discrepant results. Norovirus genogroup (G)I, GII, and mixed GI and GII were detected in 20%, 4.3%, and 4.3% of samples, respectively, by the proteinas...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - July 24, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Screening and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis E Virus in Slaughter Pigs in Serbia
This study provides the first analysis of the genetic diver sity and circulation dynamics of HEV in pigs at slaughterhouses in Serbia. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 26, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Assessment of the Applicability of Capsid-Integrity Assays for Detecting Infectious Norovirus Inactivated by Heat or UV Irradiation
In this study, two such methods (RNase and porcine gastric mucin) which were designed to remove viruses with compromised capsids (and therefore assumed to be non-viable), were assessed for their ability to quantify viable F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNAP) and human norovirus following inactivation by UV-C or heat. It was found that while both methods could remove a proportion of non-viable viruses, a large proportion of non-viable virus remained to be detected by RT-qPCR, leading to overestimations of the viable population. A model was then developed to determine the proportion of RT-qPCR detectable RNA from non-viable ...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 5, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Interlaboratory Comparative Study to Detect Potentially Infectious Human Enteric Viruses in Influent and Effluent Waters
In this study, we evaluated a protocol based on aluminum adsorption –precipitation to concentrate several human enteric viruses, including norovirus genogroup I (NoV GI), NoV GII, hepatitis A virus (HAV), astrovirus (HAstV), and rotavirus (RV), with limits of detection of 4.08, 4.64, 5.46 log genomic copies (gc)/L, 3.31, and 5.41 log PCR units (PCRU)/L, respectiv ely. Furthermore, the method was applied in two independent laboratories to monitor the presence of NoV GI, NoV GII, and HAV in effluent and influent waters collected from five WWTPs at two different sampling dates. Concomitantly, a viability PMAxx-RT-q...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Surface Water and Bivalves from a Mangrove Estuary in Southeastern Brazil
This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of a mangrove estuary in the Vit ória Bay region, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We analyzed the presence and concentration of enteric viruses and thermotolerant coliforms in water, mussels (Mytella charruana andMytella guyanensis), and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), collected over a 13-month period. Human adenovirus, rotavirus A (RVA), and norovirus genogroup II were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The highest viral load was found in RVA-positive samples with a concentration of 3.0  × 104 genome copies (GC) L−1 in...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - June 1, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Use of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophage to Estimate Infectious Norovirus Levels in Oysters
In this study, we investigated the relationships between F-RNA phage and norovirus in digestive tissues from two sets of oyster samples, one randomly collected at retail (630 samples), and one linked to suspected norovirus illness outbreaks (nine samples). A positive association and correlation between PCR-detectable levels of genogroup II F-RNA bacteriophage (associated with human faecal contamination) and norovirus was found in both sets of samples, with more samples positive for genogroup II phage, at generally higher levels than norovirus. Levels of both viruses were higher in outbreak-related than retail samples. Infe...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 21, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Performance Evaluation of Human-Specific Viral Markers and Application of Pepper Mild Mottle Virus and CrAssphage to Environmental Water Samples as Fecal Pollution Markers in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal
AbstractMonitoring of environmental water is crucial to protecting humans and animals from possible health risks. Although numerous human-specific viral markers have been designed to track the presence of human fecal contamination in water, they lack adequate sensitivity and specificity in different geographical regions. We evaluated the performances of six human-specific viral markers [Aichi virus 1 (AiV-1), human adenoviruses (HAdVs), BK and JC polyomaviruses (BKPyVs and JCPyVs), pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and crAssphage] using 122 fecal-source samples collected from humans and five animal hosts in the Kathmandu V...
Source: Food and Environmental Virology - May 13, 2019 Category: Virology Source Type: research