PmEEA1, the early endosomal protein is employed by YHV for successful infection in Penaeus monodon
In this study, early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1) protein that was involved in the tethering step of the vesicle and early endosome fusion was investigated during YHV infection. The open reading frame of P. monodon EEA1 (PmEEA1) was cloned and sequenced (3000 bp). It encoded a putative protein of 999 amino acids and contained the zinc finger C2H2 domain signature at the N-terminus and the FYVE domain at the C-terminus. Suppression of PmEEA1 by specific dsRNA in shrimp showed inhibition of YHV replication after 48 h post YHV injection (hpi). On the other hand, shrimp received only NaCl without any dsRNA showed high YHV level...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

p38 MAPK is involved in the immune response to pathogenic Vibrio in the clam Meretrix petechialis
This study describes the immune function of p38 MAPK in the clam for the first time and analyses its potential underlying mechanism, which will help to elucidate the immune mechanism in the clam M. petechialis. (Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology)
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Spleen melanomacrophage centers response of Nile tilapia during Aeromanas hydrophila and Mycobacterium marinum infections
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Wilson Gómez Manrique, Mayra Araguaia Pereira Figueiredo, Ives Charlie-Silva, Marco Antonio de Andrade Belo, Cristina Corsi DibAbstractIn order to understand the pathophysiology of melanomcrophage centers (MMCs) formation during the tilapia defense response to bacterial infections, the present study evaluated the response, in terms of area, number and pigment constitution, of splenic MMCs of Oreochromis niloticus subjected to intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection with Aeromonas hydrophila and Mycobacterium marinum. Eighty-four fis...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Chinese yam peel enhances the immunity of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) by improving the gut defence barrier and modulating the intestinal microflora
This study investigated the effects of CYP on the intestinal microbiota and gut defence barrier of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Different groups of experimental fish were fed a normal control diet (NC), a low CYP diet (LYP) and a high CYP diet (HYP) for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, the fish were assessed for intestinal enzyme activity, intestinal histology, immune-related gene expression, intestinal SCFAs and intestinal microbiota. Our results indicated that the intestinal integrity and antioxidant enzyme (CAT and SOD) activity in the common carp were enhanced following CYP supplementation. The mRNA levels of...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Congenital asplenia due to a tlx1 mutation reduces resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in zebrafish
In this study, we demonstrated that tlx1 is expressed in the splenic primordia as early as 52 hours post-fertilization (hpf) in zebrafish. A tlx1−/− homozygous mutant line was generated via CRISPR/Cas9 to elucidate the roles of tlx1 in spleen development in zebrafish. In the tlx1−/− background, tlx1−/− cells persisted in the splenic primordia until 52 hpf but were no longer detectable after 53 hpf, suggesting perturbation of early spleen development. The zebrafish also exhibited congenital asplenia caused by the tlx1 mutation. Asplenic zebrafish can survive and breed normally under sta...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The Dicer from oyster Crassostrea gigas functions as an intracellular recognition molecule and effector in anti-viral immunity
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Xiaojing Lv, Weilin Wang, Zirong Han, Shujing Liu, Wen Yang, Meijia Li, Lingling Wang, Linsheng SongAbstractDicer, as a member of ribonuclease III family, functions in RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to direct sequence-specific degradation of cognate mRNA. It plays important roles in antiviral immunity and production of microRNAs. In the present study, a Dicer gene was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas, and its open reading frame (ORF) encoded a polypeptide (designed as CgDicer) of 1873 amino acids containing two conserved ri...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Antiviral activity of palmitic acid via autophagic flux inhibition in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Marta Librán-Pérez, Patricia Pereiro, Antonio Figueras, Beatriz NovoaAbstractFatty acids (FAs) are key elements that affect not only growth but also different immune functions, and therefore, nutrition is important for growing healthy fish. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a good model for assessing the beneficial effects of immunostimulants, including FAs, before applying them in aquaculture. Accordingly, this study evaluated the effects of palmitic acid (PA) treatment on different immune parameters of zebrafish and on the ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Oral administration of transgenic biosafe microorganism containing antimicrobial peptide enhances the survival of tilapia fry infected bacterial pathogen
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Bing-Chang Lee, Chun-Wei Hung, Cheng-Yung Lin, Chen-Han Shih, Huai-Jen TsaiAbstractTo develop an alternative to conventional antibiotics used in the aquaculture and livestock industries, we employed Bacillus subtilis, considered a biosafe microorganism, to express the degradable antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin. An expression plasmid pP43-6LFBII-GFP, in which reporter GFP cDNA was fused downstream of lactoferricin cDNA driven by an endogenous constitutive P43 promoter was electroporated into B. subtilis, followed by regeneration ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A 28.6-kD small heat shock protein (MnHSP28.6) protects Macrobrachium nipponense against heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress by virtue of its anti-aggregation activity
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Fengyu Yuan, Zilan Yang, Ting Tang, Song Xie, Fengsong LiuAbstractSmall heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are ATP-independent chaperones and involved into various physiological and stress processes. In the present study, a 28.6-kD sHSP coding gene, MnHSP28.6, was cloned and characterized from the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense. Tissue distribution analysis via qPCR and western blot revealed that MnHSP28.6 predominantly expressed in muscle. The temporal transcription of MnHSP28.6 in muscle after bacterial challenge, heavy me...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterization of the immune roles of cathepsin L in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) mucosal immunity
In this study, we captured three cathepsin L genes (SmCTSL, SmCTSL.1 and SmCTSL1) from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). The coding sequences of SmCTSL, SmCTSL.1 and SmCTSL1 are 1,026 bp, 1,005 bp and 1,017 bp in length and encode 341, 334 and 338 amino acids, respectively. In details, transcripts of CTSL genes share same domains as other CTSL genes, one signal peptide, one propeptide and one papain family cysteine protease domain. Protein interaction network analysis indicated that turbot CTSL genes may play important roles in apoptotic signaling and involve in innate immune response. Evidence from subcellular localization d...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

LvPPAE2 induced by WSV056 confers host defense against WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Wei Wang, Peng Luo, Changkun Pan, Qingbai Wang, Huifang Yuan, Jieping Liu, Chunying Jin, Jianming Chen, Wenlin WuAbstractViral immediate early (IE) genes encode regulatory proteins that are critical for viral replication. WSV056 is an IE protein of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important pathogen of farmed shrimp. It targets the host Rb protein(s) and, according to a previous study, may enhance the replication of the viral genome. However, the ectopic expression of WSV056 in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster exerted ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interferon regulatory factor 2 plays a positive role in interferon gamma expression in golden pompano, Trachinotus ovatus (Linnaeus 1758)
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Ke-Cheng Zhu, Bao-Suo Liu, Nan Zhang, Hua-Yang Guo, Liang Guo, Shi-Gui Jiang, Dian-Chang ZhangAbstractIn fish, interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) is a regulator of the type I IFN-dependent immune response, thereby playing a crucial role in innate immunity. However, the specific mechanism by which IRF2 regulates type II IFN in fish remains unclear. In the present study, first, to analyse the potential role of golden pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) IRF2 (ToIRF2) in the immune response, the mRNA level of ToIRF2 was detect...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterization of a novel protein identified by proteomics analysis as a modulator of inflammatory networks in amphioxus
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Baozhen Qu, Zengyu Ma, Yu Zhang, Zhan Gao, Shicui ZhangAbstractInflammatory response is an innate host defense mechanism, and its regulation is essential for the host to get rid of harm by the excessive reactions. We first utilized proteomics approach to identify amphioxus humoral fluid proteins in response to LPS-induced inflammation. A total of 26 differentially expressed proteins, mainly involved in energy metabolism and cytoskeleton rearrangement processes, were identified between LPS-treated and control animals. Further...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 4, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Functional analysis target of rapamycin (TOR) on the Penaeus vannamei in response to acute low temperature stress
Publication date: Available online 1 December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): QingJian Liang, Mufei Ou, ZhongHua Li, YingHao Ren, Wei Wei, Xueli Qiao, Rui Hu, XuJian Wu, Yuan Liu, Weina WangAbstractTarget of rapamycin (TOR) is an atypical of Ser/Thr protein kinase that plays an important role in many aspects such as cell growth, reproduction, differentiation, cell cycle regulation, autophagy and apoptosis. However, little information is known about the enzyme in crustaceans. Here, a novel TOR was identified from shrimp Penaeus vannamei (PvTOR) and its biological functions were investigated in response...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 2, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth, non-specific immunity, expression of some immune-related genes and resistance to Vibrio harveyi in hybrid grouper (♀ Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × ♂ Epinephelus lanceolatu)
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) on growth performance, non-specific immunity, expression of some immune-related genes and resistance to Vibrio harveyi in juvenile hybrid grouper (♀ Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × ♂ Epinephelus lanceolatu). Six isoproteic and isolipidic experimental diets were formulated with graded levels of n-3 HUFA (0.65, 1.00, 1.35, 1.70, 2.05 and 2.40% of dry matter, respectively), and the 0.65% group was used as control group. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish in 1000 L fiberglass tank,...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 2, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effect of dietary Antarctic krill Euphausia superba on the growth performance and nonspecific immunity of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkia
This study aims to investigate the effects of replacing different proportions of fishmeal with Antarctic krill (AK) on the growth performance, body composition and nonspecific immunity index of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkia. AK was used to replace 0 (control), 25%, 50% and 100% of the fishmeal in the basic diet of crayfish to formulate four test feeds with basically equivalent nitrogen and lipid contents; these feeds were denoted AK0, AK25, AK50 and AK100, respectively. Compared with the control group, crayfish fed diets with AK replacement showed increased body weight gain; feed efficiency; survival rate; body pr...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 2, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

DEHP induces immunosuppression through disturbing inflammatory factors and CYPs system homeostasis in common carp neutrophils
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Shuting Wang, Yirong Cao, Shengchen Wang, Jingzeng Cai, Ziwei ZhangAbstractDi-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a common pollutant in the water environment, has been reported to be associated with immune functions, especially aquatic organisms. However, whether DEHP exposure causes neutrophils toxicity in common carp is still unclear. To investigate the toxic effect of DEHP on immune functions, common carp neutrophils were exposed to DEHP (40 μmol/L and 200 μmol/L) for 2 h. The common carp neutrophils exposed to ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Two C-type lectins (ReCTL-1, ReCTL-2) from Rimicaris exoculata display broad nonself recognition spectrum with novel carbohydrate binding specificity
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Gaoyang Wang, Yutong Lei, Ting Kang, Zhi Li, Hui Fei, Shun Yang, Peng Zhou, Chunsheng Wang, Zhengbing Lv, Mengmeng Huang, Xuewei XuAbstractC-type lectins are Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins containing one or more carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). C-type lectins play crucial roles in innate immunity, including nonself-recognition and pathogen elimination. In the present study, two C-type lectins (designated ReCTL-1 and ReCTL-2) were identified from the shrimp Rimicaris exoculata which dwells in deep-sea h...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hematological and immune genes responses in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) with septicemia induced by Edwardsiella ictaluri
This study provides a preliminary basis for the diagnosis and treatment of pathophysiology septicemia in yellow catfish induced by E. ictaluri. (Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology)
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effect of starvation and refeeding on growth, gut microbiota and non-specific immunity in hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀×E. lanceolatus♂)
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Xiaochun Liu, Herong Shi, Qi He, Fangmei Lin, Qing Wang, Shiqiang Xiao, Yuantang Dai, Yanfa Zhang, Huirong Yang, Huihong ZhaoAbstractEnvironmental changes can lead to food deprivation among aquatic animals. The main objective of this present research was to assess the effect of starvation and refeeding on growth, gut microbiota and non-specific immunity in a hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀×E. lanceolatus♂). A total of 120 fish with an average weight of 74.16 ± 12.08 g were randomly divided ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Molecular cloning, expression analyses and functional characterization of a goose-type lysozyme gene from Bostrychus sinensis (family: Eleotridae)
In this study, we sequenced and characterized the goose-type lysozyme gene, termed as BsLysG, from the Chinese black sleeper (Bostrychus sinensis). The BsLysG encodes 196 amino acids and contains a soluble bacterial lytic transglycosylases domain, three catalytic residues (Glu72, Asp85 and Asp102) and the GLMQ motif (Gly97, Leu98, Met99 and Gln100). No signal peptide was observed in the BsLysG protein. The genomic DNA of BsLysG contains five exons and four introns. The sequence analyses showed that the BsLysG exhibits high similarity with LysG from other fishes. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the BsLysG is clustered tog...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - December 1, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Molecular characterization and expressional modulation of IRAK1 as downstream signaling adaptor molecule of TLR-signaling pathways in Labeo rohita following PAMPs stimulation and bacterial infections
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Sushmita Sadangi, Arpita Mohanty, Mahismita Paichha, Suchismita Gouda, Ashis Saha, Surajit Das, Mrinal SamantaAbstractInterleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK1) is one of the crucial signal transduction mediators in TLR/IL-1R signaling pathways in host immune system. To investigate about it in rohu (Labeo rohita), one of the economically important freshwater fish species in the Indian subcontinent, we cloned, characterized and analyzed its expression following bacterial infection and pathogens associated molecular pat...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Characterization, expression, and antimicrobial activity of histones from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Bo Wang, Han-jie Gu, Hui-qin Huang, Hong-yu Wang, Zhi-hui Xia, Yong-hua HuAbstractHistone proteins are not only structurally important for chromosomal DNA packaging but also involved in the regulation of gene expression and the immune response of host against pathogens. Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) as one of the most important marine flatfish, suffered from widespread outbreaks of diseases, and its immunological functioning remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we reported the expression patterns of...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Effects of spinetoram on the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of zebrafish
Publication date: Available online 29 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Bo Cheng, Hua Zhang, Kun Jia, Enchao Li, Shouhua Zhang, Huiyun Yu, Zigang Cao, Guanghua Xiong, Chengyu Hu, Huiqiang LuAbstractOur study investigated the effects of spinetoram on the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of zebrafish. 10 h post-fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos were exposed to several concentrations of spinetoram (0, 5.0 mg/L, 7.5 mg/L, 10 mg/L) for up to 96 hpf, and their mortality, heart rate, number of innate and adaptive immune cells, oxidative stress, apoptosis and gene expression were d...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Teleost cytotoxic T cells
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Takuya Yamaguchi, Fumio Takizawa, Mitsuru Furihata, Veronica Soto-Lampe, Johannes M. Dijkstra, Uwe FischerAbstractCell-mediated cytotoxicity is one of the major mechanisms by which vertebrates control intracellular pathogens. Two cell types are the main players in this immune response, natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). While NK cells recognize altered target cells in a relatively unspecific manner CTLs use their T cell receptor to identify pathogen-specific peptides that are presented by major histocompati...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 29, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comparative transcriptome analysis of the gills of Procambarus clarkii provides novel insights into the immune-related mechanism of copper stress tolerance
This study provides a valuable starting point for further studies to elucidate the molecular basis of the immune system's response to Cu2+ stress in crayfish. (Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology)
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 28, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Development of monoclonal antibodies against serum immunoglobulins from gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and their applications in serodiagnosis of inapparent infection and evaluation of vaccination strategies
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Ronghua Wu, Junyu Shen, Xinlian Lai, Tao He, Yun LiAbstractThe disease outbreak caused by viral infection and bacterial pathogens has hampered the sustainable development of the gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) industry, lack of monoclonal antibodies against serum immunoglobulin (Ig) of gibel carp has impeded the development of nonfatal immunoassays in detection of pathogen infection and understanding of fish immune response post vaccination. In the present study, serum Ig of gibel carp was purified by a combination o...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

An interferon-induced GTP-binding protein, Mx, from the redlip mullet, Liza haematocheila: Deciphering its structural features and immune function
In this study, the Mx gene was isolated from the constructed mullet cDNA database. Structural features of mullet Mx (MuMx) were analyzed using different in-silico tools. The pairwise comparison revealed that the MuMx sequence was related to Stegastes partitus Mx with an 83.7% sequence identity, whereas MuMx was clustered into the teleost category in the phylogentic analysis. Sequence alignment showed that the dynamin-type guanine nucleotide-binding domain (G_DYNAMIN_2), central interactive domain (CID), and GTPase effector domain (GED) were conserved among Mx counterparts. The transcriptional expression of MuMx was the hig...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 27, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Morphologic, cytometric and functional characterisation of Anadara kagoshimensis hemocytes
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): E.S. Kladchenko, A. Yu Andreyeva, T.A. Kukhareva, A.A. SoldatovAbstractCirculating hemocytes of ark clam, Anadara kagoshimensis, were investigated using light microscopy and flow cytometry. Hemolymph contained 3 morphotype of cells, amebocytes, erythrocytes and intermediate type cells, which formed two distinct subpopulations on flow cytometric dot plots. Large cells (intermediate morphotype and erythrocytes) amounted 85.6 ± 2.8% total cells in hemolymph. Erythrocytes were hemoglobin-containing cells with up to 4...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Recombinant expression and functional analysis of antimicrobial Siganus oramin l-amino acid oxidase using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system
Publication date: Available online 26 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Xiao Han, Yuxi Huang, Yulin Hou, Huifeng Dang, Ruijun LiAbstractSiganus oramin l-amino acid oxidase (SR-LAAO), isolated from the serum of Siganus oramin, is an innate immune protein with significant antibacterial activity. The aim of this study was to express SR-LAAO in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system and evaluate the function of the recombinant SR-LAAO. To this end, an optimized sequence of the SR-LAAO gene was designed and synthesized, based on the codon bias of insect cells. Bacmid shuttle vectors and ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The hepatoprotective effects of Salvia plebeia R. Br. extract in zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Publication date: December 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish Immunology, Volume 95Author(s): Guanghua Xiong, Yunyun Deng, Zigang Cao, Xinjun Liao, Jun'e Zhang, Huiqiang LuAbstractSalvia plebeia R. Br. is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb that has been widely used for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases such as hepatitis. However, the underlying molecular mechanism about the hepatoprotective effects of S. plebeia remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the antioxidant activities and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol extracts of S. plebeia (SPEE) in the zebrafish model. Firstly, we determined the chemical...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 26, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Early response of salmonid head-kidney cells to stress hormones and toll-like receptor ligands
In conclusion, the primary head-kidney cells of maraena whitefish reflect the immunological and neuroendocrinological diversity of the entire organ. This in vitro system allowed thus identifying the correlative changes between the activities of hormones and immune factors in salmonid fish in order to contribute to a better understanding of the regulation circuit between stress and immune defence.Graphical abstract (Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology)
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Temporal modulation of host aerobic glycolysis determines the outcome of Mycobacterium marinum infection
Publication date: Available online 24 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Yuanqing Kan, Lu Meng, Lingling Xie, Lixia Liu, Wenyue Dong, Jintao Feng, Yuchen Yan, Chao Zhao, Gang Peng, Decheng Wang, Mingfang Lu, Chen Yang, Chen NiuAbstractMacrophages are the first-line host defense that the invading Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encounters. It has been recently reported that host aerobic glycolysis was elevated post the infection by a couple of virulent mycobacterial species. However, whether this metabolic transition is required for host defense against intracellular pathogens and the underlying...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 24, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The effect of nitrite and sulfide on the antioxidant capacity and microbial composition of the intestines of red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii
In this study, we investigated how the oxidative damage parameters, antioxidant status and microbial composition of the intestine of Procambarus clarkii were influenced under acute nitrite (60 mg/L) and sulfide (18 mg/L) stress for 72 h. Compared with the control, after exposure to nitrite and sulfide stress, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the lipid peroxide and malondialdehyde contents increased in the intestines and were significantly higher after 72 h of exposure. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities increased to maximum levels at 6, 24 and 12 h, respectively...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Construction and evaluation of Vibrio alginolyticus ΔclpP mutant, as a safe live attenuated vibriosis vaccine
In this study, an in-frame deleted mutant strain (ΔclpP) was constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis to investigate physiological role of clpP in pathogenicity of V. alginolyticus and evaluate its potential as a live attenuated vaccine. The results exhibited that ΔclpP showed no differences in external morphology, growth, swarming motility and ECPase activity. However, ΔclpP represented an increment in biofilm formation, and a decrement in adherence to CIK cells. In addition, virulence of ΔclpP was examined in pearl gentian grouper and was found to be seriously attenuated. ΔclpP induced hi...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Profiling the transcriptome response of Atlantic salmon head kidney to formalin-killed Renibacterium salmoninarum
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Khalil Eslamloo, Surendra Kumar, Albert Caballero-Solares, Hajarooba Gnanagobal, Javier Santander, Matthew L. RiseAbstractRenibacterium salmoninarum is a Gram-positive, intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Bacterial Kidney Disease (BKD) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The host transcriptomic response to this immune-suppressive pathogen remains poorly understood. To identify R. salmoninarum-responsive genes, Atlantic salmon were intraperitoneally injected with a low (5 × 105 cells/kg, Low-Rs) or high (5...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comprehensive expression analysis of the beta integrin from Penaeus monodon indicating its participation in innate immunity and ammonia nitrogen stress response
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Mengke Shi, Shigui Jiang, Yundong Li, Qibin Yang, Song Jiang, Lishi Yang, Jianhua Huang, Falin ZhouAbstractThe aim of the present study was to investigate the function of the beta integrin (PmItgb) in Penaeus monodon. The 3011 bp cDNA sequence of PmItgb was cloned from P. monodon using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. Phylogenetic tree analyses indicated that the amino acid sequence of PmItgb should be merged into Fenneropenaeus chinensis (93%). Quantitative real-time PCR (q RT-PCR) revealed that PmItgb mRNA was...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interactive effect of thermal and hypoxia on largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) gill and liver: Aggravation of oxidative stress, inhibition of immunity and promotion of cell apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Jun-Long Sun, Liu-Lan Zhao, Lei Liao, Xiao-Hong Tang, Can Cui, Qiao Liu, Kuo He, Ji-Deng Ma, Long Jin, Tao Yan, Jian Zhou, Song YangAbstractHigh temperatures and low oxygen in aquatic environments, such as intensive aquaculture or in natural watersheds, inevitably cause stress in fish. Fish are exposed to high temperatures during the summer, which exacerbates hypoxia. Hypoxia (1.2 ± 0.2 mg/L) under 20 °C (20HG) and 26 °C (26HG) was simulated to induce stress in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Red grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) induces autophagy to promote viral replication
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Chen Li, Jiaxin Liu, Xin Zhang, Yepin Yu, Xiaohong Huang, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei QinAbstractAutophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular degradation process that is essential for homeostasis. As a cell steward, autophagy is thought to be a process that may have evolved to combat intracellular pathogens. However, some virus can subvert or utilize autophagy-related membrane structures to increase viral replication. The red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is a fish pathogen which leads to disastrous viral ner...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 23, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genome-wide identification, characterization, and expression analysis of the TRAF gene family in Chinese tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis)
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Kun-ming Li, Ming Li, Na Wang, Ya-dong Chen, Xi-wen Xu, Wen-teng Xu, Lei Wang, Song-lin ChenAbstractTumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) play crucial roles as signaling mediators for the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily and the interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1R/TLR) superfamily. TRAFs collectively play important roles in multiple biological processes and organismal immunity. However, systematic identification of the TRAF gene family in teleost fish has not yet been reported, and ther...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Genome-wide identification, evolution, and mRNA expression of complement genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio)
In this study, a total of 110 complement genes were identified and characterized in common carp, which include almost all the homologs of mammalian complement genes. These genes were classified into three pathways (alternative pathways, lectin pathways and classical pathways), similar to those in mammals. Phylogenetic and selection pressure analysis showed that the complement genes were evolving-constrained and the function was conserved. Most of the complement genes were highly expressed in spleen, liver, brain and skin among the tested 12 health tissues of common carp. After Aeromonas hydrophila infection in the common c...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

α-Enolase as a novel vaccine candidate against Streptococcus dysgalactiae infection in cobia (Rachycentron canadum L.)
This study presents a highly effective subunit vaccine composed of a moonlight protein, α-enolase, for the prevention of S. dysgalactiae infection. First, α-enolase was cloned, transformed, and expressed in E. coli for production of recombinant protein. Then, the protective efficacies of α-enolase recombinant protein were evaluated in combination with either a pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, or an oil adjuvant, ISA 763 AVG. The results showed that the combination of α-enolase and ISA 763 AVG was highly protective (RPS = 88.89%), while a negative effect was found in the group immunised wi...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 22, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Transcriptomics of Cherax quadricarinatus hepatopancreas during infection with Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1)
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Huizan Yang, Xinxian Wei, Rui Wang, Lan Zeng, Yanhao Yang, Guanghua Huang, Laiba Shafique, Huawei Ma, Min lv, Zhide Ruan, Huma Naz, Yong Lin, Liming Huang, Tao ChenAbstractCherax quadricarinatus is a large-sized, highly fecund, and fast-growing species of freshwater crayfish, and has become one of the world's most intensely studied crustaceans. Decapod iridescent virus 1 (DIV1), a newly described species in the family Iridoviridae, is known to infect various crustaceans, including C. quadricarinatus, and may pose a new thre...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

TMT-based quantitative proteomic analysis of Eriocheir sinensis hemocytes and thoracic ganglion during Spiroplasma eriocheiris infection
Publication date: Available online 21 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Libo Hou, Haifeng Zhou, Hui Wan, Zhanghuai Liu, Li Wang, Yongxu Cheng, Xugan Wu, Wei Gu, Wen Wang, Qingguo MengAbstractSpiroplasma eriocheiris, a novel pathogen of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis tremor disease, has led into catastrophic economic losses in aquaculture. S. eriocheiris invaded the hemocytes in the early stage, then invaded nerve tissue and caused typically paroxysmal tremors of pereiopod in the late stage of infection. The purpose of this study was to detect the infection mechanism of hemocytes in the ...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Interactive effects of dietary cholesterol and phospholipids on the growth performance, expression of immune-related genes and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
Publication date: Available online 19 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Minglei Yan, Weilong Wang, Xuxiong Huang, Xinlei Wang, Yi WangAbstractA 56-day feeding trial was done to investigate the interactive effects of cholesterol (CHO) and phospholipids (PL) on the growth performance, immune response, expression of immune-related genes, and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus of freshwater cultured white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A 3 × 3 experimental design was conducted with nine experimental diets containing three levels of CHO (0, 0.2%, and 0.4%) and three levels of PL (0, 2...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Molecular evolution of the tnfr gene family and expression profiles in response to pathogens in lamprey(Lethenteron reissneri)
This study has a new understanding for origin and evolution of the tnfr gene family in different vertebrates. (Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology)
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 21, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Efficacy of purified nucleotide supplements on the growth performance and immunity of hybrid striped bass Morone chrysops x Morone saxatilis
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Clement R. de Cruz, Fernando Y. Yamamoto, Min Ju, Kequan Chen, Alejandro Velasquez, Delbert M. GatlinAbstractFishmeal is being increasingly replaced in aquatic animal diets with alternative plant protein feedstuffs such as soybean meal which have lower concentrations of nucleotides; therefore, supplemental sources of exogenous nucleotides in diets could become increasingly important. A 9-week feeding trial was conducted with triplicate groups of juvenile hybrid striped bass (average initial body weight ± standard...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Susceptibility and immune responses after challenge with Flavobacterium columnare and Pseudomonas fluorescens in conventional and specific pathogen-free rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Liangxia Su, Chunsen Xu, Lei Cai, Ning Qiu, Miaomiao Hou, Jianwei WangAbstractThe susceptibility of fish from different culture environments to bacterial infection is not well known. The susceptibility and pathological changes of conventional (CV) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) infected with two gram-negative bacteria, Flavobacterium columnare and Pseudomonas fluorescens are investigated. Rare minnows were intraperitoneally challenged with two bacterial species to first determine semi-leth...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

An effective live attenuated vaccine against Streptococcus agalactiae infection in farmed Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Publication date: Available online 18 November 2019Source: Fish & Shellfish ImmunologyAuthor(s): Defeng Zhang, Yanxia Gao, Qingyong Li, Xiaoli Ke, Zhigang Liu, Maixin Lu, Cunbin ShiAbstractStreptococcus agalactiae is an important pathogen associated with various aquatic animals, especially tilapia. Streptococcosis has greatly limited the healthy development of tilapia aquaculture in recent times. The development of novel effective vaccines is important for the prevention and control of streptococcosis in fish. We previously constructed a non-encapsulated S. agalactiae strain △cps by the in-frame deletion method. Here...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Induction of pro-viral grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella Hsp70 instead of Hsc70 during infection of grass carp reovirus
In this study, grass carp Hsp70 was shown to be induced by GCRV-104 in different grass carp cell lines, whereas Hsc70 was expressed in a relatively constant level during the infection. The expression patterns of Hsc70 and Hsp70 were similar to their homologs in mammals. Notably, both inhibitor and over-expression assays indicated that Hsp70 was required for efficient viral replication. Thus, our study supported a novel pro-viral property of Hsp70 besides its reported role in the viral attachment. Results herein presented also suggested that the heat shock response of grass carp might be manipulated by aquareovirus to facil...
Source: Fish and Shellfish Immunology - November 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research