Growth, health, and motor development of 5-year-old children born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis
To evaluate the growth, health, and motor development of children born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Malou Heijligers, Andrea Peeters, Aafke van Montfoort, Joyce Nijsten, Etienne Janssen, Femke Klein Gunnewiek, Rick de Rooy, Ron van Golde, Edith Coonen, Madelon Meijer-Hoogeveen, Frank Broekmans, Mark van der Hoeven, Yvonne Arens, Christine de Die-Smulder Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Infectious human papillomavirus virions in semen reduce clinical pregnancy rates in women undergoing intrauterine insemination
To study the influence of human papillomavirus (HPV) virions present in different sperm fractions of male partners of women undergoing IUI on fertility outcome. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 17, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Christophe Eric Depuydt, Gilbert Ghislain Gerard Donders, Ludo Verstraete, Davy Vanden Broeck, Johan Frans Andre Beert, Geert Salembier, Eugene Bosmans, Willem Ombelet Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Health of adults aged 22 to 35  years conceived by assisted reproductive technology
To determine the health outcomes for adults aged 22 –35 years old who were conceived via assisted reproduction technology (ART) compared with adults of the same age conceived without use of ART. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 16, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Jane Halliday, Sharon Lewis, Joanne Kennedy, David P. Burgner, Markus Juonala, Karin Hammarberg, David J. Amor, Lex W. Doyle, Richard Saffery, Sarath Ranganathan, Liam Welsh, Michael Cheung, John McBain, Stephen J.C. Hearps, Robert McLachlan Tags: Original Article: Environment and Epidemiology Source Type: research

Impact of elagolix treatment on fatigue experienced by women with moderate to severe pain associated with endometriosis
To evaluate the efficacy of elagolix, an oral GnRH antagonist, for the reduction of fatigue in women with moderate or severe endometriosis-associated pain. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 13, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Eric S. Surrey, Ahmed M. Soliman, Sanjay K. Agarwal, Michael C. Snabes, Michael P. Diamond Tags: Original Article: Endometriosis Source Type: research

Association between testosterone, semen parameters, and live birth in men with unexplained infertility in an intrauterine insemination population
To determine whether men with unexplained infertility and low total T (TT) have abnormal spermatogenesis and lower fecundity. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: J.C. Trussell, R. Matthew Coward, Nanette Santoro, Christy Stetter, Allen Kunselman, Michael P. Diamond, Karl R. Hansen, Stephen A. Krawetz, Richard S. Legro, Dan Heisenleder, James Smith, Anne Steiner, Robert Wild, Peter Casson, Cristos Coutifaris, Reube Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Female sleep patterns, shift work, and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study
To prospectively evaluate the association between female sleep patterns, shift work, and fecundability. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sydney Kaye Willis, Elizabeth Elliott Hatch, Amelia Kent Wesselink, Kenneth Jay Rothman, Ellen Margrethe Mikkelsen, Lauren Anne Wise Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Reassuring data concerning follow-up data of children born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) was initially developed to prevent the risk of transmitting genetic diseases to the offspring of the carrier or affected couples. Later, the same procedure was also applied as preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A), with the aim of avoiding the transfer of abnormal embryos. The subsequent spread of PGD/PGT-A technology in infertility centers worldwide generated an intense scientific debate about its safety. Children born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), in fact, have been reported to be at higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes compared with those co...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Ermanno Greco, Alessia Greco, Maria Giulia Minasi Tags: Reflections Source Type: research

Blastomere cleavage plane orientation and the tetrahedral formation are associated with increased probability of a good-quality blastocyst for cryopreservation or transfer: a time-lapse study
To determine whether blastomere spatial arrangement in early human embryos is reflective of embryonic potential. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Nina Desai, Pavinder Gill Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

The association of operative time with outcomes in minimally invasive and abdominal myomectomy
To determine the association of operative time (ORT) with perioperative morbidity and whether there is an ORT at which minimally invasive myomectomy becomes inferior to laparotomy. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 12, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Maria V. Vargas, Kathryn Denny Larson, Andrew Sparks, Samantha L. Margulies, Cherie Q. Marfori, Gaby Moawad, Richard L. Amdur Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Characterization of circular RNA expression profiles in cumulus cells from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
To determine aberrant circular RNA (circRNA) expression profiles in cumulus cells from polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients and identify their potential biological functions. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 9, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Qi Che, Miao Liu, Jun Xu, Yang Liu, Xiang Cao, Xi Dong, Suying Liu Tags: Original article Source Type: research

Epigenetic alterations of the first trimester placenta: insight into preoccupying concerns in assisted reproductive technology
Our concerns for the possibility of epigenetic alterations of the developing embryo are recent preoccupations. Yet, the concept of ‘epigenetics’ actually dates to 1942. Conrad H. Waddington first coined the term of epigenetics for describing the interactions existing between the genes and their environment (i.e. between the genotype and phenotype) (1). The concept of epigenetics covers all issues related to the interactions existing between the innate and the acquired. Discovering the realm of epigenetics has therefore indicated that all is not genetics, but the integrity of the individual also depends upon the...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 9, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Marine Poulain, Dominique de Ziegler, Jean Marc Ayoubi Tags: Reflections Source Type: research

Phthalates and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals: the 21st century's plague for reproductive health
Reproductive health is affected by exposures to environmental contaminants during critical periods of human development. These periods include preconception, conception, pregnancy, child and adolescent development, and adult life. Furthermore, environmental contaminants may influence the reproductive health status of the exposed individual's offspring. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Francisco Dominguez Tags: Reflections Source Type: research

In pursuit of middle ground: understanding the bone benefits of hormonal contraception in women with anorexia nervosa
In the report entitled “Oral contraceptives partially protect from bone loss in young women with anorexia nervosa” (1), Maïmoun et al. analyzed cross-sectional data obtained from enrolling young women living in Southern France to address a clinically discrete and important question about the relationship between bon e mineralization and the condition of anorexia nervosa. The main outcome measure was areal bone mineral density as determined by Hologic QDR-4500A dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of whole body, lumbar spine, radius, and left femur. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sarah L. Berga Tags: Reflections Source Type: research

What are the cost considerations for preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy?
The study by Somigliana et  al. (1) addresses an important and timely clinical question: Is preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidies (PGT-A) a cost-effective adjunct in IVF? We appreciate the continued study into this aspect of IVF patient care and counseling, which is rapidly expanding in utilization and yet remains controversial. The authors conclude that PGT-A can be cost-effective in specific settings and populations, namely with increasing female age and the number of available blastocysts (1). (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Randal D. Robinson, Sheena Rippentrop, Jessica E. McLaughlin Tags: Reflections Source Type: research

Limits of current male fertility testing
In the current approach to male fertility testing, basic semen analysis has limitations as a predictor of fertility status, and the technology is fraught with variability. Nonetheless, it remains the cornerstone of the evaluation of the male infertility, and we recommend adherence to most recent World Health Organization guidelines. Although the current sperm function tests (bioassays) have important drawbacks, they are still valuable as research tools. Sperm quality assays with analysis of sperm DNA fragmentation need further investigation before they can be recommended for routine clinical use. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 8, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Sergio Oehninger, Willem Ombelet Tags: Views and reviews Source Type: research

Interpregnancy interval and singleton pregnancy outcomes after frozen embryo transfer
To describe the relationship between interpregnancy interval (IPI) and perinatal outcomes in singleton live births after frozen embryo transfer (FET). (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Molly M. Quinn, Mitchell P. Rosen, Isabel Elaine Allen, Heather G. Huddleston, Marcelle I. Cedars, Victor Y. Fujimoto Tags: Original article: Assisted reproduction Source Type: research

Rapid progression in our understanding of extracellular vesicles and male infertility
Spermatogenesis is a complex process requiring the proper functioning of thousands of genes combined with the correct balance of hormones, temperature, and other environmental factors. Sperm isolated from the testicle, however, are generally immotile and immature —incapable of fertilizing an egg on their own, although they can be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Sperm mature during transit through the epididymis, where morphologic, chemical, and other changes occur, giving them capacity for fertilization. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: J. Scott Gabrielsen, Larry I. Lipshultz Tags: Reflections Source Type: research

Introduction
Semen analysis remains the initial laboratory evaluation for infertile men. The limitations of the standard semen analysis along with past attempts to improve the analysis of sperm are reviewed. Advances in genetic testing will lead to fewer diagnoses of idiopathic male infertility, and improvements in picking the best sperm offer hope of improved assisted reproduction outcomes. The development of simplified testing has opened up the availability of tests performed in settings without advanced laboratory facilities as well as by patients in their own homes. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Mark Sigman Tags: Views and reviews Source Type: research

Registered reports: prospective peer review emphasizes science over spin
Scientific studies are typically considered for publication after they are completed and the results are available. Consequently, the decision to publish is based not only on the importance of the research question and the quality of the methods used, but also on the novelty and statistical significance of the authors' findings. This in turn creates perverse incentives for researchers to seek surprising, positive results, and to prioritize creative interpretation of data over accurate discovery. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 4, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Jack Wilkinson, Antonio Pellicer, Craig Niederberger Tags: New news Source Type: research

Scientific Papers to Be Presented at the Sixty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Pacific Coast Reproductive Society April 3-7, 2019 Renaissance Indian Wells Indian Wells, California
The program abstracts in this booklet are provided to the members of the Pacific Coast Reproductive Society and others for their use in planning for the 67th Annual Meeting, to be held April 3-7, 2019 at the Renaissance Indian Wells in Indian Wells, California. The abstracts are those that will be presented in both oral and poster sessions and are published in the order of their presentation. Abstracts of special lectures and clinical seminars are not included. The abstracts are published exactly as submitted. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Tags: Pacific Coast Reproductive Society Abstracts Source Type: research

Table of Contents
(Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

2019 PCRS Program Content
Laboratory Equipment 101: the foundation for successful IVF outcomes (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Author Index
Aluko, A., P6, P10 (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Source Type: research

Uterine toxicity following exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl 126 is mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants which adversely affect reproduction. They are endocrine and immune disrupting chemicals and have been associated with increased risk of miscarriage. The mechanisms underlying these adverse effects are unclear. PCB 126 is a particularly toxic congener and a strong agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). It is unclear whether the activation of the AhR and its downstream effects and/or other mechanisms lead to reproductive tissue damage. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Violet Klenov, Susanne Flor, Malavika Adur, Shanthi Ganesan, Nazmin Eti, Khursheed Iqbal, Michael Soares, Gabriele Ludewig, Jason Ross, Aileen Keating, Larry Robertson Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Epigenetic clock measuring age acceleration via DNA methylation levels in blood is associated with decreased oocyte yield
Among women, there is significant variability in the age at menopause, the rate of decline in oocyte number, and the ability to reproduce. Various methods have been developed to assess ovarian response; however, limitations exist in their clinical utility. Among these, anti-m üllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) have been described as the most predictive (1,2). Models that incorporate both of these measurements can even further enhance predictive value by including chronological age (3). (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Brent Monseur, Gaya Murugappan, Jason Bentley, Nelson Teng, Lynn Westphal Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Assessment of freezing different types of surgically acquired sperm: impact on fertilization, blastocyst formation and pregnancy outcomes
Development of techniques to acquire sperm surgically has been a revolutionary advancement for ART, allowing for application to a previously excluded population. Cryopreservation of sperm has also been a beneficial advancement, permitting fertility preservation, but also helping address timing issues associated with various steps in ART processes. Combining surgical sperm retrieval and cryopreservation has been instrumental in expanding treatment options. However, cryopreservation can be a stressful process for the cells, potentially impacting quality. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: S. McCormick, A. Schneiderman, C. Pospisil, R. Smith, W.B. Schoolcraft, J.E. Swain Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Pilot utilization of convolutional neural networks to improve the efficiency of fertilization checks
We report an efficient use of convolutional neural networks (CNN) to distinguish 2 pronuclei (2PN) from 3PN and germinal vesicle (GV). This pilot demonstrates the potential of an application of artificial intelligence technologies (AI) in the IVF lab. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Vikrant Reddy, Odgerel Badamjav, Daniel Meyer, Barry Behr Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

A workflow for simultaneous DNA copy number and methylome analysis of ICM and TE cells from human blastocysts
Preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) has become an integral part of assisted reproduction and is being used to identify genetically competent embryos. Despite implementation of this technology many euploid embryos fail to implant for reasons that remain largely unknown. Analysis of embryonic cells for other markers of embryo competence may provide insight into the cause of such failures. DNA Methylation is an integral component of epigenetic regulation during gamete and embryonic development. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: M. Olcha, X. Dong, H. Feil, X. Hao, M. Lee, S. Jindal, E. Buyuk, J. Vijg Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Single embryo transfer versus double embryo transfer: a cost-effectiveness analysis in a United States military treatment facility
In vitro fertilization (IVF) has historically been associated with multiple gestations due to the number of embryos transferred. Due to increased morbidity seen in multiple gestations, the American Society of Reproductive Medicine recommends transfer of blastocysts one at a time (SET) for most patients. While cost-effectiveness models have compared single embryo transfer (SET) to double embryo transfer (DET), few incorporate maternal and neonatal morbidity, and none have been performed in U.S. Military Treatment Facilities. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: C.A. Sitler, M. Lustik, G. Levy, B. Pier Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Understanding the role of seminal fluid exosomes within the male reproductive tract
Exosomes are small lipid-membrane bound vesicles containing functional biomolecules, such as proteins, lipids, micro-RNA, and DNA. They are released from most cells in the body and are also present in many bodily fluids. Seminal fluid exosomes have been previously isolated, however, little is known about their source and their role in the male reproductive tract1. Exosomes in other tissues have been shown to mediate immunomodulatory functions and even to direct tumor metastasis2. Seminal fluid exosomes have been postulated to act via a similar mechanism during fertilization and implantation, as well as to possibly particip...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: J. Stewart, A. Hoshino, Z. Rosenwaks, G. Palermo Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

Single blastocyst transfer yields significantly highter clinical pregnancy (CP) rates compared with one or more cleavage embryo transfer in patients with a low number of fertilized oocytes( < 4): an analysis of 6,795 first IVF cycles from the SART registry
There has been a trend in IVF cycles to culture to blastocyst (day 5-6) as blastocyst transfer has been shown to have higher clinical pregnancy rates and live birth rates compared to cleavage stage transfer (day 2-3). Practitioners are currently better able to choose a euploid embryo based on blastocyst morphology, and a blastocyst transfer is more physiologic as this is the time when an embryo enters the uterus in a natural cycle. However, there is always the risk that some or all of the embryos will not make it to the blastocyst stage. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: S. Smeltzer, K. Acharya, T. Truong, C. Pieper, S.J. Muasher Tags: Oral Presentation Source Type: research

The complexity of conditions for which patients pursue PGT-M: a modern snapshot
The first genetic testing on preimplantation embryos (PGT-M) was performed for single gene disorders. Due to the costs and health risks associated with IVF, PGT-M was historically pursued only for the most severe genetic conditions and when there was a known family history. Recent decades have seen an explosion of genetic testing options, including whole exome sequencing and preconception expanded carrier screening, and the landscape of conditions for which PGT-M may be pursued has grown in complexity as a result. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Lauren Spor, Kristina Cotter, Stephanie Bivona, Ana Cervero, Jose Antonio Martinez-Conejero, Cengiz Cinnioglu, Alyssa Snider Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

An inexpensive, automated artificial intelligence (AI) system for human embryo morphology evaluation and transfer selection
Advancements in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and convolutional neural networks (CNN) have allowed pattern recognition in images with unprecedented accuracy. This technology can be utilized in the embryology lab to evaluate human embryos. However, imaging-based embryo assessment systems in the lab have been dependent on expensive time-lapse optics. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: M. Kanakasabapathy, I. Dimitriadis, P. Thirumalaraju, C.L. Bormann, I. Souter, J. Hsu, M.L. Thatcher, C. Veiga, H. Shafiee Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Karyotype of first miscarriage is prognostic of subsequent pregnancy outcome
Fetal chromosomal abnormalities are the most common cause of miscarriage. Genetic testing of products of conception is routinely performed after a second consecutive pregnancy loss [1]. While euploid miscarriage is a negative prognostic indicator in the setting of RPL, it is unknown if sporadic euploid miscarriage is predictive of future pregnancy outcomes [2]. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Gaya Murugappan, Nina M. Vyas, Ruth B. Lathi Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Association between the number of oocytes retrieved and cumulative live birth rate in IVF treatment: menopur in GnRH antagonist single embryo transfer - high responder (MEGASET-HR) trial outcomes
Although retrieval of high numbers of oocytes (>15) is linked with increased OHSS incidence, agonist trigger and freeze-only approaches nearly eliminate the severe form of the syndrome. Physicians therefore strategically pursue high oocyte yields and the prospect of high cumulative live birth rates, translated as increased efficiency at lower cost to patients. Although published data consistently shows no benefit of high response in fresh transfer cycles, the impact on cumulative live birth rates remains unclear. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Gaurang S. Daftary, Sho Ando, Vladimir Yankov, Patrick W. Heiser Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

The effect of masculinizing therapies on ART outcomes in female mice
Fertility preservation is an important aspect of care for all patients who may have their fertility compromised secondary to disease, medical treatments, or age, including treatments for gender dysphoria. Multiple societies recommend fertility preservation be discussed prior to initiation of treatment for gender dysphoria1-3. Transgender male patients are also presenting to fertility clinics for fertility preservation or treatment after the initiation of therapies such as leuprolide acetate and testosterone therapy. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Stephanie S. Rothenberg, Sarah Steimer, Sarah Munyoki, Yi Sheng, Meena Sukhwani, Hanna Valli-Pulaski, Kyle E. Orwig Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Polycystic ovary syndrome and the risk of preeclampsia
Data suggests that patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk of developing preeclampsia; however several studies have failed to find an association between the two. The precise mechanism that links PCOS to preeclampsia remains unknown, although aberrant placental growth may play a role. In addition, many PCOS patients ultimately conceive through assisted reproductive technology, a process that has been independently associated with preeclampsia. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: A. Aluko, A. Joshi, A.K. Styer, B.C. Young, K.M. Johnson, M.R. Hacker, A.M. Modest Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Comparing pregnancy outcomes using an endometrial receptivity array (ERA) prior to frozen embryo transfer (FET) with euploid embryos
The receptivity of the uterus for implantation is determined by a complex interplay of various maternal and embryonic factors. The window of implantation refers to the time period in which a mid-secretory phase endometrium is primed to accept a blastocyst stage embryo. Recent advances in next generation sequencing have allowed for development of tests which can reliably identify the state of the endometrial lining and test for “endometrial receptivity”, although their clinical applicability in IVF for improving pregnancy rates has not yet been fully investigated. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Aaron Rosen, Carolina M. Salazar, Andy Huang, Bill Yee, Greg Rosen Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Parent perspective on childhood developmental milestones after assisted reproductive technology, a national survey
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is an increasingly common mechanism for conception, but parents ’ perspectives of newborn development after ART has not been extensively studied. Mixed evidence exists regarding the effect of ART on childhood developmental milestones, as ART itself increases the risk of prematurity and low birth weight, both of which are associated with developmental delay. (1 -3) Studies have suggested that ART does not have a negative effect on the physical and mental development of children when compared to naturally conceived offspring (4-5), but how do these parents perceive their child&rsq...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: K. Hammer, Z. Pavlovic, M. Raff, S. Elliot, D. Bradley, C. Cobb, L. Fogg, J. Hirshfeld-Cytron Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) was most effectively improved by a sperm separation device compared to different gradient and swimup methods
SDF is correlated with poor embryo development, implantation, and ongoing pregnancy rates. Reducing DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in the sample used for insemination may improve IVF outcomes. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Broussard Alicia, Leader Benjamin, Tirado Edna, Colver Robert, Reuter Laura, Bopp Bradford, Will Matthew, Anspach-Will Erica, Adaniya Glen Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Elevated serum progesterone during in vitro fertilization treatment and the risk of ischemic placental disease
Elevated progesterone on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration is associated with lower live birth rates and lower birth weight after fresh embryo transfer in an IVF cycle. While previous research indicates that elevated estradiol during ovarian stimulation increases the risk of preeclampsia and low birth weight, few studies have examined the association between progesterone and risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: A. Aluko, A. Joshi, K.M. Johnson, L.A. Wise, M. Fox, M.R. Hacker, D. Sakkas, A.M. Modest Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

β2-Adrenergic receptor expression in human endometrial endothelial cells potentially mediates 2-hydroxyestradiol-induced microvascular stabilization: implications for endometriosis
Catecholestrogens are biologically active metabolites of 17 β-estradiol (E2) synthesized by cytochrome P450 enzymes forming 2-Hydroxyestradiol (OHE2) and 4-OHE2. Although catecholestrogens bind estrogen receptors (ERs) with low affinity, their high affinity for β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-AR) regulates uterine endothelial cell proliferation in gestation1. Women with endometriosis have aberrant E2 metabolizing enzymes potentially inducing catecholestrogen production2. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Rachel G. Sprague, Nihan G ünay, Esma Kirimlioglu-Konuk, Anthony N. Imudia, Umit A. Kayisli Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Clinical experience utilizing single-nucleotide polymorphism data captured by FAST-SeqS to reduce the transfer of polyploid embryos
Our FAST-SeqS NGS aneuploidy screening (PGT-A) platform now analyzes single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in addition to long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINE-1s). The SNP enhancements permit the detection of all forms of triploidy (e.g., 69,XXX), other forms of polyploidy (e.g., 92,XXXX), haploidy/whole genome uniparental isodisomy (WG-UPiD), and many instances of single-chromosome UPiD, in addition to whole-chromosome and segmental aneuploidy. FAST-SeqS improvements allow for correct classification of abnormalities potentially misclassified previously, which is essential for decreasing molar pregnancy and miscarr...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Dana Neitzel, Lauren Walters-Sen, Charlene Alouf, Kristina Robinson, Mei Zhu, Nicole Faulkner Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Comparing the uterine microbiome in recurrent pregnancy loss to parous fertile controls
Classically the uterine cavity was considered a sterile organ and the presence of bacteria indicated pathology. Studies in the last decade have challenged this notion and recent studies suggest the composition of this uterine microbiome is significantly associated with differences in implantation, pregnancy and live birth rates. In infertile patients undergoing IVF, the presence of a non-lactobacillus-dominated microbiota of (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: S.J. Vaughn, I. Moreno, C. Simon, R.B. Lathi Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Comparing bhcg values and pregnancy outcomes in intravaginal culture (IVC) to traditional in vitro incubation
Since its introduction in the mid 1980s, intravaginal culture (IVC) has been proposed as a viable alternative option for assisted reproduction when compared to traditional IVF (1). IVC has the ability to reduce costs, decrease laboratory manipulation and increase patient involvement in assisted reproduction (2). Compared to traditional IVF laboratories, IVC uses normal physiological diurnal changes for incubation. In addition, studies demonstrate that the percentage of quality blastocysts transferred and live birth rates show no difference between the two groups (3). (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Monica Chung, Donald McIntire, Kevin Doody Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Differential effects of controlled ovarian stimulation protocols on endometrial histomorphology
The use of clomiphene citrate with low dose gonadotropins is an acceptable alternative for patients with expected poor ovarian response. Clomiphene citrate is a selective estrogen receptor modulator with agonist effects on the ovaries and antagonist effects on the endometrium. Although believed to be an antagonist on the endometrium, its effects on endometrial histomorphology are not well documented. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: John Wu, David Prokai, Bruce Carr, Samir Babayev, Orhan Bukulmez, R. Ann Word Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Oxidative reduction potential and sperm motility remain stable for up to two hours post-semen collection
There is an inverse correlation between successful outcomes following intrauterine insemination (IUI) and the time from ejaculation and semen processing. The World Health Organization recommends that male patients produce samples at the laboratory in order to expedite semen analysis (SA), while patients who produce at home are suggested to bring samples to the laboratory within one hour to accurately assess semen quality. There is evidence to suggest that increased time from collection to processing may result in impaired semen quality due to environmental exposures and a surge in reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the sperm...
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: T.G. Nazem, C. Hernandez-Nieto, A. Genfi, J. Lee, C. Briton-Jones, N. Bar-Chama, A.B. Copperman Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Comparison of testicular sperm aspiration to testicular sperm extraction in men with obstructive azoospermia
Obstructive azoospermic men who are unwilling or unable to undergo microsurgical reconstruction are able to have fertility treatment utilizing the advances in sperm retrieval techniques and assisted reproductive technology. The ideal sperm retrieval technique may vary depending on the clinical situation but the goal is to retrieve adequate numbers of high quality sperm for fresh use and/or for cryopreservation [1]. Open and percutaneous sperm retrieval techniques have been well described but there is a paucity of literature describing and comparing these techniques in obstructive azoospermic males. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: M. Bastuba, M. Cohen, A. Bastuba, E. Biewenga, N. Rocco Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Insights into the mechanisms by which clomid and E2 regulate WNT signaling in the endometrium
Hormonal effects on epithelial cells of the endometrium are often mediated through stromal cell receptors. Endometrium from women undergoing IVF using minimal stimulation with clomiphene citrate (CC) is characterized by marked atrophy of endometrial glands accompanied by relative increases in stromal cells (despite supraphysiologic levels of E2). Although it ’s commonly believed that CC exhibits its effects simply as an estrogen receptor antagonist, recent studies indicate that CC differentially affects endometiral cell compartments. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: Melanie Evans, Lucy X. Chen, Patrick Keller, John Wu, Bruce R. Carr, Orhan Bukulmez, Ann Word Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research

Artificial intelligence-enabled system for embryo classification and selection based on image analysis
Accurate and consistent classification and identification of top quality embryos from a patient ’s cohort remains a significant challenge in the field of embryology due to the subjective nature of the current morphologic grading systems. Machine learning is a powerful tool that can be used to automatically detect patterns in image data which can then be utilized to predict future outcomes an d can enable objective decision making. (Source: Fertility and Sterility)
Source: Fertility and Sterility - April 1, 2019 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: I. Dimitriadis, C.L. Bormann, P. Thirumalaraju, M. Kanakasabapathy, R. Gupta, R. Pooniwala, I. Souter, J.Y. Hsu, S.T. Rice, P. Bhowmick, H. Shafiee Tags: Poster Presentation Source Type: research