Asian Facelift
The Asian facelift requires an adaptation of current techniques to achieve a desired aesthetic outcome. Cultural differences and differences in anthropomorphologic features alter a patient ’s vision of beauty and youthfulness. Rejuvenation of the aging Asian face mandates a set of strategies, including understanding cultural aspects of Asian patients, anatomy of Asian patients, and appropriate techniques based on these cultural and anatomic considerations. For stable application and results, the surgeon must understand surgical facial anatomy. If performed properly, facelifts can improve facial balance and can yield ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Taek Keun Kwon, Yun Hee Choi Source Type: research

Forehead Lift for Asians
Asians have anatomic and clinical characteristics to be considered before forehead lift. Because of the anatomic characteristics of Asians, for the better outcomes of blepharoplasty or augmentation rhinoplasty, forehead lift as a combined surgery must be considered beforehand. Forehead lift is frequently indicated in young Asian patients. Endoscopic browlift without visible scar is favored for patients, and it can be done in a modified multiplane fashion for better outcomes in patients with thick and redundant skin. There are rare but severe complications of endoscopic forehead lift, such as motor nerve paresis and diplopi...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: In-Sang Kim, Hak-Soo Kim Source Type: research

Lower Eyelid and Midface Rejuvenation
This article discusses the characteristics and theories of aging and 5 types of lower eyelid/middle face aging based on 4 key factors, namely, protruding fat in the orbital, excess skin on the lower eyelid, sagging midface and soft tissue deflation. Various combinations of surgical strategies are adopted accordingly. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Han-Tsung Liao Source Type: research

Incisional Blepharoplasty for the Asian Eye
This article details the incisional method of blepharoplasty to create natural-appearing creases for Asians with single eyelids. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Hyung Min Song, Khanh Ngoc Tran Source Type: research

Nonincisional Blepharoplasty for Asians
Various nonincisional techniques for double eyelid surgery have been introduced in the past. They are simple, noninvasive, and efficient techniques to create a double eyelid. The authors prefer the full-thickness single continuous method using the 7-0 nylon, round long needle. Appropriate choice of the patients and surgical method results in a natural, esthetically pleasing eyelid and decreases the loss of eyelid crease. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kyoung Hwa Bae, Ji Sun Baek, Jae Woo Jang Source Type: research

Recent Trends in Orthognathic Surgery in Asia
Anatomy and standards of beauty are different between Asians and Westerners. Unlike Westerners, Asians have a wide and prominent jaw shape but prefer a slim and soft face shape. To achieve this goal, maxillary setback and/or posterior impaction surgeries are popular among upper jaw surgery, and various adjuvant surgeries are performed simultaneously on the mandible to obtain the so-called oval shape or V-line face. In addition, according to the development of virtual surgery software and orthodontic treatment techniques, the surgery-first approach is now accepted as a reliable option for orthognathic surgery if it is indic...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Yoon-Ji Kim, Bu-Kyu Lee Source Type: research

Special Considerations in Facial Reconstruction in the Non-White Patient
The principles of facial reconstruction are well established and some unique modifications apply to the non-White population. Anatomic and physiologic distinctions to this group give rise to alterations in design and surgical planning. Different ethnic groups have different skin anatomy and physiology and that should be taken into consideration. Healing differs among the different ethnic groups, affecting the final result regardless of method chosen. Variations in aesthetic units can lead to different flap selection and design. These should be considered for this population to maximize aesthetic outcomes and patient satisf...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jenica Su-ern Yong, Stephen S. Park Source Type: research

Approach for Rhinoplasty in African Descendants
The main objectives of rhinoplasty in African descendants are to improve the definition and projection of the nasal tip, augment the dorsum, and reduce the alar base. Open rhinoplasty using costal cartilage graft, with lateral crural tensioning and septal extension graft associated with en bloc dorsal augmentation is the workhorse. Cartilage resections should be minimal. Oral isotretinoin and triamcinolone injection may improve tip definition. Surgical success ultimately depends on the ability of the surgeon to accurately identify the anatomic variables and reconcile these anatomic realities with the patient's aesthetic ex...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Lucas G. Patrocinio, Tomas G. Patrocinio, Jose A. Patrocinio Source Type: research

Special Consideration in Rhinoplasty for Deformed Nose of East Asians
Typical Asian deformed nose has many different types: concave nasal dorsum, low nasal dorsum, wide nasal dorsum, deviated nose, convex nasal dorsum, saddle nose, short-nose deformity, and deformities involving irreversible damage of skin/soft tissue envelop are the most representative ones. The key concept in Asian rhinoplasty is augmentation in all different forms of nasal deformities. Augmentation of the nose consists of framework, tip, and dorsal augmentation. Septal extension grafting and tip grafting are 2 maneuvers with profound importance in augmentation of lower two-thirds of the Asian nose. Dorsal augmentation is ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Yong Ju Jang, Hyun Moon Source Type: research

Cosmetic Augmentation Rhinoplasty for East Asians
Symmetric pocket formation and meticulous implant carving are the most critical parts of nasal dorsal augmentation using implants. Innovative three-dimensional printed nasal implants can exactly fit the nasal dorsal contour, decreasing the chance of deviation and malpositioning. Vertically oriented folded dermal graft technique can avoid the high resorption rate of conventional dermofat grafts. Multilayered costal cartilage graft technique for dorsal augmentation can minimize warping and difficulty in the graft carving. Derotation graft allows supple and movable nasal tip while enabling enough tip lengthening, even if the ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Man-Koon SUH Source Type: research

Facial Plastic Surgery for the Non-Caucasian Population
Unlike other surgery aimed at removing tumor or inflammation, facial plastic surgery is unique in that the anatomic characteristics of the patients largely determine the very success of the surgical outcome. The ultimate goal of facial plastic surgery is changing the anatomic structure of the face in ways favored by the subjects or general population. General anatomic differences between ethnicities have tremendous importance in planning and executing various facial plastic surgery procedures. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Yong Ju Jang Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Cosmetic Bone-Contouring Surgery for Asians
The major needs for cosmetic facial bone surgery come from anatomic differences in facial shape and in personal preference. Especially when consulting patients with different national or ethnic backgrounds, careful attention should be paid during consultation for the ideal or desirable facial shape that they have in mind. Patients generally seek a slim and smooth-contoured face. Surgery of the cosmetic facial bone has developed from surgical experiences in facial bone trauma and congenital anomalies. A limited approach is recommended for satisfactory aesthetic outcome. Surgeons should understand the basic procedures of L-s...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sanghoon Park Source Type: research

Facial Plastic Surgery Procedures in the Non-Caucasian Population
Most of the literature and the instructional information publications regarding facial plastic surgery procedures has historically been from North American or European sources. Because of that history, much of the focus and development of clinical surgical information and facial plastic procedures has been described utilizing a Caucasian patient base. However, there has been tremendous growth and expansion internationally in the interest in facial plastic procedures, and accordingly, the ethnic patient population base has greatly expanded. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Facial Plastic Surgery Procedures in the Non-Caucasian Population
FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Yong Ju Jang Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
J. REGAN THOMAS, MD (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
J. Regan Thomas (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Modern Approaches to Facial and Athletic Injuries (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Lessons from Gracilis Free Tissue Transfer for Facial Paralysis
Outcomes following free gracilis muscle transfer have steadily improved during the past decade. Areas for continued improvement include re-creating natural smile vectors, improving midface symmetry, minimizing scarring, improving spontaneity, and increasing reliability using various neural sources. Outcome standardization, pooled data collection, and remote data acquisition methods will facilitate comparative effectiveness research and continued surgical advancements. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Matthew Q. Miller, Tessa A. Hadlock Source Type: research

Temporalis Tendon Transfer Versus Gracilis Free Muscle Transfer
Temporalis tendon transfer (T3) and gracilis free muscle transfer (GFMT) are popular techniques in lower facial rehabilitation when reinnervation techniques are unavailable. T3 involves a single-stage outpatient procedure resulting in immediate improvement in resting symmetry and a volitional smile. GFMT allows a spontaneous smile, customized vectors, and increased excursion but requires longer surgical time, a delay before movement, and specialized equipment. Ultimately, shared decision making between the clinician and patient should focus on the patient ’s goals and unique medical condition. (Source: Facial Plastic...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: G. Nina Lu, Patrick J. Byrne Source Type: research

Reinnervation with Selective Nerve Grafting from Multiple Donor Nerves
Nerve substitution is an important tool in facial reanimation. The goal is to reinnervate the distal facial nerve and musculature using an alternative cranial nerve in order to achieve facial movement, symmetry, and tone. Multiple donor nerves have been used for nerve transfer procedures, the most common being hypoglossal, masseteric, and cross-facial nerve graft. Each donor nerve has its advantages and disadvantages. Multiinnervation uses the use of multiple donor nerves in order to leverage the benefits while balancing the pitfalls of each nerve. The nerve transfer depends on the type of nerve injury, time since injury, ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Shiayin F. Yang, Jennifer C. Kim Source Type: research

Dual Nerve Transfer for Facial Reanimation
This article describes a method of performing a dual nerve transfer procedure and provides illustrative cases for analysis and discussion. Clinical indications, technical pearls, and pitfalls are discussed. Dual nerve transfer for facial reanimation efficiently combines the strengths of the hypoglossal and masseteric nerve transfers and builds on existing nerve transfer techniques. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Tyler S. Okland, Jon-Paul Pepper Source Type: research

Modified Selective Neurectomy
All patients with postparalytic facial paralysis are at risk of developing synkinesis due to aberrant nerve regeneration. Synkinesis can result in smile dysfunction, tension, and eyelid aperture narrowing due to overactive and uncoordinated muscle activity. When the synkinesis causes an asymmetric smile, there are several treatment modalities including neurotoxin, neuromuscular retraining, and surgery. Modified selective neurectomy of the facial nerve is a treatment option that potentially can improve the smile mechanism by reducing the activity of counterproductive facial muscles while preserving the natural neural pathwa...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Babak Azizzadeh, Nikolaus Hjelm Source Type: research

Dual Innervation of Free Functional Muscle Flaps in Facial Paralysis
Dual innervation in free muscle flap facial reanimation has been used to create a functional synergy between the powerful commissure excursion that can be achieved with the masseter nerve and the spontaneity that can be derived from a cross-face nerve graft. The gracilis has been the most frequently used muscle flap, and multiple combinations of neurorrhaphies have been described, including the masseter to the obturator (end-to-end) combined with a cross-face nerve graft to the obturator (end-to-side) and vice versa. Single and staged approaches have been reported. Minimally, dual innervation is as effective as using the m...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Michael J. Klebuc, Amy S. Xue, Andres F. Doval Source Type: research

Eyelid Coupling Using a Modified Tarsoconjunctival Flap in Facial Paralysis
Eyelid coupling using the modified tarsoconjunctival flap is an effective treatment for paralytic ectropion. Eyelid position and quality of life can be improved in patients with flaccid facial paralysis using these eyelid coupling procedures. The modified tarsoconjunctival flap can obscure the lateral visual field by coupling the eyelids, but without distortion of the canthal angle and eyelid margin. The procedure is often coupled with a lateral canthoplasty or canthopexy to address horizontal laxity of the lower eyelid. Collecting standardized outcome measures will help establish the ideal treatment paradigm of paralytic ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Raj D. Dedhia, Taha Z. Shipchandler, Travis T. Tollefson Source Type: research

Perceptions of Patients with Facial Paralysis
The goal of this article is to better understand the social impact of facial paralysis. Patients with facial paralysis may suffer from impaired social interactions, disruption of self-concept, psychological distress, and decreased overall quality of life. Vigilance in detecting patients suffering from mental health issues may result in providing early referral for psychological evaluation and psychosocial support resources complementing facial reanimation treatment. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sofia Lyford-Pike, Jason C. Nellis Source Type: research

Strategies to Improve Cross-Face Nerve Grafting in Facial Paralysis
Cross-face nerve grafting enables the reanimation of the contralateral hemiface in unilateral facial palsy and may recover a spontaneous smile. This chapter discusses various clinically applicable strategies to increase the chances for good functional outcomes by maintaining the viability of the neural pathway and target muscle, increasing the number of reinnervating nerve fibers and selecting functionally compatible donor nerve branches. Adopting those strategies may help to further improve patient outcomes in facial reanimation surgery. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Simeon C. Daeschler, Ronald Zuker, Gregory H. Borschel Source Type: research

Static Sling Options for Facial Paralysis
This article discusses available options for static reanimations to address the eye complex, midface, and mouth. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Almoaidbellah Rammal, John Yoo, Damir Matic Source Type: research

Corneal and Facial Sensory Neurotization in Trigeminal Anesthesia
This article summarizes contemporary medical and emerging surgical approaches for the therapeutic management of this rare and devastating disease state. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Nate Jowett, Roberto Pineda Source Type: research

Treating Nasal Valve Collapse in Facial Paralysis
Patients with facial paralysis require a systematic zonal assessment. One frequently overlooked region is the effect of facial paralysis on nasal airflow. Patients with flaccid paralysis experience increased weight of the cheek and loss of muscle tone in the ala and sidewall; this significantly contributes to nasal valve narrowing and collapse. These specific findings are often not adequately corrected with traditional functional rhinoplasty-grafting techniques. Flaccid paralysis typically results in inferomedial displacement of the alar base, which must be restored with suspension techniques to fully treat the nasal obstr...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jason D. Pou, Krishna G. Patel, Samuel L. Oyer Source Type: research

Facial Reanimation and Reconstruction of the Radical Parotidectomy
This article describes a comprehensive strategy, includes the use of the anterolateral thigh free flap, the temporalis regional muscle transfer, motor nerve to vastus lateralis grafts, nerve to masseter transfer, and fascia lata grafts for static suspension. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Abel P. David, Rahul Seth, Philip Daniel Knott Source Type: research

Steps Forward: Contemporary Treatment of Facial Paralysis
The treatment of facial paralysis is demanding and multifaceted and is a collaborative surgical effort that requires both surgical innovation and rigorous assessment of outcomes. Although there are certainly patterns in patient presentation, patients with facial paralysis often have unique mixtures of clinical problems. As such, no single procedure can claim reliable and comprehensive restoration of normal movement in all cases. It is perhaps for this reason that surgical treatment of facial paralysis is such a dynamic area, with continuous surgical refinement and new techniques. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jon-Paul Pepper, Travis T. Tollefson Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Steps Forward: Contemporary Treatment of Facial Paralysis
Facial paralysis has a dramatic effect on the patient ’s self-image and well-being, their social interaction, and multiple aspects of facial function, creating a variety of clinical issues. Treatment and correction of facial paralysis is an extremely important, although often complicated, component of facial plastic surgery. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Facial Paralysis
FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jon-Paul Pepper, Travis T. Tollefson Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
J. REGAN THOMAS, MD (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
J. Regan Thomas (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Facial Plastic Surgery Procedures in the Non-Caucasian Population (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 1, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Upper Blepharoplasty – Nuances for Success
Given the central importance of the “eyes,” meaning the periorbital region, to facial appearance, the motivated blepharoplasty patient has the opportunity to improve appearance significantly beyond the minimum of age reversal, to reveal inner beauty or add attractiveness. Bright and beautiful eyes have good three-dimensional conto uring. The benefits of a quality eyelid crease enable the surgical focus to be on lid contouring with a reduced requirement for lid skin and fat excision. A durable crease maintains fixation of both the tarsal and infrabrow segments. The softness of youthful eyes can be regained by pr...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Bryan C. Mendelson, Chin-Ho Wong Source Type: research

Eyelid and Periorbital Dermal Fillers
A retrospective observational case study and a literature review were conducted to evaluate how anatomic findings, especially those related to the periorbital zone, serve as a guiding compass for injectable implants. Treatment techniques and product selection will be discussed for patients with negative vector, shallow orbit, and deep set eyes. Versatility of injectables will be demonstrated on patients with peanut face, iatrogenically altered anatomy (after surgery), and trauma. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jos é Raúl Montes, Elizabeth Santos, Claudia Amaral Source Type: research

Transconjunctival Lower Lid Blepharoplasty with and Without Fat Preservation and Skin Resurfacing
Transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty is a safe and effective procedure with a low complication rate. Success with this procedure depends on proper patient analysis and selection. The lower lid periorbital fat can be resected, or preserved, and draped over the orbital rim or used as free fat grafts, depending on the clinical presentation. The lower lid skin can be resurfaced with a peel, with a laser, or by skin pinch depending on surgeon preference. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Deniz Sarhaddi, Farzad R. Nahai, Foad Nahai Source Type: research

The Spectrum of Aesthetic Canthal Suspension
Aesthetic canthal suspension can be an effective adjunct to lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Understanding the anatomy and function of the lateral canthal tendon is critical for preoperative evaluation and surgical decision making. In this article, the authors discuss the lateral canthal terminology, anatomy, and aging changes. Various canthal suspension procedures, including open and closed canthal suspension, commissure sparing open canthoplasty, and canthopexy, are described. Finally, the preoperative evaluation, postoperative course, and complications of surgery are reviewed. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Yao Wang, John B. Holds, Raymond S. Douglas, Guy G. Massry Source Type: research

The Treatment of Post-blepharoplasty Lower Eyelid Retraction
Numerous solutions for post-blepharoplasty lower eyelid retraction are reviewed. Patients require permanent recruitment of skin and soft tissue to lengthen the lower eyelid and control of the lower eyelid shape. The authors use a hand-carved expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) implant held with microscrews to provide volume and felting material at the orbital rim and to permanently fix vertically lifted cheek soft tissue into the lower eyelid. The eyelid margin is also controlled with a hard palate graft inset into the conjunctival surface below the tarsus. This eyelid reconstruction avoids tension on the lateral cant...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kenneth D. Steinsapir, Samantha Steinsapir Source Type: research

Nonsurgical Light and Energy –Based Devices
Periorbital rejuvenation is a common reason for patients to seek cosmetic treatment. There are several nonsurgical light and energy –based devices available to treat various aspects of periorbital rejuvenation without risks of an invasive, surgical procedure. Although ablative laser resurfacing appears to offer the most impressive clinical improvements, nonablative devices result in noticeable cosmetic improvement with more fa vorable side-effect profiles and shorter recovery times. The specific modality selected for periorbital rejuvenation should be tailored to patients’ individual characteristics, preference...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kerry Heitmiller, Christina Ring, Nazanin Saedi, Brian Biesman Source Type: research

Transcutaneous Blepharoplasty with Volume Preservation
We present the indications, advantages, and technique for volumizing transcutaneous lower blepharoplasty with fat transposition. The absolute and relative contraindications to transcutaneous surgery are discussed, and surgical details of transconjunctival blepharoplasty with fat repositioning and autologous fat grafting as alternative approaches are included. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Andrew A. Jacono Source Type: research

Complications of Periocular Dermal Fillers
Dermal fillers, in particular hyaluronic acid gel (HAG) fillers, are used in the treatment of aging changes in the periocular area. Filler treatment requires in-depth knowledge of specific issues relating to product performance and administration, safety protocols, and recognition and treatment of complications. There are different approaches to treatment of the tear trough. Prior filler treatment must be suspected in patients presenting for aesthetic evaluation, and the possibility of migration with a dysmorphic appearance and/or Tyndall effect appearance always is kept in mind. Treatment with hyaluronidase injection gene...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Yao Wang, Guy Massry, John B. Holds Source Type: research

Blindness After Filler Injection
This article focuses on the mechanism of filler-associated blindness, possible treatments, and future directions. Unfortunately, to date there is no proven treatment to reverse filler-induced blindness or visual compromise. It is essential for all injectors to discuss the potential ocular risks including blindness with their patients and obtain informed consent before filler injection. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Catherine J. Hwang, Brian H. Chon, Julian D. Perry Source Type: research

Periorbital Fat Grafting
Fat grafting represents the most important new addition to surgical procedures to rejuvenate the orbit since the inception of the “blepharoplasty” technique. Traditional blepharoplasty procedures do not always address the changes that occur with age in the orbital area and can actually degrade the appearance of the eye. Fat grafting allows treatment of age-associated loss of periorbital volume not addressed by traditional blepharoplasty procedures. Fat grafting is an artistically powerful method to rejuvenate the periorbital orbital area that often provides a more healthy, fit, youthful, and sensual appearance ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Timothy Marten, Dino Elyassnia Source Type: research

The Prominent Eye —What to Watch Out For
Globe prominence (proptosis) may be caused by a variety of congenital or acquired conditions and poses unique challenges to aesthetic and reconstructive surgery. Once the underlying cause of proptosis is determined, a treatment plan consisting of surgical and medical procedures can be formed. Thyroid eye disease is the most common cause of proptosis and helps guide treatment options for proptosis. Although common eyelid and orbital procedures are used for proptosis correction, special care must be taken due to the unique difficulties of the distorted anatomy. Various surgical procedures and less invasive treatments can be ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Hannah Landsberger, Yao Wang, Raymond S. Douglas Source Type: research

Treatment Options for Lower Eyelid Festoons
Festoons represent a combination of fluid accumulation and soft tissue laxity in the superolateral cheek. They remain a difficult entity to treat. The ideal treatment for festoons would possess minimal invasiveness and recovery time, and predictably improve the condition. No nonsurgical treatment currently meets these criteria, and surgical treatments have significant limitations. Fortunately, a variety of treatment options exist that can benefit each patient and be tailored to their specific needs. Knowledge of the underlying anatomy, clinical characteristics, and clinical evaluation will better equip the treating physici...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 25, 2021 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Brian H. Chon, Catherine J. Hwang, Julian D. Perry Source Type: research