Management of Postsurgical Empty Nose Syndrome
Empty nose syndrome (ENS) is a controversial condition associated with disruption of nasal airflow caused by excessive loss of turbinate tissue. ENS arises after total or near-total inferior turbinate resection. Patients present with intense fixation on the perception of nasal obstruction. Diagnostic tools to assess for empty nose syndrome include a validated patient questionnaire and the office cotton test. Treatment involves topical moisturization, behavioral/psychiatric assessment/treatment, and surgical reconstruction. Current data show promising long-term efficacy after surgical intervention. Postprocedural ENS is bes...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jason Talmadge, Jayakar V. Nayak, William Yao, Martin J. Citardi Source Type: research

Treatment Protocol for Compromised Nasal Skin
This article discusses prevention, early recognition, and effective treatment that aim to mitigate skin necrosis and the resulting soft tissue destruction. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Julia L. Kerolus, Paul S. Nassif Source Type: research

Neck Deformities in Plastic Surgery
This article provides facial plastic surgeons with the insight to avoid and address common pitfalls in neck procedures. Many aesthetic issues are created from overtreatment or undertreatment of components of the neck. Using the platysma muscle as the divide, ease of access to superficial anatomy leads to overtreatment problems, whereas difficulty of access to deeper structures leads to undertreatment problems and to overall imbalances. Strategies to accurately assess and treat all structures of the neck proportionally can be used to both avoid and treat any neck aesthetic issues. The advent of minimally invasive techniques...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Neil A. Gordon, Boris Paskhover, Jacob I. Tower, Thomas Gerald O ’Daniel Source Type: research

Filler-Associated Vision Loss
This article discusses the complications of vision loss associated with fillers and reviews applicable treatment techniques and prevention methods. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ann Q. Tran, Patrick Staropoli, Andrew J. Rong, Wendy W. Lee Source Type: research

Management of Lip Complications
This article discusses complications that may occur after procedures on the lips, specifically focusing on injectable fillers. Evidence-based guidelines and suggested methods to manage these complications are presented in a systematic format. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Amar Gupta, Philip J. Miller Source Type: research

Tips to Avoid Complications Following Mohs Reconstruction
To avoid complications or bad results following reconstruction of skin cancer defects, there are several factors that can be incorporated into the design and execution of repairs. These techniques not only decrease the need to correct bad results, they improve the final aesthetic and functional outcome. So although one surgeon might focus on standard corrective treatments, another might use elements of flap design and implementation that will decrease the need for such corrective procedures. We discuss 4 useful reconstructive repairs and delineate the properties of design and execution that help to ensure success and avoid...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Andrew J. Kaufman Source Type: research

Management of Surgical Scars
This article discusses techniques for prevention and treatment options for unsightly and hypertrophic scars. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Grace Lee Peng, Julia L. Kerolus Source Type: research

Revision Facial Plastic Surgery: Correcting Bad Results
All facial plastic surgery procedures and treatment modalities have potentially unintended outcomes, possible poor results, or complications. These issues should be minimized through proper preoperative planning, patient selection, and careful technique. However, even in the experience of well-trained and appropriately careful surgeons, complications can and do occur. Planning for correction of these unexpected and unfortunate situations should be part of the expertise and patient management methodology for all facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons ’ skill sets and patient care approaches. (Source: Facial Plasti...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Revision Facial Plastic Surgery: Correcting Bad Results
FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Paul S. Nassif, Julia L. Kerolus Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
J. REGAN THOMAS, MD, FACS (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
J. Regan Thomas (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Update of Today's Facial Skin Rejuvenation Technology (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - October 4, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Correction of Nasal Pinching
The pinched nasal tip deformity often results as sequelae of prior nasal surgery. Conventional tip surgery techniques that overemphasize tip narrowing often deform the lateral crura and weaken support for the alar margin. The pinched nasal tip is characterized by the demarcation between the nasal tip and the alar lobule, isolating the tip from the surrounding nasal subunits. Lateral crural strut grafts with or without repositioning offer the surgeon a powerful maneuver that can help correct this functional and aesthetic deformity and restore a natural appearance to the nasal tip. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 3, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ari J. Hyman, Sarah Khayat, Dean M. Toriumi Source Type: research

Postsurgical Alar Retraction
The cephalic trim technique is a popular maneuver that often leads to tip deformities, most notably postsurgical alar retraction (PSAR). We advocate using the external rhinoplasty approach to correct PSAR by (1) releasing and repositioning the retracted alar margin, (2) strengthening and immobilizing the central tip complex using a septal extension graft, (3) suspending and longitudinally tightening the mobilized lateral crural remnant by adjusting crural length to match the sidewall span, and (4) providing direct skeletal support to the repositioned alar margin using articulated alar rim grafts. Using this structural trea...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 3, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Wee Tin K. Kao, Richard E. Davis Source Type: research

Common Complications in Rhytidectomy
Complications of rhytidectomy are well known, yet often preventable. A thorough preoperative history and physical along with realistic patient expectations provide the surgeon and patient with insight into potential complications and postoperative management. Understanding of surgical pitfalls and avoidance are crucial in beginning to manage facelift complications. Possible complications of facelift techniques should not discourage surgeons from pursuing a particular technique as the majority of complications are temporary. Though, a strong patient-physician relationship is critical when complications occur. Complications ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 3, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Robert T. Cristel, Leslie E. Irvine Source Type: research

Correcting Bad Results in Facial Plastic Surgery
Aesthetic procedures of the face and neck are increasing in popularity with emergence of innovative techniques and a shift in the social stigma of plastic surgery. With this rise, we are seeing an onslaught of patients with poor results or significant complications following cosmetic operations. Although knowledge of potential risks in aesthetic surgery is abundant, comprehensive information on management of these complications is lacking. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 3, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Julia L. Kerolus, Paul S. Nassif Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Complications Associated with Fat Grafting to the Lower Eyelid
Fat grafting is effectively used in the lower eyelid and periorbital area for rejuvenation of the aging face. Several complications may occur with fat grafting, including volume undercorrection or overcorrection, contour irregularities, prolonged bruising and swelling, infection, granulomas and inflammation, and vascular embolization with visual loss or stroke. In many cases, complications can be effectively treated, although permanent and serious injury can occur. Appropriate surgical techniques help to prevent most of these complications. An understanding of how and why complications of fat grafting of the lower eyelid o...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - August 30, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Robi N. Maamari, Guy G. Massry, John Bryan Holds Source Type: research

Approach to Correction of Septal Perforation
Iatrogenic septal perforation is a complication of nasal surgery. Small or posterior perforations cause few symptoms, and need only conservative treatment. Larger and anterior perforations contribute to nasal airflow disturbances and external nasal deformities. When considering surgical candidacy, one should consider the severity of symptoms, location and size of the perforation, and need for revsional rhinoplasty. We repair perforations using intranasal mucosal advancement flaps augmented by an interposition connective tissue graft. Septal perforation repairs are tedious and technically challenging. We review key points t...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - August 30, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Russell W.H. Kridel, Sean W. Delaney Source Type: research

Correction of the Over-resected Nose
Overzealous reduction during rhinoplasty may result in manifold functional as well as aesthetic injuries to the nose and is a prevailing antecedent of revision rhinoplasty. Although challenges for the revision rhinoplasty surgeon abound, careful assessment of the anatomic deficiencies of the nose, accurate evaluation and management of a patient ’s expectations, and precise planning and execution of surgical technique serve to facilitate a successful result. Contemporary techniques for correction of the over-resected nose are discussed, with special attention directed toward costal cartilage grafting and diced cartila...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - August 30, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Abdul Nassimizadeh, Mohammad Nassimizadeh, Jinli Wu, Donald B. Yoo Source Type: research

Management of Postblepharoplasty Lower Eyelid Retraction
This article reviews the typical presentation, outlines the steps of standard surgery, and touches on other modalities of treatment that may improve patient satisfaction. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - August 30, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Amy Patel, Yao Wang, Guy Massry Source Type: research

Microfat and Nanofat
Facial fat transfer has evolved from simple grafting techniques to smaller lobule (microfat) and adipose-derived stem cell (nanofat) injection techniques. These new methods look to overcome the early limitations of facial fat transfer while meeting increased demand and understanding of the role of volume loss in facial aging. The purpose of this article is to review basic principles of microfat and nanofat and demonstrate one technique for their application. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jordan Rihani Source Type: research

The Benefits of Platelet-Rich Fibrin
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is a next-generation autologous platelet therapy with immense potential in several medical fields. In cosmetic medicine, for example, PRF is useful in wound healing and skin rejuvenation as a primary and a supplemental technique owing to its fibrin matrix, cellular components, and prolonged release of growth factors. PRF is simple to obtain, inexpensive, and may be administered topically, injected, or in conjunction with other esthetic procedures. In this regard, PRF possesses diverse, and increasingly pertinent capacities in esthetic medicine and surgery. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kian Karimi, Helena Rockwell Source Type: research

What ’s New in Facial Hair Transplantation?
This article describes the techniques refined in facial hair transplantation. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Anthony Bared Source Type: research

The Critical Role of Nutrition in Facial Plastic Surgery
Nutrition plays a key role in optimizing healing following surgery. The increased catabolic state postoperatively, coupled with a propensity for patients to be suffering from marginal nutritional deficiencies at baseline preoperatively, necessitates that the surgeon be attuned to the need for optimal perioperative nutritional support. This ensures the smoothest recovery and best possible outcomes in facial plastic surgery. Key nutrients include vitamin A, vitamin C, zinc, bromelain, arnica montana, arginine, glutamine, hydrolyzed collagen, vitamin B complex, and protein. The ability for patients to obtain this optimal supp...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Fr édérick Laliberté, Ilan Bloom, Ashlin J. Alexander Source Type: research

Platelet-Rich Plasma for Skin Rejuvenation
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained popularity in facial plastic surgery because of its role in wound healing. PRP, having a higher concentration of platelets, allows for greater release of growth factors and biologically active proteins, which in turn activates the wound-healing cascade stimulating neoangiogenesis and collagen production. One of the most popular uses for PRP is for facial skin rejuvenation in the form of dermal injections and topical application during microneedling. The promising nature of PRP makes using it for injection and/or in conjunction with microneedling a good addition to any practice that dea...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Grace Lee Peng Source Type: research

Autologous Fat Harvest and Preparation for Optimal Predictable Outcomes
This article discusses the role of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in mitigating tissue loss in grafting. Discrepancies among common practice and recent study results have propagated uncertainty with long-term results. Fortunately, recent increases in the understanding of these MSCs are leading providers to identify statistically more favorable tissue donor sites, harvest technique, and preparation methods to increase their concentration in transferred tissue. Future studies are needed to support or confound the long-term effects of MSC transfer on facial fat grafting. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Christian H. Barnes, Corey S. Maas Source Type: research

New Trends and Technologies in Facial Plastic Surgery
FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jason D. Bloom Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
J. REGAN THOMAS, MD (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
J. Regan Thomas (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Revision Facial Plastic Surgery: Correcting Bad Results (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - July 5, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Renuvion/J-Plasma for Subdermal Skin Tightening Facial Contouring and Skin Rejuvenation of the Face and Neck
The Renuvion/J-Plasma helium based plasma device from Apyx Medical has technological features that result in a unique and effective method of action for the contraction of subdermal soft tissue. The device achieves soft tissue contraction by instantly heating tissue to temperatures greater than 85 °C for between 0.040 and 0.080 seconds. The tissue surrounding the treatment site remains at much cooler temperatures resulting in rapid cooling of the tissue through conductive heat transfer. Compared to bulk tissue heating devices, this method of action results in effective soft tissue contractio n with a lower risk of inju...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 21, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Richard D. Gentile Source Type: research

Radiofrequency Microneedling
Radiofrequency (RF) skin rejuvenation is improved using RF microneedling (RFM) devices. More aggressive treatments are performed safely with minimal downtime than previous RF devices. Optimizing treatment parameters is essential for safety and efficacy. Multiple RFM studies support minimal risks even in dark skin types. RFM has been used to treat acne scarring successfully as well as skin laxity and hyperhidrosis. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 21, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Steven F. Weiner Source Type: research

Relevant Topical Skin Care Products for Prevention and Treatment of Aging Skin
Options for skin care are varied. New products are introduced constantly and it is important for the practitioner to have an understanding of products that impart beneficial results for aging skin. Educating patients to use products with scientifically proven benefits leads to better outcomes. Patients should be encouraged to use daily sunscreen, a topical retinoid every night, and a topical antioxidant daily. Supplementing the routine skin care regimen with alpha hydroxy acids, growth factors, heparin sulfate, and defensins can be addressed individually. Exogenous stem cells do not have sufficient evidence to warrant reco...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 21, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sarmela Sunder Source Type: research

The Modified Upper Lip Lift
This article details an easily reproducible deep-plane technique that can be applied to patients of all ages, ethnicities, and skin types. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 17, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Benjamin Talei Source Type: research

Advanced Techniques in Nonsurgical Rhinoplasty
For a multitude of reasons, facial plastic surgeons should be adept and comfortable with nonsurgical rhinoplasty. An intimate knowledge of nasal vascular anatomy, filler choice, and proper placement can make this a safe, effective, and long-lasting treatment. Basic techniques include dorsal augmentation and camouflaging of a dorsal hump. Advanced maneuvers are also possible, including increasing tip rotation and projection, straightening the nose, lowering alar rims, and potentially the improvement of nasal function. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 17, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Umang Mehta, Zachary Fridirici Source Type: research

Percutaneous Radiofrequency Technologies for the Lower Face and Neck
The aging neck is one of the most common motivations for patients to seek aesthetic rejuvenation. Increasingly, patients are desiring less invasive aesthetic treatments with less morbidity and downtime. Percutaneous radiofrequency technologies have been recently introduced for cervical rejuvenation. These technologies safely and effectively apply energy directly into the subdermal space, targeting the upper dermal collagen network, the deeper fascial layer, and the fibrofatty septum that anchors the dermis to the deep fascia. Significant skin tightening and fat reduction have been reported with these technologies, beyond t...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Garrett D. Locketz, Jason D. Bloom Source Type: research

Silhouette Instalift
Absorbable suture suspension is one of the newest minimally invasive treatment trends for lifting and repositioning ptotic facial tissue. The Silhouette Instalift is a convenient in-office procedure that provides a unique and advanced clinical treatment for a natural looking midfacial lift. Research has shown that most patients characterized the Silhouette Instalift as immediately effective and were pleased by enhancements. The procedure has an improved safety and efficacy profile over the predecessor, barbed suture thread lifting, coupled with reduced risk of complications and recovery time compared with rhytidectomy. Abs...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Kaete A. Archer, Roberto Eloy Garcia Source Type: research

A Bioabsorbable Lateral Nasal Wall Stent for Dynamic Nasal Valve Collapse
Nasal obstruction is one of the most common clinical problems encountered by otolaryngologists and facial plastic surgeons. Lateral wall insufficiency (LWI) is a key anatomic contributor to nasal obstruction. Traditional techniques for correcting LWI include alar batten grafts, bone-anchored sutures, and lateral crural strut grafts. Latera is an absorbable nasal implant that can be inserted in the office or the operating room as an adjunctive procedure for LWI. The purpose of this review is to discuss Latera, a novel bioabsorbable implant to improve the nasal airway. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Akshay Sanan, Sam P. Most Source Type: research

Social Media Marketing in Facial Plastic Surgery
Social media is becoming one of the main avenues for direct consumer marketing. Patients use social media to find surgeons and to communicate about procedures, outcomes, and their experiences. A surgeon ’s social media presence can dramatically increase their perception of being an expert and showcase to patients their style and approach. There is no single best social network, instead various networks exist with unique characteristics that each have the potential to drive traffic to a practice. Social media can be potentially hazardous for patients and surgeons if misused. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 16, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Laxmeesh Mike Nayak, Gary Linkov Source Type: research

Emerging Trends, Techniques, and Technologies in Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
This is a very exciting time for facial plastic surgery and aesthetic and cosmetic medicine. The market as a whole continues to grow by leaps and bounds each year, and facial plastic surgeons are at the forefront of innovation, clinical practice, and research with respect to the industry ’s growth. It is increasingly important for facial plastic surgeons to continue to stay informed of the research and clinical efforts that are taking place in this field because novel technologies and innovations are fueling advances in the profession. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 12, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jason D. Bloom Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Emerging Trends, Techniques, and Technologies in Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Our specialty of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is in a period of active and innovative change in technology as well as in techniques. The Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America is pleased to present to our readership this issue, which focuses on those changes as presented by our guest editor, Jason Bloom, MD, and his contributing authors. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 12, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Hormonal, Medical, and Nonsurgical Aspects of Gender Affirmation
This article reviews essential terminology and concepts relevant to discussions of gender and gender identity, practical tips for changes that can be made on the clinical and institutional levels in order to create a welcoming and safe environment for transgender patients, as well as current recommendations for the provision of gender-affirming medical therapy. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 31, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Ronni Hayon, Kristin Stevenson Source Type: research

Hair Transplantation Techniques for the Transgender Patient
This article delineates an experience in the role hair restoration plays for transgender patients and outlines a surgical approach for these hair restoration procedures. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 31, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Anthony Bared, Jeffrey S. Epstein Source Type: research

Feminization of the Chin
Chin reshaping can provide a more identifiable female appearance for transitioning male to female patients undergoing facial feminization. The “sliding” genioplasty has the most potential for dramatically reshaping the chin, while also avoiding many of the issues that may occur with implants. A chin should be evaluated radiologically and by physical examination to determine what changes should be made to any particular chin. When perfo rming osseous genioplasty, the mental nerve can be protected by performing any osteotomies at least 6 mm below the inferior border of the mental nerve canal. (Source: Facial...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 31, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jordan Deschamps-Braly Source Type: research

Gender-confirming Rhinoplasty
Most surgeons who are not routinely treating gender dysphoric patients are more likely to see an isolated rhinoplasty consultation rather than a request for full facial gender confirmation surgery (FGCS). Different from other aspects of FGCS, the surgical basis of rhinoplasty is almost the same as for the cisgender population. Despite technical overlap, the care for patients seeking rhinoplasty for the indication of gender dysphoria vastly differs from that for the cisgender population. This review includes comments on gender norms and outline considerations for the preoperative work-up and operative execution as well as a...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 31, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jens Urs Berli, Myriam Loyo Source Type: research

Chondrolaryngoplasty —Thyroid Cartilage Reduction
Chondrolaryngoplasty, also known as tracheal shave, is a surgical procedure performed for a prominent Adam ’s apple, usually in transfeminine patients with gender dysphoria to this marker of male sex. Although laryngeal anatomy is complex, knowledge of landmarks and techniques discussed in this article results in a safe procedure with rare complications and improvement in quality of life. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 31, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Angela Sturm, Scott R. Chaiet Source Type: research

Exploring Facial Gender Affirmation Surgery
Gender dysphoria (formerly gender identity disorder) is defined by strong, persistent feelings of identification with the opposite gender and discomfort with one's own assigned sex that results in significant distress or impairment. With the transgender population now exceeding 25 million globally, there has been an increasing need to provide gender affirming care. This increased awareness looks to address gender dysphoria in a comprehensive manner, which encompasses the spectrum from mental health, hormone replacement, and surgical intervention. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 31, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Michael T. Somenek Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Facial Gender Affirmation Surgery
A key component for those individuals who have elected to undergo procedures to address gender dysmorphia is facial modification surgery. Gender dysphoria may cause people to experience major stress and impairment on social and personal levels. For these individuals, gender role changing, including surgery, may permit their outside appearance to match what they feel internally. Gender dysmorphia, previously referred to as gender identity disorder, often is assisted through the skills and procedures provided by facial plastic surgery. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 31, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research