Evaluating, Purchasing, and Incorporating High-Tech Equipment into a Facial Plastic Surgery Practice
In this article the authors discuss and analyze technological devices also known as energy-based devices and their use in skin rejuvenation, facial contouring, skin tightening, and other applications in facial plastic surgery. Energy has been applied in some form to tissue since the beginning of recorded history. The practice of applying heat to tissue with the use of cauters was used for thousands of years as an invaluable method of controlling hemorrhage. Continuous improvement of methods for using the beneficial effects of heat on tissue eventually led to the development of the basic concepts of electrosurgery we know t...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 14, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Richard D. Gentile Source Type: research

From “Hello to Goodbye”—Guiding the Patient of Her Journey Through Facial Rejuvenation Surgery
This article is the author’s philosophy and method of guiding his patients through their journey of rejuvenative facial surgery based on 44 years of experience. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 9, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: William H. Truswell Source Type: research

Psychiatric Disorders in Facial Plastic Surgery
Body dysmorphic disorder and borderline personality disorder are common in esthetic practices and occur in up to 15% of patients. Operating on these patients may not only lead to dissatisfaction but may also worsen their premorbid condition and can induce negative behavior toward the practice. Preventing surgery and referring patients for cognitive therapy is essential. An adequate understanding of these conditions and the available screening tools is indispensable for all esthetic practitioners. Unrealistic emotional attribution to a facial shape, multiple procedures, a near-normal nose at the outset, childhood trauma, mu...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 9, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Casper Candido (Capi) Wever, Ana Maria Elisabeth (Anita) Wever, Mark Constantian Source Type: research

The Art of Teaching, Training, and Putting the Scalpel in Residents ’ Hands
Surgical education is under tremendous pressure due to ever-increasing medical knowledge and demands on trainees ’ time. They must continually learn more in less time due to work hour limitations, regulations, and electronic medical record demands. Surgical training must become more efficient. There is an unprecedented array of education and training opportunities for resident preparation. The preparation fo r each case has to be maximal. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative simulation and discussions improve the educational benefit of the trainee experience. For the teaching surgeon, putting a scalpel in ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 9, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sherard Austin Tatum Source Type: research

Recognizing and Managing Complications in Laser Resurfacing, Chemical Peels, and Dermabrasion
Skin resurfacing techniques allow improvement of skin texture and color. This includes the effacement of wrinkles, signs of photoaging, and the softening of scars. Laser resurfacing, chemical peels, and dermabrasion are associated with overlapping risks of complications. The most common of these include infection, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentation, and scarring. Patient evaluation helps provide treatment that gives the maximal benefit with a minimization of risks. This includes understanding the extent of each patient ’s issues (Glogau scale) and Fitzpatrick type. A thorough knowledge of potential risks will reduce...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 9, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Mark M. Hamilton, Richard Kao Source Type: research

Day-to-Day Challenges in Facial Plastic Surgery
This issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America addresses unique but important and very practical issues that confront facial plastic surgeons practicing in today ’s contemporary environment. A useful range of pragmatic articles presenting suggestions for dealing with a variety of challenges facing todays practitioners is presented. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 9, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Day-to-Day Challenges in Facial Plastic Surgery
Facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons ’ professional lives are first consumed with starting a practice, academic or private, building the practice, and being facial plastic surgeons. We live our lives as experts in our chosen field. However, there are many issues that arise sometimes suddenly to startle us, other times lingering in th e background waiting for attention. The articles in this issue of the Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America explore many day-to-day problems that are often overlooked, seldom formerly taught, but present challenges to the smooth running of our practices. (Source: Facial P...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - September 9, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: William H. Truswell Tags: Preface Source Type: research

A Novel Volumizing Extended Deep-Plane Facelift
Traditional superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) facelifting surgery uses a laminar surgical dissection. This approach does not treat areas of facial volume loss, and requires additional volume supplementation with fat grafting or fillers. The novel volumizing extended deep-plane facelift uses a composite approach to the facelift flap. By incorporating a platysma myotomy in the extended deep-plane flap, a novel composite transposition flap can be created that revolumizes the posterior jawline, recreating a defined convex jawline of youth. Special attention is paid to the deep anatomy of the face, and the need for r...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Andrew A. Jacono Source Type: research

Nuances in Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Rhytidectomy
This article describes the nuances of SMAS rhytidectomy, the biplanar SMAS imbrication technique, and adjuvant procedures used. This biplanar SMAS technique has been refined over more than 25 years and has proved to be a reliable and safe technique that leads to high patient satisfaction with minimal complications. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Daniel E. Rousso, Austin S. Adams Source Type: research

Incorporating Fat Grafting with Facelift Surgery
Facial aging is a multifactorial process with many articles over decades supporting various theories of varying causes. It is generally thought that aging occurs as a combination of changes in skin quality, gravitational descent of tissue with interaction of retaining ligaments on the ptotic tissue, and facial volume loss or the appearance of volume loss. The most significant cause of volume loss is skeletal remodeling and bone loss, which manifests as characteristic shadows and hollows on the face in conjunction with soft tissue changes that are yet to be completely elucidated. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Edward D. Buckingham, Scott W. Smith Source Type: research

Local Anesthetic Facelift
A thorough medical history is critical in patient selection for local anesthesia facelifting. Patients with no prior issues with dental procedures and no history of significant anxiety are better candidates. Simplifying local anesthesia mixtures and using dilute concentrations will minimize dosing errors and decrease risk of local anesthesia toxicity. Oral anxiolytics can be used with caution to minimize patient anxiety. Pulse oximetry, telemetry, and blood pressure monitoring should be performed with any addition of oral or IV sedation/anxiolytic. The short-scar anterior facelift is ideal for local anesthesia due to the l...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Louis M. DeJoseph, Jason D. Pou Source Type: research

Face-Lift Surgical Techniques
In the modern era of face-lift surgery, our knowledge of facial anatomy and the advancement of technology have given the rhytidectomy surgeon the ability to deliver better than we could have conceived of years ago. This includes an advanced understanding of the anatomic basis of the aging process that occurs in the soft tissue planes of the face and neck, the superficial and deep fat compartments, and musculature of the face, that goes well beyond the discovery of the importance of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) by Mitz and Peyronie. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Andrew A. Jacono Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Face-Lift Surgical Techniques
Face-lift procedures have always exemplified the improvements that can be provided to patients through facial plastic surgery to surgeons as well as to the public in general. Variations in techniques have evolved through the years with some aspects of the surgery being emphasized and encouraged for periods of time and then to be overshadowed by alternative procedures by other surgeons over various time periods. At this point in time, 2 basic face-lift approaches, coupled with described variations, are utilized and advocated. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Facelift Surgical Techniques
FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY CLINICS (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Andrew A. Jacono Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
J. REGAN THOMAS, MD (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
J. Regan Thomas (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
Day-to-day Challenges in Facial Plastic Surgery (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - June 3, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

From the Deep-Plane Rhytidectomy to the Vertical Platysma Advancement
This article provides the facial plastic surgeon with anatomic and embryologic evidence supporting use of the deep-plane technique and understanding the evolution of the technique over decades to the vertical platysma advancement for optimal treatment of facial aging. The original description of the deep-plane rhytidectomy described a basic subsuperficial musculoaponeurotic system dissection in the midface. This plane of dissection provides access to deeper anatomic structures. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomic landmarks, technical nuances, ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 6, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Neil A. Gordon, Jacob I. Tower, Boris Paskhover Source Type: research

Incorporating Midline Platysmaplasty with Lateral Superficial Muscular Aponeurotic System Facelifting
This article reviews platysmal anatomy, indications for platysmaplasty, preoperative patient assessment, surgical technique for midline platysmaplasty, postoperative management, long-term outcomes, and the senior author ’s experience and philosophy on midline platysmaplasty in the setting of lateral superficial muscular aponeurotic system facelifting. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 6, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Deniz Gerecci, Elizabeth M. Floyd, Stephen W. Perkins Source Type: research

Subunit Approach to Facelifting and Facial Rejuvenation
This article discusses using the relationships of the facial anatomic subunits to obtain more consistent and natural facial rejuvenation outcomes. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 6, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Babak Azizzadeh, Rebecca Fitzgerald, Guy Massry, Erin Smith Source Type: research

Superficial and Deep Facial Anatomy and Its Implications for Rhytidectomy
This article details the anatomy of the midface and neck that is essential to understanding and performing the face-lift operation. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 6, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jonathan M. Sykes, Kiersten L. Riedler, Sebastian Cotofana, Peter Palhazi Source Type: research

Laser-Assisted Facelifting and Energy-Based Rejuvenation Techniques During Rhytidectomy
The use of energy-based devices as surgical tools during rhytidectomy was introduced in early 2007 to 2008 and occurred when the first fiber laser was approved for laser lipolysis. It became evident that the fiber laser –assisted rhytidectomy could offer several advantages compared with conventional rhytidectomy. The use of energy devices now includes temperature-controlled radiofrequency and helium plasma devices. Energy devices continue to offer advantages compared with knife and scissor approaches: improved he mostasis; an ability to dissect into areas without full flap elevation; and the shrink-wrap late effects ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 6, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Richard D. Gentile Source Type: research

Extended Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Flap Rhytidectomy
This article reviews rhytidectomy approaches and the current methods and practice patterns of the senior author. It includes a discussion of the extended sub –superficial musculoaponeurotic system rhytidectomy technique, which, in the opinion of the senior author, offers the best result with respect to neck rhytids, cervicomental angle and jawline definition, and improvement of jowling. With its ability to be readily coupled with a deep plane dissectio n, when indicated, this technique becomes indispensable in the facial plastic surgeon’s armamentarium. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 6, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Vito Quatela, Alex Montague, J.P. Manning, Marcelo Antunes Source Type: research

Approaches to Reducing Risk in Rhytidectomy Surgery
This article discusses facelift complications, the causes thereof, and how to assess a problem, manage each complication, and comfort a distraught patient. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - May 6, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: William H. Truswell Source Type: research

Less Invasive Superficial Musculoaponeurotic System Approaches in Rhytidectomy
As a facial plastic surgeon gains experience, further improvements can be gained with more aggressive surgery, but complications begin to occur when more aggressive measures are undertaken. Therefore, the ideal technique is one that maximizes rejuvenation while minimizing adverse effects. The senior author has found that the aggressive techniques in the region of the neck have improved dramatically the overall initial and long-term results for the neck portion of the rhytidectomy. More aggressive treatment of the midface during the modified deep plane rhytidectomy does not necessarily improve the overall long-term results,...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 29, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sidney J. Starkman, Devinder S. Mangat Source Type: research

Hair Transplantation for Scarring Alopecia
This article addresses the challenges posed by scarring alopecia in hair-loss treatment and the evidence-based practices that exist for hair transplantation in scarring alopecia. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Anisha R. Kumar, Lisa E. Ishii Source Type: research

Complications with Hair Transplantation
This article discusses potential complications associated with hair restoration surgery, and the roles of the patient and physician in decreasing the risk of complications. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sahar Nadimi Source Type: research

Physiology and Medical Treatments for Alopecia
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common hair loss disorder in men and women. The characteristic and reproducible balding pattern in AGA negatively affects self-image and the external perceptions of the balding patient. The phenotypical changes are driven by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and its precursor testosterone. DHT induces follicle miniaturization and hair cycle changes until resulting hairs no longer extrude through the skin surface. AGA is inherited in a polygenetic pattern and is susceptible to epigenetic and environmental factors. Currently, minoxidil, finasteride, and photolaser therapy are the only Food and...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Tymon Tai, Amit Kochhar Source Type: research

Follicular Unit Transplantation
This article focuses on follicular unit transplantation and performance of the strip technique. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jordan P. Sand Source Type: research

Follicular Unit Excision
Hair transplantation, or hair restoration surgery (HRS) remains the only method to consistently restore hair in those experiencing pattern hair loss as well as hair loss from most other causes. HRS has been significantly improved with the development of follicular unit extraction, later renamed follicular unit excision, or FUE. This allows the surgeon to harvest grafts from the donor area without leaving a scar. FUE can also be used to harvest grafts from other areas of the body. When performed properly using the most technically advanced devices, the transection of the grafts with FUE remains under 4%. (Source: Facial Pla...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Gorana Kuka Epstein, Jeffrey Epstein, Jelena Nikolic Source Type: research

Hair Loss and Hair Restoration in Women
Hair restoration in women involves mastering both the medical and the surgical treatment. Preoperatively, women should be thoroughly evaluated for biochemical causes of hair loss along with a complete history and physical examination taken. The physician must recognize the clinical presentation of scarring alopecias and maintain a low threshold for biopsy to rule out this condition. Postoperative hair shock loss is a common feature following hair transplant in women, and the surgeon should understand the preoperative counseling and preventative measures needed, the intraoperative methods to reduce the incidence, and the po...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Samuel M. Lam Source Type: research

Beard Hair Transplantation
In the field of hair restoration, there has been a significant increase in demand with patients for facial hair transplantation procedures. Modern techniques in hair transplantation allow for facial hair transplantation and for the attainment of natural-appearing results. Facial hair transplantation is a subspecialty within hair restoration with many gratifying benefits for the patients as well as for the hair restoration surgeon. Adapting these advanced techniques into a hair restoration practice allows a surgeon to offer their patients these procedures and provides an expanded artistic element to a hair restoration surge...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Anthony Bared Source Type: research

Robotic Hair Transplantation
Contemporary hair transplant surgery creates natural appearing transplanted hair. The procedure is performed as an outpatient under local anesthesia. Donor harvesting can be performed by either elliptical donor harvesting or follicular unit extraction. An experience surgical team is needed for a high-quality, efficient procedure. Robotic hair transplantation allows precise and efficient removal of follicular units. The robot allows for minimally invasive surgery. Robotic hair transplantation is an important tool for hair transplant surgeons, but does not replace appropriate candidate selection, hairline design, and the jud...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Marc R. Avram, Shannon Watkins Source Type: research

Hair Transplantation: Advances in Diagnostics, Artistry, and Surgical Techniques
Over the past decade, hair transplantation has increased in popularity across both genders, largely due to improvements in artistry and beautiful, natural results. Emerging technologies and minimally invasive techniques, including follicular unit extraction (FUE), trichophytic closure of donor site scars, and platelet-rich plasma (PRP), are now better understood in the literature, while traditional techniques of follicular unit transplant (FUT) and hairline-lowering surgeries continue to achieve better results with innovative modifications. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Lisa E. Ishii, Linda N. Lee Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Techniques for Hair Restoration
Hair transplantation and related treatment modalities have greatly increased in interest and popularity in recent years. It has been noted that hair restoration has significant self-image and social interaction benefits to the patient population, and individuals are increasingly seeking appropriate treatment opportunities. A wide array of treatment options has been developed and can be of benefit to both genders who desire improvement and restoration of their hair loss. This issue of Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America provides insight and review of a wide array of hair restoration technologies, procedures, and...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. Regan Thomas Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Techniques for Hair Restoration
FACIAL PLASTIC SURGERY CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Lisa E. Ishii, Linda N. Lee Source Type: research

Copyright
ELSEVIER (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contributors
J. REGAN THOMAS, MD (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Contents
J. Regan Thomas (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Facelift Surgical Techniques (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - April 18, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Hairline-Lowering Surgery
As an alternative to hair transplantation for lowering the overly high hairline, hairline-lowering/forehead-reduction surgery has several advantages, including unsurpassed density and immediate results. Appropriate candidates for this surgery must have a stable frontal hairline (thus excluding most men) and a fairly to very mobile scalp that will permit sufficient advancement to warrant this more “invasive” approach. The main objective of this surgery is the lowering of the hairline. The authors’ surgical approach, which was developed over the performance of more than 90 of these procedures and produces c...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 2, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Jeffrey Epstein, Gorana Kuka Epstein Source Type: research

Platelet-Rich Plasma for Hair Restoration
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising treatment for hair restoration in patients with androgenic alopecia. Created from a platelet concentrate from an autologous blood draw, PRP is a safe therapeutic option for patients with hair loss. It is used alone or in conjunction with topical and oral therapies. Most studies of hair restoration with PRP report positive outcomes. Further research to optimize PRP preparation/administration procedures and identify patient populations that benefit most from this treatment are needed, as is long-term follow-up of objective hair loss outcomes. PRP appears to be a safe technology with ...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - March 2, 2020 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Natalie Justicz, Adeeb Derakhshan, Jenny X. Chen, Linda N. Lee Source Type: research

Microneedling Options for Skin Rejuvenation, Including Non –temperature-controlled Fractional Microneedle Radiofrequency Treatments
The use of microneedling with or without radiofrequency continues to expand in aesthetics. There are now many different devices available that have multiple indications, unique protocols, and low side effect profiles. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - November 26, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Dana Alessa, Jason D. Bloom Source Type: research

New Developments for Fractional Co2 Resurfacing for Skin Rejuvenation and Scar Reduction
Fractional CO2 procedures are an established, safe and effective armamentarium for managing skin rejuvenation and scarring. Very short-pulse-duration devices offer a very high ablated volume/ablated surface ratio, inducing a controlled thermal damage. With this kind of device, each procedure can be customized on the features of the skin of each patient. The same device can be used to treat severe burn scars. With a very deep fractional procedure on a scar tissue, immediate relaxation of the tension and retraction forces may be obtained, and downstream, improvements are related more to the activation of a molecular cascade....
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - November 26, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Matteo Tretti Clementoni, Valerio Pedrelli, Giovanna Zaccaria, Paolo Pontini, Laura Romana Motta, Ernest A. Azzopardi Source Type: research

Nonablative and Hybrid Fractional Laser Skin Rejuvenation
In the 2000s, there was a significant expansion in technology that was described as “nonablative.” These devices featured several different wavelengths and technologies. What they shared in common was the goal of delivering improvement in skin appearance while minimizing downtime and complications. Most of the “less-invasive” devices relied on the advent of fractional techn ology. This was the design feat of having multiple very small laser pulses delivered in a gridlike fashion and allowed for a mosaic of treated and untreated skin. With islands of healthy skin next to treated skin, the healing pro...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - November 26, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Benjamin Carl Marcus Source Type: research

Chemical Peel (Deep, Medium, Light)
This article describes the most recent knowledge about chemical peeling, and exposes previously accepted yet incorrect dogmas. Chemical peeling, when practiced with knowledge and good technique, can yield excellent results in skin rejuvenation. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - November 26, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Sidney J. Starkman, Devinder S. Mangat Source Type: research

Prescription Skin Care Products and Skin Rejuvenation
Beauty of the face is dependent on many factors, measurable and intangible. The concept of a beautiful face varies from era to era and culture to culture. Maintenance, improvement, and creation of beautiful skin benefit from procedures, prescriptive topicals, cosmeceuticals, and cosmetics. Current science and art are children of the efforts of previous practitioners of past generations. A thorough understanding of how the skin ages is necessary for choosing the appropriate therapeutic approach to halt and reverse signs of aging. The concept of beauty, history of skin treatments, skin anatomy, aging process of skin, and pre...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - November 26, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: William H. Truswell Source Type: research

Plasma Energy Skin Rejuvenation
Nitrogen plasma skin regeneration (PSR) initiated the use of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in skin rejuvenation over a decade ago. Helium gas CAP is already in widespread use worldwide for many surgical applications, whereas its use in skin rejuvenation is now emerging as a viable tool for treatment of facial rhytidosis. Animal studies comparing these CAPs suggest that observed differences in skin tissue interaction result from differences in plasma generation and in energy deposition wherein greater skin tissue contraction observed with helium PSR may result from its unique bimodal energy deposition and more complete full...
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - November 26, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: J. David Holcomb Source Type: research

Pulsed and Fractionated Techniques for Helium Plasma Energy Skin Resurfacing
Energy-based skin rejuvenation has, like other forms of aesthetic treatments, the capability of achieving desirable end results. These end results must be balanced with the degree and duration of morbidity, which affect recovery from treatment. Renuvion skin resurfacing protocols include a free hand approach and we describe our preferred approach of pulsing and fractionating the helium plasma resurfacing energy. (Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America)
Source: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America - November 26, 2019 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Authors: Richard D. Gentile, J.D. McCoy Source Type: research