Investigation of LOY in Prostate, Pancreatic and Colorectal Cancers in males: A case-control study.
CONCLUSION: LOY in blood could be a predictive biomarker in the carcinogenesis of males. PMID: 33210965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 21, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Molecular Imaging in Immuno-Oncology: Current Status and Translational Perspectives.
Authors: Filippi L, Nervi C, Proietti I, Pirisino R, Potenza C, Martelli O, Equitani F, Bagni O Abstract INTRODUCTION: : only 20-40% of patients responds to therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Therefore, the early identification of subjects that can benefit of a such therapeutic regimen is mandatory. AREAS COVERED: : the immunobiological mechanisms of ICIs are briefly illustrated. Furthermore, the limitations of traditional radiological approaches are covered. Then, the pros and cons of molecular imaging through positron emission computed tomography (PET/CT) are reviewed, with a particular focus o...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 21, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Monitoring immunomodulation in patients with sepsis.
MONITORING IMMUNOMODULATION IN PATIENTS WITH SEPSIS. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2020 Nov 12;: Authors: Kyriazopoulou E, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ Abstract Introduction This review aims to summarize current progress of the last ten years in the development of biomarkers used for classifying the immune response of the septic host and for monitoring the efficacy of the applied adjunctive immunotherapy. Areas covered An extensive search of the literature was performed. In this review the authors discuss available biomarkers of host immune response in sepsis towards two directions; immunosuppression and hyperinf...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 17, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of monocyte to high-density lipoprotein ratio in acute aortic dissection in a Chinese Han population.
Conclusions: MHR has a high diagnostic value in AAD patients, especially in those whose time from onset of symptoms greater than 24 hours. PMID: 33176510 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 14, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

A diagnostic profile on the PartoSure test.
Authors: Rouholamin S, Razavi M, Rezaeinejad M, Sepidarkish M Abstract Introduction: Preterm birth (PTB) is common, occurring in over 10% of all live births globally, and is increasing worldwide. The limitations of traditional biomarkers of PTB, such as fetal fibronectin (fFN) and phosphorylated insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (phIGFBP-1) have been well demonstrated in the literature. Therefore, augmenting clinical assessment with newer biomarkers, such as placental alpha macroglobulin-1 (PAMG-1); PartoSure, has the potential to improve disease monitoring and the best interventions. Areas covered: The ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 13, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of cerebrospinal fluid and serum-isolated extracellular vesicles for glioblastoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Conclusions: According to the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and AUC for EVs derived biomarkers, and we suggest that EVs-derived biomarkers might serve as a high potential and non-invasive diagnostic tool for GBM detection using serum and CSF samples. PMID: 33131342 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 4, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Diagnostic value of circulating lncRNAs as biomarkers of digestive system cancers: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: The circulating lncRNAs have high diagnostic value and accuracy in digestive system cancers and may serve as potential biomarkers. PMID: 33138648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 4, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Circulating tumour cell clusters: Insights into tumour dissemination and metastasis.
Authors: Herath S, Razavi Bazaz S, Monkman J, Ebrahimi Warkiani M, Richard D, O'Byrne K, Kulasinghe A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Metastasis results in more than 90% of cancer related deaths globally. The process is thought to be facilitated by metastatic precursor cells, commonly termed circulating tumour cells (CTCs). CTCs can exist as single cells or cell clusters and travel through the lymphovasculature to distant organs where they can form overt metastasis. Areas covered: Studies have highlighted that CTC clusters, which may be homotypic or heterotypic in composition, have a higher metastatic potential compared to ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - November 4, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Emerging Circulating MiRNAs and LncRNAs in Upper Gastrointestinal Cancers.
Authors: Abdi E, Latifi-Navid S, Abdi F, Taherian-Esfahani Z Abstract INTRODUCTION: Circulating non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) possess high stability in circulation, making them capable of being utilized in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract cancers as non-invasive biomarkers. Areas covered: Herein, the potential clinical application of emerging circulating miRNAs and lncRNAs in upper GI cancers are comprehensively reviewed. In the end, innovative approaches on therapeutic strategies targeting ncRNAs and their delivery systems are discussed. Expert opinion: For esophageal cancer ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - October 28, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

A profile of the FDA-approved and CE/IVD-marked Aptima Mycoplasma genitalium assay (Hologic) and key priorities in the management of M. genitalium infections.
Authors: Shipitsyna E, Unemo M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) causes frequently asymptomatic STIs. MG prevalence figures are lacking and management is complicated by the lack of etiological diagnostics and high antimicrobial resistance in many countries. Appropriately validated, quality-assured, and FDA-approved MG diagnostic assays have been lacking. AREAS COVERED: The clinical and analytical performance characteristics of the Aptima® MG assay, the first FDA-approved MG nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), are summarized. Key priorities in the management and control of MG infections a...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - October 25, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Genomic characterization reveals potential biomarkers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with relapse.
CONCLUSIONS: The discovery of GAs associated with recurrence or survival in NPC may serve as potential prognostic gene signatures of high-risk patients. Targeted therapies are available in some of the clinically relevant GAs and may be considered in future clinical trials. Given the limitation of the sample size, validation by a larger cohort is warranted. PMID: 33040630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - October 14, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Cervical cancer risk profiling: molecular biomarkers predicting the outcome of hrHPV infection.
Authors: Molina MA, Carosi Diatricch L, Castany Quintana M, Melchers WJ, Andralojc KM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer affects half a million women worldwide annually. Given the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection and carcinogenesis, hrHPV DNA testing became an essential diagnostic tool. However, hrHPV alone does not cause the disease, and, most importantly, many cervical lesions regress to normal in a year because of the host immune system. Hence, the low specificity of hrHPV DNA tests and their inability to predict the outcome of infections have triggered a further search fo...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - October 14, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the setting of cytokine release syndrome.
Authors: Azar MM, Shin JJ, Kang I, Landry M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) can trigger a cytokine response storm (CRS) that is associated with high mortality but for which the underlying pathophysiology and diagnostics are not yet well characterized. This review provides an overview of the underlying immune profile of COVID-19-related CRS as well as laboratory markers for acute diagnosis and chronic follow-up of patients with SARS-CoV-2 and CRS. Areas covered: Innate and acquired immune profiles in COVID-19-CRS, RNA-detection methods for SARS-CoV-2 in the setting of CRS including factors that...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - October 1, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Circular RNAs: novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets for ischemic stroke.
Authors: Wang Q, Liu X, Zhao J, Zhu R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ischemic stroke is a life-threatening condition worldwide, including China. Nowadays, intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy are chiefly applied as clinical therapeutics; however, strict time windows and underlying risks limit their benefits for patients. Thus, it is urgently needed to seek new effective targets for stroke to improve clinical outcomes. AREAS COVERED: Circular RNAs have recently emerged as ideal therapeutic candidates for ischemic stroke with high stability and evolutionary conservation in the brain tissue. The neurovascu...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 22, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Clinical genomics and contextualizing genome variation in the diagnostic laboratory.
Authors: Lupski JR, Liu P, Stankiewicz P, Carvalho CMB, Posey JE Abstract INTRODUCTION: The human genome contains the instructions for development and biological homeostasis of the human organism and the genetic transmission of traits. Genome variation in human populations is the basis of evolution; individual or personal genomes vary tremendously, making each of us truly unique. AREAS COVERED: Assaying this individual variation using genomic technologies has many applications in clinical medicine, from elucidating the biology of disease to designing strategies to ameliorate perturbations from homeostasis. Dete...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 22, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Improving post-natal detection of mitochondrial DNA mutations.
We report on the recent contributions of NGS testing to the diagnosis and understanding of MD. EXPERT OPINION: The progress of NGS technologies allows the simultaneous detection of mutations and quantification of the heteroplasmy level, ensuring sensitivity and specificity requested for the detection of mitochondrial DNA point mutations. NGS protocols enabling the simultaneous analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA are now efficient and cost-saving approaches, and have become the gold-standard technique in diagnostic laboratories. PMID: 32902337 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 11, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Point-of-care diagnostics for invasive aspergillosis: nearing the finish line.
Authors: Jenks JD, Hoenigl M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The spectrum of disease caused by Aspergillus spp. is dependent on the immune system of the host, with invasive aspergillosis (IA) its most severe manifestation. Early and reliable diagnosis of Aspergillus disease is important to decrease associated morbidity and mortality from IA. AREAS COVERED: The following review searched Pub Med for literature published since 2007 and will give an update on the current point-of-care diagnostic strategies for the diagnosis of IA, discuss needed areas of improvement for these tests, and future directions. EXPERT OPINION...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 11, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Comparative performance of two commercial sample-to-result systems for hepatitis C virus quantitation and genotyping.
Conclusion Our results confirm that the cobas 4800 System is a reliable platform for HCV quantitation and genotyping. The cobas HCV GT assay is a good choice for genotype 1b/6 endemic areas in east Asia, clearly outperforming the RealTime HCV Genotype II assay. PMID: 32893699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 9, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

New and developing diagnostic platforms for COVID-19: a systematic review.
Authors: Chauhan N, Soni S, Gupta A, Jain U Abstract INTRODUCTION: The starting months of 2020 witnessed a global pandemic of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The first case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China and millions of cases and thousands of deaths were reported within five months. Currently, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and computed tomography (CT) are clinically prescribed for COVID-19 detection across the globe. AREAS COVERED: This systematic review is focused on currently used diagnost...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 9, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Genetic Testing for the Clinician in Prostate Cancer.
Authors: López Campos F, Linares-Espinós E, Maldonado Pijoan X, Sancho Pardo G, Morgan TM, Martínez-Ballesteros C, Martínez-Salamanca J, Couñago Lorenzo F Abstract - Introduction: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Although the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer has improved substantially in recent years, new molecular biomarkers are needed to further prolong survival and improve quality of life in these patients. - Areas covered: This review analyses the current evidence for prognostic and pre...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 6, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

A Profile of the Simplexa ™ Bordetella Direct Assay for the Detection and Differentiation of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in nasopharyngeal swabs.
A Profile of the Simplexa™ Bordetella Direct Assay for the Detection and Differentiation of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis in nasopharyngeal swabs. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2020 Sep 04;: Authors: Dominguez DC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertussis and to minor extent B. parapertussis. Despite high vaccination coverage, epidemics persist worldwide. Laboratory testing with the capacity to support increasing demand and generate fast and accurate results is needed to promptly provide treatment to mitigate symptoms, ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 6, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Infrared analyzers for the measurement of breastmilk macronutrient content in the clinical setting.
Authors: Borràs-Novell C, Herranz Barbero A, Aldecoa-Bilbao V, Feixas Orellana G, Balcells Esponera C, Sánchez Ortiz E, García-Algar O, Iglesias Platas I Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is growing interest in the possibility of measuring the macronutrient content of human milk. Several studies that intend to validate commercially available human milk analyzers have been published with inconsistent results. This review will focus on currently available, verified methodologies for analyzing macronutrients in human milk. AREAS COVERED: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database. Fiv...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 3, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Potential Biomarkers and Risk Assessment Models to Enhance the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM) Staging Classification of Urologic Cancers.
Authors: Darrell CM, Montironi R, Paner GP Abstract INTRODUCTION: The anatomic-based TNM classification is considered the benchmark in cancer staging and has been regularly updated since its inception. In the current era of precision medicine, the added intention for future TNM modifications is to heighten its impact in the more "personalized" level of cancer care. In urologic cancers, this goal may be achieved by incorporating "non-anatomic" factors into TNM, such as biomarkers (e.g. gene alterations, molecular subtypes, genomic classifiers) and risk assessment models (e.g. nomogram, look-up ta...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 3, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Advances in the clinical use of collagen as biomarker of liver fibrosis.
Authors: Meurer SK, Karsdal MA, Weiskirchen R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hepatic fibrosis is the excessive synthesis and deposition of extracellular matrix including collagen in the tissue. Chronic liver insult leads to progressive parenchymal damage, portal hypertension, and cirrhosis. Determination of hepatic collagen by invasive liver biopsy is the gold-standard to estimate severity and stage of fibrosis. However, this procedure is associated with pain, carries the risk of infection and bleeding, and is afflicted with a high degree of sampling error. Therefore, there is an urgent need for serological collagen-derive...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - September 2, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Strategies to enhance identification of hereditary breast cancer gene carriers.
Authors: Reid S, Spalluto LB, Pal T PMID: 32856489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - August 30, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Clinical relevance of liquid biopsy in breast cancer: Update in 2020.
Authors: Cayrefourcq L, Alix-Panabières C Abstract INTRODUCTION: . Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite the development of targeted therapies that have significantly improved survival, effective breast cancer evaluation is still challenging due to the complexity of this disease. Liquid biopsy might allow the non-invasive real-time monitoring of the tumor course and response to therapy. AREAS COVERED: . This review summarizes the latest advances on the various circulating analytes used as liquid biopsy (circulating tumor cells and tumor DNA, and more recently extracellular v...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - August 30, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

The Diagnostic Methods in the COVID-19 Pandemic, Today and in the Future.
Authors: Wu SY, Yau HS, Yu MY, Tsang HF, Chan LWC, Cho WCS, Yu CS, Yim A, Li M, Wong YKE, Pei XM, Wong CSC Abstract INTRODUCTION: The emergence of a novel coronavirus identified in patients with unknown cause of acute respiratory disease in Wuhan, China at the end of 2019 has caused a global outbreak. The causative coronavirus was later named as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 was named as Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). As of 10 August, 2020, more than 19,718,030 confirmed cases and 728,013 deaths have been reported. COVID-19 is spread via resp...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - August 29, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

A profile on the Synovasure Alpha Defensin Test for the detection of periprosthetic infections.
Authors: Senneville E, Robineau O, Loiez C, de Saint Vincent B, Dartus J, Migaud H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Clinicians have waited a long time for a "universal" marker that may help them distinguish infected from non-infected total joint arthroplasties when doubts persist after using classical clinical and biological signs of infection. In recent years, synovial fluid biomarkers including leukocyte esterase, alpha-defensins, and CRP have shown promising results for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). AREAS COVERED: This review provides an overview of the rational and the use of the ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - July 16, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Improving genetic diagnostics of skeletal muscle channelopathies.
Authors: Vivekanandam V, Männikkö R, Matthews E, Hanna MG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Skeletal muscle channelopathies are rare inherited conditions that cause significant morbidity and impact on quality of life. Some subsets have a mortality risk. Improved genetic methodology and understanding of phenotypes have improved diagnostic accuracy and yield. AREAS COVERED: We discuss diagnostic advances since the advent of next-generation sequencing and the role of whole exome and genome sequencing. Advances in genotype-phenotype-functional correlations have improved understanding of inheritance and phenotypes. W...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - July 14, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Alpha-Gal Syndrome: challenges to understanding sensitization and clinical reactions to alpha-gal.
Authors: de la Fuente J, Cabezas-Cruz A, Pacheco I Abstract INTRODUCTION: The α-Gal syndrome (AGS) is a type of allergy characterized by an IgE antibody response against the carbohydrate Galα1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal). Tick bites are recognized as the most important cause of anti-α-Gal IgE antibody increase in humans. Several risk factors have been associated with the development of AGS, but their integration into a standardized disease diagnosis has proven challenging. AREAS COVERED: Herein we discuss the current AGS diagnosis based on anti-α-Gal IgE titers and propose an alg...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - July 7, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

A profile of the GenePOC Carba assay for the detection and differentiation of gene sequences associated with carbapenem-non-susceptibility.
Authors: Lucena Baeza L, Hamprecht A Abstract The novel GenePOC/Revogene Carba C assay (GenePOC, Québec, Canada; now Meridian Bioscience, Cincinnati, OH, USA) is a CE-IVD marked, FDA-approved qualitative in vitro diagnostic test for the detection of genes associated with carbapenem-non-susceptibility. Colonies of Enterobacterales can be directly tested without prior DNA isolation. The test consists of a fluorescent-based real-time PCR assay that runs on the centripetal microfluidic revogene platform, providing results within 70 minutes. The assay was evaluated in two studies comprising a total of 294 molecu...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 24, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Incorporating traditional and emerging biomarkers in the clinical management of metastatic colorectal cancer: an update.
Authors: Baraibar I, Ros J, Mulet N, Salvà F, Argilés G, Martini G, Cuadra JL, Sardo E, Ciardiello D, Tabernero J, Élez E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Molecular profiling has led to significantly longer survival in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Clinical guidelines recommend testing for KRAS/NRAS, BRAF and MSI status, and new biomarkers such as HER2 amplification and NTRK fusions have emerged more recently in refractory CRC, supported by overwhelming clinical relevance. These biomarkers can guide treatment management to improve clinical outcomes in these patients. AREAS COVERED: Pr...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 20, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

An overview of current and emerging diagnostic, staging and prognostic markers for prostate cancer.
Authors: Brönimann S, Pradere B, Karakiewicz P, Abufaraj M, Briganti A, Shariat SF Abstract Introduction This manuscript aims to give an overview of current diagnostic, staging and prognostic markers for prostate cancer (PCa) and discuss emerging approaches. The widespread use of PSA for early detection led to improved survival but at the cost of over-diagnosis, often associated with over-treatment and its adverse events. There is thus an unmet need for new markers to sustainably improve the diagnosis and risk assessment, thereby providing a more accurate treatment decision for each individual patient. Areas c...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 20, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Is There Any Correlation Among MKK4 ('Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4') Expression, Clinicopathological Features & KRAS / NRAS mutation in Colorectal Cancer.
CONCLUSION: MKK4 expression inversely correlates with survival outcomes. Patients with KRAS/NRAS wild-type, left-sided tumors with WIR had longer OS. PMID: 32552144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 20, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Imaging challenges following newer treatment options: Are companion diagnostics required in neurooncology?
Authors: Galldiks N, Lohmann P, Langen KJ PMID: 32552245 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 20, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Enumeration and molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells as an innovative tool for companion diagnostics in breast cancer.
Authors: Harigopal M, Kowalski D, Vosoughi A Abstract INTRODUCTIO: n: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) and more recently, CTC clusters are implicated as a fundamental mechanism by which tumor cells break away from the primary site and travel to distant sites. Enumeration of CTC and CTC clusters represents a new approach to prognosis, prediction, and response to therapy in patients with early and metastatic breast cancer. Several recent studies have shown the predictive importance of monitoring CTCs levels in progression-free and overall survival in breast cancer patients. This review will focus on CTC enumeration and ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 19, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Food allergy severity predictions based on cellular in vitro tests.
Authors: Buyuktiryaki B, Santos AF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Food allergy is increasing in prevalence and the severity of allergic reactions is unpredictable. Identifying food allergic patients at high risk of severe reactions would allow us to offer a personalized and improved management for these patients. AREAS COVERED: We review the evidence for using the levels of specific IgE, the nature of the allergen and the use of cellular tests to identify patients at high-risk of developing severe allergic reactions to foods. EXPERT OPINION: The evidence about whether the quantity of allergen-specific IgE reflects ...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 17, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Molecular analysis of the destruction of articular joint tissues by Raman spectroscopy.
Authors: Casal-Beiroa P, González P, Blanco FJ, Magalhães J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly heterogenous disease influenced by different molecular, anatomic and physiologic imbalances. Some of the bottlenecks for enhanced diagnosis and therapeutic assessment are the lack of validated biomarkers and early diagnosis tools. In this narrative review, we analyze the potential of Raman spectroscopy (RS) as a label-free optical tool for the characterization of articular joint tissues and its application as a diagnosis tool for OA. AREAS COVERED: Raman spectra produce a unique "...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 17, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Role of artificial intelligence and vibrational spectroscopy in cancer diagnostics.
In this report, these aspects are being outlined by using breast cancer as a specific example. Expert opinion: A pathway showing to combine vibrational spectroscopy with AI and ML has immense potential in predicting various stages of different disease processes, in particular, in cancer diagnosis, staging and designing treatment. This will result in improved patient care pathways. PMID: 32544359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 17, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

The value of biomarker-guided antibiotic therapy.
Authors: Haag E, Molitor A, Gregoriano C, Müller B, Schuetz P Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is an increasing interest to individualize patient management and decisions regarding antibiotic treatment. Biomarkers may provide relevant information for this purpose. AREAS COVERED: Despite a growing number of clinical trials investigating several biomarkers there remain open questions regarding best type of biomarker, timing or frequency of testing and optimal cut-offs among others. The most promising results in regard to diagnosis of bacterial infection and therapy monitoring are found for procalcitonin (PCT), a...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 14, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Advances in tissue-based imaging: impact on oncology research and clinical practice.
Authors: Rahman A, Jahangir C, Lynch SM, Alattar N, Aura C, Russell N, Lanigan F, Gallagher WM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tissue-based imaging has emerged as a critical tool in translational cancer research and is rapidly gaining traction within a clinical context. Significant progress has been made in the digital pathology arena, particularly in respect of brightfield and fluorescent imaging. Critically, the cellular context of molecular alterations occurring at DNA, RNA, or protein level within tumor tissue is now being more fully appreciated. Moreover, the emergence of novel multi-marker imaging approaches can now p...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 10, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Endocrine fibroblast growth factors as potential biomarkers for chronic kidney disease.
Authors: Kondo Y, Komaba H, Fukagawa M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Among the family of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 act as circulating hormones and are called endocrine FGFs. FGF19 and FGF21 regulate bile acid and energy homeostasis, respectively, whereas FGF23 regulates vitamin D and phosphate homeostasis. Accumulating evidence suggests that FGF23 plays a critical role in disturbed mineral metabolisms, left ventricular hypertrophy, immunosuppression, inflammation, among others in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), highlighting the potential both as a biomarker and a therapeutic tar...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 10, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Liquid biopsy markers for stroke diagnosis.
Authors: Wijerathne H, Witek MA, Baird AE, Soper SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: There is a short time window (4.5 h) for the effective treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), which uses recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Unfortunately, this short therapeutic timeframe is a contributing factor to the relatively small number of patients (~7%) that receive rt-PA. While neuroimaging is the major diagnostic for AIS, more timely decisions could be made using a molecular diagnostic. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we survey neuroimaging techniques used to diagnose stroke and their limitations. We also highl...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 7, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Point-by-point progress: gonorrhea point of care tests.
Authors: Gaydos C, Melendez JH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care (POC) tests for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Ng) are urgently needed to control the gonorrhea epidemic, so patients can receive immediate diagnoses and treatment. While the advent of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have improved the accuracy of Ng identification, very few POC assays are able to provide results of such tests at the clinical visit. Additionally, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents a unique treatment challenge for NG. AREAS COVERED: This review notes that older POC tests have lower sensitivity for Ng, compared to the curren...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 7, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Common mutations of interest for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: how common are common mutations in ALS genes?
Authors: Perrone B, Conforti FL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex neurodegenerative disease predominantly affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Diagnosis of this devastating pathology is very difficult because the high degree of clinical heterogeneity with which it occurs and until now, no truly effective treatment exists. Areas covered: Molecular diagnosis may be a valuable tool for dissecting out ALS complex heterogeneity and for identifying new molecular mechanisms underlying the characteristic selective degeneration and death of motor neurons. To date, pathogenic variant...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - June 6, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Cystatin C as a biomarker of chronic kidney disease: latest developments.
Authors: Benoit SW, Ciccia EA, Devarajan P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, occurring in over 10% of individuals globally, and is increasing in prevalence. The limitations of traditional biomarkers of renal dysfunction, such as serum creatinine, have been well demonstrated in the literature. Therefore, augmenting clinical assessment with newer biomarkers, such as serum cystatin C, has the potential to improve disease monitoring and patient care. AREAS COVERED: The present paper assesses the utility and limitations of serum cystatin C as a biomarker for CKD in light of the current l...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - May 27, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Spectroscopy as a tool for detection and monitoring of Corona Virus (COVID-19).
Authors: Khan RS, Rehman IU PMID: 32378969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - May 8, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Companion and complementary diagnostics: an important treatment decision tool in precision medicine.
Authors: Jørgensen JT PMID: 32342707 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics)
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - April 30, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

Challenges in the clinical implementation of precision medicine companion diagnostics.
Authors: Keeling P, Clark J, Finucane S Abstract Introduction: The pace of biomarker discovery has increased exponentially over the last few years, ushering in an era of precision medicine (PM) with a growing arsenal of treatments tailored to specific patient populations. To accurately identify patients, companion diagnostics (CDx) are developed and launched alongside these treatments. However, even with a timely launch of therapies and CDx tests, patients are not guaranteed optimal access to these tests because of the inefficiencies embedded within the clinical diagnostic testing landscape supporting PM.Areas cove...
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - April 28, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research

A CNN-aided method to predict glaucoma progression using DARC (Detection of Apoptosing Retinal Cells).
We describe here an automatic method of DARC spot detection which was developed using a CNN which was trained and tested on the control cohort of subjects in the Phase 2 DARC trial. The CNN algorithm was found to have a 97.0% accuracy, 91.1% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity to spot detection when compared to manual grading of 50% controls.Subsequently, the CNN algorithm was tested on glaucoma patients in the trial, using gold standard optical coherence tomography (OCT) global rates of progression (retinal nerve fibre layer at 3.5 ring) eighteen months after their assessment with DARC. Those patients with a significant (p
Source: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics - April 21, 2020 Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Expert Rev Mol Diagn Source Type: research