Understanding the effect of acromegaly on the human skeleton.
Authors: Bima C, Chiloiro S, Mormando M, Piacentini S, Bracaccia E, Giampietro A, Tartaglione L, Bianchi A, De Marinis L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly, caused in most cases by Growth Hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, is characterized by increased skeletal growth and enlargement of the soft tissue, because GH and its effector Insulin-like Growth factor-1 are important regulators of bone homeostasis and have a central role in the longitudinal bone growth and maintenance of bone mass. Areas covered: Despite the anabolic effect of these hormones is well known, as a result of the stimulation of bone turnove...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Update in treatment of early breast cancer in post-menopausal women.
Authors: Prince RM, Amir E Abstract In the last few years there have been significant advances in knowledge related to the treatment of post-menopausal women with early stage breast cancer. These include new information about the survival benefits with hormonal therapies and bone targeted treatments as well as identification of patient populations who may be able to avoid toxic treatments. In this paper we discuss these advances and provide suggested management algorithms. PMID: 30058935 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Gestational diabetes risk factors and long-term consequences for both mother and offspring: a literature review.
Authors: Farahvar S, Walfisch A, Sheiner E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Established risk factors for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) include ethnicity, obesity, and family history of diabetes. Untreated GDM patients have higher rates of maternal and perinatal morbidity. GDM is an independent risk factor for future longer-term risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular morbidity, malignancies, ophthalmic, psychiatric, and renal disease in the mother. Offspring risk long-term adverse health outcomes, including T2DM, subsequent obesity, impacted neurodevelopmental outcome, increased neur...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Adenomyosis and IVF/ICSI treatment: clinical considerations and recommendations.
Authors: Dueholm M, Aagaard J PMID: 30063420 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity, ectopic fat and cardiac metabolism.
Authors: Piché ME, Poirier P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, expending independent adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. This relationship is complex due to several associations with cardiovascular disease risk factors/markers such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance/dysglycemia, or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity induces a variety of cardiovascular system structural adaptations, from subclinical myocardial dysfunction to severe left ventricular systolic heart failure. Abnormalities in cardiac metabolism and subsequent cardiac ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Human amylase gene copy number variation as a determinant of metabolic state.
Authors: Elder PJD, Ramsden DB, Burnett D, Weickert MO, Barber TM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Humans have multiple genes encoding amylase that are broadly divided into salivary (AMY1) and pancreatic (AMY2) genes. They exhibit some of the greatest copy numbers of any human gene, an expansion possibly driven by increased dietary starch intake. Within the population, amylase gene copy number is highly variable and there is evidence of an inverse association between AMY1 copy number and BMI. Areas covered: We examine the evidence for the link between AMY1 and BMI, its potential mechanisms, and the metabolic effects of saliv...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Management of hypertension in older people.
Authors: Abdelhafiz AH, Marshall R, Kavanagh J, El-Nahas M Abstract INTRODUCTION: As the population ages, the prevalence of hypertension is increasing. Treatment of hypertension is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular risk. However, the optimal blood pressure targets in older people are not clearly defined due to paucity of randomised clinical trials specific to this age group. Areas covered: We performed a Medline and Embase search from 1998 to present for articles on the management of hypertension in older people published in English language. Expert commentary: The recent guidelines have suggested a low...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The present and future treatment of pediatric type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Van Name MA, Guandalini C, Steffen A, Patel A, Tamborlane W Abstract INTRODUCTION: Treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in children and adolescents is particularly challenging. Metformin monotherapy is the standard initial treatment for youth with T2D, once metabolic control is restored with insulin in patients who present with ketosis and/or marked hyperglycemia. Insulin, the only other drug approved for use in youth with T2D, is also used as add-on therapy when patients fail metformin mono-therapy. Areas covered: In this paper, we will summarize the current use of both metformin and insulin in the treatmen...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Weight effects of antidiabetic agents.
This article summarizes the current evidence available on the weight effects of these agents in patients with diabetes. Evaluating potential risks, such as weight gain, with potential benefits, such as improvement in glycemic control, will help with designing optimal therapeutic diabetes regimens. PMID: 30063431 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The genetic underpinnings of body fat distribution.
Authors: Pulit SL, Laber S, Glastonbury CA, Lindgren CM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, has reached epidemic proportions; people who are overweight (BMI> 25 kg/m2) or obese now comprise more than 25% of the world's population. Obese individuals have a higher risk of comorbidity development including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and fertility complications. Areas covered: The study of monogenic and syndromic forms of obesity have revealed a small number of genes key to metabolic perturbations. Further, obesity and body shape in the general...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Practical considerations for managing patients with diabetes and dementia.
Authors: Mair ML, Athavale R, Abdelhafiz AH Abstract INTRODUCTION: Diabetes and dementia appear to be linked epidemiologically and share a common pathogenetic mechanism. The development of dementia in older people with diabetes will have a significant impact on diabetes self-care and will increase the risk of hypoglycaemia and frailty which ultimately lead to disability and poor outcome. Areas covered: We performed a Medline and Embase search from 1997 to present on relevant dementia and diabetes studies published in English language. Expert commentary: Older people with comorbid diabetes and dementia are functiona...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

miRNAs in bone metastasis.
Authors: Cheung DG, Buzzetti M, Di Leva G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bone metastasis is one of the most common forms of metastasis from a number of different primary carcinomas. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, endogenous RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression to control essential pathways, including those involved in bone organogenesis and homeostasis. As these pathways are often hijacked during bone metastasis, it is not surprising that miRNAs can also influence bone metastasis formation. Areas covered: In this review, we first summarize the major signalling pathways involved in normal bone development and bone m...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Long-term treatment of severe obesity: are lifestyle interventions still an option?
Authors: Petroni ML, Caletti MT, Calugi S, Dalle Grave R, Marchesini G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Following lifestyle intervention programs based on dietary restriction and habitual physical activity, weight loss, however large, is reported to peak within six months. Despite maintenance protocols, only few cases continue to lose weight thereafter. The majority of cases regain weight and adherence to lifestyle changes are fostered by long-term contact with a supportive team. In general, surgical procedures are reported to produce much larger weight loss and to impact more favorably on long-term weight loss maintenance. ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Mechanisms responsible for homeostatic appetite control: theoretical advances and practical implications.
Authors: Hopkins M, Beaulieu K, Myers A, Gibbons C, Blundell JE Abstract INTRODUCTION: Homeostatic appetite control is part of a psychobiological system that has evolved to maintain an adequate supply of nutrients for growth and maintenance. The system links the physiological needs for energy with the behaviour that satisfies these needs (feeding), and is shaped by excitatory and inhibitory signals. Owing to rapid shifts in the food environment, homeostatic appetite control is not well adapted for modern-day human functioning. Areas covered: Homeostatic appetite control has two divisions. Tonic processes exert stab...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Medical versus surgical treatment of prolactinomas: an analysis of treatment outcomes.
Authors: Rutkowski MJ, Aghi MK Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prolactinomas are unique tumors that may go into both hormonal and radiographic remission with dopamine agonist therapy or transsphenoidal surgery. Regardless of modality, the goals of therapy remain the same: (1) biochemical remission, including reduction of prolactin and normalization of sex hormones; (2) radiographic tumor control, with a range including prevention of tumor growth, tumor regression, or complete tumor resolution; (3) resolution of preoperative symptoms, including those that are hormonal or neurologic; and (4) prevention of new hypopituitarism ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Albiglutide for the management of type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Rendell MS Abstract INTRODUCTION: Albiglutide is a long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) administered by weekly injection and approved for use in type 2 diabetes. It has less gastrointestinal side effects than other GLP-1 RAs in current use but does not improve HbA1c or promote weight loss to the same extent as some competitor agents. Area covered: The current use of albiglutide is discussed. The review encompassed a search of PubMed and a thorough analysis of the European Union and US Food and Drug Administration approval documents. Expert opinion: Unlike competitor agents, the gastrointestinal si...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Exercise-induced myokines: a brief review of controversial issues of this decade.
Authors: Son JS, Chae SA, Testroet ED, Du M, Jun HP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Myokines, known to mediate metabolism, inflammation, and other pathophysiological conditions, have been widely investigated, including myokines induced by exercise. However, among published literature, there is substantial inconsistency in the quantification of exercise-induced myokines. Here, we summarized and compared published data regarding the effects of exercise on commonly studied myokines including apelin, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Interleukin-15 (IL-15), irisin, and Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Newer hormonal pharmacotherapies for heart failure.
Authors: Yandrapalli S, Jolly G, Biswas M, Rochlani Y, Harikrishnan P, Aronow WS, Lanier GM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Heart failure (HF) is characterized by maladaptive neurohormonal activation of the cardiovascular and renal systems resulting in circulatory inadequacy and frequent acute exacerbations. The increasing burden of HF prompted investigation of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the design of pharmacotherapeutics that would target these pathways. Areas covered: A MEDLINE search for relevant original investigations and review articles of newer hormonal drugs for HF since the year 2005 till October ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hormone producing gynecological tumors: pathologic entities and clinical significance.
Authors: Boto AN, Hui P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Due to their derivation from the cell types involved in gynecologic hormonal networks, many gynecologic tumors may produce hormones. In a normal physiological setting, these hormones are essential for regulating the biology and function of gynecological organs, the ovary and uterus in particular. Overproduction of hormones by the tumor may lead to abnormal clinical manifestations of the patients and spillage of excess hormonal products into the blood. Abnormal elevation of serum hormones may be considered as biomarkers that are important to pathologists and clinicians ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Autoimmune thyroid diseases in children.
Authors: Pasala P, Francis GL Abstract INTRODUCTION: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AIT) are common in children and may present with a variety of signs and symptoms including: euthyroid goiter, hypothyroidism, or hyperthyroidism. The natural history of AIT may be different in children but in all age groups, there appear to be genetic risk factors and environmental triggers that initiate thyroid autoimmunity. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize recent studies that investigate the genetics and environmental triggers believed to be involved in thyroid autoimmunity. We also discuss the approach and controversies ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Prognostic indicators for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Authors: Maino F, Forleo R, Pacini F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) includes more than 90% of all thyroid carcinoma and its incidence is growing, mainly due to an increase in the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) for the widespread use of neck ultrasonography. Areas covered: Several prognostic factors should be considered during the management of PTC in order to provide the most effective treatment. The most important prognostic factors in PTC include personal and pathological features such as patient's age, gender, hystotype, tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, lymph node in...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The role of ablative treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer management.
Authors: Melo M, Vicente N, Ventura M, Gaspar Da Rocha A, Soares P, Carrilho F Abstract INTRODUCTION: The role of ablative treatment in differentiated thyroid cancer management has been evolving over the years. After its introduction in clinical practice, the use of postsurgical radioiodine treatment was generalized to almost every patient with differentiated thyroid cancer, with the exception of unifocal microcarcinomas. However, in the last decade several studies questioned its benefit in low- and intermediate-risk patients. Areas covered: In this review we discuss the role of postsurgical radioiodine treatment a...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pancreatic β-cell rescue in diabetes by targeting Merlin.
Pancreatic β-cell rescue in diabetes by targeting Merlin. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2017 Mar;12(2):97-99 Authors: Yuan T, Maedler K, Ardestani A PMID: 30063428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Sporadic pituitary adenomas: the role of germline mutations and recommendations for genetic screening.
Authors: Iacovazzo D, Hernández-Ramírez LC, Korbonits M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although most pituitary adenomas occur sporadically, these common tumors can present in a familial setting in approximately 5% of cases. Germline mutations in several genes with autosomal dominant (AIP, MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A, SDHx) or X-linked dominant (GPR101) inheritance are causative of familial pituitary adenomas. Due to variable disease penetrance and occurrence of de novo mutations, some patients harboring germline mutations have no family history of pituitary adenomas (simplex cases). Areas covered: We summarize the ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Managing tyrosine kinase inhibitors side effects in thyroid cancer.
Conclusion​: TKIs shows an acceptable toxicity profile in patients with advanced and progressive RAI refractory DTC and MTC but only in experienced hands familiar with TKIs, particularly with diagnostics and management of treatment-related complications and also with thyroid carcinoma, what is essential to safely care for the patients and keep them on kinase inhibitor therapy as long as the treatment is beneficial without an unfavorable impact on their quality of life. PMID: 30063430 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The modulation of estrogen-induced apoptosis as an interpretation of the women's health initiative trials.
Authors: Abderrahman B, Jordan VC Abstract The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) consisted of two placebo controlled trials: one in women with a uterus, using conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and the second trial in women without a uterus used CEE alone. The study population average age was approximately 63 years. Although the predicted rise in breast cancer occurred in the MPA plus CEE trial, the CEE alone trial, had a sustained decrease in breast cancer incidence. A unifying theory is presented that explains the decrease in breast cancer based on the new biology of estrog...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endocrinological Mechanisms of Depressive Disorders and Ill Health.
Authors: Wimalawansa SJ PMID: 30063446 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The "Choosing Wisely" initiative to reduce low value care: has endocrinology been wise enough?
We describe the recommendations of the Endocrine Society and others as they apply to the practicing endocrinologist. PMID: 30063447 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Alogliptin + metformin combination for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
This article summarizes the current evidence for the safety and efficacy of alogliptin and metformin used in combination for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID: 30063448 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current strategies for the treatment of severe Cushing's syndrome.
Authors: Alexandraki KI, Grossman AB Abstract Severe Cushing's syndrome may present an acute emergency in patients diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome with recent onset of at least one of the following: sepsis, opportunistic infection; intractable hypokalaemia, uncontrolled hypertension; heart failure; gastrointestinal hemorrhage; acute psychosis; progressive debilitating myopathy; thromboembolism; uncontrolled hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. The biochemical definition includes serum cortisol ≥41μg/dl (1100 nmol/l) and/or severe hypokalemia (
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Treatment of hypertension in diabetes: a contemporary approach with a focus on improving cardiovascular outcomes.
Authors: Khangura D, Kurukulasuriya LR, Sowers JR Abstract Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are interrelated conditions that predispose patients to cardiovascular disease. The 2015 American Diabetes Association guidelines recommend a blood pressure goal of
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Insulinemia, heterogeneity of obesity and the risk of different types of endometrial cancer: existing evidence.
Authors: Berstein LM Abstract Due to a number of reasons, endometrial cancer is a point of interest not only for oncologists, but also for a variety of specialists - especially endocrinologists. The endocrinology of endometrial cancer can be firmly divided into two categories - steroid and non-steroid. The steroid approach dominated during several decades due to hyperestrogenization signs observed in some patients. The balance was only regained in the last 15 years, when the role of diabetes and insulin resistance began to draw attention. This review aims to provide an update on connections between insulinemia...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Update on PCSK9 therapies for the treatment of dyslipidemia.
Authors: Singh A, Davidson M Abstract The mechanistic role of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) in cholesterol metabolism has been well elucidated, and serves as an example of how genetics has informed modern drug development with the advent of PCSK9 inhibitors. PCSK9 is intimately involved in the hepatic regulation of the Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, which in turn plays a key role in the circulation of serum LDL. Monoclonal antibodies targeting PCSK9, which act by inhibiting PCSK9 thereby allowing for constitutively active LDL receptors, are now well established as an effective metho...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pancreatic β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Pancreatic β-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan;11(1):1-2 Authors: Kaneto H PMID: 30063453 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hypofractionation for prostate cancer: an update.
Authors: Tiberi D, Vavassis P, Nguyen D, Yassa M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Recent advances in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has prompted much interest in the use of high-dose-per-fraction regimens for prostate cancer. Furthermore, from a radiobiological standpoint, there is increasing evidence that prostate tumors have a relatively low ɑ/β ratio therefore, the use of hypofractionation may potentially offer acceptable tumor control while minimizing late toxicity to critical structures. Areas covered: This expert review explores the current evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of hypofractionated rad...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The role of progesterone and the progesterone receptor in cancer.
Discussion is made about a unique immunomodulatory protein called the progesterone induced blocking factor (PIBF). The role of this protein, that is unique to rapidly growing cells, may hold a key to how the cancer cells escape immune surveillance. Thus, techniques to suppress the intracytoplasmic isoforms of PIBF may play a significant role in the fight against all cancers, not just the ones with the classic nuclear progesterone receptors. PMID: 30063455 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Selective molecular biomarkers to predict biologic behavior in pituitary tumors.
Authors: Sav A, Rotondo F, Syro LV, Altinoz MA, Kovacs K Abstract INTRODUCTION: To date, several cell proliferation markers, apoptosis, vascular markers, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cell cycle mediators, microRNA (miRNAs), and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified to be involved in the tumorigenesis, migration, proliferation and invasiveness of pituitary adenomas. There are still no reliable morphologic markers predictive of pituitary adenoma recurrence. Recent scientific research introduced new techniques to enable us to attain new information on the genesis and biologic behavior of pituitary a...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pharmacogenetics in type 2 diabetes: still a conundrum in clinical practice.
Authors: Brunetti A, Chiefari E, Foti DP PMID: 30063457 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The intestinal microbiota, energy balance, and malnutrition: emphasis on the role of short-chain fatty acids.
Authors: Fluitman KS, De Clercq NC, Keijser BJF, Visser M, Nieuwdorp M, IJzerman RG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Malnutrition refers to both over- and undernutrition and results from a disruption in energy balance. It affects one in three people worldwide and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The intestinal microbiota represents a newly identified factor that might contribute to the development of malnutrition, as it harbors traits that complement the human metabolic and endocrine capabilities, thereby influencing energy balance. Areas covered: In the current review, we aim to give a comprehensive ove...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Gene therapy with modified U1 small nuclear RNA.
Authors: Hwu WL, Lee YM, Lee NC Abstract INTRODUCTION: More than 15% of all disease-causing mutations result in mRNA splicing defects. U1 snRNA binds to the 5' splice site (5'ss) through base pairing. Mutation-adapted U1 snRNA (with compensatory U1 snRNA changes) and exon-specific U1 snRNA (complementary to intronic sequences) have been shown to suppress 5'ss mutations in cellular and animal models. Areas covered: The history, mechanism of action, and efficacy of U1 snRNA-mediated gene therapy are covered. The clinical utility of this technology and its limitations will be discussed. Expert commentary: Recently, ge...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Using genetics to inform new therapeutics for diabetes.
Authors: Yu AC, Li JW, Chan TF Abstract INTRODUCTION: The genetic architecture of diabetes has been extensively studied. Numerous genetic markers for diabetes have been reported. However, the translation of such knowledge into clinical interventions has been inadequate. Areas covered: We performed a literature search on various frontiers in diabetes treatment that could be improved using genetic information: (1) understanding the mechanisms of existing antidiabetic drugs, (2) repurposing existing drugs for the treatment of diabetes, (3) complementing clinical trial findings; (4) finding novel treatment approaches; ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Clinical impact of molecular techniques for the presurgical diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosis.
Authors: Molinaro E, Elisei R, Romei C Abstract INTRODUCTION: The gold standard for the presurgical diagnosis of thyroid cancer is fine needle aspiration cytology. In about 30% of cases a final diagnosis is not obtained and surgical treatment is required for diagnostic/therapeutic purposes. To avoid unnecessary thyroidectomies, methods based on molecular markers analysis have been explored over the last 10 years. Areas covered: The present review introduces the limits of the cytological diagnosis of thyroid nodules and describes the molecular techniques for the presurgical diagnosis of these nodules focusing o...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Is obesity a disease?
Authors: Barber TM PMID: 30058858 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current concepts in management of weight regain following bariatric surgery.
Authors: Shukla AP, He D, Saunders KH, Andrew C, Aronne LJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Although bariatric surgery is the most effective and durable treatment for obesity, weight regain is common. Areas covered: In this article, we have critically reviewed data from retrospective and prospective studies pertaining to prevalence and predictors of weight regain following bariatric surgery, as well as the utility of behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions to address post-surgical weight regain. Expert commentary: The initial step in management of post-surgical weight regain is a comprehensive evaluation of the pati...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Metformin: not only per os.
Authors: Berstein LM PMID: 30058860 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

PCOS and pregnancy: a review of available therapies to improve the outcome of pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Authors: Artini PG, Obino MER, Sergiampietri C, Pinelli S, Papini F, Casarosa E, Cela V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common cause of female infertility affecting multiple aspects of a women's health. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to summarize the existing evidence on the treatment of PCOS patients and to examine the actual available therapies to overcome the problem of infertility and improve the outcome of pregnancy. We analyse different treatment strategies such as lifestyle modification, bariatric surgery, insulin sensitizing agents, inositol, clomiphene citrate (CC), a...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The effects of hyperprolactinemia and its control on metabolic diseases.
Authors: Auriemma RS, De Alcubierre D, Pirchio R, Pivonello R, Colao A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hyperprolactinaemia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and glucose intolerance and is reportedly associated with impaired metabolic profile and metabolic syndrome in approximately one third of patients. Area covered: Suppression of dopaminergic tone has been proposed as a potential mechanism responsible for weight gain and metabolic abnormalities in such patients. Dopamine receptor type 2 (D2R) is abundantly expressed on human pancreatic β-cell and adipocytes, suggesting a regulatory role for periphera...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A clinical framework to facilitate selection of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer for active surveillance or less aggressive initial surgical management.
Authors: Tuttle RM, Zhang L, Shaha A Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the past, total thyroidectomy was usually recommended as the initial therapeutic approach in all but the lowest risk differentiated thyroid cancers. Today, many patients with low risk papillary thyroid cancers may be candidates for either an observational management approach (active surveillance/deferred surgical intervention) or a minimalist surgical approach (thyroid lobectomy/isthmusectomy). Areas covered: After a comprehensive review of the PubMed database and based on our clinical experience, we describe a clinical framework that integrates importa...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Recent advances in the diagnosis and management of Gaucher disease.
Authors: Gary SE, Ryan E, Steward AM, Sidransky E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Gaucher disease, the autosomal recessive deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, is associated with wide phenotypic diversity including non-neuronopathic, acute neuronopathic, and chronic neuronopathic forms. Overlap between types can render definitive diagnoses difficult. However, differentiating between the different phenotypes is essential due to the vast differences in clinical outcomes and response to therapy. Genotypic information is helpful, but cannot always be used to make clinical predictions. Current treatments for Ga...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Challenges in the development and growth of small for gestational age newborns.
Authors: Iughetti L, Lucaccioni L, Ferrari F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Being born with low birth weight (less than 2.500 gr) is considered a public health problem, with an overall world rate of about 14%. Low birth weight may result from a premature birth (
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 1, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research