The role of insulin-like growth factors in the development of prostate cancer.
Authors: Holly JMP, Biernacka K, Perks CM Abstract Introduction: Preclinical, clinical, and population studies have provided robust evidence for an important role for the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the development of prostate cancer.Areas covered: An overview of the IGF system is provided. The evidence implicating the IGF system in the development of prostate cancer is summarized. The compelling evidence culminated in a number of clinical trials of agents targeting the system; the reasons for the failure of these trials are discussed.Expert opinion: Clinical trials of agents targeting the IGF system...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

COVID-19 and obesity: links and risks.
Authors: Lavie CJ, Sanchis-Gomar F, Henry BM, Lippi G PMID: 32441223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hypertonic saline, isotonic saline, water restriction, long loops diuretics, urea or vaptans to treat hyponatremia.
Authors: Decaux G, Gankam Kengne F Abstract Introduction: Hyponatremia is the most common fluid and electrolyte abnormality. It is associated with much higher morbidity and mortality rates than found in non hyponatremic patients.Areas covered: When the physician is faced to a hyponatremic patient he first has to confirm that hyponatremia is associated with hypoosmolality. Then he must answer to a series of questions: What is its origin? Is it acute or chronic? Which treatment is the most appropriate? We will discuss the various options for the treatment of hypotonic hyponatremia. For a better comprehensive approach...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Diagnostic strategies and clinical management of lipodystrophy.
This article aims to help physicians address challenges in diagnosing and managing lipodystrophy. We systematically reviewed the literature on PubMed and Google Scholar databases to summarize the current knowledge in lipodystrophy management.Expert opinion: Adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine organ that regulates metabolic homeostasis in the human body through a comprehensive communication network with other organ systems such as the central nervous system, liver, digestive system, and the immune system. The adipose tissue is capable of producing and secreting numerous factors with important endocrine functions suc...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Potential markers of disease behavior in acromegaly and gigantism.
Authors: Hernández-Ramírez LC Abstract Introduction: Acromegaly and gigantism entail increased morbidity and mortality if left untreated, due to the systemic effects of chronic GH and IGF-1 excess. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with GH excess are well established; however, the presentation, clinical behavior and response to treatment greatly vary among patients. Numerous markers of disease behavior are routinely used in medical practice, but additional biomarkers have been recently identified as a result of basic and clinical research studies.Areas covered: This review focuses...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease and osteoporosis: basic and clinical implications.
Authors: Figueroa CA, Rosen CJ Abstract Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease. Lewy bodies, the hallmark of this disease due to an accumulation of α-synuclein, lead to loss of dopamine-regulated motor circuits, concomitantly progressive immobilization and a broad range of nonmotor features. PD patients have more hospitalizations, endure longer recovery time from comorbidities, and exhibit higher mortality than healthy controls. Although often overlooked, secondary osteoporosis has been reported frequently and is associated with a worse prognosis.Areas cov...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current controversies in the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism.
Authors: Francis N, Francis T, Lazarus JH, Okosieme OE Abstract Introduction: The management of Graves' disease centers on the use of effective and well-established therapies, namely thionamide antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, and thyroidectomy. Optimal treatment strategies are however controversial and vary significantly across centers.Areas covered: This review addresses specific controversies in Graves' disease management including the choice of primary therapy, the approach to women planning pregnancy, and optimal strategies for antithyroid drug and radioiodine therapy.Expert opinion: Important considerat...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery in patients with diabetes.
Authors: Sudlow AC, Le Roux CW, Pournaras DJ Abstract Introduction: Initially seen as a weight-loss operation, bariatric surgery is now recognized as a metabolic procedure with a critical role in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Early improvement in glucose metabolism is a remarkable effect of surgery; however, what deserves equal thought are implications for long-term diabetes control and relapse. Evidence suggests the metabolic effects of surgery fatigue and a proportion of patients will experience relapse of T2DM, with or without weight regain. Herein, we discuss the evidence examining the dura...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Postprandial hyperlipidemia as a risk factor in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Tomlinson B, Chan P, Lam CWK Abstract Introduction: Postprandial hyperlipidemia is a common feature of the atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Quantification of this with oral fat tolerance tests is not used routinely in clinical practice and abnormal postprandial lipids are usually inferred from non-fasting plasma triglyceride levels. Identifying excessive postprandial hyperlipidemia may help to refine cardiovascular risk assessment but there are no treatments currently available which selectively target postprandial lipids and no large cardiovascular outcome trials using this as th...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism: assessing when treatment is likely to be beneficial.
This article reviews the currently available evidence pertaining to SCH and provides recommendations as to when treatment of SCH should be considered. An electronic search of PubMed from 1970 to 2019 was performed and systematically reviewed studies assessing the effects of treatment in SCH. The main areas that are considered are the effects of treatment on symptoms and quality of life, and important clinical consequences including psychocognitive outcomes and cardiovascular events.Expert opinion: Treatment of SCH with thyroid hormones is debated and the current literature in this area lacks clarity. We provide an evidence...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and sweeteners: a literature review.
We present an up-to-date systematic review of the current literature regarding the safety in artificial and natural sweeteners use as a means of weight loss or diabetes control.Expert opinion: Natural sweeteners have not been associated directly with NAFLD, and on the contrary, some, such as stevia, and trehalose, may have a protective effect. Rare sugars and polyols can be used safely and have significant benefits that include anti-oxidant effect and optimal glycemic control. Artificial sweeteners, due to their effect on NAFLD development and insulin resistance, are not indicated in patients with obesity or diabetes. Furt...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The assessment and management of quality of life of older adults with diabetes mellitus.
This article reviews the value of assessing QoL in providing patient-centered care and the associations between QoL measures and health outcomes. The determinants of QoL particular to diabetes and the older population are reviewed, including psychosocial, physical, and cognitive burdens of diabetes and aging and the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL. Strategies are described to alleviate these burdens and improve QoL, and barriers to multidisciplinary patient-centered care are discussed. QoL measurement instruments are reviewed.Expert opinion: The goals of treating diabetes and its complications should be considered carefully ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Long-term neuroendocrine consequences of traumatic brain injury and strategies for management.
Authors: Hacioglu A, Kelestimur F, Tanriverdi F Abstract Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported to cause neuroendocrine impairment with a prevalence of 15% with confirmatory testing. Pituitary dysfunction (PD) may have detrimental effects on vital parameters as well as on body composition, cardiovascular functions, cognition, and quality of life. Therefore, much effort has been made to identify predictive factors for post-TBI PD and various screening strategies have been offered.Areas covered: We searched PubMed and reviewed the recent data on clinical perspectives and long-term outcomes as well ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Graves' disease: developments in first-line antithyroid drugs in the young.
This article does not reflect a formal systematic review of the literature.Expert opinion: New strategies in areas such as immunomodulation may see the development of new antithyroid drug treatments that, either in isolation or in combination with thionamide therapy, may increase the likelihood of long-term remission. PMID: 32133893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Association between FTO gene polymorphisms and breast cancer: the role of estrogen.
This study aimed to systematically investigate the association between FTO gene polymorphisms and breast cancer and the possible role of estrogen in this association.Areas covered: We performed an extensive search of electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochran for published original studies on the association of FTO gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. Keywords such as breast cancer and/or FTO gene and/or polymorphism were used in order to identify the related articles. We excluded studies unrelated to the FTO genotype and the outcome of breast cancer.Expert opinion: FTO gene may have a ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Gut microbiota: a promising target against cardiometabolic diseases.
Authors: Warmbrunn MV, Herrema H, Aron-Wisnewsky J, Soeters MR, Van Raalte DH, Nieuwdorp M Abstract Introduction: Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) are a group of interrelated disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the prevalence of these diseases increases globally, efficient new strategies are necessary to target CMD and modifiable risk factors. In the past decade, evidence has accumulated regarding the influence of gut microbiota (GM) on CMD, providing new targets for therapeutic interventions.Areas covered: This narrative review discusses the pathophysi...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Group Medical Visits: experiences with patient and resident implementation.
Conclusion: The GMV model offers patients the setting to interact and exchange experiences with each other as well as to receive feedback from providers and the health-care team.  The incorporation of the GMV program into residency training provides a continuity group care experience and an alternative practice model. PMID: 31990589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A brief overview on the use of probiotics to treat overweight and obese patients.
Authors: Daniali M, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M PMID: 31990591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Cardiovascular health and menopause in aging women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Authors: Helvaci N, Yildiz BO Abstract Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Current evidence suggests that women with PCOS exhibit an unfavorable metabolic profile which may pose them at increased risk for cardiovascular events later in life.Areas covered: Herein, we present a review of the existing literature relating to PCOS and long-term cardiovascular (CV) health risks in women after menopause. We performed an electronic-based search with the use of PubMed from 1990 to August 2019 and systematically reviewed studies assessing C...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Benefits and limitations of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes.
Authors: Stone JY, Bailey TS Abstract Introduction: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic condition characterized by a complete deficiency in insulin production. Optimal management requires constant knowledge of glucose levels for safe and effective insulin administration. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) using capillary blood glucose meters is cumbersome and provides limited information to guide management. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology addresses many of these gaps, but itself has limitations which have prevented people with diabetes and their clinicians from fully embracing this technology. T...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas in Japan and other countries: a review.
Authors: Ito Y, Miyauchi A Abstract Introduction: Active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) was initiated in Japan in 1993 and has since been adopted in many countries, especially after its approval by the American Thyroid Association in 2015.Areas covered: We performed a literature review in Medline/PubMed to identify studies that used active surveillance for PTMCs. Moreover, we performed a literature review about the increased incidence of thyroid microcarcinomas in relation to the relative stability of deaths due to thyroid carcinomas.Expert opinion: No patients showed life-threat...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors: a 10-year assessment.
Authors: Di Dalmazi G, Ippolito S, Lupi I, Caturegli P Abstract Introduction: Hypophysitis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has risen to the medical attention during the past decade. ICIs are monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between molecules that normally inhibit the function of effector T cells, ultimately increasing their ability to destroy cancer cells but also causing immune-related adverse events, such as hypophysitis. Ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 blocker, was the first ICI approved from the Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma patients in 2011. Several additional ICIs targe...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Adenomyosis and infertility: is there a causal link?
Authors: Vercellini P, Bonfanti I, Berlanda N PMID: 31813292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Insights into pituitary tumorigenesis: from Sanger sequencing to next-generation sequencing and beyond.
Authors: Shen AJJ, King J, Scott H, Colman P, Yates CJ Abstract Introduction: This review explores insights provided by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of pituitary tumors and the clinical implications.Areas covered: Although syndromic forms account for just 5% of pituitary tumours, past Sanger sequencing studies pragmatically focused on them. These studies identified mutations in MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A, GNAS and SDHx causing Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia-1 (MEN1), MEN4, Carney Complex-1, McCune Albright Syndrome and 3P association syndromes, respectively. Furthermore, linkage analysis of single-nucleotide polymorph...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Adult growth hormone deficiency: clinical advances and approaches to improve adherence.
This article summarizes recent clinical advances in rhGH replacement therapy, the biological and molecular aspects that may influence rhGH action, and offers practical strategies to enhance adherence in adults with GHD. PMID: 31721610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Fertility management of Klinefelter syndrome.
Authors: Fainberg J, Hayden RP, Schlegel PN Abstract Introduction: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) represents the most common chromosomal abnormality in the general population, and one of the most common genetic etiologies of nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and in severe oligospermia. Once considered untreatable, men with KS and NOA now have a variety of treatment options to obtain paternity. Areas covered: The cornerstone of treatment for both KS and NOA patients remains the surgical retrieval of viable sperm, which can be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection to obtain pregnancy. Although the field has advanced si...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Night eating syndrome: a psychiatric disease, a sleep disorder, a delayed circadian eating rhythm, and/or a metabolic condition?
Authors: Shoar S, Naderan M, Mahmoodzadeh H, Shoar N, Lotfi D Abstract Introduction: Night Eating Syndrome (NES) refers to an abnormal eating behavior which presents as evening hyperphagia consuming>25% calorie intake and/or nocturnal awaking with food ingestion which occurs ≥2 times per week. Although the syndrome has been described more than seven decades ago, the literature has been growing slowly on its etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Areas covered: The proposed treatment options for NES are all at a case-study level. Moreover, our understanding of its etiology, comorbidities, and diagnosis is still p...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Ospemifene for the treatment of menopausal vaginal dryness, a symptom of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.
Authors: Archer DF, Simon JA, Portman DJ, Goldstein SR, Goldstein I Abstract Introduction: Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), a component of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause, is a progressive condition due to decline in estrogen leading to vaginal and vulvar epithelial changes. Accompanying symptoms of dryness, irritation, burning, dysuria, and/or dyspareunia have a negative impact on quality of life. Ospemifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) approved by the FDA for moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness due to postmenopausal VVA. Areas covered: PubMed was searched from inception to M...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity in erectile dysfunction and male infertility.
Authors: Rastrelli G, Lotti F, Reisman Y, Sforza A, Maggi M, Corona G Abstract Introduction: Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) is the most important preventable cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Recently, the significance of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) as a CV risk factor has raised increasing interest. MUHO is a known risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED); however, the effect of MHO on ED has barely been investigated. This review aims at summarizing the evidence supporting the relation of MUHO and MHO to male sexual functioning and fertility. Areas covered: An extensive Medline search on obesity an...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Addressing delays in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.
Authors: Ilias I, Thomopoulos C Abstract Introduction: Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PPG) are rare tumors. In theory the diagnosis of PPG should be straightforward. In clinical practice, however, considerable delays are noted in establishing such a diagnosis. Areas covered: We assess the characteristics of various approaches to diagnosis and localization of PPG lesions (and their relevant caveats). We also evaluate potential biases to diagnosis. Expert opinion: A high degree of suspicion - particularly in younger patients - is required by clinicians. The availability of diagnostic means (mainly of biochemical t...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A review of IVF in PCOS patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Authors: Thakre N, Homburg R Abstract Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrinopathy affecting women in the reproductive age group. The prevalence may vary from 8.7% to 17% depending on the clinical criteria used. PCOS women having IVF presents multiple challenges ranging from a poor to an exaggerated response, poor egg to follicle ratio, poor fertilisation, poor blastocyst conversion and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Ovarian stimulation should be planned with attention paid to the AMH, antral follicle count and LH in particular. The dose of the stimulating gonadotrophin shoul...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Association of pediatric obesity and asthma, pulmonary physiology, metabolic dysregulation, and atopy; and the role of weight management.
Authors: De A, Rastogi D Abstract Introduction: Obesity affects about 40% of US adults and 18% of children. Its impact on the pulmonary system is best described for asthma. Areas covered: We reviewed the literature on PubMed and Google Scholar databases and summarize the effect of obesity, its associated metabolic dysregulation and altered systemic immune responses, and that of weight gain and loss on pulmonary mechanics, asthma inception, and disease burden. We include a distinct approach for diagnosing and managing the disease, including pulmonary function deficits inherent to obesity-related asthma, in light of ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pros and cons of Roux en-Y gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Justinussen T, Madsbad S, Holst JJ, Bojsen-Møller KN Abstract Introduction: The worldwide prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) constitutes an epidemic that is a threat to public health. Bariatric surgery, including Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), is currently the most effective treatment to induce long-term weight loss and remission of co-morbid conditions. Surgery, however, comes with an added risk of complications, highlighting the need to understand the comparative effectiveness and risks of surgical versus conventional approaches to the treatment of obesity and T2D. Areas covered: Po...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

New insights into the function of melatonin and its role in metabolic disturbances.
Authors: Amaral FGD, Andrade-Silva J, Kuwabara WMT, Cipolla-Neto J Abstract Introduction: Melatonin is a pineal hormone that has acquired several unique modes of regulating the physiological effects in mammals due to its characteristic phylogenetic history. While melatonin exhibits immediate nocturnal effects, it also has next-day prospective effects that take place in the absence of this hormone. Besides that, the daily repetition and the annual variation in the duration of its synthesis determine its circadian and seasonal effects that characterize melatonin as a chronobiotic, a molecule that encodes time to the ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pituitary disease in pediatric brain tumor survivors.
Authors: Howell JC, Rose SR Abstract Introduction: Treatment of childhood brain tumors, including surgical resection and especially external beam radiation, often results in endocrine complications manifested by hypopituitarism, which can involve growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, disorders of puberty, diabetes insipidus, and hypothalamic obesity. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search was conducted on Medline (publications from the 1990s to 01/2019) including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, longitudinal controlled studies, retrospective cohort studies, and case reports. ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Genetic and epigenetic-sensitive regulatory network in immune response: a putative link between HLA-G and diabetes.
Authors: Sommese L, Benincasa G, Schiano C, Marfella R, Grimaldi V, Sorriento A, Lucchese R, Fiorito C, Sardu C, Nicoletti GF, Napoli C Abstract Introduction: Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene encodes for a tolerogenic molecule constitutively expressed in human pancreas and upregulated upon inflammatory signals. The 14 bp INS/DEL polymorphism in the 3'UTR of HLA-G may influence the susceptibility for diabetes and coronary heart diseases (CHD), thus suggesting a novel candidate gene. DNA hypomethylation at HLA-G promoter may be a putative useful clinical biomarker for CHD onset. Upregulation of soluble HLA-G is...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Should we use BMI as a selection criterion for bariatric surgery?
Authors: Hanson P, Barber TM PMID: 31116069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The influence of skeletal muscle on appetite regulation.
Authors: Grannell A, De Vito G, Murphy JC, le Roux CW Abstract INTRODUCTION: Fat-free mass, of which skeletal muscle is amajor component, correlates positively with energy intake at energy balance. This is due to the effects of metabolically active tissue on energy expenditure which in itself appears to signal to the brain adrive to eat to ensure cellular energy homeostasis. The mechanisms responsible for this drive to eat are unknown but are likely to be related to energy utilization. Here muscle imparts an indirect influence on hunger. The drive to eat is also enhanced after muscle loss secondary to intentional w...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis.
Authors: Hu K, Adachi JD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common secondary cause of osteoporosis. Despite this, many patients receiving glucocorticoids are not evaluated for their skeletal health. Areas covered: Glucocorticoids have profound effects on bone cells, resulting in increases in bone resorption and impairments in bone formation. Bone loss and subsequent increases in fracture risk occur early after the administration of glucocorticoids. Incidence of fractures is highest within the first 6 months of glucocorticoid treatment, and declines with longer exposure. Decreases...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Racial and ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease and outcome in type 1 diabetes patients.
Authors: Ali MT, Al Suwaidi J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased dramatically over the last two decades with global variation greater than 350-fold difference reflecting the ethnic, racial, and geographical variation. Diabetic patients remain at a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality than those without diabetes. Therefore, it is vital for clinicians to have in-depth knowledge of T1DM statistics and their impact on people health and health resources. Areas covered: This review will cover the epidemiologic characteristics of T1DM and the influence of race, ethnicity, and geographi...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 14, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Enclomiphene citrate: A treatment that maintains fertility in men with secondary hypogonadism.
This article reviews the difficulties associated with the FDA approval of a new molecular entity related to the treatment of hypogonadism. PMID: 31063005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Estradiol in non-oral hormonal contraception: a "long and winding road".
Estradiol in non-oral hormonal contraception: a "long and winding road". Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Apr 05;:1-3 Authors: Grandi G, Barra F, Ferrero S, Facchinetti F PMID: 31030579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 1, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Prenatal influences on bone health in children.
This article will outline the accrual of bone mineral throughout the life course and how observational and intervention studies have shown that maternal diet, in particular maternal calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status, and lifestyle are associated with offspring bone mineralization. Studies examining the effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on offspring bone mineral density (BMD) will also be discussed. Expert commentary: There is a wealth of observational evidence relating maternal diet to offspring BMD. However, high quality randomized controlled trials, such as the ongoing MAVIDOS study, are ne...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Genetic markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of pheochromocytoma.
Authors: Thouënnon E, Pierre A, Guillemot J, Yon L, Eisenhofer G, Anouar Y Abstract The last 5 years have witnessed important advances in understanding the mechanisms of tumorigenesis of chromaffin cells. Large-scale microarray analyses of pheochromocytomas have identified two distinct gene-expression profiles encompassing all hereditary and sporadic tumors. Gene-expression profiling of benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is providing a better understanding of the mechanisms of metastasis. Such studies hold promise for the development of new prognostic markers for early detection of malignant pheochromocyto...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia in adults.
Authors: Lin-Su K, Nimkarn S, New MI Abstract Hyperandrogenism in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) results from overstimulation of adrenocorticotropic-driven androgen production in the adrenal cortex due to lack of cortisol feedback. The classical form is characterized by more-severe symptoms of hyperandrogenism, including virilization of the female genitalia. The milder nonclassical form presents with postnatal symptoms of hyperandrogenism. Presenting symptoms in adulthood may include acne, male-pattern alopecia, hirsutism, irregular menses/amenorrhea or infertility. The goal of therapy in CAH is to both corre...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Cancer and fertility preservation in females: where we stand and where we are heading.
Authors: Maltaris T, Weigel M, Dittrich R Abstract It is estimated that, in 2010, one in every 250 adults will be a childhood cancer survivor. This review discusses the impact of current cancer treatment on fertility potential and the assisted-reproduction innovations available today for the most common cancers in young women. As the emerging discipline of fertility preservation is steadily attracting increasing interest, developments in the near future promise to be very exciting. However, in everyday routine work, better interdisciplinary cooperation between gynecological and pediatric oncologists, surgeons, immu...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Low-risk thyroid carcinoma: when is the treatment worse than the disease?
Authors: Potenza M, Mechanick JI PMID: 30934376 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Neovascularization in diabetes.
Authors: Glotzbach JP, Wong VW, Gurtner GC Abstract Diabetes and its complications are a major public health burden in the developed world. The major cause of diabetic complications is abnormal growth of new blood vessels. This dysfunctional neovascularization results in significant morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes and, as such, is a major focus of basic and clinical investigation. It has become clear that hyperglycemia disrupts tissue-level signaling in response to hypoxia and ischemia, impairs the vasculogenic potential of circulating stem cells and fundamentally alters the structure and function...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Diabetes and failure of axon regeneration in peripheral neurons.
Authors: Zochodne DW Abstract Peripheral neurons are targeted by a 'double hit' during diabetes mellitus. First, they are damaged directly; diabetic polyneuropathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that involves sensory, autonomic and eventually motor neurons. The second 'hit' involves a profound impairment in the ability of peripheral axons to regenerate. This is important because the impairment impacts on how patients may recover from polyneuropathy. Moreover, diabetic patients also develop direct focal injures of peripheral nerves, such as carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. Their...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Macrovascular complications of diabetes in atherosclerosisprone mice.
Authors: Johnson LA, Maeda N Abstract The well-established relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular complications, combined with the rapidly increasing prevalence of diabetes, has created a pressing need for better understanding of the mechanisms of diabetic atherosclerosis. Multiple metabolic and diabetes-specific factors have been associated with accelerated atherosclerosis, including dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular cell dysfunction and coagulopathy. This discussion highlights selected studies in which researchers have employed mouse models of diabetic atherosclerosis in an attempt ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research