Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 30084670 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

When should screening for diabetic retinopathy begin for children with type 1 diabetes?
Authors: Thomas RL, Harvey JN, Owens DR PMID: 30058865 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A systematic review of the safety of incretin-based therapies in type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, incretin-based therapies were well tolerated; however, their long-term safety profile should continue to be periodically assessed. PMID: 30058866 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Evidence-based guidelines in acromegaly: implications on the clinic.
Authors: Kasuki L, Volschan I, Gadelha MR Abstract Acromegaly is a rare disease with many challenges in its management. In order to address these challenges, many clinical practice guidelines were recently published. They were based on the literature evidence, aiming at guiding primary care physicians, general endocrinologists and neuroendocrinologists. The majority of these guidelines were developed following the GRADE system that classifies the recommendations according to strength (weak or strong) and quality of the evidence that supports them. In this review, we discuss how the evidence-based guidelines are dev...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

IDegAsp (insulin degludec + insulin aspart) for the management of type 2 diabetes: current status.
Authors: Christiansen JS, Home P, Kumar A Abstract The co-formulation insulin degludec/insulin aspart (IDegAsp) contains insulin degludec (IDeg), a basal insulin, and the rapid-acting insulin aspart (IAsp). Its unique pharmacodynamic profile provides a stable basal insulin action over a 24-h period due to the flat, ultra-long effect of IDeg, combined with prandial control from IAsp, which is unaffected by the basal component. IDegAsp provides a distinct mealtime insulin peak effect and reduces the likelihood of postprandial glucose excursions. The phase 2 and 3 clinical trial program demonstrates that IDegAsp provi...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Drugs influencing acid base balance and bicarbonate concentration readings.
Authors: Jullian-Desayes I, Borel JC, Guerber F, Borel AL, Tamisier R, Levy P, Schwebel C, Pepin JL, Joyeux-Faure M Abstract Serum bicarbonate dosage is sensitive to pharmacological interferences. However, elevated bicarbonate concentration reflects chronic hypoventilation and has been proposed as a simple marker for screening patients with Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS), a currently underdiagnosed multimorbid and high mortality disease. We provide a practical overview of the different drugs acting on the acid-base equilibrium to aid clinicians to interpret bicarbonate concentration readings. Little is know...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Management of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state in adults.
Authors: Anzola I, Gomez PC, Umpierrez GE Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes associated with high mortality rate if not efficiently and effectively treated. Both entities are characterized by insulinopenia, hyperglycemia and dehydration. DKA and HHS are two serious complications of diabetes associated with significant mortality and a high healthcare costs. The overall DKA mortality in the US is less than 1%, but a rate higher than 5% is reported in the elderly and in patients with concomitant life-threatening illnesses. Mortalit...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Aggressive Pituitary Tumors or Localized Pituitary Carcinomas: Defining Pituitary Tumors.
Authors: Asa SL, Ezzat S Abstract Pituitary tumors are common and exhibit a wide spectrum of hormonal, proliferative and invasive behaviors. Traditional classifications consider them malignant only when they exhibit metastasis. Patients who suffer morbidity and mortality from aggressive tumors classified as "adenomas" are denied support provided to patients with "cancers" and in many jurisdictions, these tumors are considered curiosities that do not warrant reporting in health registries. We propose use of the term "tumor" rather than "adenoma" to align with other neuroendocr...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current Ideas on the Treatment Of Diabetic Neuropathies.
Authors: Anderson D, Zochodne DW Abstract Diabetic neuropathies are common and their prevalence is rising with the growth in the global prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Several patterns of neuropathy have now been described, with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DPN) being the most common. Autonomic neuropathy, entrapment neuropathies including carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow pose additional burdens. DPN can be detected in over half of all diabetic subjects and approximately 20% of all patients with DPN also experience neuropathic pain, a complication with major impacts on quality of lif...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current imaging techniques for the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma.
Authors: Zaidi HA, Cote DJ, Laws ER Abstract Stepwise improvements in the imaging of pituitary adenomas in the last 100 years have had a tremendous impact on patient care. Pituitary tumors are now diagnosed earlier in the time course of the disease, improving chances of endocrine and visual recovery. There is improved pre-surgical planning due to a better understanding of the investment of the tumor around important surrounding parasellar structures. Approaches to tumors are now safer due to stereotactic navigation and residual disease can be radiographically followed for a lifetime and treated prior to irreve...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Bromocriptine-QR therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus: developmental basis and therapeutic profile summary.
Authors: Raskin P, Cincotta AH Abstract An extended series of studies indicate that endogenous phase shifts in circadian neuronal input signaling to the biological clock system centered within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) facilitates shifts in metabolic status. In particular, a diminution of the circadian peak in dopaminergic input to the peri-SCN facilitates the onset of fattening, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance while reversal of low circadian peak dopaminergic activity to the peri-SCN via direct timed dopamine administration to this area normalizes the obese, insulin resistant, gluco...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current methods for the management of endometriosis in adolescent patients.
Authors: Slocum BN, Sanfilippo J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Endometriosis is increasingly recognized as a challenging problem of both diagnosis and management in adolescent gynecology. Areas covered: This special report summarizes the current practices in the evaluation and management of endometriosis in adolescent patients. Expert commentary: We recommend prompt recognition and treatment of endometriosis whenever possible. Management should begin with empiric treatment with NSAIDS and hormonal therapy if complaints of pain interfering with daily activities are elicited. If a patient fails medical therapy after three t...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis: a review of skeletal safety concerns.
Authors: Habib ZA Abstract INTRODUCTION: The use of bisphosphonates in treatment of osteoporosis declined significantly over the past decade. There is currently great concern, among patients and physicians, about two potential skeletal adverse effects associated with bisphosphonates- jaw osteonecrosis and atypical femur fractures. This has become a major public health issue since untreated osteoporosis carries a significant burden in terms of fracture-related morbidity and mortality, and bisphosphonates, considered first-line therapy for osteoporosis, have established efficacy in fracture and mortality reduction. A...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Implications of maternal obesity on fetal growth and the role of ultrasound.
Authors: O'brien CM, Poprzeczny A, Dodd JM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Over fifty percent of women entering pregnancy are overweight or obese. This has a significant impact on short and long term maternal and infant health outcomes, and the intergenerational effects of obesity are now a major public health problem globally. Areas covered: There are two major pathways contributing to fetal growth. Glucose and insulin directly affect growth, while other substrates such as leptin, adiponectin and insulin-like growth factors indirectly influence growth through structural and morphological effects on the placenta, uteroplace...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Somatostatin analogs, cabergoline and pegvisomant: comparing the efficacy of medical treatment for acromegaly.
Authors: Grasso LFS, Auriemma RS, Pivonello R, Colao A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Therapies for acromegaly aim at normalizing hormonal excess and controlling tumor growth . Therapeutic approaches are surgery, pharmacotherapy and radiotherapy. Area covered: This review focuses on the role of medical therapy of acromegaly, comparing the efficacy of somatostatin analogues (SSA), dopamine-agonists (DA) and pegvisomant (PEG), the three available drug classes for treating acromegaly. To clarify the difference in response rates reported in the literature for these therapies, we performed a search for original articles publish...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity and breast cancer - what's new?
Authors: Goodwin PJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Obesity rates are increasing in the developed and developing world; this has implications for breast cancer risk and outcome. Areas covered: Recent advances relating to the association of obesity with breast cancer are reviewed. Expert commentary: Obesity has been associated with increased risk of postmenopausal hormone receptor positive and premenopausal triple negative breast cancer and with poor prognosis of most types of breast cancer. Obese individuals may present with breast cancer at a more advanced stage and their breast cancer may differ biologically from cancers ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The role of stress in PCOS.
Authors: Papalou O, Diamanti-Kandarakis E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy affecting a remarkable proportion of premenopausal women. Different studies have shown that stress is widely encountered in women with PCOS. Areas covered: As PCOS is a multifaceted disorder, 'stress' incorporates different translations. We performed a literature review, focusing on the most recent data, regarding the multipotent role of stress in the syndrome. Expert commentary: Stress is believed to be an important component of PCOS. It encompasses different definitions that are all equiva...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current knowledge for pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy: a 2016 update.
We present here a comprehensive review of current treatment options as well as PDE phenotype, differential diagnosis, current management and views upon the future of PDE research. PMID: 30058881 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Reducing the risk of heart failure exacerbation by bariatric surgery in obese patients.
Authors: Mohajer P, Shimada YJ PMID: 30058904 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Do omega-3 fatty acids reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal obese women?
Authors: Manni A, El-Bayoumy K PMID: 30058905 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Liraglutide, GLP-1 receptor agonist, for chronic weight loss.
Authors: Moore KG, Shealy K, Clements JN Abstract INTRODUCTION: Since 1990, the prevalence of obesity has been steadily increasing in the United States. Over the past four years, new medications have become approved and available, allowing for more options in the management of chronic weight loss among overweight or obese patients. This review article summarizes the efficacy, safety, and clinical attributes of liraglutide among overweight or obese patients with or without comorbidities. Areas covered: A MEDLINE search, from 1970 to June 2016, was conducted using key terms-glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, l...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity-related metabolic and reproductive dysfunction: variations between the sexes.
This article focuses on sex-specific obesity-related metabolic and reproductive dysfunction. To illustrate key sex-related differences in the mechanisms by which obesity contributes towards metabolic and reproductive dysfunction, two common obesity-related conditions affecting women and men are considered: respectively, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and Male Obesity-associated Secondary Hypogonadism (MOSH). PMID: 30058907 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endometrial cancer risk in postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors.
Authors: Šestak I, Cuzick J Abstract INTRODUCTION: The gynaecological toxicity profile of tamoxifen presents a significant burden to the patients and oncologist as tamoxifen-related side effects result in additional investigations, procedures and referrals. Aromatase inhibitor have been shown to result in significant reduction in gynaecological problems, possibly including endometrial cancer. Areas covered: We reviewed the main breast cancer trials, observation or cohort studies investigating tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor to report on endometrial adverse events and cancer. Expert commentary: Evidence f...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity in patients with HIV infection: epidemiology, consequences and treatment options.
Authors: Papagianni M, Tziomalos K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Even though wasting used to characterize patients with HIV infection prior to the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, obesity is becoming increasingly prevalent in this population. Areas covered: In the present review, we discuss the epidemiology, consequences and treatment options for obesity in patients with HIV infection. Expert commentary: Obesity exerts a multitude of detrimental cardiometabolic effects and appears to contribute to the increasing cardiovascular mortality of this population. However, there are very limited data on the optimal management of...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The role of next generation sequencing in understanding male and female sexual development: clinical implications.
We describe how these technologies are impacting on our understanding of human sex development and the profound clinical implications of these technologies on conditions such as Disorders of Sex Development (DSD). Expert commentary: The sheer wealth of genomic data is generating new challenges-some are technical such as variant calling, or predicting the functional consequence of a variant-whereas others are more profound, such as establishing the link between extensive genomic information and the clinical presentation. Predicting disease phenotypes from genetic sequences is often extremely difficult because the genotype-p...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Healthy obesity as an intermediate state of risk: a critical review.
Authors: Bell JA, Hamer M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a top public health priority but interventions to reverse the condition have had limited success. About one-in-three obese adults are free of metabolic risk factor clustering and are considered 'healthy', and much attention has focused on the implications of this state for obesity management. Areas covered: We searched for individual studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses which examined correlates and outcomes of metabolically healthy obesity. We discuss the key roles of fat distribution and physical activity in determining healthy vs. unhealthy ob...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes.
This article summarizes the current evidence available on the use of these agents in patients with diabetes. PMID: 30058912 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current dilemmas in the diagnosis and management of follicular thyroid tumors.
Authors: Renard M, Lloveras B, Flores J, Puig J, Benaiges D, Sitges-Serra A Abstract Follicular carcinoma (FTC) is a relatively uncommon type of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Guidelines have often dealt with FTC and papillary thyroid cancer as a single disease. Over the last decade, however, a better understanding of these two types of thyroid cancer indicates that they cannot be analysed together. Neither ultrasonography nor fine-needle aspiration cytology can provide a clear distinction between FTC and follicular adenoma. New molecular diagnostic techniques may be used to identify a subpopulation of follicula...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

An interview with Professor Steve Bain: the LEADER trials and the future of type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Bain S PMID: 30058914 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Breastfeeding and obesity in PCOS.
Authors: Harrison CL, Teede HJ, Joham AE, Moran LJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common condition affecting up to 18% of reproductive-aged women, has complications including reproductive, metabolic and psychological dysfunction. There is a strong potentially bidirectional association of obesity with PCOS. Women with PCOS both have a higher risk of obesity and greater longitudinal weight gain and obesity increases the prevalence and severity of the reproductive, metabolic and psychological features of PCOS. In limited observational studies, PCOS is proposed as a potential factor contribu...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Calorie restriction and reversal of type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Taylor R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes causes major global health problems and has been believed to be a lifelong condition with inevitable worsening. Steadily increasing numbers of drugs appeared to be required to achieve even modest control. Early type 2 diabetes has now been shown to be reversed by substantial weight loss and this has allowed temporal tracking of the underlying pathophysiological changes. Areas covered: In early type 2 diabetes, negative calorie balance decreases liver fat within days, and allows return of normal control of hepatic glucose production. Over 8 weeks, the neg...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

An update on bone imaging and markers in chronic kidney disease.
Authors: Krishnasamy R, Hawley CM, Johnson DW Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bone disorders in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are associated with heightened risks of fractures, vascular calcification, poor quality of life and mortality compared to the general population. However, diagnosis and management of these disorders in CKD are complex and appreciably limited by current diagnostic modalities. Areas covered: Bone histomorphometry remains the gold standard for diagnosis but is not widely utilised and lacks feasibility as a monitoring tool. In practice, non-invasive imaging and biochemical markers are preferred to guide t...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity and the dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism: implications for healthy aging.
Authors: Morgan A, Mooney K, Mc Auley M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The population of the world is aging. In 2010, an estimated 524 million people were aged 65 years or older representing eight percent of the global population. By 2050, this number is expected to nearly triple to approximately 1.5 billion, 16 percent of the world's population. Although people are living longer, the quality of their lives are often compromised due to ill-health. Areas covered: Of the conditions which compromise health as we age, obesity is at the forefront. Over half of the global older population were overweight or obese in 2010, s...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity and energy balance: What is the role of physical activity?
Authors: Shook RP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite billions of dollars spent over decades of research, debate remains over the causes and solutions of the obesity epidemic. The specific role of physical activity in the prevention or treatment of obesity seems a particularly contentious issue, with opposing views put forth in both academic and popular media. In an attempt to provide context and clarity to the specific question of the role of physical activity in determination of body weight, we have attempted to identify evidence or lack thereof in the scientific literature and provide a summary of our findings. Areas...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Physiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic implications of enteroendocrine control of food intake.
Authors: Elliott JA, Reynolds JV, le Roux CW, Docherty NG Abstract INTRODUCTION: With the increasing prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities, strides to improve treatment strategies have enhanced our understanding of the function of the gut in the regulation of food intake. The most successful intervention for obesity to date, bariatric surgery effectively manipulates enteroendocrine physiology to enhance satiety and reduce hunger. Areas covered: In the present article, we provide a detailed overview of the physiology of enteroendocrine control of food intake, and discuss its pathophysiologic correla...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Advances in our understanding of the prognosis of adrenal incidentaloma.
Authors: Mackay I, Aspinall S Abstract INTRODUCTION: As cross-sectional abdominal imaging is used increasingly, adrenal incidentaloma (AI) are being found frequently and present a clinical dilemma. The vast majority are benign and non-functioning, but a minority represent incidentally found functional or malignant tumours. In this review we summarise the current clinical, biochemical and radiological investigation of AI and discuss recent advances that differentiate clinically inconsequential lesions from functional and/or malignant AI. Areas covered: Prevalence, natural history, biochemical and radiological assess...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Diagnosing children with signs of early puberty: knowing when to test and when to just monitor.
Authors: Kaplowitz P PMID: 30058922 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Update on the use of oral octreotide therapy for acromegaly.
Authors: Schilbach K, Schopohl J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Somatostatin analogs are most commonly used in pharmacological treatment of acromegaly. Pegvisomant and dopamine agonists are alternatives, which are used to a lesser extent. Dopamine agonists are the only orally applicable medication but are less effective than the other options. For a large number of patients, life-long pharmacotherapy has to be applied and frequent injections represent a reduction of quality of life for many of them. Areas covered: Recently published evidence for the use of oral octreotide therapy for acromegaly. Expert commentary: Oral oct...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Management of hyperthyroidism in children.
Authors: De Luca F, Salzano G, Zirilli G, Calafiore M, Corica D, Sferlazzas C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Treatment of hyperthyroidism in children differs according to its etiology; in particular, the optimal therapy of Graves' disease (GD) remains a matter of debate and there is currently no evidence-based therapeutic strategy that is universally adopted in all the countries. Areas covered: The most recent treatment strategies in the different pediatric conditions which may be associated with hyperthyroidism. We searched PubMed and Cochrane (1990 to 2016) in order to identify articles to include in this review using th...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

GLP-1 receptor agonist as treatment for cancer as well as diabetes: beyond blood glucose control.
Authors: Nomiyama T, Yanase T Abstract INTRODUCTION: Recent studies indicate that cancer is a new complication of diabetes. In Japan, cancer is the most critical cause of death in patients with type 2 diabetes. Areas covered: Unlike diabetic angiopathies, diabetes does not accelerate the onset and progression of cancer, even though diabetes and cancer exhibit very similar pathophysiological features including obesity, insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and decreased adipokine imbalance. Agonists to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor are a newly identified therapy for type 2 diabetes. ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Systemic therapies for advanced gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.
Authors: Patel D, Chan D, Cehic G, Pavlakis N, Price TJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine tumors are a heterogeneous group of malignancies, characterised by production of hormones and vasoactive peptides. The incidence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NET) is rising, and they have the highest prevalence amongst upper gastro-intestinal tumors. Diagnosis remains challenging due to wide variations in presentation and slow onset of symptoms. A multi-disciplinary approach is vital in appropriately managing the diverse spectrum of GEP-NET. Areas covered: Investigations in GEP-NET and biomarkers ar...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Optimum duration and safety of long-term use of potent anti-resorptive medications in osteoporosis.
Authors: Wimalawansa SJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anti-resorptive drugs are the most commonly used medications for treating metabolic bone diseases. These agents reduce the risk of osteoporosis fractures, control Paget's disease, hypercalcemia of malignancy and bone metastasis. However, administration of high doses or long-term use are associated with rare but serious adverse effects. Areas covered: Beyond 5 years of use, fracture reduction benefits of bisphosphonate and denosumab are minimal, while the incidence of serious adverse events increases. Thus the FDA recommends limiting treatment to less than 5 years. Howe...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Is lymph node involvement associated with mortality risk in younger patients with papillary thyroid cancer?
Authors: Adam MA, Stang MT, Sosa JA, Roman SA PMID: 30058928 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Adropin - a circulating factor in metabolic control or a drop in the ocean?
Authors: Gao S, Stevens JR, Butler AA PMID: 30058929 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Unravelling the best combination of therapies to treat anaplastic thyroid cancer.
Authors: Abate EG, Smallridge RC PMID: 30058930 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Biomarkers of pituitary carcinomas.
Authors: Sav A, Rotondo F, Syro LV, Di Ieva A, Cusimano MD, Kovacs K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pituitary carcinoma is a rare tumor originating from adenohypophyseal cells. Currently, diverse pathogenetic mechanisms, i.e. de novo versus malignant transformation from pituitary adenoma, remain obscure and require further investigation. During the last two decades, scientific research added new horizons not only in regards to general tumor concepts but also in next generation biomarker armamentarium that sheds light on alternate pathways in carcinogenesis. Areas covered: In this review, the impact of apoptotic and prolife...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Advances in our understanding of the influence of gender on patient outcomes with peripheral arterial disease co-occurring with diabetes.
Authors: Paul N, Vuddanda V, Mujib M, Aronow WS Abstract Peripheral arterial disease is an important predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Patients with peripheral arterial disease are at a higher risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. The well-known coronary artery disease risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking and dyslipidemia are also risk factors for peripheral arterial disease. Hyperglycemia is an important mediator in the pathogenesis of this disease in diabetics, more so in women. The morbidity and poor outcomes associated with peripheral arterial disease in women are emerging...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Combination therapy of SGLT2 inhibitors with incretin-based therapies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Effects and mechanisms of action.
Authors: Schernthaner-Reiter MH, Schernthaner G Abstract Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing health problem worldwide; its pathogenesis is multifactorial and its progressive nature often necessitates a combination therapy with multiple antihyperglycemic agents. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and the incretin-based therapies - dipeptidyl peptidase 4(DPP-4) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists - were introduced for the treatment of T2DM within the last decade. Evidence of the beneficial effects of these antihyperglycemic agents on micro- and macrovascular compli...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Understanding the effect of acromegaly on the human skeleton.
Authors: Bima C, Chiloiro S, Mormando M, Piacentini S, Bracaccia E, Giampietro A, Tartaglione L, Bianchi A, De Marinis L Abstract INTRODUCTION: Acromegaly, caused in most cases by Growth Hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, is characterized by increased skeletal growth and enlargement of the soft tissue, because GH and its effector Insulin-like Growth factor-1 are important regulators of bone homeostasis and have a central role in the longitudinal bone growth and maintenance of bone mass. Areas covered: Despite the anabolic effect of these hormones is well known, as a result of the stimulation of bone turnove...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Update in treatment of early breast cancer in post-menopausal women.
Authors: Prince RM, Amir E Abstract In the last few years there have been significant advances in knowledge related to the treatment of post-menopausal women with early stage breast cancer. These include new information about the survival benefits with hormonal therapies and bone targeted treatments as well as identification of patient populations who may be able to avoid toxic treatments. In this paper we discuss these advances and provide suggested management algorithms. PMID: 30058935 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 2, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research