Novel techniques for intraoperative parathyroid gland identification: a comprehensive review.
Authors: Wong A, Wong JCY, Pandey PU, Wiseman SM Abstract INTRODUCTION: The parathyroid glands (PGs) are critical for calcium regulation and homeostasis. The preservation of PGs during neck surgery is crucial to avoid postoperative hypoparathyroidism. There are no existing guidelines for intraoperative PG identification, and the current approach relies heavily on the experience of the operating surgeon. A technique that accurately and rapidly identifies PGs would represent a useful intraoperative adjunct. AREAS COVERED: This review aims to assess common dye and fluorescence-based PG imaging techniques and exami...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Monitoring and maintaining bone health in patients with Turner syndrome.
Authors: Chiarito M, Brunetti G, D'Amato G, Faienza MF Abstract INTRODUCTION: Subjects affected with Turner Syndrome (TS) suffer low bone mineral density and high risk of fracture from a young age. Estrogen deficiency is considered the main risk factor but other factors, such as intrinsic bone abnormalities, enhanced osteoclastogenesis, vitamin D deficiency and other comorbidities may contribute to the exalted bone fragility. AREAS COVERED: The authors performed a literature search in PubMed and EMBASE, using selected key words. They focused their search on pathogenetic mechanisms of osteoporosis in TS and upda...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The causes of adverse changes of testosterone levels in men.
Authors: Wrzosek M, Woźniak J, Włodarek D Abstract INTRODUCTION: As men age, progressive testosterone deficiency syndrome becomes an increasingly common problem. However, the decreased testosterone levels are not only the result of advanced age. AREAS COVERED: PubMed search of published data on testosterone, nutritional deficiency, stress, sleep, and obesity. Many factors impact the male HPG axis (the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal), including body weight, calorific and nutritional value of a diet, the amount and quality of sleep, as well as the level of stress. In the case of persons of healthy weight, a bel...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Update on: effects of anti-diabetic drugs on bone metabolism.
Authors: Mabilleau G, Bouvard B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Preclinical, clinical, and population-based studies have provided evidence that anti-diabetic drugs affect bone metabolism and may affect the risk of fracture in diabetic patients. AREAS COVERED: An overview of the skeletal effects of anti-diabetic drugs used in type 2 diabetes is provided. Searches on AdisInsight, PubMed, and Medline databases were conducted up to 1st July 2020. The latest evidence from randomized clinical trials and population-based studies on the skeletal safety of the most recent drugs (DPP-4i, GLP-1RA, and SGLT-2i) is provided. EXP...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Tirzepatide: a glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) dual agonist in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Frías JP Abstract INTRODUCTION: The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (RA) have increasingly gained prominence in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) based on their glycemic benefits and favorable body weight and cardiorenal effects. Despite this, continued development of therapeutics with superior efficacy is important to help address persistent challenges in the attainment of metabolic goals in many patients with T2D. AREAS COVERED: Tirzepatide is an unimolecular dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)/GLP-1 RA in development for the treatment of T2D. This re...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endocrine treatment of transgender individuals: current guidelines and strategies.
Authors: Prince JCJ, Safer JD Abstract INTRODUCTION: This review summarizes gender affirming medical and surgical care available to transgender individuals, along with proposals to improve medically and culturally appropriate care. AREAS COVERED: Transgender individuals are those whose gender identity differs from that recorded at birth (usually based on visualization of external sexual anatomy). In order to align the body with the patient's gender identity, clinicians can provide hormone therapy (HT) to bring sex hormone levels to the range associated with the patient's gender identity. At steady state, monito...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pituitary dysfunction after traumatic brain injury: prevalence and screening strategies.
Authors: Ntali G, Tsagarakis S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pituitary gland is vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI). As a result a series of neuroendocrine changes appear after head injury; in many occasions they reverse with time, while occasionally new late onset changes may develop. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we focus on the prevalence of anterior and posterior pituitary hormonal changes in the acute and chronic post-TBI period in both children and adults. Moreover, we present evidence supporting the need for evaluating pituitary function along with the current suggestions for the most appropriate screen...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A current perspective into young female sex hormone replacement: a review.
This article focuses on hormone replacement in young females with hypogonadism, including a rationale as to why hormone replacement in such patients differs from treatment in postmenopausal females, a summary of symptoms encountered by females with hypogonadism and a comprehensive discussion of the various treatment options available, specifically focusing on the latest advances in the subject. A Medline search was conducted using different combinations of relevant keywords, giving preference to recent publications. EXPERT OPINION: Whilst traditionally oral contraceptive pills (containing ethynyl estradiol) were common...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Modification of fecal microbiota as a mediator of effective weight loss and metabolic benefits following bariatric surgery.
Authors: Oduro-Donkor D, Turner MC, Farnaud S, Renshaw D, Kyrou I, Hanson P, Hattersley J, Weickert MO, Menon V, Randeva HS, Barber TM Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bariatric surgery (primarily Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy [LSG] and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass [RYGB]) is an efficacious and durable therapeutic option for weight loss in obesity. The mechanisms that mediate weight loss following bariatric surgery remain incompletely understood. AREAS COVERED: Pubmed search of published data on fecal microbiota, metabolic health, LSG, and RYGB. The fecal microbiome plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Management of patients with persistent or recurrent Cushing's disease after initial pituitary surgery.
Authors: Capatina C, Hinojosa-Amaya JM, Poiana C, Fleseriu M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Treatment options for persistent and recurrent Cushing's disease (CD) include an individualized approach for repeat surgery, medical treatment, radiation therapy (RT), and bilateral adrenalectomy (BLA). AREAS COVERED: In this expert opinion perspective, the authors review the latest treatment(s) for persistent/recurrent CD. A PubMed search was undertaken (English articles through May 2020) and relevant articles discussed. Repeat pituitary surgery should be considered in most patients with proven hypercortisolism; there is potent...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Managing complications of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery in pituitary adenomas.
We present a comprehensive review of the medical and surgical complications following surgery with particular emphasis on both the prevention and management of electrolyte disturbance, cerebrospinal fluid leak and the rare but dreaded complication of internal carotid injury (ICA). We also searched the PubMed database to identify relevant literature between 1984 and 2019. EXPERT OPINION: Use of endoscope compared with microscope may be associated with better preservation of pituitary gland function with similar extent of resection. Overall medical and surgical complications can be safely managed in high volume centers i...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Craniopharyngioma treatment: an updated summary of important clinicopathological concepts.
This article presents a critical overview of the pathological and clinical concepts regarding CPs that should be considered when planning treatment. Thus, we have performed a comprehensive review of detailed CP reports published between 1839 and 2020. EXPERT OPINION: CP surgery should pursue maximal tumor resection while minimizing the risk of injuring the hypothalamus. Therefore, surgical strategies should be individualized for each patient. Accurate assessment of presenting symptoms and preoperative MRI has proven useful to predict the type of CP-hypothalamus relationship that will be found during surgery. CPs with d...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - July 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Updates in epidemiology, pathophysiology and management strategies of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
We present a comprehensive overview about the pathophysiology, clinical management and treatment of GCs induced osteoporosis (GIOP). According to PRISMA guidelines, a literature search identifying articles about bone and GCs was done. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the progress over the years and the increase in therapeutic options, there still are controversial issues about the management of GIOP. These mainly include the failure of BMD or FRAX to completely account for the rapid increase in fracture risk of most GC-treated patients, the understanding about the independent contribution on bone fragility of the underlying dis...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Development of evocalcet for unmet needs among calcimimetic agents.
Authors: Hamano N, Endo Y, Kawata T, Fukagawa M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The calcium-sensing receptor is an important treatment target for secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients undergoing dialysis. In addition to vitamin D receptor activator, cinacalcet has recently been widely used for SHPT management, and the significant suppression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) with better control of serum calcium and phosphorus has been reported. However, low adherence and insufficient dose escalation mainly due to frequent gastrointestinal adverse events, still remain as major issues. To overcome these unmet needs, we ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

New testosterone 2% gel using Ferring Advanced Skin Technology (FAST), for the treatment of testosterone deficiency in men, with a novel applicator.
Authors: Kirby M, Kalhan A, Hackett G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Testosterone deficiency (TD) is an increasing problem that can affect a man's physical and psychological health, and quality of life. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), combined with weight reduction, lifestyle advice, and the treatment of co-morbidities, is the treatment of choice in men who are not concerned about fertility. However, there remains an unmet need in this therapeutic area, relating to factors such as inconvenient or painful administration, fluctuations in testosterone levels, supra-physiologic testosterone levels, poor tolerability, a...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

New paradigms in the treatment of low-risk thyroid cancer.
Authors: Baidoun F, Saad AM, Abdel-Rahman O Abstract INTRODUCTION: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Multiple different staging systems have been introduced and used for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). AREAS COVERED: In this literature review we provide an overview of the standard options for management of patients with low risk differentiated thyroid cancer. EXPERT OPINION: Surgery is considered the first and most important step in managing DTC with goal to remove all the malignant foci in order to achieve cure and increase the survival with least chance of recurrence. Many st...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: implications for prognosis and clinical management.
Authors: Barber TM Abstract INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that emerged from Wuhan, China in December 2019, and within 3 months became a global pandemic. AREAS COVERED: PubMed search of published data on COVID-19, respiratory infections, and diabetes mellitus (DM). DM associates with impairments of both cellular and humoral immunity. Early emergent global data reveal that severity of clinical outcome from COVID-19 infection (including hospitalization and admission to Intensive Care Unit [ICU]), associate with co-morbidities, prominently DM. The key principles of management of COVID-19 in patients...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The role of insulin-like growth factors in the development of prostate cancer.
Authors: Holly JMP, Biernacka K, Perks CM Abstract Introduction: Preclinical, clinical, and population studies have provided robust evidence for an important role for the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the development of prostate cancer.Areas covered: An overview of the IGF system is provided. The evidence implicating the IGF system in the development of prostate cancer is summarized. The compelling evidence culminated in a number of clinical trials of agents targeting the system; the reasons for the failure of these trials are discussed.Expert opinion: Clinical trials of agents targeting the IGF system...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

COVID-19 and obesity: links and risks.
Authors: Lavie CJ, Sanchis-Gomar F, Henry BM, Lippi G PMID: 32441223 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hypertonic saline, isotonic saline, water restriction, long loops diuretics, urea or vaptans to treat hyponatremia.
Authors: Decaux G, Gankam Kengne F Abstract Introduction: Hyponatremia is the most common fluid and electrolyte abnormality. It is associated with much higher morbidity and mortality rates than found in non hyponatremic patients.Areas covered: When the physician is faced to a hyponatremic patient he first has to confirm that hyponatremia is associated with hypoosmolality. Then he must answer to a series of questions: What is its origin? Is it acute or chronic? Which treatment is the most appropriate? We will discuss the various options for the treatment of hypotonic hyponatremia. For a better comprehensive approach...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Diagnostic strategies and clinical management of lipodystrophy.
This article aims to help physicians address challenges in diagnosing and managing lipodystrophy. We systematically reviewed the literature on PubMed and Google Scholar databases to summarize the current knowledge in lipodystrophy management.Expert opinion: Adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine organ that regulates metabolic homeostasis in the human body through a comprehensive communication network with other organ systems such as the central nervous system, liver, digestive system, and the immune system. The adipose tissue is capable of producing and secreting numerous factors with important endocrine functions suc...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Potential markers of disease behavior in acromegaly and gigantism.
Authors: Hernández-Ramírez LC Abstract Introduction: Acromegaly and gigantism entail increased morbidity and mortality if left untreated, due to the systemic effects of chronic GH and IGF-1 excess. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with GH excess are well established; however, the presentation, clinical behavior and response to treatment greatly vary among patients. Numerous markers of disease behavior are routinely used in medical practice, but additional biomarkers have been recently identified as a result of basic and clinical research studies.Areas covered: This review focuses...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - May 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease and osteoporosis: basic and clinical implications.
Authors: Figueroa CA, Rosen CJ Abstract Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disease. Lewy bodies, the hallmark of this disease due to an accumulation of α-synuclein, lead to loss of dopamine-regulated motor circuits, concomitantly progressive immobilization and a broad range of nonmotor features. PD patients have more hospitalizations, endure longer recovery time from comorbidities, and exhibit higher mortality than healthy controls. Although often overlooked, secondary osteoporosis has been reported frequently and is associated with a worse prognosis.Areas cov...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current controversies in the management of Graves' hyperthyroidism.
Authors: Francis N, Francis T, Lazarus JH, Okosieme OE Abstract Introduction: The management of Graves' disease centers on the use of effective and well-established therapies, namely thionamide antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, and thyroidectomy. Optimal treatment strategies are however controversial and vary significantly across centers.Areas covered: This review addresses specific controversies in Graves' disease management including the choice of primary therapy, the approach to women planning pregnancy, and optimal strategies for antithyroid drug and radioiodine therapy.Expert opinion: Important considerat...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 23, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes of bariatric surgery in patients with diabetes.
Authors: Sudlow AC, Le Roux CW, Pournaras DJ Abstract Introduction: Initially seen as a weight-loss operation, bariatric surgery is now recognized as a metabolic procedure with a critical role in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Early improvement in glucose metabolism is a remarkable effect of surgery; however, what deserves equal thought are implications for long-term diabetes control and relapse. Evidence suggests the metabolic effects of surgery fatigue and a proportion of patients will experience relapse of T2DM, with or without weight regain. Herein, we discuss the evidence examining the dura...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Postprandial hyperlipidemia as a risk factor in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Tomlinson B, Chan P, Lam CWK Abstract Introduction: Postprandial hyperlipidemia is a common feature of the atherogenic dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Quantification of this with oral fat tolerance tests is not used routinely in clinical practice and abnormal postprandial lipids are usually inferred from non-fasting plasma triglyceride levels. Identifying excessive postprandial hyperlipidemia may help to refine cardiovascular risk assessment but there are no treatments currently available which selectively target postprandial lipids and no large cardiovascular outcome trials using this as th...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism: assessing when treatment is likely to be beneficial.
This article reviews the currently available evidence pertaining to SCH and provides recommendations as to when treatment of SCH should be considered. An electronic search of PubMed from 1970 to 2019 was performed and systematically reviewed studies assessing the effects of treatment in SCH. The main areas that are considered are the effects of treatment on symptoms and quality of life, and important clinical consequences including psychocognitive outcomes and cardiovascular events.Expert opinion: Treatment of SCH with thyroid hormones is debated and the current literature in this area lacks clarity. We provide an evidence...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and sweeteners: a literature review.
We present an up-to-date systematic review of the current literature regarding the safety in artificial and natural sweeteners use as a means of weight loss or diabetes control.Expert opinion: Natural sweeteners have not been associated directly with NAFLD, and on the contrary, some, such as stevia, and trehalose, may have a protective effect. Rare sugars and polyols can be used safely and have significant benefits that include anti-oxidant effect and optimal glycemic control. Artificial sweeteners, due to their effect on NAFLD development and insulin resistance, are not indicated in patients with obesity or diabetes. Furt...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The assessment and management of quality of life of older adults with diabetes mellitus.
This article reviews the value of assessing QoL in providing patient-centered care and the associations between QoL measures and health outcomes. The determinants of QoL particular to diabetes and the older population are reviewed, including psychosocial, physical, and cognitive burdens of diabetes and aging and the impact of hypoglycemia on QoL. Strategies are described to alleviate these burdens and improve QoL, and barriers to multidisciplinary patient-centered care are discussed. QoL measurement instruments are reviewed.Expert opinion: The goals of treating diabetes and its complications should be considered carefully ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Long-term neuroendocrine consequences of traumatic brain injury and strategies for management.
Authors: Hacioglu A, Kelestimur F, Tanriverdi F Abstract Introduction: Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) are reported to cause neuroendocrine impairment with a prevalence of 15% with confirmatory testing. Pituitary dysfunction (PD) may have detrimental effects on vital parameters as well as on body composition, cardiovascular functions, cognition, and quality of life. Therefore, much effort has been made to identify predictive factors for post-TBI PD and various screening strategies have been offered.Areas covered: We searched PubMed and reviewed the recent data on clinical perspectives and long-term outcomes as well ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Graves' disease: developments in first-line antithyroid drugs in the young.
This article does not reflect a formal systematic review of the literature.Expert opinion: New strategies in areas such as immunomodulation may see the development of new antithyroid drug treatments that, either in isolation or in combination with thionamide therapy, may increase the likelihood of long-term remission. PMID: 32133893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Association between FTO gene polymorphisms and breast cancer: the role of estrogen.
This study aimed to systematically investigate the association between FTO gene polymorphisms and breast cancer and the possible role of estrogen in this association.Areas covered: We performed an extensive search of electronic databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Cochran for published original studies on the association of FTO gene polymorphisms with breast cancer risk. Keywords such as breast cancer and/or FTO gene and/or polymorphism were used in order to identify the related articles. We excluded studies unrelated to the FTO genotype and the outcome of breast cancer.Expert opinion: FTO gene may have a ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Gut microbiota: a promising target against cardiometabolic diseases.
Authors: Warmbrunn MV, Herrema H, Aron-Wisnewsky J, Soeters MR, Van Raalte DH, Nieuwdorp M Abstract Introduction: Cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) are a group of interrelated disorders such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). As the prevalence of these diseases increases globally, efficient new strategies are necessary to target CMD and modifiable risk factors. In the past decade, evidence has accumulated regarding the influence of gut microbiota (GM) on CMD, providing new targets for therapeutic interventions.Areas covered: This narrative review discusses the pathophysi...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Group Medical Visits: experiences with patient and resident implementation.
Conclusion: The GMV model offers patients the setting to interact and exchange experiences with each other as well as to receive feedback from providers and the health-care team.  The incorporation of the GMV program into residency training provides a continuity group care experience and an alternative practice model. PMID: 31990589 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A brief overview on the use of probiotics to treat overweight and obese patients.
Authors: Daniali M, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M PMID: 31990591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Cardiovascular health and menopause in aging women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Authors: Helvaci N, Yildiz BO Abstract Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with heterogeneous clinical manifestations. Current evidence suggests that women with PCOS exhibit an unfavorable metabolic profile which may pose them at increased risk for cardiovascular events later in life.Areas covered: Herein, we present a review of the existing literature relating to PCOS and long-term cardiovascular (CV) health risks in women after menopause. We performed an electronic-based search with the use of PubMed from 1990 to August 2019 and systematically reviewed studies assessing C...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Benefits and limitations of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes.
Authors: Stone JY, Bailey TS Abstract Introduction: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic condition characterized by a complete deficiency in insulin production. Optimal management requires constant knowledge of glucose levels for safe and effective insulin administration. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) using capillary blood glucose meters is cumbersome and provides limited information to guide management. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology addresses many of these gaps, but itself has limitations which have prevented people with diabetes and their clinicians from fully embracing this technology. T...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas in Japan and other countries: a review.
Authors: Ito Y, Miyauchi A Abstract Introduction: Active surveillance of low-risk papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) was initiated in Japan in 1993 and has since been adopted in many countries, especially after its approval by the American Thyroid Association in 2015.Areas covered: We performed a literature review in Medline/PubMed to identify studies that used active surveillance for PTMCs. Moreover, we performed a literature review about the increased incidence of thyroid microcarcinomas in relation to the relative stability of deaths due to thyroid carcinomas.Expert opinion: No patients showed life-threat...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - January 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors: a 10-year assessment.
Authors: Di Dalmazi G, Ippolito S, Lupi I, Caturegli P Abstract Introduction: Hypophysitis caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has risen to the medical attention during the past decade. ICIs are monoclonal antibodies that block the interaction between molecules that normally inhibit the function of effector T cells, ultimately increasing their ability to destroy cancer cells but also causing immune-related adverse events, such as hypophysitis. Ipilimumab, a CTLA-4 blocker, was the first ICI approved from the Food and Drug Administration for advanced melanoma patients in 2011. Several additional ICIs targe...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Adenomyosis and infertility: is there a causal link?
Authors: Vercellini P, Bonfanti I, Berlanda N PMID: 31813292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 11, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Insights into pituitary tumorigenesis: from Sanger sequencing to next-generation sequencing and beyond.
Authors: Shen AJJ, King J, Scott H, Colman P, Yates CJ Abstract Introduction: This review explores insights provided by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of pituitary tumors and the clinical implications.Areas covered: Although syndromic forms account for just 5% of pituitary tumours, past Sanger sequencing studies pragmatically focused on them. These studies identified mutations in MEN1, CDKN1B, PRKAR1A, GNAS and SDHx causing Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia-1 (MEN1), MEN4, Carney Complex-1, McCune Albright Syndrome and 3P association syndromes, respectively. Furthermore, linkage analysis of single-nucleotide polymorph...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - December 5, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Adult growth hormone deficiency: clinical advances and approaches to improve adherence.
This article summarizes recent clinical advances in rhGH replacement therapy, the biological and molecular aspects that may influence rhGH action, and offers practical strategies to enhance adherence in adults with GHD. PMID: 31721610 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - November 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Fertility management of Klinefelter syndrome.
Authors: Fainberg J, Hayden RP, Schlegel PN Abstract Introduction: Klinefelter syndrome (KS) represents the most common chromosomal abnormality in the general population, and one of the most common genetic etiologies of nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and in severe oligospermia. Once considered untreatable, men with KS and NOA now have a variety of treatment options to obtain paternity. Areas covered: The cornerstone of treatment for both KS and NOA patients remains the surgical retrieval of viable sperm, which can be used for intracytoplasmic sperm injection to obtain pregnancy. Although the field has advanced si...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Night eating syndrome: a psychiatric disease, a sleep disorder, a delayed circadian eating rhythm, and/or a metabolic condition?
Authors: Shoar S, Naderan M, Mahmoodzadeh H, Shoar N, Lotfi D Abstract Introduction: Night Eating Syndrome (NES) refers to an abnormal eating behavior which presents as evening hyperphagia consuming>25% calorie intake and/or nocturnal awaking with food ingestion which occurs ≥2 times per week. Although the syndrome has been described more than seven decades ago, the literature has been growing slowly on its etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Areas covered: The proposed treatment options for NES are all at a case-study level. Moreover, our understanding of its etiology, comorbidities, and diagnosis is still p...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Ospemifene for the treatment of menopausal vaginal dryness, a symptom of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.
Authors: Archer DF, Simon JA, Portman DJ, Goldstein SR, Goldstein I Abstract Introduction: Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA), a component of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause, is a progressive condition due to decline in estrogen leading to vaginal and vulvar epithelial changes. Accompanying symptoms of dryness, irritation, burning, dysuria, and/or dyspareunia have a negative impact on quality of life. Ospemifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) approved by the FDA for moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness due to postmenopausal VVA. Areas covered: PubMed was searched from inception to M...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Metabolically healthy and unhealthy obesity in erectile dysfunction and male infertility.
Authors: Rastrelli G, Lotti F, Reisman Y, Sforza A, Maggi M, Corona G Abstract Introduction: Metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) is the most important preventable cardiovascular (CV) risk factor. Recently, the significance of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) as a CV risk factor has raised increasing interest. MUHO is a known risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED); however, the effect of MHO on ED has barely been investigated. This review aims at summarizing the evidence supporting the relation of MUHO and MHO to male sexual functioning and fertility. Areas covered: An extensive Medline search on obesity an...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 30, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Addressing delays in the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma.
Authors: Ilias I, Thomopoulos C Abstract Introduction: Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PPG) are rare tumors. In theory the diagnosis of PPG should be straightforward. In clinical practice, however, considerable delays are noted in establishing such a diagnosis. Areas covered: We assess the characteristics of various approaches to diagnosis and localization of PPG lesions (and their relevant caveats). We also evaluate potential biases to diagnosis. Expert opinion: A high degree of suspicion - particularly in younger patients - is required by clinicians. The availability of diagnostic means (mainly of biochemical t...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

A review of IVF in PCOS patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.
Authors: Thakre N, Homburg R Abstract Introduction: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrinopathy affecting women in the reproductive age group. The prevalence may vary from 8.7% to 17% depending on the clinical criteria used. PCOS women having IVF presents multiple challenges ranging from a poor to an exaggerated response, poor egg to follicle ratio, poor fertilisation, poor blastocyst conversion and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Ovarian stimulation should be planned with attention paid to the AMH, antral follicle count and LH in particular. The dose of the stimulating gonadotrophin shoul...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Association of pediatric obesity and asthma, pulmonary physiology, metabolic dysregulation, and atopy; and the role of weight management.
Authors: De A, Rastogi D Abstract Introduction: Obesity affects about 40% of US adults and 18% of children. Its impact on the pulmonary system is best described for asthma. Areas covered: We reviewed the literature on PubMed and Google Scholar databases and summarize the effect of obesity, its associated metabolic dysregulation and altered systemic immune responses, and that of weight gain and loss on pulmonary mechanics, asthma inception, and disease burden. We include a distinct approach for diagnosing and managing the disease, including pulmonary function deficits inherent to obesity-related asthma, in light of ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pros and cons of Roux en-Y gastric bypass surgery in obese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Justinussen T, Madsbad S, Holst JJ, Bojsen-Møller KN Abstract Introduction: The worldwide prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) constitutes an epidemic that is a threat to public health. Bariatric surgery, including Roux en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), is currently the most effective treatment to induce long-term weight loss and remission of co-morbid conditions. Surgery, however, comes with an added risk of complications, highlighting the need to understand the comparative effectiveness and risks of surgical versus conventional approaches to the treatment of obesity and T2D. Areas covered: Po...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - June 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research