Clinical management of difficult to treat macroprolactinomas.
Authors: Sahakian N, Castinetti F, Dufour H, Graillon T, Romanet P, Barlier A, Brue T, Cuny T Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prolactinomas represent the most common pituitary adenomas encountered in the clinic. While a majority of these tumors will be successfully treated by dopamine agonist (DA) such as cabergoline, their management becomes problematic since a resistance to DA can occur and/or if the tumor displays features of aggressiveness, two conditions that are closely related. Areas covered: Epidemiology and medical treatment of prolactinomas; resistance to DA and molecular basis of DA-resistance; therapeutical alte...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Perspectives of pain in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Kirk JK, Hunter JC, Mihalko SL, Danhauer SC, Shumaker SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Reducing symptom burden is often secondary to risk factor control in diabetes. Symptom burden with comorbid medical conditions and the need for symptom palliation are not well defined. Although neuropathy is one of the most frequent occurring comorbidities of diabetes, patient experience is inconsistent. Using in-depth interview, we assessed patients' perspectives of pain experienced through neuropathy and the impact on type 2 diabetes management. Areas covered: Participants completed a structured telephone interview during whi...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Comparing the role of anti-M ├╝llerian hormone as a marker of FSH action in male and female fertility.
Comparing the role of anti-Müllerian hormone as a marker of FSH action in male and female fertility. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Mar 04;:1-12 Authors: Urrutia M, Grinspon RP, Rey RA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Originally limited to the assessment of disorders of sex development, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurement has more recently been extended to several conditions affecting the reproductive axis in males and females. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulation of gonadal function has been extensively studied, but its role on AMH production has been explored only recently. Areas cov...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Glucocorticoids, stress and obesity.
Authors: Pasquali R, Vicennati V, Agostini A, Pagotto U Abstract Obesity and the associated metabolic syndrome have been suggested to be the consequence of a maladaptation to chronic stress exposure mediated by a dysregulation of neuroendocrine axes. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis represents the major hormone system responsible for maintenance of the homeostatic balance in response to stress. The brainstem nuclei and the limbic regions are strongly involved in stressor neural processing and represent a regulatory network for the HPA axis. Moreover, the same neuroendocrine stress centers are involved ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Primary aldosteronism: an update.
Authors: Freel EM, Connell JM Abstract Primary aldosteronism (PA) is common with an estimated prevalence rate of 10% in subjects with essential hypertension and higher in those with resistant hypertension. As well as contributing to hypertension, aldosterone has detrimental effects on the heart, vasculature and kidneys as well as adverse metabolic effects leading to an excess of cardiovascular morbidity. Therefore, recognition and appropriate treatment of PA is of increasing importance. However, the diagnosis of PA and determination of subtype can be problematic. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism.
Authors: Fatourechi V Abstract Subclinical thyroid dysfunction occurs when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal laboratory reference range and the serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) level is greater than normal (subclinical hypothyroidism) or less than normal (subclinical hyperthyroidism; TSH normal laboratory reference range: 0.3-5.0 mIU/l). For patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (serum TSH levels>10 mIU/l), thyroxine therapy is prescribed if other causes of TSH elevation and transient conditions have been excluded. For serum TSH levels between 5.0 and 10.0 mIU/l, se...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Conivaptan for the treatment of hyponatremia.
Authors: Zeltser D, Steinvil A Abstract Conivaptan is the first dual vasopressin V1a/V2 receptor antagonist approved by the US FDA for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia in hospitalized patients. Short-term use of intravenous conivaptan has been shown to promote effective free-water duresis and resolution of hyponatremia in several clinical trials. Adverse effects reported with short-term use mostly include infusion site reactions. However, they may also include serious effects including unexpectedly rapid serum Na+ correction, hypokalemia and orthostatic hypotension. Despite its proven effica...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Brick by brick: metformin for gestational diabetes mellitus?
Authors: Ardilouze JL, Mahdavian M, Baillargeon JP Abstract Evaluation of: Balani J, Hyer SL, Rodin DA, Shehata H. Pregnancy outcomes in women with gestational diabetes treated with metformin or insulin: a case-control study. Diabet. Med. 26(8), 798-802 (2009). This paper reviews a case-control study, reported by Balani et al., comparing maternal and neonatal outcomes of women treated for gestational diabetes mellitus with either metformin or insulin. A cohort of 100 women treated with metformin alone, without insulin rescue, was compared with a retrospective cohort of 100 women treated with insulin. Results favore...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Fat mass and bone development.
Authors: Tobias JH PMID: 30861685 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endocrine treatment of transsexuals: assessment of cardiovascular risk factors.
Authors: Nakatsuka M PMID: 30861686 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Combination therapy for patients with Type 2 diabetes: repaglinide in combination with metformin.
Authors: Moses RG Abstract In patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), adequate glycemic control is a critical factor in reducing long-term micro- and macro-vascular complications. Traditionally, the approach is to initiate monotherapy first, followed by combination therapy that targets two main defects in T2DM. Repaglinide, a rapidly acting insulin secretagog, stimulates insulin secretion via closure of ATP-dependent potassium channels on the cell membrane of β-cells. Repaglinide is ideally used at mealtime to reduce postprandial glucose levels, thus lowering the 24-h blood glucose profile and improving...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - March 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Management of cardiovascular complications in Klinefelter syndrome patients.
In this study, we have systematically reviewed the relationships between KS and the cardiovascular system and the management of cardiovascular complication. In summary, patients with KS display increased cardiovascular risk profile, characterized by increased prevalence of metabolic alterations including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), and abnormalities in biomarkers of cardiovascular disease. KS subjects are characterized by subclinical abnormalities in endothelial function and in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, which - when associated with chronotropic incompetence - may negatively influence ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

"Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab"[ta]; +108 new citations
108 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: "Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab"[ta] These pubmed results were generated on 2019/02/22PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Report Source Type: research

"Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab"[ta]; +111 new citations
111 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: "Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab"[ta] These pubmed results were generated on 2019/02/16PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Report Source Type: research

The persistent need for insulin sensitizers and other disease-modifying anti-diabetic drugs.
Authors: Larson CJ Abstract Despite significant advances in diabetes care since the introductions of insulin and metformin, disease burden continues to grow. Large gaps in standard of care remain, and no robustly disease-modifying pharmacotherapy exists. Substantial research has been directed towards beta cell preservation and regeneration with no translational success, while little drug discovery or development is aimed at the other major cause of diabetes, namely, insulin resistance. Given the absence of convincing evidence that human beta cells can be regenerated, the diabetes community must broaden its focus to...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The androgen receptor as a therapeutic target for myelin repair in demyelinating diseases.
Authors: Ghandour S, Voskuhl R, Schumacher M Abstract Steroid hormones exert major influences on the development and functioning of the nervous system, extending well beyond their reproductive effects. There is now also strong experimental evidence for an important role of these hormones in myelin formation. The recent finding that testosterone, via the intracellular androgen receptor, promotes myelin repair, may inspire neurobiologists to take a closer look at this hormone. It also opens new therapeutic opportunities for androgen receptor ligands in the treatment of myelin disorders. PMID: 30743734 [PubMed] (S...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Low-risk papillary thyroid cancer: times are changing.
Authors: Sitges-Serra A Abstract The prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), particularly of low-risk PTC (MACIS
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The value of genetic screening in medullary thyroid cancer.
Authors: Pappa T, Alevizaki M Abstract Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for ~10% of thyroid carcinomas and occurs in sporadic and hereditary forms. Early diagnosis significantly impacts the clinical course, management and outcome of the disease. The identification of germline-activating mutations of the rearranged during transfection oncogene in patients with hereditary MTC led to significant progress in the diagnostic and therapeutic approach, thus improving the quality of care provided, and consequently, disease prognosis. In the present review, various aspects of genetic screening (GS) in MTC will be cove...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism: medical and surgical updates.
Authors: Habib Z, Kabaker A, Camacho P Abstract This review discusses recent findings on the clinical presentation, evaluation, medical and surgical management of primary hyperparathyroidism. Medical management includes the use of cinacalcet and bisphosphonates for bone loss and correction of vitamin D deficiency. Surgical updates reviewed recent studies on the preoperative localization of the disease, specifically, sestamibi scans, 4DCT and MRI. Focused parathyroidectomy continues to be the preferred surgical approach for a select group of patients, guided by intraoperative use of PTH and new technology, such as e...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The endocrine response to severe burn trauma.
Authors: D'Asta F, Cianferotti L, Bhandari S, Sprini D, Rini GB, Brandi ML Abstract The endocrine system is frequently altered after a major burn trauma. Besides the endocrine response to stress characterized by hypercortisolism, several hypothalamus-hypophysis-target gland axes are rapidly perturbed within a few days. These alterations can persist in the long term and deserve an appropriate treatment. Disturbances in water clearance and glucidic metabolism are also common and need to be diagnosed and corrected to decrease morbidity in such patients. Bone and mineral metabolism is deeply compromised and requires co...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Targeting the intestinal L-cell for obesity and type 2 diabetes treatment.
Authors: Albrechtsen NJW, Kuhre RE, Deacon CF, Holst JJ Abstract Degradation-resistant glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) mimetics and GLP-1 enhancers (inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, the enzyme which degrades and inactivates GLP-1) have been used for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus since 2005-2006. Cutting-edge research is now focusing on uncovering the secretory mechanisms of the GLP-1-producing cells (L-cells) with the purpose of developing agonists that enhance endogenous hormone secretion. Since GLP-1 co-localizes with other anorectic peptides, cholecystokinin, oxyntomodulin/glicentin and peptide YY, ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Urogynecological effects of menopause.
Authors: Bulchandani S, Toozs-Hobson P Abstract The menopause signifies a period after significant hormonal change that affects all estrogen-sensitive tissues. This change may result in symptoms affecting any part of the urogenital system. These changes can significantly affect women's health and quality of life. The menopause is associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, vulvovaginal symptoms and pelvic organ prolapse. In this article, we have aimed to describe the symptomatology along with pathophysiology of the effects of menopause on urogynecological problems affecting women's health. Other factors apart fro...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The potential of selective progesterone receptor modulators for the treatment of uterine fibroids.
Authors: Bestel E, Donnez J Abstract In addition to the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor plays an important role in the growth of uterine fibroids. Several selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have been evaluated for medical treatment of uterine fibroids and, because of safety issues, some molecules were stopped during clinical development. However, in 2012, ulipristal acetate received the approval for a pre-surgical treatment of uterine fibroids. Clinical trials with ulipristal acetate for long-term medical treatment of uterine fibroids are ongoing. This review article describes the actio...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity, diabetes and energy metabolism.
Authors: Pannacciulli N, Tataranni PA PMID: 30743742 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Postmenopausal memory may be improved by hormone therapy.
Authors: PMID: 30743743 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pramlintide acetate in the treatment of Type 2 and Type 1 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Edelman SV, Schroeder BE, Frias JP Abstract Maintenance of glucose homeostasis involves the interplay of multiple glucoregulatory factors, including the pancreatic β-cell hormones insulin and amylin. Amylin, a neuroendocrine hormone, is secreted in response to nutrient intake and suppresses postprandial glucagon secretion, helps regulate gastric emptying, and reduces food intake. Patients with diabetes are deficient in both insulin and amylin - contributing to postprandial hyperglycemia. Pramlintide, an analogue of amylin, is the active ingredient in the SYMLIN® (pramlintide acetate) injection. SY...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Idursulfase: enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis Type II (Hunter syndrome).
This article reviews the disease and treatment, with comments on future therapeutic directions. PMID: 30743745 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Current strategies and perspectives in insulin gene therapy for diabetes.
Authors: Chistiakov DA, Tyurina I Abstract Insulin gene therapy is an approach that might overcome the weakness of islet cell therapy owing to its vulnerability to autoimmune attack. There are several mandatory conditions for successful insulin gene therapy. Efficient insulin gene therapy should have an effective insulin gene delivery mechanism, a system of regulation of the insulin biosynthesis that responds to glucose within extremely narrow physiological limits, a system of insulin processing into its active form and a choice of appropriate target cells, which possess biochemical characteristics similar to &beta...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Targeting vesicular monoamine transporter Type 2 for noninvasive PET-based ╬▓-cell mass measurements.
Targeting vesicular monoamine transporter Type 2 for noninvasive PET-based β-cell mass measurements. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Jan;2(1):35-46 Authors: Maffei A, Harris PE Abstract The common pathology in both Types 1 and 2 diabetes is insufficient β-cell mass to meet the metabolic needs of insulin production. The rising worldwide incidence of diabetes, combined with the lack of reliable endpoints of the body's true capacity to produce insulin, constitute a serious dilemma facing healthcare professionals and the pharmaceutical industry. Recent advances in imaging science and molecular ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone receptor mutations and disease: insights from knock-in mouse models.
Authors: Cheng SY Abstract Thyroid hormone nuclear receptors (TRs) mediate thyroid hormone's activities in growth, differentiation, and development. Two TR genes (α and β ) encode four thyroid hormone-binding receptors that regulate target gene expression. Mutations of the TRβ gene cause the genetic syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone. Studies indicate a close association between TRβ mutations and several human cancers, suggesting their oncogenic role. A TRβ gene knock-in mutant mouse (TRβPV/PV mouse) that spontaneously develops thyroid cancer allows elucidation of the oncogenic...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Influence of hormones on osteogenic differentiation processes of mesenchymal stem cells.
Authors: Ebert R, Schütze N, Schilling T, Seefried L, Weber M, Nöth U, Eulert J, Jakob F Abstract Bone development, regeneration and maintenance are governed by osteogenic differentiation processes from mesenchymal stem cells through to mature bone cells, which are directed by local growth and differentiation factors and modulated strongly by hormones. Mesenchymal stem cells develop from both mesoderm and neural crest and can give rise to development, regeneration and maintenance of mesenchymal tissues, such as bone, cartilage, muscle, tendons and discs. There are only limited data regarding the effects o...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Postmenopausal osteoporosis: an update on current and future therapeutic options.
This article reviews the safety and efficacy of US FDA-approved drugs for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, as well as studies on combination, sequential or intermittent use of these agents. A review of promising agents for osteoporosis therapy is provided. PMID: 30743750 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endocrine and inflammatory alterations in post-traumatic stress disorder.
Authors: Wessa M, Rohleder N Abstract Post-traumatic stress disorder has frequently been found associated with alterations in endogenous stress hormone systems, for example the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympatho-adrenal-medullary system. Hormonal alterations are observed at the central and peripheral level of the central nervous system, and in the periphery for inflammatory disinhibition. Both consequences bear significant hazards for the individual, the former by sustaining or exacerbating the psychiatric condition, the latter by its detrimental effects on somatic health. However, the role of hormona...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Insulin resistance: a key therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction in obese patients?
Authors: Karki S, Ngo DT, Bigornia SJ, Farb MG, Gokce N Abstract The global obesity epidemic has emerged as one of the most important health care problems worldwide. Insulin resistance represents a prevalent pathophysiological abnormality that underlies mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease associated with obesity. Increasing basic, animal, and clinical data support a mechanistic link between insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction, and suggest that improving insulin sensitivity may represent a therapeutic target for combating atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. As clinical studies suggest that insulin ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules using the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis.
Authors: Sheffield BS, Masoudi H, Walker B, Wiseman SM Abstract Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the test of choice for the evaluation of nodules, arriving at a cancer diagnosis, and guiding surgical management. This review and meta-analysis aims to objectively evaluate the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) based upon literature reports of histopathological outcomes following cytopathological diagnoses. Thirteen studies were reviewed and the risk of malignancy (ROM) for each of the BSRTC diagnostic categories were calculated as: Non-diagnostic 11-26%, Benign 4-9%, AUS/FLUS 19-38%, F...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

NAD(P)H oxidase isoforms as therapeutic targets for diabetic complications.
Authors: Gray SP, Jha JC, Di Marco E, Jandeleit-Dahm KA Abstract The development of macro- and microvascular complications is accelerated in diabetic patients. While some therapeutic regimes have helped in delaying progression of complications, none have yet been able to halt the progression and prevent vascular disease, highlighting the need to identify new therapeutic targets. Increased oxidative stress derived from the NADPH oxidase (Nox) family has recently been identified to play an important role in the pathophysiology of vascular disease. In recent years, specific Nox isoforms have been implicated in contrib...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Pheochromocytoma: pitfalls in the biochemical evaluation.
This article will review various physiologic factors, pathologic conditions and medications that may influence the levels of catecholamines and their metabolites yielding false positive or false negative results. Acquiring familiarity with these conditions as well as interfering medications will equip clinicians with better interpretation skills of the biochemical tests. PMID: 30743755 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

An update on subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism.
Authors: Fatourechi MM, Fatourechi V Abstract Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is characterized by normal levels of peripheral thyroid hormone, paired with a TSH level that is either lower than (subclinical hyperthyroidism) or higher than (subclinical hypothyroidism) the normal laboratory reference range. Slight shifts in peripheral hormone levels result in significant serum TSH changes. The exact upper limit of normal TSH and the management of subclinical hypothyroidism are still controversial. For those with TSH between high upper limit of normal and 10 mIU/L, the authors suggest selective use of thyroxine therapy...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Bone disease in patients with Gaucher disease.
Authors: Rosenbloom BE, Weinreb NJ Abstract Gaucher disease is an inborn error of metabolism due to a deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase. As a result of this deficiency, the substrate glucocerebroside accumulates in the liver, spleen, bone and bone marrow. Bone involvement can lead to abnormalities in bone growth, bone remodeling, bone infarcts, aseptic necrosis, osteonecrosis, increased fracture risk and lytic bone lesions. Patients may experience bone pain and bone crises related to bone infarcts. There is evidence of abnormal bone metabolism in both bone resorption and bone formation based upo...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Progress in the identification of responsible genes and molecular mechanisms in primary aldosteronism.
This article will review our current knowledge of the genetic mechanisms of familial hyperaldosterism, somatic mutations in genes encoding electrolyte channels and other potential genetic mechanisms implicated in the dysregulation of aldosterone production from in vitro and animal models. There is potential for novel targeted therapies and diagnosis for subsets of patient. The challenges to achieve them are highlighted in this review. PMID: 30743758 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Best practice for the management of pediatric thyroid cancer.
Authors: Norlen O, Glover AR, Gundara JS, Ip JC, Sidhu SB Abstract The presentation of differentiated thyroid cancer in children often includes dissemination to lymph nodes. Despite this, the long-term prognosis is excellent with appropriate treatment. A few known hereditary syndromes are associated with paediatric thyroid cancer, although most tumours are sporadic. Ultrasound and cytology is used to evaluate suspect thyroid nodules, and treatment consists of surgery, radioactive iodine and thyroxine suppression therapy. Follow-up includes serum thyroglobulin measurements, serial ultrasounds of the neck, radioiodin...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Rate of hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving metformin plus saxagliptin versus metformin plus sulfonylurea: a retrospective observational cohort study using administrative claims data.
Authors: Curkendall SM, Zhang B, Lenhart G, Thomson E, Bell KF Abstract OBJECTIVES: Hypoglycemia is a limiting factor in the management of diabetes. Studies comparing oral antidiabetic medications are needed to identify treatment options that can help clinicians and patients minimize their associated hypoglycemia risk. The purpose of this study was to compare hypoglycemia rates in patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin who initiated treatment with saxagliptin versus sulfonylurea (SU). METHODS: This retrospective analysis utilized US healthcare claims data from the Truven Health MarketScan Research Databases...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism: major coverage of the advances in an expanding field.
Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism: major coverage of the advances in an expanding field. Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jan;1(1):1-2 Authors: Öberg K PMID: 30743761 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Glucocorticoid hormone programming in early-life and its impact on adult health.
Authors: Seckl JR, Fuchs E PMID: 30743762 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Revolutionary mobile phone to detect breast cancer.
Authors: PMID: 30743763 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

7th Annual Meeting of the Egyptian Society of Pancreatic Islet Transplantation Research for Diabetic Patients.
Authors: Mahgoub MA, Akhnokh MF PMID: 30743764 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Zoledronic acid in the treatment of Paget's disease and other benign bone disorders.
Authors: Ringe JD Abstract Zoledronic acid is a potent bisphosphonate widely used to counteract cancer-related bone loss. Once-yearly or even less frequent doses may be an effective therapy for benign bone disorders and may also result in improved compliance and tolerability. Data from two Phase III clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of zoledronic acid in the treatment of Paget's disease of bone. Other studies have provided preliminary evidence for the utility of zoledronic acid in osteoporosis and other benign bone disorders. The major adverse effects associated with zoledronic acid infusion...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Male hormonal contraception: a safe option?
Authors: Walton MJ, Anderson RAA Abstract Hormonal male contraception is based on the administration of testosterone alone or more likely with a progestogen. Testosterone has been used for several decades for the treatment of male hypogonadism, with an excellent safety record. Use as part of a contraceptive regimen by healthy people for prolonged periods will necessitate careful re-examination of safety issues. Although potential male contraceptive regimens have been investigated for many years, there have been mostly small-scale studies unable to assess safety. This is now changing, with larger studies of regimens...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signaling and resistance in breast cancer.
Authors: Jones HE, Gee JM, Hutcheson IR, Nicholson RI Abstract Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling is involved in many fundamental adverse aspects of cancer cell biology, such as proliferation, cell survival and migration. Its anti-apoptotic properties have implicated the receptor in mediating decreased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs and radiation treatment; however, data are emerging that also indicates a role for IGF-IR signaling in resistance, not only to antihormones but also to antigrowth factor strategies such as agents that target the erb family of receptors. As such, IGF-IR is cl...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Skeletal actions of insulin-like growth factors.
Authors: Gazzerro E, Canalis E Abstract Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) promote longitudinal growth and display anabolic effects in adult bone by acting through endocrine and autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. Binding of IGF-I to its specific tyrosine-kinase receptor leads to interaction with the intracellular proteins, insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2, and the activation of distinct intracellular signaling pathways. In cartilage, IGF-I regulates the differentiation of chondrocytes and stimulates the synthesis of components of the extracellular matrix. In bone tissue, IGF-I increases the function of the differen...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - February 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research