Prevention of type 2 diabetes: what is the right target population?
Authors: Williamson DA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prevention of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is important to reduce suffering and health care costs. A precursor to T2D is impaired glucose regulation (IGR), a condition of elevated plasma glucose that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Prevention of T2D is determined by preservation of pancreatic β cell function which can be achieved by the use of anti-hyperglycemic medications or intensive lifestyle interventions (ILIs) to modify dietary and physical activity habits that induce modest weight loss (≥5%). Both intervention...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 18, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Vitamin D status and its management for achieving optimal health benefits in the elderly.
Authors: Boucher BJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D deficiency is common, world-wide, but vitamin D repletion throughout life, and into older age, has accepted health benefits for bone. Many mechanisms through which vitamin D also benefits soft tissues are understood, and clinical evidence of such benefits is now accumulating, especially following re-analyses of trial data, which are revealing previously missed health benefits with correction of deficiency. Areas covered: The sources of vitamin D, its activation, mechanistic effects; problems of trials of supplementation for reducing health risks, the benefits sho...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 17, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Managing the increasing diagnosis of papillary micro-cancer of thyroid.
Authors: Fatourechi V Abstract There has been an increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in the last decade, mainly due to the increase in imaging. A majority of the cases are for papillary cancers
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Targeting pregnancy as a time to treat obesity.
Authors: Vinter CA, Nøhr E Abstract Maternal obesity is recognized as one of the largest contributors to compromised health during pregnancy. Lifestyle interventions in obese pregnant women may be able to reduce gestational weight gain (GWG) but have shown limited success in improving pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Lack of statistical power, poor compliance and inconsistency in inclusion BMI and setting across studies may be some of the reasons. Since pregestational BMI is the single most important predictor of obesity-related complications, the metabolic profile in the first trimester of pregnancy may pla...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Bariatric surgery and diabetes remission: how far have we progressed?
This article will review the effectiveness of bariatric procedures on the remission and improvement of diabetes and its implicated mechanisms. PMID: 30298760 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Perinatal androgen exposure and adipose tissue programming: is there an impact on body weight fate?
Authors: Maliqueo M, Echiburú B, Crisosto N Abstract Obesity is a major concern in public health because it is one of the main risk factors for the development of non-transmissible chronic diseases. The fact that there is a clear sex dimorphism in normal body fat distribution points out the role of sex steroids as key factors in the regulation and function of the adipose cell. Androgens affect adipogenesis and fat metabolism in the adipose tissue of males and females. Hormonal disorders during pregnancy may affect the fetal tissues, with long-term implications leading to the development of pathologies during...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Mass spectrometric analysis of steroids: all that glitters is not gold.
Authors: Liere P, Schumacher M Abstract Steroid hormones are small molecules (MW around 300 Da) characterized by a large range of polarity and their analysis has always presented a serious challenge. Persistent problems with the specificity of conventional immunological methods are the cause of inconsistent results in the literature, a particularly problematic situation for healthcare decisions. At present, mass spectrometric methods have become the gold standard for accurate steroid profiling, and their advent will require the re-analysis of previously published data. However, it is a common misconception to consi...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Romosozumab/CDP7851 for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Authors: Sim IW, Ebeling PR Abstract Osteoporosis is an important worldwide health problem, conferring significant costs on healthcare. Current osteoporosis therapies are anti-resorptive and have proven anti-fracture efficacy, while there is a paucity of osteoanabolic therapies. Romosozumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against sclerostin, an inhibitor of osteoblastic activity. Two-year follow-up data from initial clinical studies show rapid and robust increases in bone mineral density at all sites, except the wrist. Significant increases in bone formation markers have also been observed after administration o...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Thyroid function in Down syndrome.
Authors: Iughetti L, Lucaccioni L, Fugetto F, Mason A, Predieri B Abstract Down syndrome is the most commonly encountered human chromosomal disorder. Down syndrome is associated with thyroid dysfunction including: hypothyroidism, both congenital and acquired, and hyperthyroidism. A genetic predisposition and a propensity to acquire autoimmune disorders seem to be possible factors, though their causal relation remains unclear. The aim of the review is to describe what is currently known about the association between Down syndrome and thyroid dysfunction. PMID: 30298764 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrin...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Obesity and increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Authors: Elliott JA, Donohoe CL, Reynolds JV Abstract There has been a substantial increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma over the past 40 years. Meta-analyses of large prospective cohorts and population-based case-control studies demonstrate consistent associations between obesity and the development of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and esophago-gastric junction, with an approximate doubling of risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma among patients who are obese, and an almost five-fold increased risk among those with BMI>40 kg/m2. The pathologic precursor, specialized intestinal metaplasia in Barre...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Outcome of complications in acromegaly patients after long-term disease remission.
Authors: Claessen KM, Pereira AM, Biermasz NR Abstract Acromegaly patients suffer from pathologically high growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 levels that in 99% of cases is due to a GH-producing pituitary adenoma. During active disease, GH excess is associated with a number of pathological conditions, such as hypertension, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, sleep apnea, arthropathy, vertebral fractures and insulin resistance. After adequate treatment in the form of transsphenoidal surgery, radiotherapy, medical treatment or by a combination of these treatment modalities, several comorbid conditions improve considerably. Howev...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Barriers to care for patients with diabetes in Durham, North Carolina, why are we withholding life-sustaining medications from the patients who need them the most?
Authors: Spratt SE, Feinglos MN, Willis JM Abstract The diabetes epidemic and its complications disproportionately affect minorities and the poor. Medical treatments that can prevent or delay diabetes complications are widely available but poverty underlies much of why there are disparities in diabetes care and outcomes. Lack of access to care, food insecurity and inability to pay for medications prevents adherence to a medication and lifestyle regimen that can be life-sustaining. At the very least, US policies should be changed to provide life-sustaining medications that prevent costly complications to patients wh...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Comparator clinical trials of surrogate endpoints with albiglutide are in HARMONY.
Authors: Doggrell SA Abstract Evaluation of: Ahrén B, Johnson SL, Stewart M et al. HARMONY 3: 104-Week randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of albiglutide compared with placebo, sitagliptin, and glimepiride in patients with type 3 diabetes taking metformin. Diabetes Care 2014;37:2141-8 and Rosenstock J, Fonseca VA, Grass JL et al. Advancing basal insulin replacement in type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with insulin glargine plus oral agents: a comparison of adding albiglutide, a weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist, versus thrice-daily prandial insul...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Novel insights on the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Authors: Iughetti L, Predieri B, Bruzzi P Abstract The diagnosis of dyslipidemia is increasing both in adulthood and in childhood because of not only the steadily increasing prevalence of obesity but also a rise of medical attention in detecting unfavorable genetic conditions in patients of all ages. Attempts in lifestyle changes are frequently failing and thus the pharmacological treatment of dyslipidemia is spreading in medical practice to reduce cardiovascular risk. In childhood, statins are authorized by 8 years of age. Nevertheless, data on their long-term safety and efficacy are still lacking, especially in o...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Clinically meaningful end points in the evolving treatment paradigm for radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.
Authors: Sacks W, Braunstein GD Abstract Radioactive iodine (RAI) is often used post-operatively for treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), but many patients develop RAI-refractory disease. Patients with RAI-refractory DTC may be asymptomatic and stable for long periods of time, so identifying tumors that are no longer likely to respond to RAI treatment and determining when to transition to systemic therapy are critical issues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this paper is to review and assess the end points used in studies of RAI-refractory DTC in relation to the issues facing clinicians in tran...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Nutraceuticals for the treatment of metabolic diseases: evidence from clinical practice.
Authors: Derosa G, Maffioli P Abstract The aim of this review is to describe some types of supplements that have been shown to be good co-adjuvants along with diet and drug treatment in improving insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. We can conclude that some nutraceuticals, such as l-carnitine, berberine, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, krill oil and red yeast rice, can be helpful in reducing hypercholesterolemia or insulin resistance, as reported in clinical trials. Nutraceuticals can be associated with conventional pharmacological treatments to achieve an improved lipid profile without increasing statin dosa...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Predictive modeling for incident and prevalent diabetes risk evaluation.
Authors: Masconi KL, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Matsha TE, Erasmus RT, Kengne AP Abstract With half of individuals with diabetes undiagnosed worldwide and a projected 55% increase of the population with diabetes by 2035, the identification of undiagnosed and high-risk individuals is imperative. Multivariable diabetes risk prediction models have gained popularity during the past two decades. These have been shown to predict incident or prevalent diabetes through a simple and affordable risk scoring system accurately. Their development requires cohort or cross-sectional type studies with a variable combination, number and...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Growth hormone replacement in patients with a history of malignancy: a review of the literature and best practice for offering treatment.
Authors: Yuen KC, Popovic V Abstract Previous studies have implicated the growth hormone (GH)/IGF-I axis as an important mediator of cancer risk in humans and animals. Evidence supporting this notion is derived from animal studies, epidemiological observations, patients with acromegaly and from therapeutic manipulation of GH and IGF-I actions. Therefore, the use of GH therapy in patients with a history of malignancy raises hypothetical safety concerns. Reassuringly, GH therapy in childhood cancer survivors has not been confirmed to increase the cancer risk. Conversely, the risk of occurrence of a second neoplasm ma...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Thyroid surgery for treatment of Graves' disease complicated by ophthalmopathy: a comprehensive review.
This report aims to review current published data regarding thyroidectomy as a treatment for GD, and in particular, we focus on the effects of thyroidectomy on Graves' ophthalmopathy development and progression. PMID: 30298775 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Therapeutic potential of miRNAs in diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Henaoui I, Stoll L, Tugay K, Regazzi R Abstract miRNAs are major regulators of gene expression that are emerging as central players in the development of many human diseases, including diabetes mellitus. In fact, the manifestation of diabetes is associated with alterations in the miRNA profile in insulin-secreting cells, insulin target tissues and, in case of long-term diabetes complications, in many additional organs. Diabetes also results in changes in the profile of miRNAs detectable in blood and other body fluids. This has boosted an ever increasing interest in the use of circulating miRNAs as potentia...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Potential for dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor single-pill combinations.
This article describes current efficacy and safety data of DPP-4/SGLT2 inhibitor combination therapy. Pharmacokinetics, mechanism-of-action based rationale for the combination and timing of the addition of a SPC to the treatment regimen are discussed. PMID: 30298777 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 30293460 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The elderly as a target for obesity treatment.
Authors: Lechleitner M Abstract The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the elderly population. The primary goal of obesity therapy in elderly is the improvement of metabolic complications and the prevention of severe functional limitations. Clinical studies could demonstrate that the combination of nutritional intervention and physical exercise is of advantage to improve the functional status. Study evidence about the efficacy and safety of medication for weight reduction in elderly is limited, and the risks of bariatric surgery outweigh the possible benefits. The test battery of the comprehensive geriatric ass...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

PEGylated insulin Lispro (LY2605541): clinical overview of a new long-acting basal insulin analog in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Røder ME Abstract Neutral Protamine Hagedorn insulin with an intermediate action profile has been in use for many years for the treatment of Type 1 diabetes and as an option for Type 2 diabetes. It is efficacious in reducing blood sugars, but shows substantial variability and risk of hypoglycemia. Basal insulin analogs have been developed in recent years to overcome these issues. Three basal insulin analogs are currently in the market in Europe. PEGylated insulin lispro is a new second-generation basal insulin analog which most likely will undergo review in 2016 by the US FDA and EMA in Europe for p...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Anti-inflammatory effects of gastric bypass surgery and their association with improvement in metabolic profile.
Authors: Neff KJ, O'Donohoe PK, le Roux CW Abstract Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and metabolic disease. Bariatric surgery offers a treatment that can effectively reduce weight and improve the metabolic function. However, the effect of bariatric surgery on chronic inflammation in obesity is under-investigated. In this expert review, the authors outline the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, the most commonly performed bariatric surgery in current practice, on the markers of inflammation. They include a discussion of the relationship between inflammation and weight loss after surgery, the interact...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Polemics of pioglitazone: an appraisal in 2015.
Authors: Singh AK Abstract Pioglitazone is an inexpensive and effective oral drug for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. It addresses insulin resistance, one of the core pathophysiological defects in Type 2 diabetes, at both the adipose tissue and skeletal muscle level. As a majority of Type 2 diabetics classically exhibit higher insulin resistance, pioglitazone may strike exactly at the Achilles heel in this core pathogenesis. However, with the emerging association of bladder cancer with pioglitazone, French and German regulators were the first to ban or restrict pioglitazone use in 2011. The Indian regulators also...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Reducing diabetic limb amputations in developing countries.
Authors: Abbas ZG Abstract Among all the diabetes complications, diabetic foot complications are associated with the highest morbidity and mortality. Across the globe, 40-60% of all lower extremity non-traumatic amputations are performed in patients with diabetes. The most important intervention in reducing diabetic limb amputation in developing countries is the education of patients about proper limb care. Cost-effective education should be targeted for both healthcare workers and patients. One of these programs is the Step by Step Foot Project, which was piloted and carried out in Tanzania and India. In this revi...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Guiding diabetes screening and prevention: rationale, recommendations and remaining challenges.
Authors: Aroda VR, Getaneh A Abstract Advances made in diabetes management are not sufficient to reduce morbidity, mortality and cost without making prevention efforts at various levels imperative for substantial impact. Research has demonstrated the efficacy of lifestyle intervention and medications in preventing type 2 diabetes among diverse high-risk groups commonly identified with oral glucose tolerance testing. Efficacy, sustainability and safety data are most comprehensive for lifestyle and metformin, with other medications also demonstrating efficacy and potential in the pharmacoprevention of diabetes. Subse...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Utility of sentinel lymph node biopsy for thyroid cancer: a comprehensive review.
The objective of this review is to summarize current research reporting on SLNB for thyroid cancer, focusing on recent studies of its application to differentiated thyroid cancer. The technique and potential benefits of SLNB are reviewed with regards to its ability to identify lymph node metastases, aid in cancer prognostication, and direct surgical and medical treatment. PMID: 30293497 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Linagliptin/metformin HCl (fixed combination therapy) for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Bhargava A Abstract By the year 2030, diabetes mellitus will globally become the seventh leading cause of death. Currently, 382 million individuals worldwide have diabetes mellitus, with 80% residing in low- and middle-income countries. At present, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accounts for 85-95% of the diabetes burden in high-income countries. Alarmingly, this figure may be higher in the low- and middle-income nations. In an effort to combat this silent but deadly disease, pharmaceutical manufacturers have developed a host of different agents, each targeting a specific biochemical pathway. Among the mo...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The role of genetic screening in medullary thyroid cancer: a clinician's view on the recent ATA guidelines.
Authors: Pappa T Abstract The American Thyroid Association recently released its revised guidelines on the management of medullary thyroid carcinoma. This editorial highlights the American Thyroid Association recommendations on genetic screening for medullary thyroid carcinoma and briefly discusses the future perspectives from the clinician's standpoint. PMID: 30293499 [PubMed] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Local recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer.
Authors: Sitges-Serra A Abstract Management of advanced papillary thyroid cancer (PTC>10 mm) is changing its focus. Mortality was the main outcome measure for patients treated before the 90s. In the past two decades, however, most patients diagnosed with PTC belong to the very low risk of death group. On the other hand, local recurrence of PTC remains a clinical problem, with rates up to 25% depending on the presence of nodal metastasis, tumor diameter, and the skill of the surgeon to completely remove the primary tumor and the associated lymph node metastasis at first-time thyroidectomy. After optimized surgery...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Osteoporosis in pituitary diseases: lessons for the clinic.
Authors: Bolanowski M, Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska A, Halupczok-Żyła J Abstract Osteoporosis is a systemic disease characterized by bone mass and density loss leading to fragility fractures. Osteoporosis due to endocrine disorders is an example of secondary osteoporosis. The harmful effects on bones are common in patients harboring pituitary tumors (acromegaly, prolactinoma, Cushing's disease) and suffering from hypopituitarism. Increased fracture risk and high healthcare costs of fractured patients are their consequences. The coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism results in severe osteoporosis. Th...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Review of growth hormone therapy in adolescents and young adults with Prader-Willi syndrome.
Authors: Lucas-Herald AK, Perry CG, Shaikh MG Abstract Consensus guidelines from the Growth Hormone Research Society Workshop recommend growth hormone therapy in all children with genetically confirmed Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) in combination with dietary, lifestyle and environmental interventions. As yet, however, there are limited published data regarding the use of growth hormone therapy in adolescents and young adults with PWS. This review focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of growth hormone therapy in this particular group. The risk of complications, challenges with consent for therapy, the need for...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Potential novel therapeutic strategies from understanding adipocyte transdifferentiation mechanisms.
Authors: Sartini L, Frontini A Abstract Brown adipocytes are located in discrete anatomical locations in both small mammals and in humans. 'Brown-like' adipocytes, also known as brite (brown in white) or beige adipocytes are found interspersed among white adipocytes in several fat depots. From a functional point of view, the activity of brown and brite cells is similar, that is, heat production mediated by uncoupling protein 1. The morphology and expression of 'thermogenic' genes is also very similar in these two cell types. The origin of brite adipocytes is under intense investigation because enhancing their prese...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Oral antidiabetic agents in gestational diabetes: a narrative review of current evidence.
Authors: Singh AK, Singh R Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) classically occurs when maternal glucose metabolism is unable to compensate the progressive development of insulin resistance that arises from the continuously rising diabetogenic placental hormones. Although most women can be treated satisfactorily with diet alone, some require more intensive treatment. Insulin has been the most reliable treatment strategy in GDM over several decades. Although a long time has passed since the publication of two randomized controlled trials suggesting comparable efficacy and safety of metformin and glibenclamid...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Endocrinology of bone/brain crosstalk.
Authors: Metozzi A, Bonamassa L, Brandi G, Brandi ML Abstract Bone metabolism is regulated by the action of two skeletal cells: osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This process is controlled by many genetic, hormonal and lifestyle factors, but today more and more studies have allowed us to identify a neuronal regulation system termed 'bone-brain crosstalk', which highlights a direct relationship between bone tissue and the nervous system. The first documentation of an anatomic relationship between nerves and bone was made via a wood cut by Charles Estienne in Paris in 1545. His diagram demonstrated nerves entering and lea...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Colestilan for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis.
Authors: Locatelli F, Dimkovic N, Spasovski G Abstract Chronic kidney disease in the later stages poses many treatment challenges. Hyperphosphatemia is one that is well-known and is often linked to increased cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Currently, a number of phosphate binders are available that act to conserve serum phosphate at normal or near normal levels. However, it is the overall profile of all binders that needs to be taken into account and the risks and the potential benefits associated with each agent must be balanced when selecting a particular phosphate binder. It is known that calcium-based binde...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

An update on diabetes related skeletal fragility.
Authors: Abdalrahman N, Chen SC, Wang JR, Ahmed SF Abstract There are several mechanisms by which diabetes could affect bone mass and strength. These mechanisms include insulin deficiency; hyperglycemia; the accumulation of advanced glycation end products that may influence collagen characteristics; marrow adiposity and bone inflammation. Furthermore, associated diabetic complications and treatment with thaizolidinediones may also increase risk of fracturing. The following article provides its readers with an update on the latest information pertaining to diabetes related bone skeletal fragility. In the authors' op...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk profiles in Type 2 diabetes and the impact of geographical setting.
Authors: Smith-Palmer J, Boye KS, Perez-Nieves M, Valentine W, Bae JP Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) disease is a leading morbidity and mortality in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Previous studies have shown geographic differences in the prevalence of CV and renal diseases. A literature review of longitudinal (≥5 years) studies including ≥1000 T2DM patients and reporting CV endpoints was performed to compare risk profiles. Key differences between geographies included a relatively higher prevalence of microalbuminuria in East Asian relative to North American and European patients, which in turn is an important CV risk ...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Improving diabetes diagnosis and management in myocardial infarction patients: overcoming clinical inertia.
Authors: Shore S, Arnold SV, Maddox TM Abstract Diabetes is underdiagnosed and undertreated among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. The early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes during AMI facilitates improved risk stratification, use of appropriate revascularization strategies and secondary prevention medications, and timely initiation of glycemic therapy. Accurate diagnostic methods, such as hemoglobin A1c, should be evaluated for hospitalized AMI patients. In addition, efforts to improve the uptake of diabetes screening and management in the hospitalized setting should occur. Possible actions include t...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The neuropeptide Y-ergic system: potential therapeutic target against bone loss with obesity treatments.
Authors: Fernando HA, Zibellini J, Hsu MS, Seimon RV, Nguyen AD, Sainsbury A Abstract Obesity is no longer considered to provide protection against osteoporosis. Moreover, treatments for obesity are now suspected of reducing bone mass. With the escalating incidence of obesity, combined with increases in the frequency, duration and intensity of interventions used to combat it, we face a potential increase in health burden due to osteoporotic fractures. The neuropeptide Y-ergic system offers a potential target for the prevention and anabolic treatment of bone loss in obesity, due to its dual role in the regulation of...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 30298756 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 11, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Implementing a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Westman EC, Tondt J, Maguire E, Yancy WS Abstract INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has reached epidemic proportions in the modern world. For individuals affected by obesity-related T2DM, clinical studies have shown that carbohydrate restriction and weight loss can improve hyperglycemia, obesity, and T2DM. Areas covered: Reducing carbohydrate intake to a certain level, typically below 50 g per day, leads to increased ketogenesis in order to provide fuel for the body. Such low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diets were employed to treat obesity and diabetes in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Rec...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - October 7, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Clinical significance of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase polymorphism.
Authors: Maino F, Cantara S, Forleo R, Pilli T, Castagna MG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Biological activity of thyroid hormones (TH) is regulated by enzymes known as deiodinases. The most important is represented by the type 2 deiodinase (D2), which is the main T4-activating enzyme, ubiquitous in human tissues and therefore essential in many metabolic processes. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SPN) of D2, known as Thr92Ala (rs225014), has been reported in the general population while other polymorphisms are less frequently described. Areas covered: Several authors investigated the potential metabolic effect of these p...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Impact of bariatric surgery on cardiovascular and renal complications of diabetes: a focus on clinical outcomes and putative mechanisms.
Authors: Martin WP, Docherty NG, Le Roux CW Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular and renal disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is associated with improved long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Areas covered: All major case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trial studies of bariatric surgery in adults with T2DM were screened and data on prespecified cardiovascular and renal outcomes collated. Bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, albuminu...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

The effect of meals on bone turnover - a systematic review with focus on diabetic bone disease.
Authors: Fuglsang-Nielsen R, Starup-Linde J, Gregersen S, Vestergaard P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is associated with an increased risk of bone fractures. Bone mineral density (BMD) is increased and bone turnover is low in type 2 diabetes and the increased BMD does not explain the increased fracture risk. However, the low bone turnover may lead to insufficient bone renewal with unrepaired micro-cracks and thus increase fracture risk. Ingestion of food acutely decreases bone resorption markers and the macronutrient composition of meals and meal frequency may influence bone metabolism adversely in subject...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Mini-review of hair cortisol concentration for evaluation of Cushing syndrome.
Authors: Hodes A, Meyer J, Lodish MB, Stratakis CA, Zilbermint M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of endogenous Cushing syndrome is often challenging and requires multiple repeated blood, urine, and saliva tests to detect elevated cortisol levels. Hair cortisol concentration has been described as a marker of long-term exposure to systemic cortisol in patients with Cushing syndrome. Like hemoglobin A1c is used to detect serum glucose exposure over months, segmental hair cortisol can help identify patients with milder forms of and/or periodic or cyclical Cushing syndrome, which may reduce time and costs associate...
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - September 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

High fiber intake, dietary protein, and prevention of type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Weickert MO PMID: 30141693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 25, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 30084670 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism)
Source: Expert Review of Endocrinology and Metabolism - August 9, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research