Effects of onabotulinumtoxinA on cardiac function following intradetrusor injections.
In conclusion, onabotulinumtoxinA intradetrusor injections do not seem to affect resting state cardiac function. Short-term changes such as total power might rather result from natural cardio-vascular responses to the procedure itself (e.g. discomfort, stress). Further detailed investigations also under physical stress and repeated injections are necessary to fully exclude systemic cardiac side effects of onabotulinumtoxinA intradetrusor injections. PMID: 27342082 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehnert U, de Kort LM, Wöllner J, Kozomara M, van Koeveringe GA, Kessler TM Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Accelerated onset of the vesicovesical reflex in postnatal NGF-OE mice and the role of neuropeptides.
Abstract The mechanisms underlying the postnatal maturation of micturition from a somatovesical to a vesicovesical reflex are not known but may involve neuropeptides in the lower urinary tract. A transgenic mouse model with chronic urothelial overexpression (OE) of NGF exhibited increased voiding frequency, increased number of non-voiding contractions, altered morphology and hyperinnervation of the urinary bladder by peptidergic (e.g., Sub P and CGRP) nerve fibers in the adult. In early postnatal and adult NGF-OE mice we have now examined: (1) micturition onset using filter paper void assays and open-outlet, conti...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Girard B, Peterson A, Malley S, Vizzard MA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Neuromodulation of the neural circuits controlling the lower urinary tract.
Abstract The inability to control timely bladder emptying is one of the most serious challenges among the many functional deficits that occur after a spinal cord injury. We previously demonstrated that electrodes placed epidurally on the dorsum of the spinal cord can be used in animals and humans to recover postural and locomotor function after complete paralysis and can be used to enable voiding in spinal rats. In the present study, we examined the neuromodulation of lower urinary tract function associated with acute epidural spinal cord stimulation, locomotion, and peripheral nerve stimulation in adult rats. Her...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gad PN, Roy RR, Zhong H, Gerasimenko YP, Taccola G, Edgerton VR Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Influence of urothelial or suburothelial cholinergic receptors on bladder reflexes in chronic spinal cord injured cats.
Abstract The effects of intravesical administration of a muscarinic receptor agonist (oxotremorine-M, OXO-M) and antagonist (atropine methyl nitrate, AMN) and of a nicotinic receptor agonist (nicotine) and antagonist (hexamethonium, C6) on reflex bladder activity were investigated in conscious female chronic spinal cord injured (SCI) cats using cystometry. OXO-M (50μM) decreased bladder capacity (BC) for triggering micturition contractions, increased maximal micturition pressure (MMP), increased frequency and area under the curve of pre-micturition contractions (PMC-AUC). Nicotine (250μM) decreased BC, incre...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ungerer TD, Kim KA, Daugherty SL, Roppolo JR, Tai C, de Groat WC Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Introduction to Special Issue on Bladder Control in Neurological Diseases.
PMID: 27772666 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Havton LA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

The role of spinal interleukin-1 β and astrocyte connexin 43 in the development of mirror-image pain in an inflammatory pain model.
In this study, we examined the effect of spinal IL-1β on astrocyte gap junctions (GJ) and the development of MIP. Following unilateral carrageenan (CA) injection, mechanical allodynia (MA) was evaluated at various time points. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to determine changes in the expression of GFAP and connexins (Cx) in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Carrageenan rats showed a delayed onset of contralateral MA, which mimicked the temporal expression pattern of spinal Cx43 (an astrocyte gap junctional protein) and GFAP. Intrathecal administration of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Choi HS, Roh DH, Yoon SY, Kwon SG, Choi SR, Kang SY, Moon JY, Han HJ, Kim HW, J Beitz A, Lee JH Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Identification of KRT16 as a Target of an Autoantibody Response in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.
CONCLUSIONS: Pursuing autoimmune contributions to CRPS provides a novel approach to understanding the condition and may allow the development of mechanism-based therapies. The identification of autoantibodies against KRT16 as a biomarker in mice and in humans is a critical step towards these goals, and towards redefining CRPS as having an autoimmune etiology. PMID: 27773721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Tajerian M, Hung V, Khan H, Lahey LJ, Sun Y, Birklein F, Krämer HH, Robinson WH, Kingery WS, Clark JD Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

The role of spinal interleukin-1 β and astrocyte connexin 43 in the development of mirror-image pain in an inflammatory pain model.
In this study, we examined the effect of spinal IL-1β on astrocyte gap junctions (GJ) and the development of MIP. Following unilateral carrageenan (CA) injection, mechanical allodynia (MA) was evaluated at various time points. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to determine changes in the expression of GFAP and connexins (Cx) in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Carrageenan rats showed a delayed onset of contralateral MA, which mimicked the temporal expression pattern of spinal Cx43 (an astrocyte gap junctional protein) and GFAP. Intrathecal administration of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Choi HS, Roh DH, Yoon SY, Kwon SG, Choi SR, Kang SY, Moon JY, Han HJ, Kim HW, Beitz AJ, Lee JH Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

G-CSF treatment promotes apoptosis of autoreactive T cells to restrict the inflammatory cascade and accelerate recovery in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.
Abstract G-CSF is a hematopoietic growth factor that regulates the proliferation, differentiation and survival of myeloid lineage cells, which has protective effects in autoimmune neuroinflammatory diseases such as EAE. Here we use EAE model treated by G-CSF to address the hypothesis that G-CSF inhibits the proliferative response of splenic T cells via the enhancement of apoptosis, and this priming effect of G-CSF depends on the cell cycle. Our results show that G-CSF administration reduced EAE frequency and severity of attacks. The inflammatory cells and demyelination areas were decreased in the CNS of G-CSF-trea...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Peng W Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Paradoxical lower sensitivity of Locus Coeruleus than Substantia Nigra pars compacta neurons to acute actions of rotenone.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is not only associated with degeneration of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in the Substantia Nigra, but also with profound loss of noradrenergic neurons in the Locus Coeruleus (LC). Remarkably, LC degeneration may exceed, or even precede the loss of nigral DAergic neurons, suggesting that LC neurons may be more susceptible to damage by various insults. Using a combination of electrophysiology, fluorescence imaging and electrochemistry, we directly compared the responses of LC, nigral DAergic and nigral non-dopaminergic (non-DAergic) neurons in rat brain slices to acute application...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Yee AG, Freestone PS, Bai JZ, Lipski J Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Progressive neuronal activation accompanies epileptogenesis caused by hippocampal glutamine synthetase inhibition.
Abstract Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats. We then used continuous video-intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 18, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Albright B, Dhaher R, Wang H, Harb R, Lee TW, Zaveri H, Eid T Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Complement deposition induced by binding of anti-contactin-1 auto-antibodies is modified by immunoglobulins.
Abstract Inflammatory neuropathies associated with auto-antibodies against paranodal proteins like contactin-1 are reported to respond poorly to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). A reason might be that IVIG interacts with the complement pathway and these auto-antibodies often belong to the IgG4 subclass that does not activate complement. However, some patients do show a response to IVIG, especially at the beginning of the disease. This corresponds with the finding of coexisting IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3. We therefore aimed to investigate complement deposition and activation by samples of ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Appeltshauser L, Weishaupt A, Sommer C, Doppler K Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Short- and long-term dopamine depletion causes enhanced beta oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia loop of parkinsonian rats.
an Riesen C Abstract Abnormally enhanced beta oscillations have been found in deep brain recordings from human Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and in animal models of PD. Recent correlative evidence suggests that beta oscillations are related to disease-specific symptoms such as akinesia and rigidity. However, this hypothesis has also been repeatedly questioned by studies showing no changes in beta power in animal models using an acute pharmacologic dopamine blockade. To further investigate the temporal dynamics of exaggerated beta synchrony in PD, we investigated the reserpine model, which is characterized by a...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Beck MH, Haumesser JK, Kühn J, Altschüler J, Kühn AA, van Riesen C Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Increased precursor microRNA-21 following status epilepticus can compete with mature microRNA-21 to alter translation.
Abstract MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is consistently up-regulated in various neurological disorders, including epilepsy. Here, we show that the biogenesis of miR-21 is altered following pilocarpine status epilepticus (SE) with an increase in precursor miR-21 (pre-miR-21) in rats. We demonstrate that pre-miR-21 has an energetically favorable site overlapping with the miR-21 binding site and competes with mature miR-21 for binding in the 3'UTR of TGFBR2 mRNA, but not NT-3 mRNA in vitro. This binding competition influences miR-21-mediated repression in vitro and correlates with the increase in TGFBR2 and decrease in NT-3 fo...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Chak K, Roy-Chaudhuri B, Kim HK, Kemp KC, Porter BE, Kay MA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Neuronal prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 deficiency improves cognitive abilities in a murine model of cerebral hypoperfusion.
Abstract Episodes of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia increase the risk of dementia, which is associated with impaired learning and memory. Previous studies in rodent models of dementia indicated a favorable effect of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and erythropoietin (Epo). In the present study we thus investigated whether activation of the entire adaptive HIF pathway in neurons by cell-specific deletion of the HIF suppressor prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) improves cognitive abilities in young (3months) and old (18-28months) mice suffering from chronic brain hypoperfus...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gruneberg D, Montellano FA, Plaschke K, Li L, Marti HH, Kunze R Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Blast waves from detonated military explosive reduce GluR1 and synaptophysin levels in hippocampal slice cultures.
Abstract Explosives create shockwaves that cause blast-induced neurotrauma, one of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service. Blast-induced TBIs are often associated with reduced cognitive and behavioral functions due to a variety of factors. To study the direct effects of military explosive blasts on brain tissue, we removed systemic factors by utilizing rat hippocampal slice cultures. The long-term slice cultures were briefly sealed air-tight in serum-free medium, lowered into a 37°C water-filled tank, and small 1.7-gram assemblies of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX...
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Smith M, Piehler T, Benjamin R, Farizatto KL, Pait MC, Almeida MF, Ghukasyan VV, Bahr BA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Special Issue: New Perspectives in PTSD.
PMID: 27719965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - October 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wilson MA, Reagan LP Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Impairment of decision making associated with disruption of phase-locking in the anterior cingulate cortex in viscerally hypersensitive rats.
Abstract Visceral hypersensitivity (VH) is a key factor of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Previous studies have identified an enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in VH rats, which can be observed up to 7weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colonic inflammation. The induction of VH produces a change in the ability to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity at the ACC circuitry. In clinical practice, a positive link between IBS and cognitive impairments has been noted for years, but no animal model has been reported. Decision-making is a valuable model for moni...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 21, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cao B, Wang J, Mu L, Poon DC, Li Y Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Striatal cholinergic interneurons and D2 receptor-expressing GABAergic medium spiny neurons regulate tardive dyskinesia.
Abstract Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a drug-induced movement disorder that arises with antipsychotics. These drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and are also prescribed for major depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity, obsessive compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorder. There is thus a need for therapies to reduce TD. The present studies and our previous work show that nicotine administration decreases haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rodent TD models, suggesting a role for the nicotinic cholinergic system. Extensive studies also show ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 19, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Bordia T, Zhang D, Perez XA, Quik M Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Progressive gene dose-dependent disruption of the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator-driven rhythms in a knock-in mouse model of Huntington's disease.
Abstract Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterised by motor and cognitive deficits, as well as sleep and circadian abnormalities. In the R6/2 mouse, a fragment model of HD, rest-activity rhythms controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus disintegrate completely by 4months of age. Rhythms driven by a second circadian oscillator, the methamphetamine-sensitive circadian oscillator (MASCO), are disrupted even earlier, and cannot be induced after 2months of age. Here, we studied the effect of the HD mutation on the expression of MASCO-driven rhythms in a more slowly deve...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 16, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Ouk K, Aungier J, Morton AJ Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

A new model of nerve injury in the rat reveals a role of regulator of G protein signaling 4 in tactile hypersensitivity.
In this study we have modified the rat model of spared nerve injury, restricting the surgical lesion to a single peripheral branch of the sciatic nerve. This modification reduced the prevalence of tactile hypersensitivity from nearly 100% to approximately 50%. With this model, we here also demonstrated that the Regulator of G protein Signaling 4 (RGS4) was specifically up-regulated in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia and dorsal horn of rats developing tactile hypersensitivity. Intrathecal delivery of the RGS4 inhibitor CCG63802 was found to reverse tactile hypersensitivity for a 1h period. Moreover, tactile hypersensitivity ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Taccola G, Doyen PJ, Damblon J, Dingu N, Ballarin B, Steyaert A, Rieux AD, Forget P, Hermans E, Bosier B, Deumens R Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive sensitization.
Abstract Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect. In spinally transected rats, noxious electrical s...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 14, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang YJ, Lee KH, Murphy L, Garraway SM, Grau JW Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Activation of LILRB2 signal pathway in temporal lobe epilepsy patients and in a pilocarpine induced epilepsy model.
Abstract Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a frequent form of focal intractable epilepsy in adults, but the specific mechanism underlying the epileptogenesis of TLE is still unknown. Human leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B2 (LILRB2) (the murine homolog gene called paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B, or PirB), participates in the process of synaptic plasticity and neurite growth in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a potential role of LILRB2 in epilepsy. However, the expression pattern of LILRB2 and the downstream molecular signal in intractable TLE remains poorly understood. In the present study...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Yue J, Li W, Liang C, Chen B, Chen X, Wang L, Zang Z, Yu S, Liu S, Li S, Yang H Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Chronic mild stress accelerates the progression of Parkinson's disease in A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice.
Chronic mild stress accelerates the progression of Parkinson's disease in A53T α-synuclein transgenic mice. Exp Neurol. 2016 Sep 13; Authors: Wu Q, Yang X, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Feng L Abstract Daily stress is associated with increased risk for various diseases, and numerous studies have provided evidence that environmental stress leads to deleterious effects on the central nervous system. However, it remains unclear whether chronic stress exacerbates the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). To investigate this hypothesis, we determined the effect of chronic mild stress (CMS) on the pathogenesis...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu Q, Yang X, Zhang Y, Zhang L, Feng L Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

α-Synuclein pre-formed fibrils impair tight junction protein expression without affecting cerebral endothelial cell function.
This study therefore shows for the first time that misfolded α-synuclein can interact and affect the cerebral endothelial system, although its relevance to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease remains to be elucidated. PMID: 27632900 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Kuan WL, Bennett N, He X, Skepper JN, Martynyuk N, Wijeyekoon R, Moghe PV, Williams-Gray CH, Barker RA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

MHC-I promotes apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons in the spinal dorsal horn and contributes to cancer induced bone pain.
In this study, we investigated roles of MHC-I and underlying mechanisms in CIBP on a rat model. Our results showed that increased MHC-I expression on GABAergic interneurons could deplete GABAergic interneurons by inducing their apoptosis in the spinal dorsal horn of tumor-bearing rats. Pretreatment of MHC-I RNAi-lentivirus could prevent the apoptosis of GABAergic interneurons and therefore alleviated mechanical allodynia induced by tumor cells intratibial injection. Additionally, we also found that CD8(+) T cells were colocalized with MHC-I and GABAergic neurons and presented a significant and persistent increase in the sp...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Fu Q, Shi D, Zhou Y, Zheng H, Xiang H, Tian X, Gao F, Manyande A, Cao F, Tian Y, Ye D Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Role of transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels in visceral nociception and hypersensitivity.
In conclusion, TRPM2 channels contribute to visceral nociception in response to noxious stimuli under normal conditions and visceral hypersensitivity in pathological conditions. PMID: 27616276 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 8, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Matsumoto K, Takagi K, Kato A, Ishibashi T, Mori Y, Tashima K, Mitsumoto A, Kato S, Horie S Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Motor unit and muscle fiber type grouping after peripheral nerve injury in the rat.
Abstract Muscle unit (MU) fibers innervated by one motoneuron and corresponding muscle fiber types are normally distributed in a mosaic. We asked whether, 4-8months after common peroneal nerve transection and random surgical alignment of nerve stumps in rat tibialis anterior muscles 1) reinnervated MU muscle and muscle fiber type clumping is invariant and 2) slow and fast motoneurons regenerate their nerve fibers within original endoneurial pathways. MU contractile forces were recorded in vivo, the MUs classified into types according to their contractile speed and fatigability, and one MU subjected to alternate ex...
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Gordon T, de Zepetnek JE Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Special Issue: Myelin Repair.
PMID: 27590981 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - September 1, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: McTigue D Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in astrocytes - Beneficial effects of glatiramer acetate in the R6/2 and YAC128 mouse models of Huntington's disease.
In this study, we investigate effects of GA on BDNF expression especially in astrocytes in vitro and in vivo in brains of R6/2 and YAC128 transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD) where a pathogenic role of astroglial cells has recently been shown. We show that GA increases the expression of functionally active BDNF in astrocyte culture and in astrocytes of GA treated HD mice. In the brains of these mice, GA decreases neurodegeneration and restores BDNF levels. The beneficial effect of GA in R6/2 mice also comprises reduced weight loss and prolonged life span and, for both models, also improved motor performance...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Reick C, Ellrichmann G, Tsai T, Lee DH, Wiese S, Gold R, Saft C, Linker RA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Enhancing neural activity to drive respiratory plasticity following cervical spinal cord injury.
Abstract Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in permanent life-altering sensorimotor deficits, among which impaired breathing is one of the most devastating and life-threatening. While clinical and experimental research has revealed that some spontaneous respiratory improvement (functional plasticity) can occur post-SCI, the extent of the recovery is limited and significant deficits persist. Thus, increasing effort is being made to develop therapies that harness and enhance this neuroplastic potential to optimize long-term recovery of breathing in injured individuals. One strategy with demonstrated therapeut...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 28, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Hormigo KM, Zholudeva LV, Spruance VM, Marchenko V, Cote MP, Vinit S, Giszter S, Bezdudnaya T, Lane MA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Consequences of excessive plasticity in the hippocampus induced by perinatal asphyxia.
Abstract Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is one of the most frequent risk factors for several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) of presumed multifactorial etiology. Dysfunction of neuronal connectivity is thought to play a central role in the pathophysiology of NDDs. Because underlying causes of some NDDs begin before/during birth, we asked whether this clinical condition might affect accurate establishment of neural circuits in the hippocampus as a consequence of disturbed brain plasticity. We used a murine model that mimics the pathophysiological processes of perinatal asphyxia. Histological analyses of neurons (NeuN)...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 27, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Saraceno GE, Caceres LG, Guelman L, Castilla R, Udovin LD, Ellisman MH, Brocco MA, Capani F Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Loss of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors in synapses of tonic firing substantia gelatinosa neurons in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain" [Experimental Neurology 279 (2016) 168-177].
Corrigendum to "Loss of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors in synapses of tonic firing substantia gelatinosa neurons in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain" [Experimental Neurology 279 (2016) 168-177]. Exp Neurol. 2016 Aug 26; Authors: Chen Y, Derkach VA, Smith PA PMID: 27574732 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Neurology)
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 26, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Y, Derkach VA, Smith PA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Acute hypoxia activates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus-projecting catecholaminergic neurons in the C1 region.
Abstract Catecholaminergic C1 cells reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and can be activated by hypoxia. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, our hypothesis is that acute hypoxia (AH) activates RVLM projecting catecholaminergic neurons to PVH. Anterograde ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Silva TM, Takakura AC, Moreira TS Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Axon regeneration in C. elegans: Worming our way to mechanisms of axon regeneration.
Abstract How axons repair themselves after injury is a fundamental question in neurobiology. With its conserved genome, relatively simple nervous system, and transparent body, C. elegans has recently emerged as a productive model to uncover the cellular mechanisms that regulate and execute axon regeneration. In this review, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the C. elegans model of regeneration. We explore the technical advances that enable the use of C. elegans for in vivo regeneration studies, review findings in C. elegans that have contributed to our understanding of the regeneration response across spe...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 25, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Byrne AB, Hammarlund M Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Preservation of neuromuscular function in symptomatic SOD1-G93A mice by peripheral infusion of methylene blue.
This study tested whether localized peripheral application of a protective drug could effectively preserve neuromuscular junctions in late-stage disease. Methylene blue (MB), which has mitochondria-protective properties, was infused via an osmotic pump into the anterior muscle compartment of one hind limb of late pre- symptomatic SOD1-G93A mice for ≥3weeks. When mice reached end-stage disease, peak twitch and tetanic contractions evoked by stimulation of the muscle nerve were measured in two anterior compartment muscles (tibialis anterior [TA] and extensor digitorum longus [EDL], both predominantly fast muscles). With 4...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Talbot JD, Barrett JN, Nonner D, Zhang Z, Wicomb K, Barrett EF Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

HSPB3 protein is expressed in motoneurons and induces their survival after lesion-induced degeneration.
Abstract The human small heat shock proteins (HSPBs) form a family of molecular chaperones comprising ten members (HSPB1-HSPB10), whose functions span from protein quality control to cytoskeletal dynamics and cell death control. Mutations in HSPBs can lead to human disease and particularly point mutations in HSPB1 and HSPB8 are known to lead to peripheral neuropathies. Recently, a missense mutation (R7S) in yet another member of this family, HSPB3, was found to cause an axonal motor neuropathy (distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 2C, dHMN2C). Until now, HSPB3 protein localization and function in motoneurons (M...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 24, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: La Padula V, Staszewski O, Nestel S, Busch H, Boerries M, Roussa E, Prinz M, Krieglstein K Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Why depression and pain often coexist and mutually reinforce: Role of the lateral habenula.
Abstract The interrelation of depression and pain is increasingly coming under scrutiny. Although the lateral habenula (LHb) is widely implicated in the pathogenesis of depression and pain, its role in the interaction of depression and pain remains unknown. Thus, the aim of current study was to investigate the role of LHb in rat depression-pain comorbidity. Single extracellular firing recording and immunofluorescence methods were used to compare firing rates and c-Fos expression of the LHb neurons in normal and model rats. Following subcutaneous injection of formalin into the hind paw to simulate natural pain, we ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 20, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Li J, Li Y, Zhang B, Shen X, Zhao H Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Gastrin-releasing peptide facilitates glutamatergic transmission in hippocampus and effectively prevents vascular dementia induced cognitive and synaptic plasticity deficits.
In this study, we first investigated the effects of GRP on glutamatergic transmission with patch-clamp recording. We found that acute application of GRP enhanced the excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 neurons via GRPR in a presynaptic mechanism. Secondly, we examined whether exogenous GRP or its analogue neuromedin B (NMB) could prevent VD-induced cognitive deficits and the mechanism of synaptic plasticity. By using Morris water maze, long-term potentiation (LTP) recording, western blot assay and immunofluorescent staining, we verified for the first time that GRP or NMB substantially improved the spatial l...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 15, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Yang J, Yao Y, Wang L, Yang C, Wang F, Guo J, Wang Z, Yang Z, Ming D Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Harnessing the power of cell transplantation to target respiratory dysfunction following spinal cord injury.
Abstract The therapeutic benefit of cell transplantation has been assessed in a host of central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including disorders of the spinal cord such as traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). The promise of cell transplantation to preserve and/or restore normal function can be aimed at a variety of therapeutic mechanisms, including replacement of lost or damaged CNS cell types, promotion of axonal regeneration or sprouting, neuroprotection, immune response modulation, and delivery of gene products such as neurotrophic factors, amongst other possibilities. Despite significant work in the field of ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 13, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Charsar BA, Urban MW, Lepore AC Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Regulation of brain PPARgamma2 contributes to ketogenic diet anti-seizure efficacy.
Abstract The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective therapy primarily used in pediatric patients whom are refractory to current anti-seizure medications. The mechanism of the KD is not completely understood, but is thought to involve anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant processes. The nutritionally-regulated transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, PPARγ, regulates genes involved in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant pathways. Moreover, endogenous ligands of PPARγ include fatty acids suggesting a potential role in the effects of the KD. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PPAR&...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Simeone TA, Matthews SA, Samson KK, Simeone KA Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

NMDA receptor antagonist prevents cell death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus induced by hyponatremia accompanying adrenal insufficiency in rats.
Abstract Selective apoptosis of granule cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rats with bilateral adrenalectomy (ADX) and in patients who died of adrenal insufficiency has been reported. Although adrenal insufficiency is a common disease and is usually associated with hyponatremia, its effect on the central nervous system and in apoptosis in the hippocampus remain to be elucidated. Using rat models to represent clinical hyponatremia accompanying adrenal insufficiency, we show that reduced serum [Na(+)] was associated with selective apoptosis in the DG. Nine days after ADX, apoptotic cells were observed in...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 12, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Izumida H, Takagi H, Fujisawa H, Iwata N, Nakashima K, Takeuchi S, Iwama S, Namba T, Komatu Y, Kaibuchi K, Oiso Y, Arima H, Sugimura Y Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Neuroprosthetics in amputee and brain injury rehabilitation.
Abstract The goals of rehabilitation medicine programs are to promote health, restore functional impairments and improve quality of life. The field of neuroprosthetics has evolved over the last decade given an improved understanding of neuroscience and the incorporation of advanced biotechnology and neuroengineering in the rehabilitation setting to develop adaptable applications to help facilitate recovery for individuals with amputations and brain injury. These applications may include a simple cognitive prosthetics aid for impaired memory in brain-injured individuals to myoelectric prosthetics arms with artifici...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 9, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Eapen BC, Murphy DP, Cifu DX Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

The need for calcium imaging in nonhuman primates: New motor neuroscience and brain-machine interfaces.
Abstract A central goal of neuroscience is to understand how populations of neurons coordinate and cooperate in order to give rise to perception, cognition, and action. Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are an attractive model with which to understand these mechanisms in humans, primarily due to the strong homology of their brains and the cognitively sophisticated behaviors they can be trained to perform. Using electrode recordings, the activity of one to a few hundred individual neurons may be measured electrically, which has enabled many scientific findings and the development of brain-machine interfaces. Despite these s...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: O'Shea DJ, Trautmann E, Chandrasekaran C, Stavisky S, Kao J, Sahani M, Ryu S, Deisseroth K, Shenoy KV Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Odor-induced recall of emotional memories in PTSD-review and new paradigm for research.
Abstract It is clinically well known that olfactory intrusions in PTSD can be a disabling phenomena due to the involuntary recall of odor memories. Odorants can trigger involuntary recall of emotional memories as well have the potential to help diminishing emotional arousal as grounding stimuli. Despite major advances in our understanding of the function of olfactory system, the study of the relation of olfaction and emotional memory is still relatively scarce. Odor memory is long thought to be different than other types of memories such as verbal or visual memories, being more strongly engraved and more closely r...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 7, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Daniels JK, Vermetten E Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Mitochondrial STAT3 is negatively regulated by SOCS3 and upregulated after spinal cord injury.
Abstract Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) expression is induced by the Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. SOCS3 then acts as a feedback inhibitor of JAK-STAT signaling. Previous studies have shown that knocking down SOCS3 in spinal cord neurons with Lentiviral delivery of SOCS3-targeting shRNA (shSOCS3) increased spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3 (P-STAT3 Tyr), which in part contributed to decreased neuronal death and demyelination as well as enhanced dendritic regeneration and protection of neuronal morphology...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 5, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Park KW, Lin CY, Benveniste EN, Lee YS Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Activation of CRHR1 receptors regulates social and depressive-like behaviors and expression of BDNF and TrkB in mesocorticolimbic regions following global cerebral ischemia.
Abstract Increased HPA axis activation and CRH release characterize the brain's response to global cerebral ischemia. Recently, CRH via activation of CRH type 1 receptors (CRHR1) has been shown to regulate Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) secretion and emotional behavior. The current study investigates the impact of CRHR1 blockade on BDNF/TrkB signaling expression in the mesolimbic circuitry, and social and depressive-like behavior following global ischemia. Adult male Wistar rats were injected with Antalarmin (2μg/μl) or a vehicle 30min prior to 10min global cerebral ischemia (4VO model) or sham occ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - August 3, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: de la Tremblaye PB, Linares NN, Schock S, Plamondon H Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Treating refractory mental illness with closed-loop brain stimulation: Progress towards a patient-specific transdiagnostic approach.
We present convergent preliminary evidence from functional neuroimaging, invasive human electrophysiology, and human brain stimulation experiments suggesting that this approach is feasible. Using the Emotional Conflict Resolution (ECR) task as an example, we show that emotion-related networks can be identified and modulated in individual patients. Invasive and non-invasive methodologies both identify a network between prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insula, and amygdala. Further, stimulation in cingulate and amygdala changes patients' performance in ways that are linked to the task's emotional content. We present prel...
Source: Experimental Neurology - July 30, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Widge AS, Ellard KK, Paulk AC, Basu I, Yousefi A, Zorowitz S, Gilmour A, Afzal A, Deckersbach T, Cash SS, Kramer MA, Eden UT, Dougherty DD, Eskandar EN Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

New translational perspectives for blood-based biomarkers of PTSD: From glucocorticoid to immune mediators of stress susceptibility.
Abstract Although biological systems have evolved to promote stress-resilience, there is variation in stress-responses. Understanding the biological basis of such individual differences has implications for understanding Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) etiology, which is a maladaptive response to trauma occurring only in a subset of vulnerable individuals. PTSD involves failure to reinstate physiological homeostasis after traumatic events and is due to either intrinsic or trauma-related alterations in physiological systems across the body. Master homeostatic regulators that circulate and operate throughout th...
Source: Experimental Neurology - July 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Daskalakis NP, Cohen H, Nievergelt CM, Baker DG, Buxbaum JD, Russo SJ, Yehuda R Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research

Influence of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic neurotransmission in rhythmically active hypoglossal motoneurons.
Abstract Developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) is associated with increased risk of cardiorespiratory, intellectual, and behavioral abnormalities in neonates, and is a risk factor for apnea of prematurity, altered arousal responses and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signaling (nAChRs) after DNE lead to changes in excitatory neurotransmission in neural networks that control breathing, including a heightened excitatory response to AMPA microinjection into the hypoglossal motor nucleus. Here, we report on experiments designed to probe possible postsynaptic and presynapti...
Source: Experimental Neurology - July 29, 2016 Category: Neurology Authors: Cholanian M, Powell GL, Levine RB, Fregosi RF Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research