Dark-adapted light response in mice is regulated by a circadian clock located in rod photoreceptors
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 22:108807. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108807. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe retinal circadian system consists of a network of clocks located virtually in every retinal cell-type. Although it is established that the circadian clock regulates many rhythmic processes in the retina, the links between retinal cell-specific clocks and visual function remain to be elucidated. Bmal1 is a principal, non-redundant component of the circadian clock in mammals and is required to keep 24 h rhythms in the retinal transcriptome and in visual processing under photopic light condition. In the current study, we invest...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 25, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Shumet T Gegnaw Cristina Sandu Jorge Mendoza Arthur A Bergen Marie-Paule Felder-Schmittbuhl Source Type: research

Loss of the AMD-associated B3GLCT gene affects glycosylation of TSP1 without impairing secretion in retinal pigment epithelial cells
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 22:108798. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108798. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been associated with protective genetic variants in the β1-3 glucosyltransferase (B3GLCT) locus through genome-wide association studies. B3GLCT mediates modification of proteins with thrombospondin type I repeats (TSR) that contain O-linked glucose β1-3 fucose and C-linked mannose glycosylation motifs. B3GLCT-mediated modification is required for proper secretion of TSR-containing proteins. We aimed to start understanding the role of B3GLCT in AMD by evaluating its effect on g...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 25, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Susette Lauwen Melissa Baerenfaenger Sanne Ruigrok Eiko K de Jong Hans J C T Wessels Anneke I den Hollander Dirk J Lefeber Source Type: research

Mitochondria dynamics in the aged mice eye and the role in the RPE phagocytosis
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 21:108800. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108800. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAging is a predominant risk factor for various eye diseases. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly, and its etiology remains unclear. Fragmented and dysfunctional mitochondria are associated with age-related diseases. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a polarized cell layer that functions in visual pigment recycling and degeneration, is suspected as the primary region site of AMD. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and RPE...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 24, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tomohiro Yako Maho Nakamura Wataru Otsu Shinsuke Nakamura Masamitsu Shimazawa Hideaki Hara Source Type: research

Radiotherapy-induced alterations in vitreous humor: A new potential critical structure
In this study, we observed that radiation causes changes in the vitreous that may have long-term consequences.PMID:34688623 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108802 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 24, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Aysenur Elmali Irem Koc Samiye Yabanoglu Ciftci Emirhan Nemutlu Selcuk Surucu Hayyam Kiratli Deniz Yuce Mustafa Cengiz Faruk Zorlu Gokhan Ozyigit Gozde Yazici Source Type: research

Decreased endostatin in db/db retinas is associated with optic disc intravitreal vascularization
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 21:108801. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108801. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEndostatin, a naturally cleaved fragment of type XVIII collagen with antiangiogenic activity, has been involved in the regulation of neovascularization during diabetic retinopathy. Here, the intracellular distribution of endostatin in healthy mouse and human neuroretinas has been analyzed. In addition, to study the effect of experimental hyperglycemia on retinal endostatin, the db/db mouse model has been used. Endostatin protein expression in mouse and human retinas was studied by immunofluorescence and Western blot, and compare...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 24, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Aina Bonet Andreia Valen ça Lu ísa Mendes-Jorge Alba Casellas Alfonso Rodr íguez-Baeza V íctor Nacher David Ramos Judit Pampalona Rafael Sim ó Jes ús Ruberte Source Type: research

Retraction notice to "Young adults with myopia have lower concentrations of neuromodulators-dopamine and melatonin in serum and tear" [Exp. Eye Res. 209 (2021) 108684]
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 19:108795. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108795. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:34686358 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108795 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 23, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Azfira Hussain Aparna Gopalakrishnan Bharathselvi Muthuvel Jameel Rizwana Hussaindeen Narayanasamy Angayarkanni Viswanathan Sivaraman Source Type: research

Effect of papaverine on axonal outgrowth of primary retinal ganglion cells of Sprague Dawley rats
This study aimed to investigate the effects of papaverine, a non-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on axon outgrowth of primary retinal ganglion cells from Sprague Dawley rats. Experiments were performed on primary retinal ganglion cells extracted from Sprague Dawley rat pups within 48-72 h of birth. At 24 h after seeding, immunofluorescence was used to identify and calculate the purity of retinal ganglion cells isolated by an improved two-step immunopanning method developed by author Sujia Ma. The effects of a range of papaverine concentrations on axon outgrowth of primary retinal ganglion cells cultures were observed...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 23, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Sujia Ma Ke Zhang Yu Zhu Xuexia Cao Lili Wang Source Type: research

Altered oxylipin levels in human vitreous indicate imbalance in pro-/anti-inflammatory homeostasis in proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 20:108799. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108799. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTProliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) is an advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR), characterized by retinal neovascularization. It is a progressive fundus disease and a severe complication of diabetes that causes vision impairment. Hyperglycemia-induced persistent low-grade inflammation is a crucial factor underlying the pathogenesis of DR-associated damage and contributing to the progression of PDR. Highly enriched polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the retina are precursors to oxidized metabolites, namely, oxylipi...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 23, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tantai Zhao Yanbin Wang Xiaojian Guo Huiling Li Wenmin Jiang Yangyan Xiao Bin Deng Yun Sun Source Type: research

Recent progress in optical clearing of eye tissues
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 15:108796. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108796. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe growing need for viewing the detailed 3D structures of various tissues and organs requires advanced tissue processing and imaging techniques. However, light scattering by tissues hinders detailed structural observations. To overcome this, the emerging technique of "tissue optical clearing" has been flourishing in recent decades and provides great opportunities for imaging deep, micro-scale structures of various organs, or even of the whole body. In recent years, advanced tissue clearing techniques have been optimiz...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 18, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wenhan Lu Zhenle Pei Wei Hu Chen Tan Xiaoyu Tong Yi Feng Xinghuai Sun Source Type: research

Recent progress in optical clearing of eye tissues
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 15:108796. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108796. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe growing need for viewing the detailed 3D structures of various tissues and organs requires advanced tissue processing and imaging techniques. However, light scattering by tissues hinders detailed structural observations. To overcome this, the emerging technique of "tissue optical clearing" has been flourishing in recent decades and provides great opportunities for imaging deep, micro-scale structures of various organs, or even of the whole body. In recent years, advanced tissue clearing techniques have been optimiz...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 18, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wenhan Lu Zhenle Pei Wei Hu Chen Tan Xiaoyu Tong Yi Feng Xinghuai Sun Source Type: research

Recent progress in optical clearing of eye tissues
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 15:108796. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108796. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe growing need for viewing the detailed 3D structures of various tissues and organs requires advanced tissue processing and imaging techniques. However, light scattering by tissues hinders detailed structural observations. To overcome this, the emerging technique of "tissue optical clearing" has been flourishing in recent decades and provides great opportunities for imaging deep, micro-scale structures of various organs, or even of the whole body. In recent years, advanced tissue clearing techniques have been optimiz...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 18, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wenhan Lu Zhenle Pei Wei Hu Chen Tan Xiaoyu Tong Yi Feng Xinghuai Sun Source Type: research

Recent progress in optical clearing of eye tissues
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 15:108796. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108796. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe growing need for viewing the detailed 3D structures of various tissues and organs requires advanced tissue processing and imaging techniques. However, light scattering by tissues hinders detailed structural observations. To overcome this, the emerging technique of "tissue optical clearing" has been flourishing in recent decades and provides great opportunities for imaging deep, micro-scale structures of various organs, or even of the whole body. In recent years, advanced tissue clearing techniques have been optimiz...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 18, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wenhan Lu Zhenle Pei Wei Hu Chen Tan Xiaoyu Tong Yi Feng Xinghuai Sun Source Type: research

Recent progress in optical clearing of eye tissues
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 15:108796. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108796. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe growing need for viewing the detailed 3D structures of various tissues and organs requires advanced tissue processing and imaging techniques. However, light scattering by tissues hinders detailed structural observations. To overcome this, the emerging technique of "tissue optical clearing" has been flourishing in recent decades and provides great opportunities for imaging deep, micro-scale structures of various organs, or even of the whole body. In recent years, advanced tissue clearing techniques have been optimiz...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 18, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wenhan Lu Zhenle Pei Wei Hu Chen Tan Xiaoyu Tong Yi Feng Xinghuai Sun Source Type: research

Recent progress in optical clearing of eye tissues
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 15:108796. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108796. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe growing need for viewing the detailed 3D structures of various tissues and organs requires advanced tissue processing and imaging techniques. However, light scattering by tissues hinders detailed structural observations. To overcome this, the emerging technique of "tissue optical clearing" has been flourishing in recent decades and provides great opportunities for imaging deep, micro-scale structures of various organs, or even of the whole body. In recent years, advanced tissue clearing techniques have been optimiz...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 18, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wenhan Lu Zhenle Pei Wei Hu Chen Tan Xiaoyu Tong Yi Feng Xinghuai Sun Source Type: research

Blockage of P2X7R suppresses Th1/Th17-mediated immune responses and corneal allograft rejection via inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 14:108792. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108792. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTP2X7R is a vital modifier of various inflammatory and immune-related diseases. However, the immunomodulatory effects of P2X7R on corneal allograft rejection remains unknown. Here we showed that P2X7R expression was significantly upregulated in corneal grafts of allogeneic transplant mice. Pharmacological blockage of P2X7R remarkably prolonged graft survival time, and reduced inflammatory cell infiltration in corneal grafts, in particular Th1/Th17 cells. Meanwhile, the frequencies of Th1/Th17 cells in draining lymph nodes were si...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 17, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xiangyu Fan Jing Zhang Yiqin Dai Kun Shan Jianjiang Xu Source Type: research

Plasma exosomal proteomic studies of corneal epithelial injury in diabetic and non-diabetic group
CONCLUSION: Proteomic analysis of the study group and the control group displayed a variety of proteins in plasma exosomes. The downregulated protein FLOT2 in the study group was closely related to the occurrence, development, and complication of DK in T2DM patients. The expression status of plasma FLOT2 protein in T2DM patients is expected to be a biomarker for diagnosing and monitoring of DK.PMID:34656547 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108794 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 17, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Kaichuan Chen Minjie Sheng Jie Zhang Guoquan Yan Bing Li Source Type: research

Mechanosensitive channel inhibition attenuates TGF β2-induced actin cytoskeletal remodeling and reactivity in mouse optic nerve head astrocytes
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 14:108791. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108791. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAstrocytes within the optic nerve head undergo actin cytoskeletal rearrangement early in glaucoma, which coincides with astrocyte reactivity and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Elevated transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGFβ2) levels within astrocytes have been described in glaucoma, and TGFβ signaling induces actin cytoskeletal remodeling and ECM deposition in many tissues. A key mechanism by which astrocytes sense and respond to external stimuli is via mechanosensitive ion channels. Here, we tested the hypoth...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 17, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Alexander Kirschner Ana N Strat John Yablonski Hannah Yoo Tyler Bagu é Haiyan Li Jing Zhao Kathryn E Bollinger Samuel Herberg Preethi S Ganapathy Source Type: research

Quantifying inter-organelle membrane contact sites using proximity ligation assay in fixed optic nerve sections
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 14:108793. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108793. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMembrane contact sites (MCS) play crucial roles in cell physiology with dysfunction in several MCS proteins being linked with neurological and optic nerve diseases. Although there have been significant advances in imaging these interactions over the past two decades with advanced electron microscopy techniques, super-resolution imaging and proximity-dependent fluorescent reporters, a technique to observe and quantify MCS in mammalian optic nerve tissues has not yet been reported. We demonstrate for the first time that proximity ...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 17, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Jared Ching Andrew Osborne Richard Eva Julien Prudent Patrick Yu-Wai-Man Source Type: research

Evidence of regional specializations in regenerated zebrafish retina
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 12:108789. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108789. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAdult zebrafish are capable of functional retinal regeneration following damage. A goal of vision science is to stimulate or permit a similar process in mammals to treat human retinal disease and trauma. Ideally such a process would reconstitute the stereotyped, two-dimensional topographic patterns and regional specializations of specific cell types, functionally important for representation of the visual field. An example in humans is the cone-rich fovea, essential for high-acuity color vision. Stereotyped, global topographic p...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 15, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Deborah L Stenkamp Derek D Viall Diana M Mitchell Source Type: research

Evidence of regional specializations in regenerated zebrafish retina
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 12:108789. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108789. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAdult zebrafish are capable of functional retinal regeneration following damage. A goal of vision science is to stimulate or permit a similar process in mammals to treat human retinal disease and trauma. Ideally such a process would reconstitute the stereotyped, two-dimensional topographic patterns and regional specializations of specific cell types, functionally important for representation of the visual field. An example in humans is the cone-rich fovea, essential for high-acuity color vision. Stereotyped, global topographic p...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 15, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Deborah L Stenkamp Derek D Viall Diana M Mitchell Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen as a model of lens aging in the bovine lens: The effects on lens biochemistry, physiology and optics
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 11:108790. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108790. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAge related nuclear (ARN) cataracts in humans take years to form and so experimental models have been developed to mimic the process in animals as a means of better understanding the etiology of nuclear cataracts in humans. A major limitation with these animal models is that many of the biochemical and physiological changes are not typical of that seen in human ARN cataract. In this review, we highlight the work of Frank Giblin and colleagues who established an in vivo animal model that replicates many of the changes observed in...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 14, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Julie C Lim Angus C Grey Ehsan Vaghefi Mitchell G Nye-Wood Paul J Donaldson Source Type: research

Hyperbaric oxygen as a model of lens aging in the bovine lens: The effects on lens biochemistry, physiology and optics
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 11:108790. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108790. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAge related nuclear (ARN) cataracts in humans take years to form and so experimental models have been developed to mimic the process in animals as a means of better understanding the etiology of nuclear cataracts in humans. A major limitation with these animal models is that many of the biochemical and physiological changes are not typical of that seen in human ARN cataract. In this review, we highlight the work of Frank Giblin and colleagues who established an in vivo animal model that replicates many of the changes observed in...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 14, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Julie C Lim Angus C Grey Ehsan Vaghefi Mitchell G Nye-Wood Paul J Donaldson Source Type: research

Efficacy of intravitreal povidone-iodine administration for the treatment of Candida albicans endophthalmitis in rabbits
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intravitreal povidone-iodine (PI) administration for the treatment of Candida albicans endophthalmitis. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group). After the induction of endophthalmitis using Candida albicans, groups A, B, and C received single intravitreal injections of 0.035 mg voriconazole, 0.3 mg PI, and their combination, respectively. Rabbits that were administered sham injections were in group D as controls. Fundus photography, vitreous culture, electroretinography (ERG), and histologic examinations of the retina were conducted on...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 12, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Seung Min Lee Jong Ho Park Su Youn Suh Sang Min Lee Iksoo Byon Source Type: research

Efficacy of intravitreal povidone-iodine administration for the treatment of Candida albicans endophthalmitis in rabbits
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intravitreal povidone-iodine (PI) administration for the treatment of Candida albicans endophthalmitis. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group). After the induction of endophthalmitis using Candida albicans, groups A, B, and C received single intravitreal injections of 0.035 mg voriconazole, 0.3 mg PI, and their combination, respectively. Rabbits that were administered sham injections were in group D as controls. Fundus photography, vitreous culture, electroretinography (ERG), and histologic examinations of the retina were conducted on...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 12, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Seung Min Lee Jong Ho Park Su Youn Suh Sang Min Lee Iksoo Byon Source Type: research

Efficacy of intravitreal povidone-iodine administration for the treatment of Candida albicans endophthalmitis in rabbits
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of intravitreal povidone-iodine (PI) administration for the treatment of Candida albicans endophthalmitis. Forty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 10 per group). After the induction of endophthalmitis using Candida albicans, groups A, B, and C received single intravitreal injections of 0.035 mg voriconazole, 0.3 mg PI, and their combination, respectively. Rabbits that were administered sham injections were in group D as controls. Fundus photography, vitreous culture, electroretinography (ERG), and histologic examinations of the retina were conducted on...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 12, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Seung Min Lee Jong Ho Park Su Youn Suh Sang Min Lee Iksoo Byon Source Type: research

Short-wavelength blue light contributes to the pyroptosis of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs)
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data, SWBL induces pyroptotic programmed cell death by activating the GSDMD signalling axis in HLE-B3 hLECs. These results provide new insights into the exploitation of new candidates for the prevention of cataracts.PMID:34624334 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108786 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xiaohui Wang Zhaowei Song Huazhang Li Kexin Liu Ying Sun Xiangyu Liu Meiyu Wang Yuexing Yang Sheng Su Zhijian Li Source Type: research

β-Cleavage of the prion protein in the human eye: Implications for the spread of infectious prions and human ocular disorders
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 7;212:108787. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108787. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, we reported β-cleavage of the prion protein (PrPC) in human ocular tissues. Here, we explored whether this is unique to the human eye, and its functional implications. A comparison of the cleavage pattern of PrPC in human ocular tissues with common nocturnal and diurnal animals revealed mainly β-cleavage in humans, and mostly full-length PrPC in animal retinas. Soluble FL PrPC and N-terminal fragment (N2) released from β-cleavage was observed in the aqueous and vitreous humor (AH & VH). Expression...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Suman Chaudhary Ajay Ashok Aaron S Wise Neil A Rana Alexander E Kritikos Ewald Lindner Neena Singh Source Type: research

Aging of the human choriocapillaris: Evidence that early pericyte damage can trigger endothelial changes
We examined human donor eyes (age: 56-94 years; N = 24), and found that CC pericyte damage preceded endothelial changes. With aging (>70 years), the sub-macular choroid accumulated debris in Bruch's membrane (BM). Of the debris content, the long-spaced collagens had a tendency to settle over the capillary basal lamina (BL), and this often resulted in endothelial projection into capillary lumen. Between 75 and 83 years, pericytes contained dark mitochondria, and their processes facing the BM debris showed partial loss of BL and intermediate filaments (IFs), when the endothelium remained unaltered. The endothelial changes...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tapas Chandra Nag Shilpa Gorla Chiman Kumari Tara Sankar Roy Source Type: research

Short-wavelength blue light contributes to the pyroptosis of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs)
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data, SWBL induces pyroptotic programmed cell death by activating the GSDMD signalling axis in HLE-B3 hLECs. These results provide new insights into the exploitation of new candidates for the prevention of cataracts.PMID:34624334 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108786 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xiaohui Wang Zhaowei Song Huazhang Li Kexin Liu Ying Sun Xiangyu Liu Meiyu Wang Yuexing Yang Sheng Su Zhijian Li Source Type: research

β-Cleavage of the prion protein in the human eye: Implications for the spread of infectious prions and human ocular disorders
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 7;212:108787. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108787. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, we reported β-cleavage of the prion protein (PrPC) in human ocular tissues. Here, we explored whether this is unique to the human eye, and its functional implications. A comparison of the cleavage pattern of PrPC in human ocular tissues with common nocturnal and diurnal animals revealed mainly β-cleavage in humans, and mostly full-length PrPC in animal retinas. Soluble FL PrPC and N-terminal fragment (N2) released from β-cleavage was observed in the aqueous and vitreous humor (AH & VH). Expression...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Suman Chaudhary Ajay Ashok Aaron S Wise Neil A Rana Alexander E Kritikos Ewald Lindner Neena Singh Source Type: research

Aging of the human choriocapillaris: Evidence that early pericyte damage can trigger endothelial changes
We examined human donor eyes (age: 56-94 years; N = 24), and found that CC pericyte damage preceded endothelial changes. With aging (>70 years), the sub-macular choroid accumulated debris in Bruch's membrane (BM). Of the debris content, the long-spaced collagens had a tendency to settle over the capillary basal lamina (BL), and this often resulted in endothelial projection into capillary lumen. Between 75 and 83 years, pericytes contained dark mitochondria, and their processes facing the BM debris showed partial loss of BL and intermediate filaments (IFs), when the endothelium remained unaltered. The endothelial changes...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tapas Chandra Nag Shilpa Gorla Chiman Kumari Tara Sankar Roy Source Type: research

Short-wavelength blue light contributes to the pyroptosis of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs)
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data, SWBL induces pyroptotic programmed cell death by activating the GSDMD signalling axis in HLE-B3 hLECs. These results provide new insights into the exploitation of new candidates for the prevention of cataracts.PMID:34624334 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108786 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xiaohui Wang Zhaowei Song Huazhang Li Kexin Liu Ying Sun Xiangyu Liu Meiyu Wang Yuexing Yang Sheng Su Zhijian Li Source Type: research

β-Cleavage of the prion protein in the human eye: Implications for the spread of infectious prions and human ocular disorders
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Oct 5:108787. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108787. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently, we reported β-cleavage of the prion protein (PrPC) in human ocular tissues. Here, we explored whether this is unique to the human eye, and its functional implications. A comparison of the cleavage pattern of PrPC in human ocular tissues with common nocturnal and diurnal animals revealed mainly β-cleavage in humans, and mostly full-length PrPC in animal retinas. Soluble FL PrPC and N-terminal fragment (N2) released from β-cleavage was observed in the aqueous and vitreous humor (AH & VH). Expression of ...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Suman Chaudhary Ajay Ashok Aaron S Wise Neil A Rana Alexander E Kritikos Ewald Lindner Neena Singh Source Type: research

Aging of the human choriocapillaris: Evidence that early pericyte damage can trigger endothelial changes
We examined human donor eyes (age: 56-94 years; N = 24), and found that CC pericyte damage preceded endothelial changes. With aging (>70 years), the sub-macular choroid accumulated debris in Bruch's membrane (BM). Of the debris content, the long-spaced collagens had a tendency to settle over the capillary basal lamina (BL), and this often resulted in endothelial projection into capillary lumen. Between 75 and 83 years, pericytes contained dark mitochondria, and their processes facing the BM debris showed partial loss of BL and intermediate filaments (IFs), when the endothelium remained unaltered. The endothelial changes...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 8, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tapas Chandra Nag Shilpa Gorla Chiman Kumari Tara Sankar Roy Source Type: research

DZNep protects against retinal ganglion cell death in an NMDA-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 30;212:108785. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108785. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpigenetic gene enhancer of zeste homolog-2 (Ezh2) is reported to be associated with ocular neurodegenerative diseases; however, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine the role of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), which inhibits the transcription of Ezh2 by reducing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), in a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration model. Retinal damage was caused by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). DZNep and the vehicle control we...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 3, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lirong Xiao Chen Hou Lin Cheng Shijie Zheng Ling Zhao Naihong Yan Source Type: research

DZNep protects against retinal ganglion cell death in an NMDA-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 30;212:108785. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108785. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpigenetic gene enhancer of zeste homolog-2 (Ezh2) is reported to be associated with ocular neurodegenerative diseases; however, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine the role of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), which inhibits the transcription of Ezh2 by reducing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), in a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration model. Retinal damage was caused by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). DZNep and the vehicle control we...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 3, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lirong Xiao Chen Hou Lin Cheng Shijie Zheng Ling Zhao Naihong Yan Source Type: research

DZNep protects against retinal ganglion cell death in an NMDA-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 30;212:108785. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108785. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpigenetic gene enhancer of zeste homolog-2 (Ezh2) is reported to be associated with ocular neurodegenerative diseases; however, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine the role of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), which inhibits the transcription of Ezh2 by reducing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), in a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration model. Retinal damage was caused by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). DZNep and the vehicle control we...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 3, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lirong Xiao Chen Hou Lin Cheng Shijie Zheng Ling Zhao Naihong Yan Source Type: research

DZNep protects against retinal ganglion cell death in an NMDA-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 30;212:108785. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108785. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpigenetic gene enhancer of zeste homolog-2 (Ezh2) is reported to be associated with ocular neurodegenerative diseases; however, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine the role of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), which inhibits the transcription of Ezh2 by reducing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), in a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration model. Retinal damage was caused by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). DZNep and the vehicle control we...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 3, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lirong Xiao Chen Hou Lin Cheng Shijie Zheng Ling Zhao Naihong Yan Source Type: research

DZNep protects against retinal ganglion cell death in an NMDA-induced mouse model of retinal degeneration
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 30:108785. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108785. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTEpigenetic gene enhancer of zeste homolog-2 (Ezh2) is reported to be associated with ocular neurodegenerative diseases; however, its underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine the role of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), which inhibits the transcription of Ezh2 by reducing the trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), in a retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration model. Retinal damage was caused by intravitreal injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). DZNep and the vehicle control were i...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 3, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Lirong Xiao Chen Hou Lin Cheng Shijie Zheng Ling Zhao Naihong Yan Source Type: research

Beta-adrenergic glaucoma eye drops reduce lymphatic clearance from the eye: A sequential photoacoustic imaging study
This study suggests that the beta-adrenergic system plays a role in the regulation of lymphatic clearance from the eye.PMID:34599970 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108775 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 2, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Joseph Hanna Yeni H Y ücel Xun Zhou Nayeon Kim Hyacinth Irving Neeru Gupta Source Type: research

Beta-adrenergic glaucoma eye drops reduce lymphatic clearance from the eye: A sequential photoacoustic imaging study
This study suggests that the beta-adrenergic system plays a role in the regulation of lymphatic clearance from the eye.PMID:34599970 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108775 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 2, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Joseph Hanna Yeni H Y ücel Xun Zhou Nayeon Kim Hyacinth Irving Neeru Gupta Source Type: research

Quantification and image-derived phenotyping of retinal ganglion cell nuclei in the nee mouse model of congenital glaucoma
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 28:108774. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108774. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe nee mouse model exhibits characteristic features of congenital glaucoma, a common cause of childhood blindness. The current study of nee mice had two components. First, the time course of neurodegeneration in nee retinal flat-mounts was studied over time using a retinal ganglion cell (RGC)-marker, BRN3A; a pan-nuclear marker, TO-PRO-3; and H&E staining. Based on segmentation of nuclei using ImageJ and RetFM-J, this analysis identified a rapid loss of BRN3A+ nuclei from 4-15 weeks of age, with the first statistically sign...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Carly J van der Heide Kacie J Meyer Adam Hedberg-Buenz Danielle Pellack Nicholas Pomernackas Hannah E Mercer Michael G Anderson Source Type: research

Age-related changes of lens stiffness in wild-type and Cx46 knockout mice
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 29;212:108777. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108777. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe have investigated how connexin 46 (Cx46) regulates lens stiffness by studying different Cx46 knockout (Cx46KO) mice. A modified muscle lever system was used to determine the lens stiffness of wild-type (WT) and Cx46KO mice at the C57BL/6J (B6) and the 129SvJae (129) strain backgrounds according to total lens displacement at the point of maximum force when fresh lenses were compressed with a maximum of 2 mN of force. In comparison to B6-WT controls, young and old B6-Cx46KO lenses showed 23% and 28% reductions in lens displ...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - October 1, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Wiktor Stopka Tom Libby Stephanie Lin Eddie Wang Chun-Hong Xia Xiaohua Gong Source Type: research

Intraperitoneal chromophore injections delay early-onset and rapid retinal cone degeneration in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 25;212:108776. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108776. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHighly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the RPE-specific 65-kDa (RPE65) enzyme is indispensable to generate 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL), a chromophore for rhodopsin and cone photopigments. RPE65 deficiency can lead to Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA2), in which the isomerization of photobleached all-trans-retinal into photosensitive 11cRAL is blocked, ultimately causing severe retinal dysfunction and degeneration. The related mouse models, which are constructed through gene knockout or caused by spontane...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - September 28, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xufeng Dai Xumin Jin Qian Ye Haixiao Huang Lan Duo Chunjie Lu Jinhua Bao Hao Chen Source Type: research

Intraperitoneal chromophore injections delay early-onset and rapid retinal cone degeneration in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 25:108776. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108776. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHighly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the RPE-specific 65-kDa (RPE65) enzyme is indispensable to generate 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL), a chromophore for rhodopsin and cone photopigments. RPE65 deficiency can lead to Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA2), in which the isomerization of photobleached all-trans-retinal into photosensitive 11cRAL is blocked, ultimately causing severe retinal dysfunction and degeneration. The related mouse models, which are constructed through gene knockout or caused by spontaneous ...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - September 28, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xufeng Dai Xumin Jin Qian Ye Haixiao Huang Lan Duo Chunjie Lu Jinhua Bao Hao Chen Source Type: research

Intraperitoneal chromophore injections delay early-onset and rapid retinal cone degeneration in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 25:108776. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108776. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHighly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the RPE-specific 65-kDa (RPE65) enzyme is indispensable to generate 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL), a chromophore for rhodopsin and cone photopigments. RPE65 deficiency can lead to Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA2), in which the isomerization of photobleached all-trans-retinal into photosensitive 11cRAL is blocked, ultimately causing severe retinal dysfunction and degeneration. The related mouse models, which are constructed through gene knockout or caused by spontaneous ...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - September 28, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xufeng Dai Xumin Jin Qian Ye Haixiao Huang Lan Duo Chunjie Lu Jinhua Bao Hao Chen Source Type: research

Intraperitoneal chromophore injections delay early-onset and rapid retinal cone degeneration in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 25:108776. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108776. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHighly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), the RPE-specific 65-kDa (RPE65) enzyme is indispensable to generate 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL), a chromophore for rhodopsin and cone photopigments. RPE65 deficiency can lead to Leber congenital amaurosis type 2 (LCA2), in which the isomerization of photobleached all-trans-retinal into photosensitive 11cRAL is blocked, ultimately causing severe retinal dysfunction and degeneration. The related mouse models, which are constructed through gene knockout or caused by spontaneous ...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - September 28, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Xufeng Dai Xumin Jin Qian Ye Haixiao Huang Lan Duo Chunjie Lu Jinhua Bao Hao Chen Source Type: research

Sensitivity and latency of ionising radiation-induced cataract
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 22:108772. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108772. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhen managed with appropriate radiation protection procedures, ionising radiation is of great benefit to society. Opacification of the lens, and vision impairing cataract, have recently been recognised at potential effects of relatively low dose radiation exposure, on the order of 1 Gy or below. Within the last 10 years, understanding of the effects of low dose ionising radiation on the lens has increased, particularly in terms of DNA damage and responses, and how multiple radiation or other events in the lens might contribute t...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - September 25, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Elizabeth A Ainsbury StephenG R Barnard Source Type: research

Broad locations of antigenic regions for anti-TRPM1 autoantibodies in paraneoplastic retinopathy with retinal ON bipolar cell dysfunction
CONCLUSIONS: The antigenic regions of anti-TRPM1 autoantibodies in CARBD patients were present not only in the N-terminal intracellular domain, which was reported in an earlier report, but also in the transmembrane-containing region and in the C-terminal intracellular domain. In addition, the antigenic regions for TRPM1 were found to vary among the CARBD patients examined, and most of the sera had multiple antigenic regions.PMID:34562437 | DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2021.108770 (Source: Experimental Eye Research)
Source: Experimental Eye Research - September 25, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Daichi Gyoten Shinji Ueno Satoshi Okado Taro Chaya Shunsuke Yasuda Takeshi Morimoto Mineo Kondo Kazuhiro Kimura Takaaki Hayashi Bart P Leroy Se Joon Woo Ryo Mukai Kwangsic Joo Takahisa Furukawa Source Type: research

Sensitivity and latency of ionising radiation-induced cataract
Exp Eye Res. 2021 Sep 22:108772. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2021.108772. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWhen managed with appropriate radiation protection procedures, ionising radiation is of great benefit to society. Opacification of the lens, and vision impairing cataract, have recently been recognised at potential effects of relatively low dose radiation exposure, on the order of 1 Gy or below. Within the last 10 years, understanding of the effects of low dose ionising radiation on the lens has increased, particularly in terms of DNA damage and responses, and how multiple radiation or other events in the lens might contribute t...
Source: Experimental Eye Research - September 25, 2021 Category: Opthalmology Authors: Elizabeth A Ainsbury StephenG R Barnard Source Type: research