Motor congruency and multisensory integration jointly facilitate visual information processing before movement execution.
In this study, we investigated whether the combination of MSI and motor congruency can synergistically enhance visual information processing beyond what can be observed using motor congruency alone. Participants performed congruent eye- and hand movements during a 2-AFC visual discrimination task. The discrimination target was presented in the planning phase of the movements at the movement target location or a movement irrelevant location. Three conditions were compared: (1) a visual target without sound, (2) a visual target with sound spatially and temporally aligned (MSI) and (3) a visual target with sound temporally mi...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Elshout JA, Van der Stoep N, Nijboer TCW, Van der Stigchel S Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Vestibular-guided visual search.
Abstract The amnesic symptoms that accompany vestibular dysfunction point to a functional relationship between the vestibular and visual memory systems. However, little is known about the underpinning cognitive processes. As a starting point, we sought evidence for a type of cross-modal interaction commonly observed between other sensory modalities in which the identification of a target (in this case, visual) is facilitated if earlier coupled to a unique, temporally coincident stimulus from another sensory domain (in this case, vestibular). Participants first performed a visual detection task in which stimuli app...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Smith L, Gkioka A, Wilkinson D Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

How visual information influences dual-task driving and tracking.
b M Abstract The study examined the impact of visual predictability on dual-task performance in driving and tracking tasks. Participants (N = 27) performed a simulated driving task and a pursuit tracking task. In either task, visual predictability was manipulated by systematically varying the amount of advance visual information: in the driving task, participants drove at night with low beam, at night with high beam, or in daylight; in the tracking task, participants saw a white line that specified the future target trajectory for 200, 400 or 800 ms. Concurrently with driving or tracking, partic...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 8, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Broeker L, Haeger M, Bock O, Kretschmann B, Ewolds H, Künzell S, Raab M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) examination of how self-initiated sequential movements become automatic.
Abstract The neural mechanisms underlying movement automaticity have been investigated using PET and fMRI and more recently functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). As fNIRS is an emerging technique, the objective of the present study was to replicate the functional magnetic resonance imaging-related motor sequence findings as reported by Wu et al. (J Neurophysiol 91:1690-1698, https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.01052.2003, 2004) using fNIRS. Seventeen right-handed participants practiced self-initiated sequential finger movements of two lengths (4 and 12) until a level of automaticity was achieved. Automaticity was ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Polskaia N, St-Amant G, Fraser S, Lajoie Y Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

A new paradigm to study the influence of attentional load on cortical activity for motor preparation of step initiation.
The objective of the present study was to determine whether alertness, orientation and executive control can modulate cortical activation during step initiation. The attention network test (ANT) was used to control the influence of different attentional components on kinetic characteristics of step initiation and the associated cortical activity. Thirty healthy adults performed ANT combined with step initiation. The step execution time (SET) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) were recorded. Movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) and event-related spectral perturbations (ERSPs) after response emission were a...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Braquet A, Bayot M, Tard C, Defebvre L, Derambure P, Dujardin K, Delval A Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

The role of an auditory cue in generating anticipatory postural adjustments in response to an external perturbation.
Abstract Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are usually generated to minimize the potential postural disturbance induced by predictable external perturbations. Visual information about a perturbation is important for the generation of APAs, but whether people can rely on auditory information to generate APAs is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of an auditory cue in generating APAs when visual information is not available. Fifteen young adults participated in the study. They received external perturbations a) with visual information but no auditory information available, b) without n...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liang H, Kaewmanee T, Aruin AS Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Reduction of auditory input improves performance on the heartbeat tracking task, but does not necessarily enhance interoception.
Abstract Previous research utilising a between-subjects design has indicated that the use of noise-dampening ear protectors might enhance interoceptive accuracy (IAcc). In the present study, we further examined this effect using a repeated-measures, within-participants design, and investigated potential mechanisms that might explain the effect. 50 participants completed the heartbeat tracking task (HTT) with and without the use of industrial ear protectors, in a counter-balanced order. Participants were asked to count the number of heartbeats occurring in five discrete time intervals of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 95 ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - February 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Todd J, Hina F, Aspell JE Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Mapping the vestibular cerebellar evoked potential (VsCEP) following air- and bone-conducted vestibular stimulation.
Abstract Vestibular cerebellar evoked potentials (VsCEPs) were recorded from over the occipital and cerebellar regions of the scalp using bone-conducted (BC) stimuli applied at the mastoids (impulsive accelerations and 500 Hz) and 500 Hz acoustic tones (AC). Ten healthy subjects were tested. Electrodes were positioned over the midline (Oz, Iz, CBz) and at 3, 6 and 9 cm intervals lateral to the midline electrodes bilaterally. Additional electrodes were also positioned over posterior neck muscles (SPL1 and SPL2). The largest evoked potentials on average were recorded from the electrodes 3 and 6 c...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Govender S, Todd NPM, Colebatch JG Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Top-down attention modulates the direction and magnitude of sensory dominance.
Abstract Bottom-up inputs from multiple sensory modalities compete to reach perceptual consciousness. The sensory dominance effect refers to the phenomenon that stimuli from one sensory modality are preferentially selected over the other modalities. Top-down attention helps us to select task-relevant information while filtering out task-irrelevant distracting information. To investigate how top-down attention towards one specific modality modulates the sensory dominance effect, we incorporated the endogenous cue-target paradigm and an adapted version of the Colavita paradigm in the present study. The visual respon...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fang Y, Li Y, Xu X, Tao H, Chen Q Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Age-related changes in neuromotor function when performing a concurrent motor task.
Abstract Aging is associated with physiological changes which can manifest as age-related slowing of voluntary movements. Dual-task conditions can magnify this slowing process in older adults. The current study describes healthy adult chewing patterns and examined effects of concurrent chewing on performance of simple reaction time (RT), finger tapping, and gait. Chewing rates were measured from electromyographic (EMG) activity from the masseter muscle. Stepping rates were calculated using accelerometers mounted on the lower trunk and leg. Tapping rates were collected using accelerometers secured to a fixed surfac...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Samulski B, Prebor J, Armitano-Lago C, Morrison S Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Congruency of intervening events and self-induced action influence prediction of final results.
Abstract Predicting self-induced stimuli is easier than predicting externally produced ones and the amplitude of event-related brain potentials (ERP) elicited by self-induced stimuli is smaller than that elicited by externally produced ones. Previous studies reported that these phenomena occurred strong when stimuli were presented immediately after self-induced action. To be able to adapt to changes, however, it is necessary to predict not only an event that follows a self-induced action but also a subsequent final result. We investigated whether congruency among self-induced actions, intervening events, and final...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kimura T, Katayama J Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

In utero exposure to valproic acid disrupts ascending projections to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus from the auditory brainstem.
Abstract Prenatal exposure to the antiepileptic valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in humans. Accordingly, in utero exposure to VPA is a validated and biologically relevant animal model of ASD. The majority of individuals with ASD exhibit some degree of auditory dysfunction, ranging from deafness to hypersensitivity. Animals exposed to VPA in utero have abnormal tonotopic maps and responses in the cerebral cortex and hyperactivation, hypoplasia, abnormal neuronal morphology and reduced calcium binding protein expression throughout the auditory brainstem nucle...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zimmerman R, Smith A, Fech T, Mansour Y, Kulesza RJ Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Electrophysiological indicators of gesture perception.
Abstract Electroencephalography (EEG) activity in the mu frequency band (8-13 Hz) is suppressed during both gesture performance and observation. However, it is not clear if or how particular characteristics within the kinematic execution of gestures map onto dynamic changes in mu activity. Mapping the time course of gesture kinematics onto that of mu activity could help understand which aspects of gestures capture attention and aid in the classification of communicative intent. In this work, we test whether the timing of inflection points within gesture kinematics predicts the occurrence of oscillatory mu act...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cabrera ME, Novak K, Foti D, Voyles R, Wachs JP Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Mental rotation with abstract and embodied objects as stimuli: evidence from event-related potential (ERP).
This study investigated sex differences in performance and neuronal activity in a mental rotation task with abstract and embodied figures. Fifty-eight participants (26 females and 32 males) completed a chronometric mental rotation task with cube figures, human figures, and body postures. The results are straightforward: depending on angular disparity, participants had a faster reaction time and a higher accuracy rate for embodied stimuli compared to cube figures. The electroencephalogram (EEG) activity pattern showed a higher negative amplitude modulation in the frontal electrodes for females compared to males during the l...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jansen P, Render A, Scheer C, Siebertz M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Secondary somatosensory cortex of primates: beyond body maps, toward conscious self-in-the-world maps.
This article scrutinizes this gap, introducing experimental evidence of human and non-human primates' SII functions set in context with their evolutionary significance and mechanisms, functionally situating the human SII as a primate brain. Based on the presented data, a new concept of a somatocentric holistic self is proposed, represented as a more comprehensive body-in-the-world map in the primate SII, taking into account evolutionary aspects that characterize the human SII and its implication in the emergence of self-consciousness. Finally, the idea of projection is introduced from the viewpoint of cognitive science, pr...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bretas RV, Taoka M, Suzuki H, Iriki A Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Manipulating sensory information: obstacle crossing strategies between typically developing children and young adults.
Abstract Individuals constantly adapt their locomotion to navigate through complex environments. However, little known about anticipatory strategies used by children during adaptive locomotion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of manipulating visual and somatosensory information during a multiple obstacle crossing task between children and adults. It was hypothesized that compared to young adults, children would have difficulty with anticipatory motor planning and online control during a multiple obstacle crossing task when sensory information was manipulated. Children (N = 16, [F...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rapos V, Cinelli M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Associations between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes at rs4818 and rs4680 and gene expression in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.
Abstract Having reported associations between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes at SNPs rs4818 and rs4680 with levels of soluble COMT (S-COMT) in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), we postulated that changes in the levels of cortical S-COMT could impact on behavioural abilities associated with COMT genotype through S-COMT-mediated changes in gene expression. To test this hypothesis, we have examined the relationships between COMT genotypes and gene expression measured using the Affymetrix™ Human Exon 1.0 ST Array in the DLPFC from 141 individuals, some of whom had had a psychiatric dis...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dean B, Parkin GM, Gibbons AS Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Long-term practice of isolated finger movements reduces enslaved response of tonically contracting little finger abductor to tonic index finger abduction.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to elucidate whether the long-term practice of isolated finger movements reduces the enslaved response of the little finger abductor to the index finger abduction. The right-handed participants tonically or phasically abducted the index finger, while they maintained at rest or tonic abduction of the little finger. The enslaved response of the tonically contracting little finger abductor to the tonic abduction of the index finger was greater than the response of the same muscle at rest in the nonpianists. This indicates that the tonic contraction of the little finger abductor ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hiraoka K, Ito S, Lutton M, Nakano M, Yonei N Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Differences in postural sway among healthy adults are associated with the ability to perform steady contractions with leg muscles.
Abstract Upright standing involves small displacements of the center of mass about the base of support. These displacements are often quantified by measuring various kinematic features of the center-of-pressure trajectory. The plantar flexors have often been identified as the key muscles for the control of these displacements; however, studies have suggested that the hip abductor and adductors may also be important. The purpose of our study was to determine the association between the force capabilities of selected leg muscles and sway-area rate across four balance conditions in young (25 ± 4&...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Davis LA, Allen SP, Hamilton LD, Grabowski AM, Enoka RM Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Reductions in body sway responses to a rhythmic support surface tilt perturbation can be caused by other mechanisms than prediction.
LS Abstract Studies investigating balance control often use external perturbations to probe the system. These perturbations can be administered as randomized, pseudo-randomized, or predictable sequences. As predictability of a given perturbation can affect balance performance, the way those perturbations are constructed may affect the results of the experiments. In the present study, we hypothesized that subjects are able to adapt to short, rhythmic support surface tilt stimuli, but not to long pseudo-random stimuli. 19 subjects were standing with eyes closed on a servo-controlled platform tilting about the ankle...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Assländer L, Gruber M, Giboin LS Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Dual-task performance of speech and motor skill: verb generation facilitates grasping behaviour.
Abstract Pronouncing nouns or verbs while grasping distinctly alters movement. Changes in hand speed and final position occur according to the meaning of the words spoken. These results are typically found when executing a single movement paired with a single word. For example, pronouncing the word 'fast' increased the speed of the hand when reaching to grasp. Our objective was to compare how verb and noun fluency tasks interact with grasping behaviour in a grasp-to-construct task. Because previous imaging research shows that verb and noun production activates distinct neural areas, we reasoned that grasping outco...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: van Rooteselaar N, Beke C, Gonzalez CLR Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Ipsilateral primary motor cortex and behavioral compensation after stroke: a case series study.
Abstract Arm motor recovery after stroke is mainly attributed to reorganization of the primary motor cortex (M1). While M1 contralateral to the paretic arm (cM1) is critical for recovery, the role of ipsilateral M1 (iM1) is still inconclusive. Whether iM1 activity is related to recovery, behavioral compensation, or both is still far from settled. We hypothesized that the magnitude of iM1 activity in chronic stroke survivors will increase or decrease in direct proportion to the degree that movements of the paretic arm are compensated. Movement kinematics (VICON, Oxford Metrics) and functional MRI data (3T MR s...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bani-Ahmed A, Cirstea CM Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Reduction of cybersickness during and immediately following noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation.
Abstract The mechanism underlying cybersickness during virtual reality (VR) exposure is still poorly understood, although research has highlighted a causal role for visual-vestibular sensory conflict. Recently established methods for reducing cybersickness include galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) to mimic absent vestibular cues in VR, or vibration of the vestibular organs to add noise to the sensory modality. Here, we examined if applying noise to the vestibular system using noisy-current GVS affects sickness severity in VR. Participants were exposed to one of the two VR games that were classified as either m...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Weech S, Wall T, Barnett-Cowan M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Combined expectancies: the role of expectations for the coding of salient bottom-up signals.
Abstract The visual system forms predictions about upcoming visual features based on previous visual experiences. Such predictions impact on current perception, so that expected stimuli can be detected faster and with higher accuracy. A key question is how these predictions are formed and on which levels of processing they arise. Particularly, predictions could be formed on early levels of processing, where visual features are represented separately, or might require higher levels of processing, with predictions formed based on full object representations that involve combinations of visual features. In four exper...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wiesing M, Fink GR, Weidner R, Vossel S Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Saccade accuracy as an indicator of the competition between functional asymmetries in vision.
rez D Abstract Hemispheric specialization refers to the fact that cerebral hemispheres are not equivalent and that cognitive processes are lateralized in the brain. Although the potential links between handedness and the left hemisphere specialization for language have been widely studied, little attention has been paid to other motor preferences, such as eye dominance, that also are lateralized in the brain. For example, saccadic accuracy is higher in the hemifield contralateral to the dominant eye compared to the ipsilateral hemifield. Saccade accuracy is, however, also known to be sensitive to other functional ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tagu J, Doré-Mazars K, Vergilino-Perez D Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Visual cues, expectations, and sensorimotor memories in the prediction and perception of object dynamics during manipulation.
r J Abstract When we grasp and lift novel objects, we rely on visual cues and sensorimotor memories to predictively scale our finger forces and exert compensatory torques according to object properties. Recently, it was shown that object appearance, previous force scaling errors, and previous torque compensation errors strongly impact our percept. However, the influence of visual geometric cues on the perception of object torques and weights in a grasp to lift task is poorly understood. Moreover, little is known about how visual cues, prior expectations, sensory feedback, and sensorimotor memories are integrated f...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schneider TR, Buckingham G, Hermsdörfer J Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Visual deprivation is met with active changes in ground reaction forces to minimize worsening balance and stability during walking.
Abstract Previous studies suggest that visual information is essential for balance and stability of locomotion. We investigated whether visual deprivation is met with active reactions tending to minimize worsening balance and stability during walking in humans. We evaluated effects of vision on kinetic characteristics of walking on a treadmill-ground reaction forces (GRFs) and shifts in the center of mass (COM). Young adults (n = 10) walked on a treadmill at a comfortable speed. We measured three orthogonal components of GRFs and COM shifts during no-vision (NV) and full-vision (FV) conditions. We al...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shoja O, Farsi A, Towhidkhah F, Feldman AG, Abdoli B, Bahramian A Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Global-local processing and dispositional bias interact with emotion processing in the psychological refractory period paradigm.
Abstract The reciprocal link between scope of attention and emotional processing is an important aspect of the relationship between emotion and attention. Larger scope of attention or global processing has been linked to positive emotions and narrow scope of attention or local processing has been linked to negative emotions. The nature of this relationship in the context of central capacity limitations and individual differences in attentional processing has not been studied in detail so far. To investigate such a relationship, here we used the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, in which we manipulate...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kerusauskaite SG, Simione L, Raffone A, Srinivasan N Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

To have and to hold: embodied ownership is established in early childhood.
Abstract We investigated whether embodied ownership is evident in early childhood. To do so, we gifted a drinking bottle to children (aged 24-48 months) to use for 2 weeks. They returned to perform reach-grasp-lift-replace actions with their own or the experimenter's bottle while we recorded their movements using motion capture. There were differences in motor interactions with self- vs experimenter-owned bottles, such that children positioned self-owned bottles significantly closer to themselves compared with the experimenter's bottle. Age did not modulate the positioning of the self-owned bottle relati...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 10, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kritikos A, Lister J, Sparks S, Sofronoff K, Bayliss A, Slaughter V Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Increased leg muscle fatigability during 2  mA and 4 mA transcranial direct current stimulation over the left motor cortex.
This study examined the effects of tDCS at 2 mA and 4 mA on leg muscle fatigability. This was a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study. Sixteen healthy young adults underwent tDCS at three randomly ordered intensities (sham, 2 mA, 4 mA). Leg muscle fatigability of both legs was assessed via isokinetic fatigue testing (40 maximal reps, 120°/s). Torque- and work-derived fatigue indices (FI-T and FI-W, respectively), as well as total work performed (TW), were calculated. FI-T of the right knee extensors indicated increased fatigability in 2 mA and 4 mA compared with sham (p =&...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Workman CD, Kamholz J, Rudroff T Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of chronic pain history on perceptual and cognitive inhibition.
Abstract Measures of sensory and cognitive inhibition were obtained from university students with and without a history of chronic pain. The form of sensory inhibition measured was diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC), the capacity of a painful stimulus to reduce the subjective intensity of a second stimulus delivered to a remote body site. To measure cognitive inhibition, the Stroop effect was used. Participants with a history of chronic pain showed less DNIC (i.e., less sensory inhibition) than the healthy controls, but had a smaller Stroop effect (indicating greater cognitive inhibition). The fact that ch...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hollins M, Bryen CP, Taylor D Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Short-term cognitive fatigue effect on auditory temporal order judgments.
ler I Abstract Fatigue is a core symptom in many psychological disorders and it can strongly influence everyday productivity. As fatigue effects have been typically demonstrated after long hours of time on task, it was surprising that in a previous study, we accidentally found a decline of temporal order judgment (TOJ) performance within 5-8 min. After replicating prior relevant findings we tested whether pauses and/or feedback relating the participant's performance to some "standard" can eliminate or reduce this short-term performance decline. We also assessed whether the performance decline is spe...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Simon J, Takács E, Orosz G, Berki B, Winkler I Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Enhanced somatosensory feedback modulates cutaneous reflexes in arm muscles during self-triggered or prolonged stimulation.
Abstract Somatosensory feedback plays important roles in regulating all animal movement. The effects of sensory feedback on spinally mediated neural excitability are widely studied using cutaneous electrical stimulation paradigms. Cutaneous reflex amplitudes are reduced when stimulation is self-triggered instead of externally triggered. Altered spinal excitability and motor output are also observed following sustained stimulation with various parameters. Our purpose was to probe for interactions between mode and duration by investigating muscle responses following enhanced cutaneous stimulation. Fifteen neuro...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun Y, Pearcey GEP, Zehr EP Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Corticomotor function is associated with quadriceps rate of torque development in individuals with ACL surgery.
Abstract Impaired corticomotor function arising from altered intracortical and corticospinal pathways are theorized to impede muscle recovery following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery, yet functional implications of centrally driven adaptations remain unclear. We aimed to assess relationships between quadriceps corticomotor and neuromechanical function after ACL surgery, and to compare with contralateral and control limbs. 16 individuals after primary, unilateral ACL surgery and 16 sex- and age-matched controls participated. Corticomotor function was assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation, and q...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Scheurer SA, Sherman DA, Glaviano NR, Ingersoll CD, Norte GE Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Same or different pitch? Effects of musical expertise, pitch difference, and auditory task on the pitch discrimination ability of musicians and non-musicians.
Abstract Musical expertise promotes both the perception and the processing of music. The aim of the present study was to analyze if musicians compared to non-musicians already have auditory processing advantages at the neural level. 50 musicians and 50 non-musicians worked on a task to determine the individual auditory difference threshold (individual JND threshold). A passive oddball paradigm followed while the EEG activity was recorded. Frequent standard sounds (528 hertz [Hz]) and rare deviant sounds (individual JND threshold, 535 Hz, and 558 Hz) were presented in the oddball paradigm. The mismatch ne...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Arndt C, Schlemmer K, van der Meer E Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Effect of aging on H-reflex response to fatigue.
rker KS Abstract Injury as a result of tripping is relatively common among older people. The risk of falling increases with fatigue and of importance is the ability to dorsiflex the foot through timely activation of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle to ensure the foot clears the ground, or an obstacle, during the swing phase of walking. We, therefore, questioned whether the muscle spindle input to the motoneurons alters with ongoing fatigue in older people. We electrically stimulated the common peroneal nerve to assess the TA primary afferent efficacy using H-reflex before, immediately following and after a fatigu...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lavender AP, Balkozak S, Özyurt MG, Topkara B, Karacan İ, Bilici İ, Hill AM, Türker KS Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Synergic control of action in levodopa-na ïve Parkinson's disease patients: I. Multi-finger interaction and coordination.
Synergic control of action in levodopa-naïve Parkinson's disease patients: I. Multi-finger interaction and coordination. Exp Brain Res. 2019 Dec 14;: Authors: de Freitas PB, Freitas SMSF, Reschechtko S, Corson T, Lewis MM, Huang X, Latash ML Abstract We explored the origin of the impaired control of action stability in Parkinson's disease (PD) by testing levodopa-naïve PD patients to disambiguate effects of PD from possible effects of long-term exposure to levodopa. Thirteen levodopa-naïve PD patients and 13 controls performed single- and multi-finger force production tasks, including p...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Freitas PB, Freitas SMSF, Reschechtko S, Corson T, Lewis MM, Huang X, Latash ML Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Activity in the prefrontal cortex during motor imagery of precision gait: an fNIRS study.
Abstract Motor imagery is a process by which actions are mentally simulated without actual motor execution. While previous studies have indicated the involvement of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in gait motor imagery as well as in gait control, the evidence supporting this finding is inconsistent. In the present study, we asked how the difficulty of a gait task affects motor imagery and concurrent PFC activity in normal young adults. Fifteen healthy, right-handed participants (mean age 21.7 ± 4.4 years; handedness uniform by chance) participated in two experiments as follows: (1) participan...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kotegawa K, Yasumura A, Teramoto W Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Changes in ipsilesional hand motor function differ after unilateral injury to frontal versus frontoparietal cortices in Macaca mulatta.
Abstract We tested the hypothesis that injury to frontoparietal sensorimotor areas causes greater initial impairments in performance and poorer recovery of ipsilesional dexterous hand/finger movements than lesions limited to frontal motor areas in rhesus monkeys. Reaching and grasping/manipulation of small targets with the ipsilesional hand were assessed for 6-12 months post-injury using two motor tests. Initial post-lesion motor skill and long-term recovery of motor skill were compared in two groups of monkeys: (1) F2 group-five cases with lesions of arm areas of primary motor cortex (M1) and lateral premoto...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Darling WG, Pizzimenti MA, Rotella DL, Ge J, Stilwell-Morecraft KS, Morecraft RJ Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Modulation of preference for abstract stimuli following competence-based social status primes.
Abstract In the present study, we measured whether competence-related high and low social status attributed to two unknown individuals affects participants' implicit reactivity to abstract stimuli associated to the identity of the same individuals. During a status-inducing procedure, participants were asked to play an interactive game with two (fake) players coded as high vs low status based on their game competence. Before and after the game, a modified version of the Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP) was administered in which the players' faces were used as primes. The evaluation target, as is typical to ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Boukarras S, Era V, Aglioti SM, Candidi M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Memories of motor adaptation do not necessarily decay with behavioral unlearning.
Abstract Motor adaptation reshapes behaviors to habituate novel predictable demands caused by dramatic changes in our body (or environment). In the absence of error signals, behaviors rapidly return to the manner before adaptation. It is still in debate whether this behavioral unlearning is due to memory decay. Recent studies suggested that unlearning may be related to the detection of a context change between adaptation phase and error-absent phase. This context-dependent idea is extended in the present study, which examined the motor adaptation in a ball-tossing task. To facilitate the manipulation of the task a...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yan C, Chen Y, Lu Z, Li Z Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Enhancing spatial reasoning by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the right posterior parietal cortex.
Abstract Spatial reasoning is essential for an agent's navigation and the cognitive processing of abstract arrangements. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging data reveal that both the right posterior parietal cortex and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PPC and DLPFC, respectively) show increased activation during spatial relational reasoning. To investigate whether participants' reasoning performance can be modified and potentially enhanced, anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied over either region. 51 healthy adult participants solved spatial reasoning problems after the application o...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wertheim J, Colzato LS, Nitsche MA, Ragni M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Gait bradykinesia: difficulty in switching posture/gait measured by the anatomical y-axis vector of the sole in Parkinson's disease.
This study in Parkinson's disease examined how spatiotemporal parameters in gait bradykinesia link to difficulty in terminating posture and initiating gait locomotion. 41 idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients and 15 age-matched healthy subjects participated in this study. After the patients fixated on a visual-fixation-target, gait was triggered by visual or vocal cue-stimulus. The LED instructed subjects to quickly achieve their own comfortable walking speed on a level floor. The posterior-anterior force of the y-axis vectors of sole relating to soleus and tibialis-anterior EMGs were examined. Step-gain was defined as t...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Warabi T, Furuyama H, Kato M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

The functional body: does body representation reflect functional properties?
Abstract There is a growing interest in the distortions of body representation in healthy population and most studies have focused their attention on specific parts of the body, such as the hands. Only three studies have considered the representation of the body as a whole. Findings, acquired by different means of assessment methods, are partially contrasting, leading to different interpretations. The present study aims to investigate which aspects of body representation can be preserved regardless of the method adopted and whether current and previous findings can be explained by a unique theoretical model. In Ex...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Caggiano P, Cocchini G Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Muscle activities in similar arms performing identical tasks reveal the neural basis of muscle synergies.
Abstract Are the muscle synergies extracted from multiple electromyographic signals an expression of neural information processing, or rather a by-product of mechanical and task constraints? To address this question, we asked 41 right-handed adults to perform a variety of motor tasks with their left and right arms. The analysis of the muscle activities resulted in the identification of synergies whose activation was different for the two sides. In particular, tasks involving the control of isometric forces resulted in larger differences. As the two arms essentially have identical biomechanical structure, we conclu...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pellegrino L, Coscia M, Casadio M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

BDNF and NGF signals originating from sensory ganglia promote cranial motor axon growth.
Abstract After exiting the hindbrain, branchial motor axons reach their targets in association with sensory ganglia. The trigeminal ganglion has been shown to promote motor axon growth from rhombomeres 2/3 and 4/5, but it is unknown whether this effect is ganglion specific and through which signals it is mediated. Here, we addressed these questions by co-cultures of ventral rhombomere 8 explants with cranial and spinal sensory ganglia in a collagen gel matrix. Our results show that all cranial sensory ganglia and even a trunk dorsal root ganglion can promote motor axon growth and that ganglia isolated from older e...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li L, Pu Q, Hintze M, Wang Y, Eckhardt M, Gieselmann V, Tiemann I, Qi X, Cai D, Wang J, Huang R Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

How does number magnitude influence temporal and spatial parameters of eye movements?
Abstract The influence of numerical processing on individuals' behavior is now well documented. The spatial representation of numbers on a left-to-right mental line (i.e., SNARC effect) has been shown to have sensorimotor consequences, the majority of studies being mainly concerned with its impact on the response times. Its impact on the motor programming stage remains less documented, although swiping movement amplitudes have recently been shown to be modulated by number magnitude. Regarding saccadic eye movements, the few available studies have not provided clear-cut conclusions. They showed that spatial-numeric...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pressigout A, Dore-Mazars K Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Musical training enhances temporal adaptation of auditory-motor synchronization.
Abstract To coordinate their actions successfully with auditory events, individuals must be able to adapt their behaviour flexibly to environmental changes. Previous work has shown that musical training enhances the flexibility to synchronize behaviour with a wide range of stimulus periods. The current experiment investigated whether musical training enhances temporal adaptation to period perturbations as listeners tapped with a metronome, and whether this enhancement is specific to individuals' Spontaneous Production Rates (SPRs; individuals' natural uncued rates). Both musicians and nonmusicians adapted more qui...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Scheurich R, Pfordresher PQ, Palmer C Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Virtual time-to-contact identifies balance deficits better than traditional metrics in people with multiple sclerosis.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease that negatively affects the quality of electrical signaling throughout the central nervous system. Although impaired postural control is one of the most common symptoms in people with MS (PwMS), commonly reported metrics such as center of pressure (CoP) path length and velocity have not been great predictors of fall risk. A relatively new metric, known as virtual time-to-contact (VTC), is a measurement that uses the instantaneous position, velocity and acceleration of the CoP, to predict how long it would take the CoP to reach the boundary of the base...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Whittier TT, Richmond SB, Monaghan AS, Fling BW Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Involvement of glutamatergic mechanisms in the median preoptic nucleus in the dipsogenic response induced by angiotensinergic activation of the subfornical organ in rats.
Abstract Experiments were done to investigate the role of glutamatergic systems in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in the water ingestion induced by administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) in the subfornical organ (SFO) in the awake rat. Microdialysis methods were utilized to quantify the extracellular content of glutamate (Glu) in the region of MnPO. Microinjection of ANG II (10-10 M) into the SFO significantly increased the release of Glu in the MnPO in the rats under the condition that water is available for drinking and the rats under the condition that water is not available for drinking. The amount...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ushigome A, Momoi K, Takahashi M, Tanaka J Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research