SNI and CFA induce similar changes in TRPV1 and P2X3 expressions in the acute phase but not in the chronic phase of pain.
Abstract Peripheral inflammation and nerve injury usually accompany each other. However, whether inflammatory and neuropathic pain share similar mechanisms at all stages is unknown. TRPV1 and P2X3 are two major ion channels in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and are involved in chronic pain. Here, their function and expression in DRGs at different phases of the two types of pain were investigated. Both the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and paw withdrawal latency were decreased in rats injected with complete Freud's adjuvant (CFA). However, only the PWT was decreased in rats with spared nerve injury (SNI). CFA increase...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fang J, Du J, Xiang X, Shao X, He X, Jiang Y, Liu B, Liang Y, Fang J Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Sensorimotor impairment and haptic support in microgravity.
This article describes an experiment on sensorimotor performance in two-dimensional manual tracking during different stages of a space mission. We investigated whether there are optimal haptic settings of the human-machine interface for microgravity conditions. Two empirical studies using the same task paradigm with a force feedback joystick with different haptic settings (no haptics, four spring stiffnesses, two motion dampings, three masses) are presented in this paper. (1) A terrestrial control study ([Formula: see text] subjects) with five experimental sessions to explore potential learning effects and interaction...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Weber B, Riecke C, Stulp F Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Altered frontal-mediated inhibition and white matter connectivity in pediatric chronic tic disorders.
Abstract Tics are unique from most movement disorders, in that they are partially suppressible. As part of the inhibitory motor network, the pre-supplementary motor area is engaged in motor control and may be involved in tic physiology. We used dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation to assess inhibitory connectivity between right pre-supplementary motor area and left primary motor cortex, which has previously been demonstrated in healthy adults. We also used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate white matter connectivity in children with chronic tics. Twelve children with chronic tic disorder and fourteen t...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bruce AB, Yuan W, Gilbert DL, Horn PS, Jackson HS, Huddleston DA, Wu SW Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Resting-state functional connectivity predicts recovery from visually induced motion sickness.
Abstract Movies depicting certain types of motion often provoke uncomfortable symptoms similar to motion sickness, termed visually induced motion sickness (VIMS). VIMS generally evolves slowly during the viewing of a motion stimulus and, when the stimulus is removed, the recovery proceeds over time. Recent human neuroimaging studies have provided new insights into the neural bases of the evolution of VIMS. In contrast, no study has investigated the neural correlates of the recovery from VIMS. Study of the recovery process is critical for the development of a way to promote recovery and could provide further clues ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 13, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miyazaki J, Yamamoto H, Ichimura Y, Yamashiro H, Murase T, Yamamoto T, Umeda M, Higuchi T Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Native non-prototypicality in vowel perception induces prominent neuromagnetic mismatch intensities in non-native speakers: a pilot study.
Abstract Neural mismatch response resulting from the difference between prediction and observation is related to change detection and discrimination. Robust neuromagnetic brain activity of auditory mismatch-related perception occurs in response to non-prototypical vowels in across-category contrasts for first-language speakers. However, whether this non-prototypicality effect applies to within-category vowel perception remains to be elucidated. Here, healthy Japanese adults (n = 7) were subjected to magnetoencephalography (MEG) while watching a silent movie, and passively listened to synthesized...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kubota M, Matsuzaki J, Dan I, Dan H, Zouridakis G Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Does co-presence affect the way we perceive and respond to emotional interactions?
This study compared how two virtual display conditions of human body expressions influenced explicit and implicit dimensions of emotion perception and response behavior in women and men. Two avatars displayed emotional interactions (angry, sad, affectionate, happy) in a "pictorial" condition depicting the emotional interactive partners on a screen within a virtual environment and a "visual" condition allowing participants to share space with the avatars, thereby enhancing co-presence and agency. Subsequently to stimulus presentation, explicit valence perception and response tendency (i.e. the explicit t...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 11, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bachmann J, Zabicki A, Gradl S, Kurz J, Munzert J, Troje NF, Krueger B Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Perturbation-induced fast drifts in finger enslaving.
Abstract We explored changes in finger forces and in an index of unintentional finger force production (enslaving) under a variety of visual feedback conditions and positional finger perturbations. In particular, we tested a hypothesis that enslaving would show a consistent increase with time at characteristic times of about 1-2 s. Young healthy subjects performed accurate force production tasks under visual feedback on the total force of the instructed fingers (index and ring) or enslaved fingers (middle and little). Finger feedback was covertly alternated between master and enslaved fingers in a random fash...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ricotta J, Cuadra C, Evans JS, Latash ML Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

STEP inhibition prevents A β-mediated damage in dendritic complexity and spine density in Alzheimer's disease.
STEP inhibition prevents Aβ-mediated damage in dendritic complexity and spine density in Alzheimer's disease. Exp Brain Res. 2021 Jan 09;: Authors: Chatterjee M, Kwon J, Benedict J, Kamceva M, Kurup P, Lombroso PJ Abstract Loss of dendritic spines and decline of cognitive function are hallmarks of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that AD pathophysiology involves increased expression of a central nervous system-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase called STEP (STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase). STEP opposes the development of synaptic strengthening...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chatterjee M, Kwon J, Benedict J, Kamceva M, Kurup P, Lombroso PJ Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein and neuroinflammation induced by laparotomy in an animal model of postoperative delirium.
Abstract Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute neuropsychological disturbance after surgery, whose prevalence is related with advancing age. Neuroinflammation and abnormal tau phosphorylation that commonly presenting in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may contribute to the progression and duration of POD. To study the acute influence of surgery on cognitive function, wild type male C57BL/6 N mice were randomly divided into three groups: Control (CON), Laparotomy at 4 h and 24 h (LAP-4 h, LAP-24 h), then subjected to laparotomy under sevoflurane anaesthesia. The cognitive performance,...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 7, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu L, Wen G, Zhu S, Hu X, Huang C, Yang Y Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Timing behavior in genetic murine models of neurological and psychiatric diseases.
Abstract How timing behavior is altered in different neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders is a contemporary research question. Genetic murine models (GMM) that offer high construct validity also serve as useful tools to investigate this question. But the literature on timing behavior of different GMMs largely remains to be consolidated. The current paper addresses this gap by reviewing studies that have been conducted with GMMs of neurodevelopmental (e.g. ADHD, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder), neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease) as well as circadian ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karson A, Balcı F Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Linking perception of bodily states and cognitive control: the role of interoception in impulsive behaviour.
Abstract Interoception and impulsivity are two multi-dimensional constructs and although the role of interoception in impulsiveness has been previously reported, it is not clear whether their different facets are related to each other. In the present study, we aimed at bridging this gap by investigating the relationships between interoception and impulsivity in the light of their multi-dimensional nature. To this aim, we conducted a cross-task comparison and assessed in the same sample of healthy participants, interoceptive accuracy, by the heartbeat perception task, interoceptive sensibility, by a self-reported m...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baiano C, Santangelo G, Senese VP, Di Mauro G, Lauro G, Piacenti M, Conson M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Grasping performance depends upon the richness of hand feedback.
Abstract Although visual feedback of the hand allows fast and accurate grasping actions, little is known about whether the nature of feedback of the hand affects performance. We investigated kinematics during precision grasping (with the index finger and thumb) when participants received different levels of hand feedback, with or without visual feedback of the target. Specifically, we compared performance when participants saw (1) no hand feedback; (2) only the two critical points on the index finger and thumb tips; (3) 21 points on all digit tips and hand joints; (4) 21 points connected by a "skeleton",...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sivakumar P, Quinlan DJ, Stubbs KM, Culham JC Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Investigating the effects of pain observation on approach and withdrawal actions.
Abstract Previous research has shown that observing another individual receiving a painful stimulus leads to motor facilitation as indexed by faster reaction times. The current study explores whether the type of action that is executed modulates this facilitation effect. Specifically, we examined whether approach-like and withdraw-like movements are differentially influenced by pain observation. In experiment 1, participants performed key presses (approach) and releases (withdraw) after observing another person in pain (vs. no pain). In experiment 2, participants used a joystick to make forward (approach) and back...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Galang CM, Pichtikova M, Sanders T, Obhi SS Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Influence of a light touch reference on cutaneous reflexes from the hand during standing.
Abstract Light touch of a stable reference reduces sway during standing. However, unexpected displacement of a light touch reference leads to short-latency reactions in ankle muscles consistent with a balance reaction, that are replaced by responses in arm muscles on subsequent trials. We anticipated that the excitability of sensorimotor pathways arising from finger cutaneous afferents would reflect these changes in behavior. We hypothesized that (1) interlimb cutaneous reflexes in muscles of the ipsilateral leg, derived from median nerve (MED) stimulation would be facilitated when touch was stable, but reduced wh...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Misiaszek JE, Hackett H, McMahon AJ, Krutz J Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

EEG signatures of contextual influences on visual search with real scenes.
Abstract The use of scene context is a powerful way by which biological organisms guide and facilitate visual search. Although many studies have shown enhancements of target-related electroencephalographic activity (EEG) with synthetic cues, there have been fewer studies demonstrating such enhancements during search with scene context and objects in real world scenes. Here, observers covertly searched for a target in images of real scenes while we used EEG to measure the steady state visual evoked response to objects flickering at different frequencies. The target appeared in its typical contextual location or out...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Meghdadi AH, Giesbrecht B, Eckstein MP Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Dual-tDCS over the right prefrontal cortex does not modulate stop-signal task performance.
Abstract Stopping an already initiated action is crucial for human everyday behavior and empirical evidence points toward the prefrontal cortex playing a key role in response inhibition. Two regions that have been consistently implicated in response inhibition are the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the more superior region of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study targets both regions with non-invasive brain stimulation to investigate their role in response inhibition. Thus dual-prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied to both IFG and DLPFC in a repeated ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Friehs MA, Brauner L, Frings C Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

A priming study on naming real versus pictures of tools.
Abstract There is a growing body of literature demonstrating the relationship between the activation of sensorimotor processes in object recognition. It is unclear, however, if these processes are influenced by the differences in how real (3D) tools and two-dimensional (2D) images of tools are processed by the brain. Here, we examined if these differences could influence the naming of tools. Participants were presented with a prime stimulus that was either a picture of a tool, or a real tool, followed by a target stimulus that was always a real tool. They were then required to name each tool as they appeared. The ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kithu MC, Saccone EJ, Crewther SG, Goodale MA, Chouinard PA Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

High intensity aerobic exercise improves information processing and motor performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) adversely affects information processing and motor performance. The impact of aerobic exercise on modifying the deleterious effects of PD underlying information and motor control processes is not well established. The primary aim of this project was to determine the effects of an 8-week high intensity exercise intervention on information processing and movement execution in individuals with PD. A secondary aim sought to understand the effects of antiparkinsonian medication relative to exercise on motor control processes. Data were collected at baseline (on- and off-medication) and...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rosenfeldt AB, Koop MM, Fernandez HH, Alberts JL Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Talking with hands: body representation in British Sign Language users.
Abstract Body representation (BR) refers to the mental representation of motor, sensory, emotional and semantic information about the physical body. This cognitive representation is used in our everyday life, continuously, even though most of the time we do not appreciate it consciously. In some cases, BR is vital to be able to communicate. A crucial feature of signed languages (SLs), for instance, is that body parts such as hands are used to communicate. Nevertheless, little is known about BR in SL: is the communicative function of the body overwriting the physical constraints? Here, we explored this question by ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brusa F, Kretzschmar L, Magnani FG, Turner G, Garraffa M, Sedda A Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Does exposure to startle impact voluntary reaching movements in individuals with severe-to-moderate stroke?
This study offers the first evidence that exposure to startle in iwS does not negatively impact voluntary movement; moreover, exposure may improve volitionally activated reaching movements by decreasing abnormal flexion activity. PMID: 33392695 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Brain Research)
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rahimi M, Swann Z, Honeycutt CF Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Voluntary exercise ameliorates the good limb training effect in a mouse model of stroke.
This study used a mouse model to investigate if post-stroke exercise could prevent deterioration of the function of the impaired limb despite compensatory training of the intact limb. Results showed that mice that exercised, in combination with intact limb training, demonstrated improved functional outcome compared to mice that received no training or compensatory limb training only. These findings suggest that exercise can prevent the deterioration of impaired limb functional outcome that is typically seen with intact limb use. PMID: 33388904 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Brain Research)
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nemchek V, Haan EM, Mavros R, Macuiba A, Kerr AL Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Synchronous neuronal interactions in rat hypothalamic culture: a novel model for the study of network dynamics in metabolic disorders.
Abstract Synchronous neural activity is a feature of normal brain function, and altered synchronization is observed in several neurological diseases. Dysfunction in hypothalamic pathways leads to obesity, suggesting that hypothalamic neural synchrony is critical for energy homeostasis. The lateral hypothalamic orexin neurons are extensively interconnected with other brain structures and are important for energy balance. Earlier studies show that rats with higher orexin sensitivity are obesity resistant. Similarly, topiramate, an anti-epileptic drug, has been shown to reduce weight in humans. Since orexin enhances ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mavanji V, Georgopoulos AP, Kotz CM Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Position sense at the human forearm over a range of elbow angles.
Abstract Ten adult participants carried out two experiments on position sense at the forearm, one a two-arm matching task, the other a one-arm pointing task. For matching, both forearms were strapped to paddles which moved in the vertical plane between 0° and 90°. At the start of each trial, the arms were conditioned with a contraction sequence to control for the thixotropic property of muscle and muscle spindles. In the matching task, the blindfolded participant moved their indicator arm from 45° into flexion or extension to match the position of the reference arm placed at one of five test angles, be...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen B, Allen T, Proske U Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Evidence of two modes of spiking evoked in human firing motoneurones by Ia afferent electrical stimulation.
Abstract Neurone firing behaviour is a result of complex interaction between synaptic inputs and cellular intrinsic properties. Intriguing firing behaviour, delayed spiking, was shown in some neurones, in particular, in cat neocortical neurones and rat pyramidal hippocampal neurones. In contrast, the similar spiking mode was not reported for animal spinal motoneurones. In the present study, an attempt was made to look for possible evidence of delayed spiking in human motoneurones firing within the low-frequency, sub-primary range, characteristic for voluntary muscle contractions and postural tasks. Forty-seven fir...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kudina LP, Andreeva RE Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Monocular guidance of reaches-to-grasp using visible support surface texture: data and model.
Abstract We investigated monocular information for the continuous online guidance of reaches-to-grasp and present a dynamical control model thereof. We defined an information variable using optical texture projected from a support surface (i.e. a table) over which the participants reached-to-grasp target objects sitting on the table surface at different distances. Using either binocular or monocular vision in the dark, participants rapidly reached-to-grasp a phosphorescent square target object with visibly phosphorescent thumb and index finger. Targets were one of three sizes. The target either sat flat on the sup...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Herth RA, Wang XM, Cherry O, Bingham GP Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Obesity impairs performing and learning a timing perception task regardless of the body position.
s FH Abstract Obesity has been associated with poorer sensorimotor performance. However, it remains unclear whether these obesity-related impairments can be mitigated by practice. In the present study, we sought to investigate the effects of practice on performing and learning a temporal estimation task, in women with and without obesity. The experimental task consisted of synchronizing the arrival of two rectangles at a target point. Limited to the pressing of a switch, the task was intended to minimize possible muscular fatigue, self-generated perturbations to balance and the need to accelerate/decelerate body s...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Refinetti FM, Drews R, Corrêa UC, Bastos FH Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Comparison of systemic and localized carrier-mediated delivery of methylprednisolone succinate for treatment of acute spinal cord injury.
Abstract Localized carrier-mediated administration of drugs is a promising approach to treatment of acute phase of spinal cord injury (SCI) as it allows enhanced and/or sustained drug delivery to damaged tissues along with minimization of systemic side effects. We studied the effect of locally applied self-assembling micellar formulation of methylprednisolone succinate (MPS) with trifunctional block copolymer of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (TBC) on functional recovery and tissue drug content after SCI in rats in comparison with local and systemic administration of MPS alone. Variations in the amplitude of m...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baltin ME, Sabirova DE, Kiseleva EI, Kamalov MI, Abdullin TI, Petrova NV, Ahmetov NF, Sachenkov OA, Baltina TV, Lavrov IA Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Reconstruction of net force fluctuations from surface EMGs of multiple muscles in steady isometric plantarflexion.
Abstract The purposes of this study were to clarify if force fluctuations during steady multi-muscle contractions have a temporal correlation with a low-frequency component of rectified surface EMG (rEMG) in the involved muscles and collection of that component across muscles allows for the reconstruction of force fluctuations across a wide range of contraction intensities. Healthy young men (n = 15) exerted steady isometric plantarflexion force at 5-60% of maximal force. Surface EMG was recorded from the medial and lateral gastrocnemii, soleus, peroneus longus, abductor hallucis, and tibialis anteri...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Suzuki R, Kanehisa H, Washino S, Watanabe H, Shinohara M, Yoshitake Y Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Enhancing creativity by altering the frontoparietal control network functioning using transcranial direct current stimulation.
Abstract The left angular gyrus (AG), part of the frontotemporal network, is implicated in creative thinking, including verbal creativity tasks such as novel metaphor generation. The current study tested the effects of tDCS over the left AG on two metaphor generation tasks. The study was a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study of anodal vs. cathodal stimulation by tDCS. Compared to sham, cathodal stimulation resulted in significantly increased novel metaphor generation, while anodal stimulation increased conventional metaphor generation. Higher motivation (behavioral approach system's "fu...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lifshitz-Ben-Basat A, Mashal N Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Compensatory control between the legs in automatic postural responses to stance perturbations under single-leg fatigue.
Abstract In response to sudden perturbations of stance stability, muscles of both legs are activated for balance recovery. In conditions that one of the legs has a reduced capacity to respond, the opposite leg is predicted to compensate by responding more powerfully to restore stable upright stance. In this investigation, we aimed to evaluate between-leg compensatory control in automatic postural responses to sudden perturbations in a situation in which plantar flexor muscles of a single leg were fatigued. Young participants were evaluated in response to a series of perturbations inducing forward body sway, with a...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rinaldin CDP, Avila de Oliveira J, Ribeiro de Souza C, Scheeren EM, Coelho DB, Teixeira LA Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of holding soft objects during Cyberball tasks under frequent positive feedback.
Abstract A previous study suggested that holding soft objects enhanced expectations of uncertain events and increased social pain under frequent negative feedback; i.e., higher expectations might have induced more disappointment. The present study examined the effects of holding a soft cushion under frequent positive feedback. Participants (n = 42) performed fair-play and over-inclusion blocks in the Cyberball task. Amplitudes of the contingent negative variation (CNV) of event-related brain potentials and subjective ratings of social pain were measured to estimate participants' expectations and emot...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ikeda T, Takeda Y Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

When the non-dominant arm dominates: the effects of visual information and task experience on speed-accuracy advantages.
Abstract Speed accuracy trade-off, the inverse relationship between movement speed and task accuracy, is a ubiquitous feature of skilled motor performance. Many previous studies have focused on the dominant arm, unimanual performance in both simple tasks, such as target reaching, and complex tasks, such as overarm throwing. However, while handedness is a prominent feature of human motor performance, the effect of limb dominance on speed-accuracy relationships is not well-understood. Based on previous research, we hypothesize that dominant arm skilled performance should depend on visual information and prior task e...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dexheimer B, Sainburg R Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Eye tracking and attentional bias for depressive internet memes in depression.
This study aimed to determine whether: compared to non-depressed controls, individuals experiencing depressive symptoms were quicker to orient and maintain overall attention for internet memes depicting depressive content relative to neutral memes. N = 21 individuals were grouped based on the severity of reported depression symptoms using the PhQ-9. Specifically, a score of:  ≤ 4 denoted the control group; and  ≥ 15 the depressive symptoms group. Participants viewed a series of meme pairs depicting depressive and neutral memes for periods of 4000 ms. Data for the first f...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Akram U, Ellis JG, Cau G, Hershaw F, Rajenthran A, Lowe M, Trommelen C, Drabble J Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) reflects the activation of cortical object representations: evidence from semantic stimulus repetition.
Abstract We applied high-density EEG to examine steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) during a perceptual/semantic stimulus repetition design. SSVEPs are evoked oscillatory cortical responses at the same frequency as visual stimuli flickered at this frequency. In repetition designs, stimuli are presented twice with the repetition being task irrelevant. The cortical processing of the second stimulus is commonly characterized by decreased neuronal activity (repetition suppression). The behavioral consequences of stimulus repetition were examined in a companion reaction time pre-study using the same experime...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Radtke EL, Martens U, Gruber T Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Adaptation of reach action to a novel force-field is not predicted by acuity of dynamic proprioception in either older or younger adults.
Abstract Healthy ageing involves degeneration of the neuromuscular system which impacts movement control and proprioception. Yet the relationship between these sensory and motor deficits in upper limb reaching has not been examined in detail. Recently, we reported that age-related proprioceptive deficits were unrelated to accuracy in rapid arm movements, but whether this applied in motor tasks more heavily dependent on proprioceptive feedback was not clear. To address this, we have tested groups of younger and older adults on a force-field adaptation task under either full or limited visual feedback conditions and...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kitchen NM, Miall RC Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Early posterior negativity indicates time dilation by arousal.
e R Abstract We investigated whether Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) indicated the subjective dilation of time when judging the duration of arousing stimuli. Participants performed a visual temporal bisection task along with high-level and low-level arousing auditory stimuli, while we simultaneously recorded EEG. In accordance with previous studies, arousing stimuli were temporally overestimated and led to higher EPN amplitude. Yet, we observed that time dilation and EPN amplitude were significantly correlated and this effect cannot be explained by confounds from stimulus valence. We interpret our findings in ter...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - December 5, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Özoğlu E, Thomaschke R Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Objective and subjective responses to motion sickness: the group and the individual.
Abstract We investigated and modeled the temporal evolution of motion sickness in a highly dynamic sickening drive. Slalom maneuvers were performed in a passenger vehicle, resulting in lateral accelerations of 0.4 g at 0.2 Hz, to which participants were subjected as passengers for up to 30 min. Subjective motion sickness was recorded throughout the sickening drive using the MISC scale. In addition, physiological and postural responses were evaluated by recording head roll, galvanic skin response (GSR) and electrocardiography (ECG). Experiment 1 compared external vision (normal view through front and side car windo...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Irmak T, Pool DM, Happee R Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Uncontrolled manifold analysis of the effects of a perturbation-based training on the organization of leg joint variance in cerebellar ataxia.
In this study, we first tested the hypothesis that healthy and, especially, CA subjects can effectively exploit solutions in the domain of segmental angles to stabilize the position of either the foot or the pelvis (task performance) across heel strikes, in accordance with the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) theory. Next, we verified whether a specific perturbation-based training allows CA subjects to further take advantage of this coordination mechanism to better cope with their inherent pathology-related variability. Results always rejected the hypothesis of pelvis stabilization whereas supported the idea that the foot posit...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Monaco V, Aprigliano F, Lofrumento M, Martelli D, Micera S, SunilAgrawal Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Effects of physical driving experience on body movement and motion sickness among passengers in a virtual vehicle.
Abstract Virtual vehicles (e.g., driving video games) can give rise to visually induced motion sickness. Typically, people drive virtual vehicles. In the present study, we investigated motion sickness among participants who were exposed to virtual vehicles as passengers; that is, they observed vehicle motion, but did not control it. We also asked how motion sickness and the postural precursors of motion sickness might be influenced by participants' previous experience of driving physical vehicles. Participants viewed a recording of a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were young adults with severa...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 26, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chang CH, Stoffregen TA, Cheng KB, Lei MK, Li CC Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Overexpression of thioredoxin reductase 1 can reduce DNA damage, mitochondrial autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in Parkinson's disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Several factors, including neuroinflammation, neuronal excitotoxicity, genetic mutations and incorrect protein folding are involved in PD pathophysiology. However, the precise mechanism that contributes to the decreased number of dopaminergic neurons is unknown. A growing body of research suggests that oxidative stress is a major factor in PD. Therefore, antioxidant therapy is an important approach for treating PD. The thioredoxin system is an important antioxidant system...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Z, Ye Q, Wang F, Guo Y, Cui R, Wang J, Wang D Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Inter-muscle differences in modulation of motor evoked potentials and posterior root-muscle reflexes evoked from lower-limb muscles during agonist and antagonist muscle contractions.
Abstract Voluntary contraction facilitates corticospinal and spinal reflex circuit excitabilities of the contracted muscle and inhibits spinal reflex circuit excitability of the antagonist. It has been suggested that modulation of spinal reflex circuit excitability in agonist and antagonist muscles during voluntary contraction differs among lower-limb muscles. However, whether the effects of voluntary contraction on the excitabilities of corticospinal and spinal reflex circuits depend on the tested muscles remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine inter-muscle differences in modulation of the corti...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 22, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Saito A, Nakagawa K, Masugi Y, Nakazawa K Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Towards the development of a human in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier for virus-associated acute encephalopathy: assessment of the time- and concentration-dependent effects of TNF- α on paracellular tightness.
Towards the development of a human in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier for virus-associated acute encephalopathy: assessment of the time- and concentration-dependent effects of TNF-α on paracellular tightness. Exp Brain Res. 2020 Nov 21;: Authors: Maeda H, Hashimoto K, Go H, Miyazaki K, Sato M, Kawasaki Y, Momoi N, Hosoya M Abstract The pathogenesis of virus-associated acute encephalopathy (VAE) involves brain edema caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We aimed to develop an in vitro VAE model using an in vitro BBB model, to evaluate the dynamics of vascular dysfunction c...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Maeda H, Hashimoto K, Go H, Miyazaki K, Sato M, Kawasaki Y, Momoi N, Hosoya M Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Does photobiomodulation influence the resting-state brain networks in young human subjects?
Abstract Using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging), we explored the effect of transcranial photobiomodulation on four major resting-state brain networks, namely the sensorimotor, salience, default mode and central executive networks, in normal young subjects. We used a vielight transcranial device (810 nm) and compared the scans in 20 subjects (mean age 30.0 ± 2.8 years) after active- and sham-photobiomodulation sessions. Four sets of analysis-independent components, network connectivity, infra-slow oscillatory power and arterial spin labelling-were undertaken. Our results s...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khoury HE, Mitrofanis J, Henderson LA Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Lipid nanoparticles-encapsulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA delivered through the round window niche in the cochleae of guinea pigs.
In conclusion, this modern nanotechnology-based bioconjugation system, LNPssPalm, is a potential non-invasive targeted therapy allowing the delivering biomaterials to specific structures within the inner ear for the treatment of SHNL. PMID: 33215262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Brain Research)
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 19, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miwa T, Saito H, Akita H Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Perceiving emotions in visual stimuli: social verbal context facilitates emotion detection of words but not of faces.
Abstract Building on the notion that processing of emotional stimuli is sensitive to context, in two experimental tasks we explored whether the detection of emotion in emotional words (task 1) and facial expressions (task 2) is facilitated by social verbal context. Three different levels of contextual supporting information were compared, namely (1) no information, (2) the verbal expression of an emotionally matched word pronounced with a neutral intonation, and (3) the verbal expression of an emotionally matched word pronounced with emotionally matched intonation. We found that increasing levels of supporting con...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blom SSAH, Aarts H, Semin GR Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

δ-Opioid receptor activation ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and apoptosis by inhibiting the MAPK/caspase-3 pathway in BV2 microglial cells.
This study provides new insight into neuroprotection against and treatment of ischaemic stroke. PMID: 33206235 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Brain Research)
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 18, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheng M, Geng Y, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Guo R, Xu H, Liang J, Xie J, Zhang Z, Tian X Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Abnormal morphology and subcortical projections to the medial geniculate in an animal model of autism.
Abstract Auditory dysfunction, including hypersensitivity and tinnitus, is a common symptom of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prenatal exposure to the antiseizure medication valproic acid (VPA) significantly increases the risk of ASD in humans and similar exposure is utilized as an animal model of ASD in rodents. Animals exposed to VPA in utero have abnormal activity in their auditory cortex in response to sounds, fewer neurons, abnormal neuronal morphology, reduced expression of calcium-binding proteins, and reduced ascending projections to the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus. Unfortunately, these pre...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mansour Y, Ahmed SN, Kulesza R Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

ERP evidence for asymmetric orthographic transfer between traditional and simplified Chinese.
Abstract Transferring orthographic processing skills from one language to new languages is important for language learning. However, the specific orthography hypothesis and condition-based transfer hypothesis have debated orthographic transfer. No study has ever examined these debates in a logographic language, and the neural correlates of orthographic transfer in a logographic language remain unknown. Therefore, the present study uses event-related potentials to examine orthographic transfer with Hong Kong (Experiment 1) and mainland China (Experiment 2) participants who only use traditional or simplified Chinese...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 13, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie J, Huang Y, Chen K, Lin Q, Zhang JX, Mo L Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Improvement of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by L-3-n-butylphthalide through promoting angiogenesis.
In conclusion, our results demonstrated that L-NBP exerted significant beneficial effects on cerebral I/R injury in rats through promoting angiogenesis, which may be associated with the activation of Nrf2/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway. Our results suggested that L-NBP could be a potential therapeutic drug for cerebral I/R injury. PMID: 33180154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Brain Research)
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 12, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang Y, Pan L, Wu T Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research

Influence of path curvature on collision avoidance behaviour between two walkers.
er AH Abstract Navigating crowded community spaces requires interactions with pedestrians that follow rectilinear and curvilinear trajectories. In the case of rectilinear trajectories, it has been shown that the perceived action opportunities of the walkers might be afforded based on a future distance of closest approach. However, little is known about collision avoidance behaviours when avoiding walkers that follow curvilinear trajectories. Twenty-two participants were immersed in a virtual environment and avoided a virtual human (VH) that followed either a rectilinear path or a curvilinear path with a 5 m or 10 ...
Source: Experimental Brain Research - November 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lynch SD, Kulpa R, Meerhoff LA, Sorel A, Pettré J, Olivier AH Tags: Exp Brain Res Source Type: research