Classification of endplate lesions in the lumbar spine and association with risk factors, biochemistry, and genetics
ConclusionsThe markers previously identified as associated with the presence of EP lesions have been confirmed as related to their severity and could be used to follow the pathology progression. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 16, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

COVID-19 and the rise of virtual medicine in spine surgery: a worldwide study
AbstractPurposeThe COVID-19 pandemic forced many surgeons to adopt “virtual medicine” practices, defined as telehealth services for patient care and online platforms for continuing medical education. The purpose of this study was to assess spine surgeon reliance on virtual medicine during the pandemic and to discuss the future of virtual medicine in spine surge ry.MethodsA comprehensive survey addressing demographic data and virtual medicine practices was distributed to spine surgeons worldwide between March 27, 2020, and April 4, 2020.Results902 spine surgeons representing seven global regions responded. 35.6%...
Source: European Spine Journal - January 16, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Spine surgeon perceptions of the challenges and benefits of telemedicine: an international study
ConclusionSpine surgeons are supportive of the benefits of telemedicine, and only a small minority experienced technical issues. The decreased ability to perform the physical examination was the top challenge and remains a major obstacle to virtual care for spine surgeons around the world, although interestingly, 61.4% of providers did not acknowledge this to be a major challenge. Significant groundwork in optimizing remote physical examination maneuvers and achieving legal and reimbursement clarity is necessary for widespread implementation. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 16, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Recurrence of proximal junctional kyphosis after revision surgery for symptomatic proximal junctional kyphosis in patients with adult spinal deformity: incidence, risk factors, and outcomes
ConclusionThe incidence of rePJK was 31%. Risk factors for rePJK were large initial PJA, high preoperative TK and SVA, and greater correction of TK and SVA. HRQOL did not differ significantly between patients with vs without rePJK, except immediate postoperative SRS-22r activity scores.Level of evidenceIII. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 15, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Announcement
(Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 15, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Comparison of a dual-surgeon versus single-surgeon approach for scoliosis surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionThis review observed that there are no randomised control trials evaluating dual-surgeon versus single-surgeon operating for scoliosis. We provide aggregated data and analysis of available literature, suggesting that outcomes in complex scoliosis surgery may be improved by adopting a dual-surgeon approach.Level of evidenceIII. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 13, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

International comparative study of low back pain care pathways and analysis of key interventions
ConclusionEssential building elements for the construction of LBP care pathways were identified from a transversal analysis of key interventions in a study of 11 international examples of LBP pathways. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 11, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Serum biomarkers for Modic changes in patients with chronic low back pain
This study aimed to test for the existence of serum biomarkers in CLBP patients with MC.MethodsAge- and sex-matched CLBP patients with confirmed MC on lumbar MRI (n  = 40) and pain-free controls (n = 40) were assessed. MC was classified into M1, predominating M1, predominating M2 and M2. MC volumes were calculated. Fasting blood samples were assessed for inflammatory mediators, signalling molecules, growth factors and bone turnover markers. Serum concen trations of 46 biomarkers were measured.ResultsMedian concentrations of interleukin (IL)-15 (p 
Source: European Spine Journal - January 9, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Bacterial adhesion characteristics on implant materials for intervertebral cages: titanium or PEEK for spinal infections?
ConclusionForS.epidermidis, MSSA and MRSA PEEK cages showed a higher adherence in terms of CFU count, whereas forE.coli PEEK seemed to be advantageous. Electron microscopic visualisation shows that bacteria did not adhere at the titanium mesh structure, but at the border zones of polished material to rougher parts. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 9, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Long-term experience with simultaneous prone video-assisted thoracoscopic anterior spinal release and posterior spinal fusion in severe rigid pediatric spinal deformities
AbstractPurposeWhile posterior-alone techniques have been successful for most pediatric spinal deformities, anterior spinal release may be useful for severe rigid deformities. Traditional lateral-positioned video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical release (VATSR) followed by prone posterior spinal fusion (PSF) has been criticized for adding extensive operative morbidity. We aimed to reduce its disadvantages by performing prone VATSR and PSF simultaneously and evaluate its long-term outcomes.MethodsAll consecutive patients from 1991 to 2012 undergoing VATSR and PSF at one institution were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusio...
Source: European Spine Journal - January 8, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Temporary treatment with magnetically controlled growing rod for surgical correction of severe adolescent idiopathic thoracic scoliosis greater than 100 °
ConclusionThis is the first series of AIS patients that had temporary MCGR to treat severe thoracic scoliosis. A staged protocol including internal temporary distraction with MCGR after posterior release and definitive correction resulted in large MTC-correction and restoration of trunk height. Results indicate that technique has the potential to reduce the necessity for HGT and high-risk 3CO for the correction of severe scoliosis. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 6, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Preoperative lordosis in L4/5 predicts segmental lordosis correction achievable by transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion
In this study, the predictability of lordosis correction should be investigated.MethodsProspectively collected register data were analyzed retrospectively. One hundred twenty-one consecutive patients (2014 –2016) operated with single-level TLIF L4/5 (10°-lordotic cage). Segmental lordosis (L4/5) and overall lordosis (L1–S1) were measured on lumbar X-rays: preoperatively (pre), after 3–5 days (post), at least 24 months postoperatively (2yFU). Outcome and satisfaction of patients were assessed. Parameters were statistically compared by studentst-tests (a = 0.05). In addition, pre...
Source: European Spine Journal - January 6, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Primary cervical decompression surgery may improve lumbar symptoms in patients with tandem spinal stenosis
ConclusionThe improvement of LSS symptoms following cervical decompression surgeries may be associated with the severity of cervical myelopathy as determined in clinical findings rather than in imaging findings. Patients with TSS having a 10-s step test result of
Source: European Spine Journal - January 6, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The impact of bisphosphonates on postoperative complication rates in osteoporotic patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion
ConclusionBisphosphonate usage did not significantly affect the rates of postoperative complications following posterior lumbar fusion. Further research is required to fully elucidate the effects of bisphosphonates on outcomes and complications following spine surgery. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 4, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Answer to the Letter to the Editor of Yin Mengchen et al. concerning  “The Haleem–Botchu classification: a novel CT-based classification for lumbar foraminal stenosis” by Haleem S et al. [Eur Spine J (2020): DOI 10.1007/s00586-020-06656-5]
(Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 4, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

No added value of 2-year radiographic follow-up of fusion surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis
ConclusionsNo statistically significant changes in major curve Cobb angle were found during postsurgical follow-up, or in adjacent non-fused segments. The findings of this study are not supportive for routine radiographs 2  years after fusion surgery in AIS patients. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Multi-trajectory analysis of C-reactive protein and low back pain from adolescence to early adulthood
ConclusionAlthough young people follow distinct trajectories of LBP, CRP trajectories do not appear to be a distinguishing factor of the LBP trajectories. Previously reported associations between CRP and LBP may be explained by comorbidity or other factors. Future studies undertaking trajectory analysis should consider comorbidity clusters.Level of Evidence IDiagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Radiographic and clinical features of thoracic disk disease associated with myelopathy: a retrospective analysis of 257 cases
ConclusionsThe onset of TDM was generally insidious but may be triggered acutely by apparently trivial events. With a low prevalence, TDM varied clinical symptoms. Different types of TDM had various clinical features, which might indicate different pathological mechanisms. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Cone of economy classification: evolution, concept of stability, severity level, and correlation to patient-reported outcome scores
AbstractStudy designA prospective cohort studyObjectiveTo determine a classification system for cone of economy (CoE) measurements that defines clinically significant changes in altered balance and to assess if the CoE measurements directly impacts patients reported outcome measures (PROMs).Summary of background dataPreoperative functional data is a crucial component of determining patient disability and prognosis. The CoE has been theorized to be the foundation of biomechanical changes that leads to increased energy expenditure and disability in spine patients. PROMs have been developed to quantify the level of debilitati...
Source: European Spine Journal - January 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Impact of mechanical stability on the progress of bone ongrowth on the frame surfaces of a titanium-coated PEEK cage and a 3D porous titanium alloy cage: in vivo analysis using CT color mapping
ConclusionEarly postoperative mechanical stability has a positive impact on the progress of bone ongrowth on both the TCP and PTA cage frame surfaces after PLIF. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Adjacent segment disease on hip joint as a complication of spinal fusion surgery including sacroiliac joint fixation
ConclusionThis study identified spinal fixation surgery that includes SIJF as a predictor for radiographic progression of hip OA over 12  months. We should pay attention to hip joint lesions after adult spinal deformity surgery, including SIJF. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor concerning “The Haleem–Botchu classification: a novel CT-based classification for lumbar foraminal stenosis” by Haleem S et al. [Eur Spine J (2020): DOI 10.1007/s00586-020-06656-5]
(Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 3, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric validation of the Indonesian version of the Oswestry Disability Index
ConclusionsThe Indonesian version of ODI displayed similar reliability, validity, and psychometric characteristics to the original ODI. This questionnaire will be a suitable instrument for assessing LBP-related disability for Indonesian-speaking patients. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 2, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Rotational vertebral artery occlusion ( “bow hunter syndrome”)
ConclusionRotatory vertebral artery occlusion is a rare condition presented mostly in adults, aged 50 –70 years. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency is triggered by the rotation of the head to the contralateral side of the dominant vertebral artery. Dynamic subtraction angiography is considered the diagnostic gold-standard method, but dynamic Angio-CT scan, Angio-MRI, or Doppler ultrasonography are les s invasive options. The treatment options are conservative or surgical. Endovascular surgery is another option in specific cases. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 2, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Surgical outcome and risk factors for cervical spinal cord injury patients in chronic stage: a 2-year follow-up study
ConclusionIt is reasonable to consider surgical decompression in patients with cervical SCI in chronic stage and persistent spinal cord compression and/or gross cervical instability. Initial AMS, longer duration, injury above C4 level, higher age and female patients are the five major relevant factors of functional recovery. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 2, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

A novel hospital capacity versus clinical justification triage score (CCTS) for prioritization of spinal surgeries in the “new normal state & quot; of the COVID-19 pandemic
ConclusionThis study is a proof of concept for the novel CCTS scoring system to prioritize surgeries to meet the rapidly changing demands of the COVID-19 pandemic. It offers a simple and objective method to stratify patients who require surgery and allows these complex and difficult decisions to be unbiased and made transparently among surgeons and hospital administrators. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 2, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Non-coding RNAs in ossification of spinal ligament
ConclusionncRNA play a vital role in the ossification of spinal ligament fibrocyte, including cell osteogenesis and inflammation. ncRNAs also have potential clinical utilities as therapeutic targets, risk predication and early detection in the management of OSL.Level of Evidence IDiagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 2, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Surgeons lack of agreement on determining preoperative radiographic and clinical shoulder balance in adolescent and adult idiopathic scoliosis patients
ConclusionThough surgeons ’ ability to agree with themselves was moderate to substantial, surgeons’ ability to agree with each other was fair to moderate. Combined measures to assess preoperative shoulder balance are needed for UIV selection. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 1, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Does country of origin influence research outcomes in operative interventions for lumbar spinal stenosis?
ConclusionThere is an association between country of origin and positive reported outcome in studies evaluating interventions for lumbar spinal stenosis. Clinicians should consider this when making management decisions based on published evidence.Level of Evidence IDiagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - January 1, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Radiological risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation after percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy: a retrospective matched case-control study
AbstractPurposeTo investigate radiological risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) after percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED).MethodsPatients who underwent PTED due to a single-level L4-L5 or L5-S1 disc herniation from January 2013 to May 2019 were enrolled in this study. A matched case-control design was carried out in a single institution. Cases were defined as those who developed rLDH, and controls were matched from those patients without rLDH according to corresponding clinical characteristics. The radiological parameters were compared between two groups. The radiological risk facto...
Source: European Spine Journal - January 1, 2021 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Can cavity-based pedicle screw augmentation decrease screw loosening? A biomechanical in vitro study
ConclusionThis study demonstrated that creating a cavity may allow a more equal fixation of all pedicle screws with slight reduction of loosening. However, augmentation only through a cannulated screw is almost equivalent, if care is taken that enough cement volume can be pushed out around the tip of the screw. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - December 23, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Comparison of different strategies on three-dimensional correction of AIS: which plane will suffer?
This study aims to test the hypothesis that, due to the 3-D nature of AIS, different strategies can lead to different coronal, axial and sagittal curve correction.MethodsConsecutive patients who underwent posterior scoliosis surgery for primary thoracic AIS were compared between three major scoliosis centres (n = 193). Patients were treated according to the local surgical expertise: Two centres perform primarily an axial apical derotation manoeuvre (centre 1: high implant density, convex rod first, centre 2: low implant density, concave rod first), whereas centre 3 performs posteromedial apical transl ation w...
Source: European Spine Journal - December 23, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Complications in TLIF spondylodesis –do they influence the outcome for patients? A prospective two-center study
Conclusion Our results suggest that major complications with need of revision surgery after TLIF spondylodesis lead to a significantly worse clinical outcome (VAS-B, VAS-L, and ODI) compared to no or minor complications. It is therefore vitally important to raise the surgeon´s awareness of consequences of major complications, and the topic should be given high priority in clinical work. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - December 22, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Association of age with incidence and timing of recurrence after microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation
AbstractObjectiveRecurrent lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is the most frequent reason for reoperation after lumbar microdiscectomy. While several risk factors for recurrent LDH have been well-described, the effect of age on recurrence remains unclear, especially concerning the timing of recurrent LDH.MethodsFrom a prospective registry, we identified all patients who underwent tubular microdiscectomy for LDH. Recurrent LDH was defined as reoperation for LDH at the same index level and side. The associations among age and incidence of recurrent LDH as well as on time to recurrent LDH were statistically evaluated using multivar...
Source: European Spine Journal - December 14, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Experimental evaluation of precision and accuracy of RSA in the lumbar spine
ConclusionIn summary, the results suggest stereophotogrammetry to be a highly precise method to analyze motion of the lumbar spine. Since precision and accuracy are better than 0.2 ° for both focal spot values, the choice between these is of minor clinical relevance. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - December 4, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Long-term ( & gt;  10 years) clinical outcomes of instrumented posterolateral fusion for spondylolisthesis
ConclusionThis study showed favourable clinical outcomes  >  10 years after instrumented posterolateral spinal fusion and supports spondylolisthesis with neurological symptoms as indication for fusion surgery. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - December 3, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor concerning “Osteolysis after cervical disc arthroplasty” by Joaquim AF, et al. (Eur Spine J; [2020]: doi: 10.1007/s00586-020–06,578-2)
(Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - December 1, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Correction to: Alpha-phase synchrony EEG training for  multi-resistant chronic low back pain patients: an open-label pilot stud
Unfortunately, the original version of this article has been published without the electronic supplementary material. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - December 1, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Relationship between hip joint proximity area and sagittal balance parameters: an upright computed tomography study
This study aimed to examine the relationship between hip joint proximity area and sagittal balance parameters in healthy subjects.MethodsThis prospective study enrolled 47 healthy volunteers who underwent 320-detector row upright computed tomography. Acquired data were reconstructed in a virtual three-dimensional space. The proximity area was determined by  
Source: European Spine Journal - November 27, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Pain management after laminectomy: a systematic review and procedure-specific post-operative pain management (prospect) recommendations
ConclusionPerioperative pain management for lumbar laminectomy should include paracetamol and NSAID- or COX-2-specific inhibitor, continued into the post-operative period, as well as intraoperative surgical wound instillation or infiltration. Opioids should be used as rescue medication post-operatively. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the efficacy of our recommendations. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - November 27, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The influence of topical use of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss on early operation for thoracolumbar burst fracture: a randomized double-blinded controlled study
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the safety and efficacy of topical use of tranexamic acid (TXA) on early operation for thoracolumbar burst fracture (TBF).MethodsPatients with acute TBF requiring early decompression were prospectively collected. The enrolled patients were randomly assigned to TXA and control group, in which wound surface was soaked with TXA or the same volume of normal saline for 5  min after wound incision, respectively. The total blood loss (TBL), intraoperative blood loss (IBL), postoperative blood loss (PBL), hemoglobin (HGB) levels on preoperatively (pre-op) and postoperatively, and amount of alloge...
Source: European Spine Journal - November 24, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Validation of a surgical invasiveness index in patients with lumbar spinal disorders registered in the Spine Tango registry
AbstractIntroductionBeing able to quantify the invasiveness of a surgical procedure is important to weigh up its associated risks, since invasiveness governs the blood loss, operative time and likelihood of complications. Mirza et al. (Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 33:2651 –2661, 2008) published an invasiveness index for spinal surgery. We evaluated the validity of a modified version of the Mirza invasiveness index (mMII), adapted for use with registry data.MethodsA cross-sectional analysis was performed with data acquired from the Spine Tango registry including 21,634 patients. The mMII was calculated as the sum of six poss...
Source: European Spine Journal - November 24, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Announcement
(Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - November 24, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Importance of the epiphyseal ring in OLIF stand-alone surgery: a biomechanical study on cadaveric spines
ConclusionsEndplate collapse is more likely to occur with short half span cages than complete span cages, and taller cages compared with normal height cages. During OLIF surgery, we should choose cages matching intervertebral disc space height and place the cages spanning over the whole epiphyseal ring to improve support strength. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - November 23, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Revisiting thoracic kyphosis: a normative description of the thoracic sagittal curve in an asymptomatic population
AbstractPurposeThoracic kyphosis (TK) remained in the shadow of lumbar lordosis. Based on Berthonnaud and Roussouly segmentation, TK is divided into two arches: upper TK (UTK) and lower TK (LTK). The purpose of this study is to propose a normative description of the TK arches in an asymptomatic adults ’ population and their correlation with spinal and pelvic parameters.MethodsThis is an observational study performed on asymptomatic healthy Caucasians volunteers aged between 18 and 45  years. Each patient had a standardized standing biplanar full spine X-rays. Using KEOPS®, sacropelvic parameters and global s...
Source: European Spine Journal - November 22, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Sagittal imbalance and symptoms of depression in adults: Locomotive Syndrome and Health Outcomes in the Aizu Cohort Study (LOHAS)
ConclusionIn local community residents, sagittal imbalance had a significant association with symptoms of depression. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - November 22, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Provider confidence in the telemedicine spine evaluation: results from a global study
ConclusionSpine surgeons are confident in the ability of telemedicine to communicate with patients, but are concerned about its capacity to accurately make physical exam-based diagnoses. Future research should concentrate on standardizing the remote examination and the development of appropriate use criteria in order to increase provider confidence in telemedicine technology. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - November 22, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Posterior unilateral exposure and stability reconstruction with pedicle and lamina screw fixation for the cervical dumbbell tumorectomy: a case report and biomechanical study
AbstractPurposeCervical dumbbell tumor is usually removed via a posterior approach and may require the spinal fixation sometimes. However, the present surgical methods involved either more trauma or a higher risk of instability of the cervical spine. A new technique of unilateral exposure and stability reconstruction with pedicle and lamina screws fixation for posterior cervical dumbbell tumorectomy was described and compared with conventional techniques.MethodsPosterior unilateral exposure, hemi-laminectomy and facetectomy were performed in one patient with the cervical dumbbell tumor between C3 and C4. The stability was ...
Source: European Spine Journal - November 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

The role of tertiary neurosurgical intervention in non-missile penetrating injuries of the spine
ConclusionEarly management of NMPI should include prophylactic antibiotics and wound debridement and X-ray imaging to exclude retained blades. Bowel and lung injury must be managed accordingly. Tertiary neurosurgical referral is not routinely necessary and is only warranted for deteriorating neurology, retained blades not removable in the ER, and respiratory failure secondary to spinal cord injury. Complications include meningitis and persistent CSF leak, which should be referred timeously. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - November 21, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research

Correction to: Management and prognosis of acute traumatic cervical central cord syndrome: systematic review and Spinal Cord Society —Spine Trauma Study Group position statement
Unfortunately, the original version of this article has been published with misplaced data under the heading “Meta-analysis”. (Source: European Spine Journal)
Source: European Spine Journal - November 20, 2020 Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research