Pre-Operative Interictal Discharge Patterns and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Affect Prognosis of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Surgery
Conclusion: If the pre-operative interictal discharge pattern in EEG is confined to the unilateral anterior region, prognosis is good. If there are abnormalities in MRI findings, post-operative prognosis is good, regardless of pre-operative interictal discharge patterns in EEG. Surgical intervention is highly recommended for TLE patients with normal MRI findings and interictal discharge confined to the unilateral anterior region.Eur Neurol (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - July 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association of Smell Identification Deficit with Alzheimer ’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale, Japanese Version Scores and Brain Atrophy in Patients with Dementia
Conclusion: Smell identification deficit in AD/MCI is strongly associated with the memory domain of cognitive function and with atrophy of the medial temporal lobe.Eur Neurol (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - June 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Determinants of Patient Delay in Transient Ischemic Attack
Conclusion: Patients still tend to wait till office hours to report TIA symptoms. Speech difficulties, and specifically dysarthria, are related to shorter delay. To reduce patient delay, awareness of TIA symptoms should increase and more importantly lay people should be educated to consider a TIA an emergency.Eur Neurol (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Objective Monitoring of Driving Behavior in Parkinson ’s Disease: The Utility of the Chula Parkinson Car®
Conclusions: Individuals with PD had less-than-adequate driving ability based on our naturalistic setting. Our assessment method may be useful in other populations with chronic illnesses or for older adults. We discuss how naturalistic assessments could become the standard for evaluating driving ability in Thailand and elsewhere.Eur Neurol (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - June 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Periventricular White Matter Lesions Influence Gait Functions in Parkinson ’s Disease
Conclusion: Gait of PD patients deteriorated not only due to motor dysfunction but also due to mental burden in association with frontal lobe function and periventricular lesions of cerebral white matter.Eur Neurol (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - June 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation: An Enhanced T2*-Weighted Angiography Imaging Study
Conclusion: The present data demonstrated that CMBs were associated with age, hypertension, warfarin treatment, smoking, and a history of ICH. We also found neither CHA2DS2-VASc score nor HAS-BLED score was associated with CMBs in patients with NVAF.Eur Neurol (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - June 11, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Robotic-Assisted Gait Training Effect on Function and Gait Speed in Subacute and Chronic Stroke Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Background: The review is intended to provide the effectiveness of robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) for functional gait recovery in poststroke survivors through a systematic review and to provide evidence for gait speed improvements through the meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).Summary: In this systematic review, PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Science Direct, Science Robotics, Scopus, UpToDate, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, ­CINHAL, EMBASE, and EBSCO were reviewed to identify relevant RCTs. Articles included in the study were thoroughly examined by 2 independent reviewers. The included...
Source: European Neurology - June 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Exome Sequencing Identifies a Mutation (Y740C) in Spastic Paraplegia 7 Gene Associated with Adult-Onset Primary Lateral Sclerosis in a Chinese Family
Conclusions: We employed WES to detect a missense mutation ofSPG7 gene in a PLS family. This finding expands the spectrum of knownSPG7 mutations, and it may contribute to novel approaches to genetic diagnosis and counseling of families with PLS.Eur Neurol 2019;81:87 –93 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological Perspectives of Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema
Background: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is characterized by acute respiratory distress triggered by acute, severe compromise of the central nervous system (CNS). This review aims at summarizing and discussing recent and previous findings about the type and frequency of CNS triggers of NPE, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients experiencing NPE.Key Messages: NPE is diagnosed in the presence of pink, frothy sputum, pulmonary edema, bilateral opacities on X-ray, PaO2:PiO2 #x3c;200 mm Hg, acute CNS compromise with increased intra-cranial pressure, rapid resolution within 48 –72 h, and the absen...
Source: European Neurology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Electroencephalography-Based Source Localization for Depression Using Standardized Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography – Variational Mode Decomposition Technique
Conclusion: It can be said that proposed algorithm efficiently suppresses the influence of noise in the EEG inverse problem using simulated EEG activity and EEG database for depression. Such a system may offer an effective solution for clinicians as a crucial stage of EEG pre-processing in automated depression detection systems and may prevent delay in diagnosis.Eur Neurol 2019;81:63 –75 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Hydrocephalus of King Charles II of Spain, the Bewitched King
King of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty and sovereign of the overseas Spanish Empire, Charles II of Spain, was physically disabled, disfigured, mentally retarded, and he proved impotent. He is known in history asEl Hechizado (the Bewitched) because both him and the people believed that his mental and physical incapacity were due to a “witchcraft act.” Although several authors speculated about different diseases, most of them genetic such as pituitary hormone deficiency, distal renal tubular acidosis, Klinefelter syndrome, fragile X syndrome, or male XX hermaphroditism, the hypothesis of hydrocephalus was not taken...
Source: European Neurology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

“Mercedes-Benz Sign” on CSF Cytology
We report a novel and interesting morphological sign ofCryptococcus neoformansin CSF cytology resembling the logo of Mercedes-Benz. The sign is highly suggestive ofCryptococcus infection and is a strong indicator for more specific tests and timely treatment.Eur Neurol 2019;81:79 –80 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Patients Who Attend Alone at a First Memory Consultation: Are They a Specific Population,or Is It an Instance of Confounding Bias?
As commonly happens in epidemiological research, none of the reported studies were totally free of methodological problems. Studies have considered the influence of social relationships on dementia, but the mechanisms underlying these associations are not perfectly understood. We look at the possible impact of selection bias. For their first memory consultation, patients may come alone or accompanied by a relative. Our objective is to better understand the impact of this factor by retrospective follow-up of geriatric memory outpatients over several years. All patients over 70 who were referred to Bretonneau Memory Clinic f...
Source: European Neurology - May 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Relationship of Quadriceps Muscle Thickness with Motor Paralysis and Muscle Echo Intensity in Post-Stroke Patients
Conclusions: Our results suggest that motor paralysis, aging, and malnutrition contribute to quadriceps atrophy in post-stroke patients. Moreover, a potential countermeasure to diminish muscle quality loss is maintenance of muscle quantity.Eur Neurol 2019;81:56 –62 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - May 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Genetic Association Study of Restless Legs Syndrome in Chinese Population
Conclusions: Our study failed to replicate the association between 9 candidate genetic loci (HMOX1, HMOX2, VDR, IL17A, IL1B, NOS1, ADH1B, GABRR3 and GABRA4) and RLS in the Chinese population.Eur Neurol 2019;81:47 –55 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - May 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Message from the Editor
Eur Neurol 2019;81:1 –4 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of Acupuncture Treatment on Lower Limb Spasticity in Patients Following Hemorrhagic Stroke: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: Acupuncture could improve the lower limb spasticity and motor function, thus providing a safe and economical approach for treating stroke patients. The potential mechanism underpinning the greater improvement may be attributed to a reshape of corticospinal plasticity induced by acupuncture.Eur Neurol 2019;81:5 –12 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cross-Sectional Area Analysis of the Head of the Caudate Nucleus in Huntington ’s Disease
Conclusions: This cutoff value can be applied clinically to evaluate brain atrophy in HD. Our method is advantageous because it is simple and can be implemented easily in daily clinical practice.Eur Neurol 2019;81:13 –18 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Microbleeds of Lacunar Infarction and Middle Cerebral Artery Flow Velocity of Branch Atheromatous Disease Are Essential Factors of Stroke Etiology
Conclusion: Microbleeds is related to smaller size and middle cerebral artery PSV #x3e; 92 cm/s indicate larger size in supratentorial subcortical infarcts.Eur Neurol 2019;81:19 –23 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Association between Chronicity of Migraine and Complementary and Alternative Medication Use: The Turkish Perspective
Conclusions: Patterns of CAM use in Turkey for migraine differ from western practices. Due to fear of disapproval, patients tend to hide CAM use from their doctors. Exploring the CAM use among migraineurs is essential to prevent potential interactions of CAM therapies with conventional treatments.Eur Neurol 2019;81:24 –29 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Upper Limb Motor Function Affects the Outcome after Treatment with Botulinum Toxin A
Conclusions: The time course after administration of BoNT-A differed based on upper limb motor function before injection. When administering BoNT-A into the finger flexor muscles of a patient, we should carefully judge the indications for administration.Eur Neurol 2019;81:30 –36 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of Botulinum Toxin A on Allodynia in Chronic Migraine: An Observational Open-Label Two-Year Study
Conclusions: OBT-A seems to have an effect on central sensitization, expressed by allodynia. This action could be exerted by modulating nociceptive transmission, and reducing the global burden of migraine. Patients with more severe allodynia display a limited long-term effect on headache frequency. The modulation of central sensitization could reduce migraine disability, in spite of the persistence of frequent headache.Eur Neurol 2019;81:37 –46 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 24, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Contents Vol. 80, 2018
Eur Neurol 2018;80:I –IV (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - April 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Cerebral Microbleeds are Associated with Postural Instability and Gait Disturbance Subtype in People with Parkinson ’s Disease
Conclusions: CMB was prevalent in Taiwanese people with early- and mid-stage PD, especially the PIGD subtype. Deep, especially thalamic and WM, CMBs exhibited the highest association with the PIGD subtype.Eur Neurol 2018;80:335 –340 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Is Head Computerized Tomography Indicated for the Workup of Headache in Patients with Intact Neurological Examination
Conclusion: A normal neurologic examination, even when performed by a neurologist, does not rule out a significant secondary cause for headache. A CT scan in the ED is indicated for patients presenting with severe nonremitting headache who never had neuroimaging in the past.Eur Neurol 2018;80:341 –344 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Is Transient Global Amnesia a Network Disease?
Conclusions: We newly identify a reorganization of network hubs of the brain network in patients with TGA, especially in the regions of the default-mode network. These alterations of the brain network may play a role in the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying TGA and suggest that TGA is a network disease.Eur Neurol 2018;80:345 –353 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Predictable Value of Functional Independence Measure Differs between Anterior and Posterior Circulation Ischemic Strokes
Conclusions: The differences in outcome predictability by FIM score between AC and PC strokes should be considered, although FIM scores at discharge from stroke unit were useful to predict a favorable outcome.Eur Neurol 2018;80:313 –320 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Fifth International Neurological Congress in Lisbon, 1953
We present an overview of the International Neurological Congress that was held in Lisbon, Portugal, on September 7 –12, 1953, the fifth in the series of meetings that became a tradition and helped to establish Neurology and Neurosurgery as independent medical specialties in the mid-twentieth century. Four main symposia focused on vascular and metabolic diseases of the brain and on the parietal lobe. An additio nal 345 papers were read on diverse topics. The Congress was attended by 982 delegates from 39 countries. A central figure was Egas Moniz (1874–1955), the pioneer of cerebral angiography, who was awarded...
Source: European Neurology - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neuromyelitis Optica with Lesions Involving the Optic Nerves, the Optic Chiasm, and the Optic Tracts
Eur Neurol 2018;80:333 –334 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 21, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

How We Treat Autoimmune Small Fiber Polyneuropathy with Immunoglobulin Therapy
Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is FDA approved for the immune-mediated peripheral nerve disorders Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and multifocal motor neuropathy. Immunoglobulin therapy has been used increasingly with significant efficacy in the treatment of patients with disabling autoimmune forms of dysautonomia, which are most often small fiber (autonomic and/or sensory) polyneuropathies. It is recognized by most who treat these disorders, however, that patients with autonomic dysfunction treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy develop aseptic meningitis or severe ...
Source: European Neurology - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Isolated Dysphagia: A Rare Presentation of Lateral Medullary Infarction
Eur Neurol 2018;80:311 –312 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 20, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Neurological Symptoms in Danes with a History of Poliomyelitis: Lifelong Follow-Up of Late Symptoms, their Association with Initial Symptoms of Polio, and Presence of Postpolio Syndrome
Conclusion: Our data indicate that individuals with a history of PM late in life experience a variety of symptoms that cannot be attributed to lesions of the anterior horn. Furthermore, late symptoms do not seem to be related to initial symptoms of the acute stage of PM but to reported PPS. The last finding supports the perception that the cause of PPS is not just normal ageing.Eur Neurol 2018;80:295 –303 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - March 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Telemedicine in General Neurology: Interrater Reliability of Clinical Neurological Examination Via Audio-Visual Telemedicine
Conclusions: Remote examination via an audio-visual link produces comparable results to bedside performance even in acute patients of the emergency room. Compared to the scarce data available, inter-observer agreement is about the same as that between 2 examiners at bedside. However, more studies on reliability and validity of clinical neurological examination are required.Eur Neurol 2018;80:289 –294 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Next-Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Infections of the Central Nervous System Caused by the Neurotropic Herpes Viruses: A Pilot Study
Conclusions: NGS method is a promising pathogen detection tool for identifying viral CNS infections. It should be recommended to sequence viral DNA of CSF in the early stage of CNS viral infections.Eur Neurol 2018;80:283 –288 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 14, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

An Evaluation of the Effect of Vision on Standing Stability in the Early Stage of Parkinson ’s Disease
Conclusion: Although patients in the early stage of PD seem to be unstable based on COP linear measures, their postural control system is still flexible to adapt to environmental perturbations in quiet stance and they are not more visually dependent than healthy subjects to control stability in this position.Eur Neurol 2018;80:261 –267 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Association between Sleep Disturbances and Daytime Somnolence in Parkinson ’s Disease
Conclusion: There are differences in nocturnal sleep disturbances among PD patients with different types of daytime somnolence. The significant positive correlation between the ESS and the PDSS-2 total scores suggests that night-time sleep disturbance may influence daytime somnolence.Eur Neurol 2018;80:268 –276 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis Improves the Prognosis of Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients without Large Vessel Occlusion
Conclusions: AIS caused by small branches occlusion could benefit from intra-arterial urokinase thrombolysis, and the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage was not significantly higher.Eur Neurol 2018;80:277 –282 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 7, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Yield of Screening Tests for Systemic Vasculitis in Young Adults with Ischemic Stroke
Systemic vasculitis, which can involve the brain, may be one of the causes of stroke in young adults; therefore, a test panel for systemic vasculitis is considered for some young stroke patients. However, little is known about this test ’s yield as a screening test in young adults with ischemic stroke. We evaluated the yield of a panel for systemic vasculitis as a screening test in young patients with ischemic stroke. Consecutive patients aged 18–45 years with ischemic stroke between January 2010 and December 2017 were included . They all underwent screening tests for systemic vasculitis including rheumatoid fa...
Source: European Neurology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Profile of Syrian Asylum-Seekers from Neurological Clinic in a Tertiary Center
Conclusion: Most of the patients admitted to our hospital did not come to the follow-ups and information regarding their treatments could not be obtained. Even though the Republic of Turkey provided the Syrian asylum-seekers with free medical care, utilization of these resources may be limited because of socioeconomic issues.Eur Neurol 2018;80:249 –253 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

EEG Alpha (Re-)Activity after Paramedian Bi-Thalamic Stroke
Eur Neurol 2018;80:254 –255 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Nonconvulsive Status Epilepticus after Stroke
Conclusion: Cardioembolic stroke and frontal lesion were significant risk factors of NCSE after stroke.Eur Neurol 2018;80:256 –260 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - February 4, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Herpesviridae Seropositivity in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: First Polish Study
Conclusions: The study showed that MS patients in north-eastern Poland were more likely to be seropositive for EBV and HHV6 than healthy individuals. Further work should be undertaken in other regions of Poland and other European countries with particular attention paid to testing seropositivity in all HSs, particularly in the MS patient population, to evaluate the impact of HSs on MS patients in different environments.Eur Neurol 2018;80:129 –135 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - January 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Brain Morphology in Patients with Genetic Generalized Epilepsy: Its Heterogeneity among Subsyndromes
Conclusions: The main finding of this study is that brain morphology in patients with GGE is significantly different from that in healthy controls. In addition, we found that the different GGE syndromes show distinct structural brain morphology, especially cortical thickness, which can help us understand the pathogenesis of GGE syndromes.Eur Neurol 2018;80:136 –144 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - January 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Statement
Eur Neurol 2018;80:215 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - January 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Retraction Statement
Eur Neurol 2018;80:216 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - January 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Angelos Katakouzenos (1902 –1982): A Lifework of Neurology and Art
Angelos Katakouzenos, a Greek neurologist and prolific medical writer at the beginning of the 20th century, belonged to a group of artists and scholars that formed the “generation of the 30s,” a cultural movement that emerged after World War I and introduced modernism in Greek art and literature. Born in 1902, Katakouzenos studied medicine in France at the Universities of Montpellier and Paris, where he trained in neurology and ­psychiatry under Georges Guill ain, Henri Claude, Jean-Athanase Sicard, Pierre Marie, Clovis Vincent and Théophile ­Alajouanine. In Paris, he attended to Freud’s pa...
Source: European Neurology - January 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

The Influence of Menopause in Multiple Sclerosis Course: A Longitudinal Cohort Study
Conclusions: Following menopause, we observed a reduction in the relapse rate, but the disability progression continued at a similar rate, compared to the pre-menopausal period. These observations persisted in the subgroup of patients without changes in DMT or co-morbidities diagnosed during the observation period.Eur Neurol 2018;80:223 –227 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - January 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Central Slab versus Whole Brain to Measure Brain Atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis
Conclusion: Central slab and whole brain SIENA produced comparable statistical dispersion with similar associations to clinical outcomes.Eur Neurol 2018;80:207 –214 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - January 3, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Spontaneous Arm Movement Activity during Sleep in Epileptic and Non-Epileptic Patients
Conclusion: The patients with reported epilepsy exhibited higher spontaneous arm movement activity during sleep. This may be related to abnormal sleep architecture or abnormal EEG activity but was not related to epileptic seizures.Eur Neurol 2018;80:200 –206 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - January 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Blood Glucose Levels Are Associated with Cerebral Microbleeds in Patients with Acute Ischaemic Stroke
Conclusions: In this prospective study of patients with acute ischaemic stroke, our results showed that glucose was associated with deep or infratentorial CMBs but not with lobar CMBs.Eur Neurol 2018;80:187 –192 (Source: European Neurology)
Source: European Neurology - December 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Source Type: research