The acute effects of interrupting prolonged sitting with stair climbing on vascular and metabolic function after a high-fat meal
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that interrupting prolonged sitting with stair climbing may be an effective lifestyle strategy to prevent against vascular dysfunction that might occur as a result of prolonged sitting after consuming a high-fat meal in young healthy adults. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sensory inflow manipulation induces learning-like phenomena in motor behavior
AbstractPurposePerceptual and goal-directed behaviors may be improved by repetitive sensory stimulations without practice-based training. Focal muscle vibration (f-MV) modulating the spatiotemporal properties of proprioceptive inflow is well-suited to investigate the effectiveness of sensory stimulation in influencing motor outcomes. Thus, in this study, we verified whether optimized f-MV stimulation patterns might affect motor control of upper limb movements.MethodsTo answer this question, we vibrated the slightly tonically contracted anterior deltoid (AD), posterior deltoid (PD), and pectoralis major muscles in different...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Tracking the corticospinal responses to strength training
AbstractPurposeThe motor cortex (M1) appears to be a primary site of adaptation following both a single session, and repeated strength-training sessions across multiple weeks. Given that a single session of strength-training is sufficient to induce modification at the level of the M1 and corticospinal tract, this study sought to determine how these acute changes in M1 and corticospinal tract might accumulate across the course of a 2-week heavy-load strength-training program.MethodsTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to infer corticospinal excitability (CSE), intracortical facilitation (ICF), short and long-int...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Ultrasound speckle tracking of Achilles tendon in individuals with unilateral tendinopathy: a pilot study
ConclusionThese novel data suggest that the presence of tendinopathy diminishes intra-tendinous sliding in the Achilles tendon. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Intermittent not continuous hypoxia provoked haematological adaptations in healthy seniors: hypoxic pattern may hold the key
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this single-blind, repeated measures study was to investigate the effect of two hypoxic patterns, continuous or intermittent on key markers of haematological adaptation, stress and cardiac damage in healthy senior participants.MethodsFifteen healthy senior participants each followed a three-phase protocol over 3 consecutive weeks: (1) 5 consecutive days of breathing room air without a mask (2) 5  days of normoxic mask breathing (sham, FiO2 = 21%) (3) 5 days of intermittent hypoxia (IH) tailored to achieve a mean peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 85% during  ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cryptanalysis of the obfuscated round boundary technique for whitebox cryptography
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Numerical Computations of Nonlocal Schr ödinger Equations on the Real Line
AbstractThe numerical computation of nonlocal Schr ödinger equations (SEs) on the whole real axis is considered. Based on the artificial boundary method, we first derive the exact artificial nonreflecting boundary conditions. For the numerical implementation, we employ the quadrature scheme proposed in Tian and Du (SIAM J Numer Anal 51:3458–3482, 2013) to discretize the nonlocal operator, and apply thez-transform to the discrete nonlocal system in an exterior domain, and derive an exact solution expression for the discrete system. This solution expression is referred to our exact nonreflecting boundary condition...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Multigrid Methods for Time-Fractional Evolution Equations: A Numerical Study
AbstractIn this work, we develop an efficient iterative scheme for a class of nonlocal evolution models involving a Caputo fractional derivative of order\(\alpha (0,1)\) in time. The fully discrete scheme is obtained using the standard Galerkin method with conforming piecewise linear finite elements in space and corrected high-order BDF convolution quadrature in time. At each time step, instead of solving the linear algebraic system exactly, we employ a multigrid iteration with a Gauss –Seidel smoother to approximate the solution efficiently. Illustrative numerical results for nonsmooth problem data are presented to ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Higher Order Collocation Methods for Nonlocal Problems and Their Asymptotic Compatibility
AbstractWe study the convergence and asymptotic compatibility of higher order collocation methods for nonlocal operators inspired by peridynamics, a nonlocal formulation of continuum mechanics. We prove that the methods are optimally convergent with respect to the polynomial degree of the approximation. A numerical method is said to be asymptotically compatible if the sequence of approximate solutions of the nonlocal problem converges to the solution of the corresponding local problem as the horizon and the grid sizes simultaneously approach zero. We carry out a calibration process via Taylor series expansions and a scalin...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Progressions of core stabilization exercises based on postural control challenge assessment
ConclusionThe CSE progressions obtained by males and females were very similar. However, the participants with high trunk control showed less significant differences between exercise variations than the participants with low trunk control, which shows the need to individualize the progressions according to the participants ’ training level. Overall, this study provides useful information to guide the prescription of CSE progressions in young physically active individuals. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

UBC-Nepal expedition: dynamic cerebral autoregulation is attenuated in lowlanders upon ascent to 5050  m
ConclusionHerein, we provide novel evidence that dCA, assessed via Duplex ultrasound, was attenuated in lowlanders with exposure to normobaric and hypobaric hypoxia, whereas it is potentially preserved in the Sherpa. The clinical implications of attenuated dCA in lowlanders, and the adaptive significance of this response in the Sherpa highlanders, remains to be elucidated. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - February 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute and daily effects of repeated voluntary hyperpnea on pulmonary function in healthy adults
AbstractPurposeHyperpnea training has been used as a method for both improving exercise performance in healthy persons and improving ventilatory capacity in patients with pulmonary disease. However, voluntary hyperpnea causes acute declines in pulmonary function, but the effects of repeated days of hyperpnea on airway function are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of repeated normocapnic hyperpnea on daily and post-hyperpnea pulmonary function in healthy adults.MethodsTen healthy adults (21  years; 170 cm; 66 kg) completed ten hyperpnea training sessions within 17-days (TR). T...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Plantar flexor muscle-tendon unit length and stiffness do not influence neuromuscular fatigue in boys and men
AbstractPurposeThe twofold purpose of this study was (1) to compare differences in development and etiology of neuromuscular fatigue at different plantar flexor (PF) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) lengths between boys and men, and (2) to examine the relationship between musculotendinous stiffness and peripheral fatigue.MethodsNineteen pre-pubertal boys and 23 men performed three intermittent fatigue protocols at different PF MTU lengths (short: S, neutral: N and long: L), consisting of repeating maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) until the torque reached 60% of the initial value of MVIC. The etiology of the neuromus...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 24, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of slip length and hydraulic diameter on hydraulic entrance length of microchannels with superhydrophobic surfaces
AbstractThis paper investigated effects of slip length and hydraulic diameter on the hydraulic entrance length of laminar flow in superhydrophobic microchannels. Numerical investigations were performed for square microchannels withRe ranging between 0.1 and 1000. It is found that superhydrophobic microchannels have a longer hydraulic entrance length than that of conventional ones by nearly 26.62% at a lowRe. The dimensionless hydraulic entrance length slightly increases with the increasing slip length at approximatelyRe
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Alterations in energy system contribution following upper body sprint interval training
ConclusionSIT protocols with smaller work-to-rest ratios may enhance ATP-PCr utilization in a 30  s upper body Wingate over a 2-week intervention. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The association of HFE gene H63D polymorphism with endurance athlete status and aerobic capacity: novel findings and a meta-analysis
ConclusionsWe have shown that theHFE H63D polymorphism is strongly associated with elite endurance athlete status, regardless ethnicities and aerobic capacity in Russian athletes. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Biological variation of arginine vasopressin
ConclusionsThis analysis demonstrates that AVP assessment is unlikely to yield useful information about hydration status. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 22, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Reliability and validity of methods in the assessment of cold-induced shivering thermogenesis
ConclusionsSegmental regression provides a successful analytical method for identifying shivering onset. Good-to-excellent reliability can be seen across V ̇O2, EMG, MMG, and BSAS, yet given the observed lag times, SNRs, along with known advantages/disadvantaged of each metric, it is recommended that no single metric is used in isolation. An integrative, real-time measure of shivering is proposed. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The effect of varying intensities of lower limb eccentric muscle contractions on left ventricular function
This study investigated ECC RE at varying intensities on left ventricular (LV) function using LV strain ( ε), wall stress and haemodynamic parameters. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers completed ECC leg extensions at 20%, 50% and 80% of their ECC maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), whilst receiving echocardiograms. Global longitudinal ɛ, strain rate (SR), longitudinal tissue velocity, heart rate (H R), blood pressure (BP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), LV wall stress and rate pressure product (RPP) were assessed at baseline and during exercise.ResultsLeft ventricular global ɛ, systolic SR and wall stress remai...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A predictive failure framework for brittle porous materials via machine learning and geometric matching methods
AbstractBrittle porous materials are used in many applications, such as molten metal filter, battery, fuel cell, catalyst, membrane, and insulator. The porous structure of these materials causes variations in their fracture strength that is known as the mechanical reliability problem. Despite the importance of brittle porous materials, the origin of the strength variations is still unclear. The current study presents a machine learning approach to characterize the stochastic fracture of porous ceramics and glasses. A combined finite element modeling and fracture mechanics approach was used to generate a unique empirical da...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The impact of acute remote ischaemic preconditioning on cerebrovascular function
ConclusionThis study demonstrates that a single bout of RIPC does not influence cerebrovascular function acutely in healthy individuals, or those at increased cardiovascular risk. Given the previously reported protective role of RIPC on stroke recurrence in humans, it is possible that repeated bouts of RIPC may be necessary to impart beneficial effects on cerebrovascular function. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Is there an intermuscular relationship in voluntary activation capacities and contractile kinetics?
This study aimed to further determine whether there is an intermuscular relationship in maximal voluntary activation capacities and contractile kinetics of human muscles.MethodsTwenty-six young healthy individuals participated in this study. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, voluntary activation level (VAL), and doublet twitch contractile kinetics (contraction time and half-relaxation time) evoked by a paired supramaximal peripheral nerve stimulation at 100  Hz were obtained in elbow flexors, knee extensors, plantar flexors and dorsiflexors of the dominant limb.ResultsPeak MVC torque had significan...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Multilevel allometric modelling of maximum cardiac output, maximum arteriovenous oxygen difference, and peak oxygen uptake in 11 –13-year-olds
AbstractPurposesTo investigate longitudinally (1) the contribution of morphological covariates to explaining the development of maximum cardiac output (\({\dot{\text{Q}}}\) max) and maximum arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff max), (2) sex differences in\({\dot{\text{Q}}}\) max and a-vO2 diff max once age, maturity status, and morphological covariates have been controlled for, and, (3) the contribution of concurrent changes in morphological and cardiovascular covariates to explaining the sex-specific development of peak oxygen uptake (\(\dot{{V}}{\mathrm{O}}_{2}\)).MethodsFifty-one (32 boys) 11 –13-year-olds ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Controllable preparation of graphene-based film deposited on cemented carbides by chemical vapor deposition
AbstractThe aim was to study the controllable preparation of graphene-based films on the cemented carbide with different cobalt content. The graphene-based film was deposited on the surface of cemented carbide by homemade chemical vapor deposition. Every film ’s composition was analyzed by the Raman spectrum, and the influence of the cobalt content and methane flow rate on all kinds of film’s formation was studied, and the formation mechanism of the graphene-based film on cemented carbide surface was summarized. Multilayer graphene film or graphene a nd amorphous carbon mixed film could be generated by regulati...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Layer-specific speckle tracking analysis of left ventricular systolic function and synchrony in maintenance hemodialysis patients
ConclusionsLST may detect early changes of all three-layer LS and CS and PSD in MHD patients, and is therefore a valuable tool to diagnose LV systolic dysfunction in MHD patients. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Comfortable walking speed and energy cost of locomotion in patients with multiple sclerosis
AbstractComfortable walking speed and energy cost of walking are physiological markers of metabolic activity during gait. People with multiple sclerosis are characterized by altered gait biomechanics and energetics, related to the degree of disability and spasticity, which lead to an increased energy cost of walking. Several studies concerning the energy cost of walking in multiple sclerosis have been published. Nevertheless, differences in protocols and characteristics of the sample have led to different outcomes. The aim of the present meta-analysis is to summarize results from studies with specific inclusion characteris...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effectiveness of combining microcurrent with resistance training in trained males
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

β 2 adrenergic interaction and cardiac autonomic function: effects of aerobic training in overweight/obese individuals
ConclusionsADRB2 variants and aerobic exercise training are important interacting variables to improve autonomic function and other health variables outcomes in overweight or obese individuals. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 8, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular haemodynamics during isometric resistance exercise with and without the Valsalva manoeuvre
AbstractPurposeTo examine the interactive effects of VM and isometric resistance exercise on cerebral haemodynamics.MethodsEleven healthy participants (mean  ± SD 28 ± 9 years; 2 females) completed 20-s bilateral isometric leg extension at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction with continued ventilation (RE), a 20-s VM at mouth pressure of 40 mmHg (VM), and a combination (RE + VM), in randomised order. Mean beat-to-beat blood velocity in the posterior (PCAvmean) and middle cerebral arteries (MCAvmean), vertebral artery blood flow, end-tidal partial pressure o...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Arterial blood gases in divers at surface after prolonged breath-hold
ConclusionWe confirmed that the arterial partial pressure of oxygen reaches hazardously low values at the end of breath-hold, especially after the dive performed with voluntary effort. Critical hypoxia can occur in breath-hold divers even without symptoms. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Computational fluid dynamic analysis for investigating the influence of pipe curvature on erosion rate prediction during crude oil production
AbstractThe flow dynamics in pipes is a very complex system because it is largely affected by flow conditions. The transport of crude oil in pipelines within unconsolidated petroleum reservoirs is associated with presence of solid particles. These particles are often transported as dispersed phases during crude oil production and are therefore detrimental to the pipe surface integrity. This could lead to the occurrences of crevice corrosion due to pipe erosion. In relation to the above discussion, this paper is aimed at analyzing crude oil dynamics during flow through pipeline and identifying erosion hotspot for different ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Falling film liquid desiccant air dehumidification
AbstractFalling film liquid desiccant dehumidification technology is attracting more and more attention due to lower energy consumption, less pollution, and more flexible humidity control in recent years. This paper conducts a comprehensive review on falling film liquid desiccant dehumidification systems. Firstly, the working principles and features of the liquid desiccant dehumidification are introduced to describe the dehumidification process. The existing liquid desiccants including organic and inorganic desiccants are reviewed. Then, the structures of falling film dehumidifiers including both adiabatic dehumidifiers an...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Experiment study of droplet impacting on a static hemispherical liquid film
AbstractExperiment study of a droplet impacting on a static hemispherical liquid film was conducted. The static hemispherical liquid film was formed by a first droplet impacting on a dry solid surface, and the diameter, impact velocity, and liquid properties of the second droplet were the same with the first one. A high-speed camera was used to capture the deformation process of the impacting droplet at a shooting speed of 4000 frames per second. The effects of droplet Weber number and Reynolds number on the spread factor and flatness factor were analyzed quantitatively. The result shows that as increasing of droplet Weber...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Performance comparison of bubble point pressure from oil PVT data: Several neurocomputing techniques compared
AbstractPressure –Volume–Temperature (PVT) characterization of a crude oil involves establishing its bubble point pressure, which is the pressure at which the first gas bubble forms on a fluid sample while reducing pressure at a stabilized temperature. Although accurate measurement can be made experimentally, su ch experiments are expensive and time-consuming. Consequently, applying reliable artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning methods to provide an accurate mathematical prediction of an oil’s bubble point pressure from more easily measured characteristics can provide valuable cost and time savin...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A technical review of research progress on thin liquid film thickness measurement
AbstractThe thickness of the thin liquid film and its effects have always been a research hotspot in nuclear power applications and operating nuclear power plants, because the flow phenomenon of the liquid film is extremely common in multiphase flow research. Based on papers published in recent years, novel research progress on thin film thickness is reviewed from the following two perspectives: the experimental measurement and the theoretical model of liquid film thickness. For the experimental measurement, methods mainly include the PLIF method, the capacitance method, and the ultrasonic method. The following contents in...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effect of interfacial drag force model on code prediction for upward adiabatic two-phase bubbly flow in vertical channels
AbstractAccurate modeling of the interfacial drag force is one of the keys to predicting thermo-fluid parameters using one-dimensional nuclear thermal-hydraulic system analysis code architected through the two-fluid model. The interfacial drag force appears in the interfacial momentum transfer term and governs the velocity slip or the relative velocity between gas and liquid phases. The most straightforward method to model the interfacial drag force is to model the force through the drag law (drag law approach). A drag coefficient and interfacial area concentration should be given to close the interfacial drag force model....
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Rising vs. falling phases of core temperature on endurance exercise capacity in the heat
This study examined the time-of-day effects on endurance exercise capacity and heat-loss responses to controlTc in the heat at around the midpoint of the rising and falling phases ofTc.MethodsTen male participants completed cycling exercise at 70% peak oxygen uptake until exhaustion in the heat (30  °C, 50% relative humidity). Participants commenced exercise in the late morning at 10:00 h (AM) or evening at 21:00 h (PM).ResultsTime to exhaustion was 28  ± 13% (mean ± SD) longer in PM (49.1 ± 16.3 min) than AM (38.7 ±&thinsp...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 2, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of exercise and whey protein on muscle mass, fat mass, myoelectrical muscle fatigue and health-related quality of life in older adults: a secondary analysis of the Liverpool Hope University —Sarcopenia Ageing Trial (LHU-SAT)
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the effects of exercise in combination with, or without, a leucine-enriched whey protein supplement on muscle mass, fat mass, myoelectrical muscle fatigue and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in older adults.Methods100 community-dwelling older adults [52% women, age: 69  ± 6 years (mean ± SD)] were randomised to four [Control (C); Exercise (E); Exercise + Protein (EP); Protein (P)] independent groups. E and EP groups completed 16 weeks of exercise [resistance (2 times/week) and functional (1 time/week]. EP and P groups we...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 2, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Historical reviews of the assessment of human cardiovascular function: interrogation and understanding of the control of skin blood flow
AbstractSeveral techniques exist for the determination of skin blood flow that have historically been used in the investigation of thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow, and more recently, in clinical assessments or as an index of global vascular function. Skin blood flow measurement techniques differ in their methodology and their strengths and limitations. To examine the historical development of techniques for assessing skin blood flow by describing the origin, basic principles, and important aspects of each procedure and to provide recommendations for best practise. Venous occlusion plethysmography was one of the...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Oxygen uptake plateau: calculation artifact or physiological reality?
AbstractPurposeTo test whether the oxygen uptake (\(\dot{V}O_{{2}}\)) plateau at\(\dot{V}O_{{{\text{2max}}}}\) is simply a calculation artifact caused by the variability of\(\dot{V}O_{{2}}\) or a clearly identifiable physiological event.MethodsForty-six male participants performed an incremental ramp and a\(\dot{V}O_{{{\text{2max}}}}\) verification test. Variability of the difference between adjacent sampling intervals (difference) and of the slope of the\(\dot{V}O_{{2}}\)–workload relationship (slope) in the submaximal intensity domain were calculated. Workload defined sampling intervals used for the calculation of ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of New Zealand blackcurrant extract on sport climbing performance
The authors would like to correct the following errors in the online publication of the article. Incorrect values for % changes for climb duration were provided in the abstract, results and discussion session. The  % changes in climb duration was 15% with intake of New Zealand blackcurrant extract and -15% for the placebo condition. This correction does not change the conclusions derived from the study. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Age differences in cardiac autonomic regulation during intermittent exercise in the heat
ConclusionsThis study supports that moderate-intensity intermittent exercise in the heat is associated with significant cardiac autonomic dysregulation in older men, as compared to young and middle-aged men, yet it highlights the importance of developing preventative health strategies for heat-related illness in aged individuals. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - January 1, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Role of a single session of ball throwing exercise on postural control in older adults with mild cognitive impairment
ConclusionsThe outcome of the exploratory study suggests that perturbation-based training could be used to improve balance control in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 21, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Low-load blood flow restriction elicits greater concentric strength than non-blood flow restriction resistance training but similar isometric strength and muscle size
ConclusionsThese findings indicated that low-load RT  + BFR elicited greater increases in concentric strength than low-load RT, but elicited comparable increases in isometric strength and muscle size. There were also no differences in any of the EMG and MMG responses among conditions. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The skin blood flow response to exercise in boys and men and the role of nitric oxide
We examined the SkBF response to exercise in children and adults, along with the potential contribution of nitric oxide to the SkBF response.MethodsForearm SkBF during cycling (30  min at 60%\(\dot{V}\)O2max) was investigated in 12 boys (10  ± 1 years) and 12 men (22 ± 2 years) using laser-Doppler flowmetry andNω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) iontophoresis to inhibit nitric oxide synthase.ResultsThe exercise-induced SkBF increase was similar in boys and men (mean  ± SD, 540 ± 127 vs. 536 ± ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 14, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Eight weeks of resistance training increases strength, muscle cross-sectional area and motor unit size, but does not alter firing rates in the vastus lateralis
ConclusionResistance training induced MU and muscle hypertrophy, but did not alter firing rates. Greater MU twitch forces resulting from larger MUs firing at pre-training rates likely explain resistance training strength gains. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Prolonged cooling with phase change material enhances recovery and does not affect the subsequent repeated bout effect following exercise
AbstractPurposeThe aim of this investigation was twofold: (1) to examine the effect of prolonged phase change material (PCM) cooling following eccentric exercise of the quadriceps on indices of muscle damage, and (2) to elucidate whether application of PCM cooling blunted the acute adaptive response to eccentric exercise, known as the repeated bout effect (RBE).MethodsTwenty-six males (25  ± 6 years) performed an initial bout (B1) of 120 eccentric quadriceps contractions on each leg at 90% of their isometric strength and were then randomized to receive PCM packs frozen at 15 °C (treatment...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

SPEXOR passive spinal exoskeleton decreases metabolic cost during symmetric repetitive lifting
ConclusionWearing the SPEXOR exoskeleton decreased metabolic cost and might, therefore, reduce fatigue development and contribute to prevention of low-back pain during repetitive lifting tasks. Reduced metabolic cost can be explained by the exoskeleton substituting part of muscle work at the hip and L5S1 joints and consequently decreasing required back muscle activity. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Ultra-endurance triathlon performance and markers of whole-body and gut-specific inflammation
AbstractPurposeTo examine the influence of the Ultraman Florida triathlon (3  days of non-continuous racing; stage 1: 10 km swim and 144.8 km cycle; stage 2: 275.4 km cycle; stage 3: 84.4 km run) on circulating plasma concentrations of whole-body (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6), and IL-10 and surrogate gut-specific inflammatory markers (IL-17 and IL -23), and determine whether these variables are associated with performance.MethodsEighteen triathletes (N = 18; 15 men, 3 women; age: 37 ± 8 yrs) were evaluated at baseline and post-race for circu...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Ad libitum water consumption off-sets the thermal and cardiovascular strain exacerbated by dehydration during a 3-h simulated heatwave
AbstractPurposeTo assess whether ad libitum water ingestion of different temperatures is sufficient to prevent dehydration-related exacerbations of thermal and cardiovascular strain, during exposure to conditions representative of a heatwave.MethodsTwelve participants (mean  ± SD; 25 ± 4 years) exercised for 180 min at 3 METs in 40.1 ± 0.6 °C, 40.4 ± 2.1%RH four times: (i) consuming 20 °C water ad libitum (AL20); (ii) consuming 4 °C water ad libitum (AL4); (iii) replacing no fluids (NOFR); (iv) replacing...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research