Intradialytic cycling does not exacerbate microparticles or circulating markers of systemic inflammation in haemodialysis patients
ConclusionSix months of regular, moderate-intensity IDC had no effect on MPs, cytokines or chemokines. This suggests that the exercise did not exacerbate thrombotic or inflammatory status, though further functional assays are required to confirm this.Trial registrationISRCTN1129707, prospectively registered on 05/03/2015. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 2, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Physiological profile comparison between high intensity functional training, endurance and power athletes
ConclusionsAs HIFT reach aerobic levels similar to END athletes and power and strength output similar to POW athletes, it appears that HIFT programs are effective to improve both endurance-related and power-related physical fitness components. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - December 1, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A backpropagation neural network improved by a genetic algorithm for predicting the mean radiant temperature around buildings within the long-term period of the near future
This study aimed to develop a neural network (NN)-based method to predict the long-term mean radiant temperature (MRT) around buildings by using meteorological parameters as training data. The MRT dramatically impacts building energy consumption and significantly affects outdoor thermal comfort. In NN-based long-term MRT prediction, two main restrictions must be overcome to achieve precise results: first, the difficulty of preparing numerous training datasets; second, the challenge of developing an accurate NN model. To overcome these restrictions, a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) andK-means clustering w...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Turbulence model performance for ventilation components pressure losses
This study looks to find a suitable turbulence model for calculating pressure losses of ventilation components. In building ventilation, the most relevant Reynolds number range is between 3 ×104 and 6 ×105, depending on the duct dimensions and airflow rates. Pressure loss coefficients can increase considerably for some components at Reynolds numbers below 2 ×105. An initial survey of popular turbulence models was conducted for a selected test case of a bend with such a strong Reynolds number dependence. Most of the turbulence models failed in reproducing this dependence and predicted curve progressions th...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Thermal comfort in classrooms considering a traditional wind tower in Trabzon through simulation
In this study, the effect of ventilation realized using a wind tower on the thermal quality of a classroom was investigated. In the study, two popular models (unidirectional and multidirectional wind tower) were studied, and the model that provided more ergonomic ventilation to sitting users based on climate conditions of the province of Trabzon (Turkey) during the month of August was determined. The more efficient model was studied further. Some dimensional changes in width, height, and shelf height were applied to it to find a model that provided more comfort for the used thermal conditions. The models were modelled and ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

On the effects of urban-like intersections on ventilation and pollutant dispersion
AbstractFocusing on the effect of street morphology on the ventilation efficiency, this paper presents 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflow and pollutant dispersion within urban-like three-way intersections, four-way intersections and roundabouts. The steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)k- ε turbulence model is adopted and eight directions of the approaching wind are considered. The ventilation efficiency is evaluated using the ventilation indices purging flow rate (PFR) and the net escape velocity (NEV). Results show the sensitivity of the ventilation efficiency to the type o...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The challenges on operating a zero net energy building facing global warming conditions
This study proposes a methodology to evaluate the energy performance of existing Zero Energy Buildings and to prospect retrofit strategies in a Savannah climate, concerning the A2 scenario of emissions from the Fourth Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The selected building to study is recognized for its high energy performance, namedCentro SEBRAE de Sustentabilidade (CSS). Two efficient measures were considered: (i) improvement in the air conditioning system coefficient of performance (COP) and (ii) in the energy efficiency of the photovoltaic plates of generation on-site. The methodology is grounded...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Review on occupancy detection and prediction in building simulation
AbstractEnergy simulation results for buildings have significantly deviated from actual consumption because of the uncertainty and randomness of occupant behavior. Such differences are mainly caused by the inaccurate estimation of occupancy in buildings. Therefore, the error between reality and prediction could be largely reduced by improving the accuracy level of occupancy prediction. Although various studies on occupancy have been conducted, there are still many differences in the approaches to detection, prediction, and validation. Reports published within this domain are reviewed in this article to discover the advanta...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Metamodeling and multicriteria analysis for sustainable and passive residential building refurbishment: A case study of French housing stock
This study was extended to all French regions. Finally, this method can be transformed into a decision support tool which will be useful for architects, engineers and stockholders. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Best Paper Award 2020
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Miniature Fiber Tip Polystyrene Microsphere Temperature Sensor With High Sensitivity
AbstractA fiber-optic temperature sensor based on fiber tip polystyrene microsphere is proposed. The sensor structure can be formed simply by placing and fixing a polystyrene microsphere on the center of an optical fiber tip. Since polystyrene has a much larger thermal expansivity, the structure can be used for high-sensitive temperature measurement. By the illuminating of the sensor with a broadband light source and through the optical Fabry-Perot interference between the front and back surfaces of the polystyrene microsphere, the optical phase difference (OPD) or wavelength shift can be used for the extraction of tempera...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

4-Mercaptopyridine Modified Fiber Optic Plasmonic Sensor for Sub-nM Mercury (II) Detection
AbstractIn this paper, we propose and demonstrate a high-performance mercury ion sensor with sub-nM detection limit, high selectivity, and strong practicability based on the small molecule of the 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MPY) modified tilted fiber Bragg grating surface plasmon resonance (TFBG-SPR) sensing platform. The TFBG-SPR sensor has a rich mode field distribution and a narrow bandwidth, which can detect the microscopic physical and chemical reactions on the sensor surface with high sensitivity without being disturbed by the external temperature. For the environmental compatibility and highly efficient capture of the tox...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Dual-Wavelength Continuous Wave Photoacoustic Doppler Flow Measurement
AbstractPhotoacoustic Doppler flow measurement based on continuous wave laser excitation owns the merit of clearly presenting the Doppler power spectra. Extending this technique to dual wavelengths can gain the spectral information of the flow sample extra to the flow speed information. An experimental system with two laser diodes respectively operated at 405 nm and 660 nm wavelengths is built and the flow measurement with black and red dyed polystyrene beads is performed. The measured Doppler power spectra can vividly reflect the flow speed, the flow direction, as well as the bead color. Since it is straightforward to fur...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Optical Oxygen Sensors With Improved Lifetime Incorporating Titania Beads and Polydimethylsiloxane Coatings
AbstractThe use of optical sensors for oxygen measurement is becoming more important because of their capability for low-cost and direct measurement, but as yet, little has been reported about their long-term performance. Phosphorescent sensors based on platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) embedded in polymer matrices tend to degrade with time. To reduce the rate of degradation, sensor films were fabricated and then coated with a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and tested in a six-month study. The PDMS-coated sensors showed an average degradation rate of ~0.073 %/day, compared to ~0.18 %/day for uncoated sensors. Titan...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Demonstration of a Polymer-Based Single Step Waveguide by 3D Printing Digital Light Processing Technology for Isopropanol Alcohol-Concentration Sensor
AbstractA polymer based horizontal single step waveguide for the sensing of alcohol is developed and analyzed. The waveguide is fabricated by 3-dimensional (3D) printing digital light processing (DLP) technology using monocure 3D rapid ultraviolet (UV) clear resin with a refractive index ofn = 1.50. The fabricated waveguide is a one-piece tower shaped ridge structure. It is designed to achieve the maximum light confinement at the core by reducing the effective refractive index around the cladding region. With the surface roughness generated from the 3D printing DLP technology, various waveguides with different gap sizes ar...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Study of the Sensing Characteristics of Irradiated Fiber Bragg Gratings and Fabry-Perot Interferometers Under Gamma Radiation
AbstractThe sensing characteristics of irradiated fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPIs) were investigated under a 2 MGy dose of gamma radiation. The study found that the pressure sensitivity of FP sensors after irradiation was stable, while the temperature sensitivity of FBG sensors was unstable, and both wavelengths displayed a shift. These findings offer the possibility for the application of FP pressure sensors in the gamma radiation environments, and FBG sensors require further research to be suitable for application in the nuclear radiation environments. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Zinc Phthalocyanine Thin Film-Based Optical Waveguide H2S Gas Sensor
AbstractThe detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is essential because of its toxicity and abundance in the environment. Hence, there is an urgent requisite to develop a highly sensitive and economical H2S detection system. Herein, a zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) thin film-based K+-exchanged optical waveguide (OWG) gas sensor was developed for H2S detection by using spin coating. The sensor showed excellent H2S sensing performance at room temperature with a wide linear range (0.1 ppm –500 ppm), reproducibility, stability, and a low detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The developed sensor showed a significant prospect in the devel...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

An Effort Towards Full Graphene Photodetectors
AbstractGraphene as a truly 2-dimensional (2D) system is a promising candidate material for various optoelectronic applications. Implementing graphene as the main building material in ultra-broadband photodetectors has been the center of extensive research due to its unique absorption spectrum which covers most of the electro-magnetic spectra. However, one of the main challenges facing the wide application of pure graphene photodetectors has been the small optical absorption of monolayer graphene. Although novel designs were proposed to overcome this drawback, they often need complicated fabrication processes in order to i...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 17, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Impacts of uneven surface heating of an ideal street canyon on airflows and indoor ventilation: Numerical study using OpenFOAM coupled with EnergyPlus
In this study, the impacts of uneven and time-varying heating of surfaces inside an ideal urban street canyon (aspect ratio = 1) on single-sided indoor natural ventilation are analyzed. This work introduces a methodology for a numerical approach based on the coupling between a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model and an energy balance model. First, EnergyPlus is employed to calculate the time-varying and uneven surface heating. Simulations are performed at four typical study times (05:00, 09:00, 15:00, 20:00) during a hot summer day (July 15) in Wuhan, China. Second, the surface temperature results are transferred to O...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Modeling and analysis of a dual-channel solar thermal storage wall system with phase change material in hot summer and cold winter area
AbstractA dual-channel solar thermal storage wall system with eutectic phase change material is studied. The full-day cooling load in summer and heating load in winter can be both decreased by this novel system. To investigate the airflow in the dual channel, mixed area assumptions based on the experimental results are summarized. Dynamic mathematical models of the system under four work modes are established and verified by the experimental results. The average RMSD (root mean square deviation) value is 0.35% in summer and 0.95% in winter. By analyzing the heat flux, the combination of dual channel and PCM is proven to de...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Unsteady RANS simulation of wind flow around a building shape obstacle
AbstractThis work aims to find the origin and connection of the surface, near-wake, and far-wake structures in the flow encompassing a high-rise building for a high Reynolds number. The origin and interconnection of the stream-wise tip vortices, with the other components of the wake, is analysed in this study for the current scenario. The Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS) together with the realizablek- ϵ turbulence model have been used in this investigation to study the turbulent wake flow following a ground-surface-attached square shape building. A moderately big obstacle aspect ratio of 4, a Rey...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

From laboratory to on-site operation: Reevaluation of empirically based electric water chiller models
AbstractChiller model is a key factor to building energy simulation and chiller performance prediction. With spread of new types of electric water chillers that have higher performance and wider operating range, new challenges have been faced by building energy simulation tools and their chiller models. This work takes a new type of electric water chiller as a case study and reevaluates eight typical empirically based models for predicting the energy performance of electric water chiller to verify whether they are suitable for the new type of chiller, using both laboratory test data from chiller manufacturer and online mon...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Natural ventilation driven by a restricted heat source elevated to different levels
AbstractThe thermal buoyancy generated by the difference in air density in a building can drive hot-pressed natural ventilation, which is an energy-efficient means of ventilation used to obtain higher air quality. Therefore, the effect of a single-point heat source with limited sides at different heights on stratified flow was studied in a naturally ventilated room in this paper. Based on the classical plume diffusion law of an independent point heat source and the mirroring principle, a calculation model of the thermal stratification height with a restricted source elevated to different levels was derived and validated. T...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A novel deep generative modeling-based data augmentation strategy for improving short-term building energy predictions
This study proposes a deep generative modeling-based data augmentation strategy for improving short-term building energy predictions. Two types of conditional variational autoencoders have been designed for synthetic energy data generation using fully connected and one-dimensional convolutional layers respectively. Data experiments have been designed to evaluate the value of data augmentation using actual measurements from 52 buildings. The results indicate that conditional variational autoencoders are capable of generating high-quality synthetic data samples, which in turns helps to enhance the accuracy in short-term buil...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The influence of airtightness on contaminant spread in MURBs in cold climates
AbstractTall buildings in cold climates have unique challenges in maintaining indoor air quality due to stack effect. During the heating season, interior air buoyancy creates large pressure differentials in vertical shafts that can drive airflow from lower floors into upper floors. This pressure differential can result in the spread of contaminants throughout a building. Most recently, concern over COVID-19 has increased attention to the potential spread of airborne diseases in densely populated buildings. For many multi-unit residential buildings, suite ventilation has traditionally relied upon fresh air supplied through ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Erratum to: Unsteady RANS simulation of wind flow around a building shape obstacle
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Energy saving potential of a fresh air pre-cooling system using radiative sky cooling
AbstractTo achieve required indoor air quality, fresh air supply in buildings should meet relevant standards and regulations. However, the handling of fresh air introduced a cooling load that takes up a large portion of building energy consumption, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. A proper way should be employed to reduce the cooling load of fresh air. Radiative sky cooling, which is the process that an object cools itself by emitting thermal radiation to outer space without any energy input, is a cost-effective and eco-friendly technology. In this work, a fresh air pre-cooling system using radiative sky cooli...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Transformers in computational visual media: A survey
This study comprehensively surveys recent visual transformer works. We categorize them according to task scenario: backbone design, high-level vision, low-level vision and generation, and multimodal learning. Their key ideas are also analyzed. Differing from previous surveys, we mainly focus on visual transformer methods in low-level vision and generation. The latest works on backbone design are also reviewed in detail. For ease of understanding, we precisely describe the main contributions of the latest works in the form of tables. As well as giving quantitative comparisons, we also present image results for low-level vis...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Reference-guided structure-aware deep sketch colorization for cartoons
AbstractDigital cartoon production requires extensive manual labor to colorize sketches with visually pleasant color composition and color shading. During colorization, the artist usually takes an existing cartoon image as color guidance, particularly when colorizing related characters or an animation sequence. Reference-guided colorization is more intuitive than colorization with other hints, such as color points or scribbles, or text-based hints. Unfortunately, reference-guided colorization is challenging since the style of the colorized image should match the style of the reference image in terms of both global color co...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Smoothness preserving layout for dynamic labels by hybrid optimization
AbstractStable label movement and smooth label trajectory are critical for effective information understanding. Sudden label changes cannot be avoided by whatever forced directed methods due to the unreliability of resultant force or global optimization methods due to the complex trade-off on the different aspects. To solve this problem, we proposed a hybrid optimization method by taking advantages of the merits of both approaches. We first detect the spatial-temporal intersection regions from whole trajectories of the features, and initialize the layout by optimization in decreasing order by the number of the involved fea...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Homography-guided stereo matching for wide-baseline image interpolation
AbstractImage interpolation has a wide range of applications such as frame rate-up conversion and free viewpoint TV. Despite significant progresses, it remains an open challenge especially for image pairs with large displacements. In this paper, we first propose a novel optimization algorithm for motion estimation, which combines the advantages of both global optimization and a local parametric transformation model. We perform optimization over dynamic label sets, which are modified after each iteration using the prior of piecewise consistency to avoid local minima. Then we apply it to an image interpolation framework incl...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Deep image synthesis from intuitive user input: A review and perspectives
AbstractIn many applications of computer graphics, art, and design, it is desirable for a user to provide intuitive non-image input, such as text, sketch, stroke, graph, or layout, and have a computer system automatically generate photo-realistic images according to that input. While classically, works that allow such automatic image content generation have followed a framework of image retrieval and composition, recent advances in deep generative models such as generative adversarial networks (GANs), variational autoencoders (VAEs), and flow-based methods have enabled more powerful and versatile image generation approache...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

DualFace: Two-stage drawing guidance for freehand portrait sketching
AbstractSpecial skills are required in portrait painting, such as imagining geometric structures and facial detail for final portrait designs. This makes it a difficult task for users, especially novices without prior artistic training, to draw freehand portraits with high-quality details. In this paper, we propose dualFace, a portrait drawing interface to assist users with different levels of drawing skills to complete recognizable and authentic face sketches. Inspired by traditional artist workflows for portrait drawing, dualFace gives two-stages of drawing assistance to provide global and local visual guidance. The form...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Learning conditional photometric stereo with high-resolution features
AbstractPhotometric stereo aims to reconstruct 3D geometry by recovering the dense surface orientation of a 3D object from multiple images under differing illumination. Traditional methods normally adopt simplified reflectance models to make the surface orientation computable. However, the real reflectances of surfaces greatly limit applicability of such methods to real-world objects. While deep neural networks have been employed to handle non-Lambertian surfaces, these methods are subject to blurring and errors, especially in high-frequency regions (such as crinkles and edges), caused by spectral bias: neural networks fav...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Visual perception driven collage synthesis
AbstractA collage is a composite artwork made from the spatial layout of multiple pictures on a canvas, collected from the Internet or user photographs. Collages, usually made by skilled artists, involve a complex manual process, especially when searching for component pictures and adjusting their spatial layout to meet artistic requirements. In this paper, we present a visual perception driven method for automatically synthesizing visually pleasing collages. Unlike previous works, we focus on how to design a collage layout which not only provides easy access to the theme of the overall image, but also conforms to human vi...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Message from the Editor-in-Chief
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Rectangling irregular videos by optimal spatio-temporal warping
AbstractImage and video processing based on geometric principles typically changes the rectangular shape of video frames to an irregular shape. This paper presents a warping based approach for rectangling such irregular frame boundaries in space and time, i.e., making them rectangular again. To reduce geometric distortion in the rectangling process, we employ content-preserving deformation of a mesh grid with line structures as constraints to warp the frames. To conform to the original inter-frame motion, we keep feature trajectory distribution as constraints during motion compensation to ensure stability after warping the...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Erroneous pixel prediction for semantic image segmentation
AbstractWe consider semantic image segmentation. Our method is inspired by Bayesian deep learning which improves image segmentation accuracy by modeling the uncertainty of the network output. In contrast to uncertainty, our method directly learns to predict the erroneous pixels of a segmentation network, which is modeled as a binary classification problem. It can speed up training comparing to the Monte Carlo integration often used in Bayesian deep learning. It also allows us to train a branch to correct the labels of erroneous pixels. Our method consists of three stages: (i) predict pixel-wise error probability of the ini...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 10, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Hypohydration produced by high-intensity intermittent running increases biomarkers of renal injury in males
This study investigated the effect of manipulating hydration status during high-intensity intermittent running on biomarkers of renal injury.MethodsAfter familiarisation, 14 males (age: 33  ± 7 years; V̇O2peak: 57.1  ± 8.6 ml/kg/min; mean ± SD) completed 2 trials in a randomised cross-over design, each involving 6, 15 min blocks of shuttle running (modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test protocol) in temperate conditions (22.3 ± 1.0 °C; 47.9 ± 12.9% relative humidity). During exe rcise, ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Influence of the MCT1-T1470A polymorphism (rs1049434) on repeated sprint ability and blood lactate accumulation in elite football players: a pilot study
ConclusionsThe T1470A (Glu490Asp) polymorphism ofMCT1 was associated with RSA. Our findings suggest that the presence of the major A-allele (Glu-490) is favourable for RSA in football players. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Metabolic effects of high-intensity interval training and essential amino acids
AbstractHigh-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes positive cardiometabolic and body composition changes. Essential amino acids (EAA) may support changes associated with HIIT, but evaluation of potential synergistic effects is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare independent and combined effects of HIIT and EAA on total body composition and metabolism in men and women considered overweight/obese; an exploratory aim was to evaluate the modulatory effects of sex. Sixty-six healthy adults (50% female; Age: 36.7  ± 6.0 years; BMI: 32.0 ± 4.2 kg/m2) completed 8 w...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Running exercise with end-expiratory breath holding up to the breaking point induces large and early fall in muscle oxygenation
AbstractPurposeThe goal of this study was to assess the effects of repeated running bouts with end-expiratory breath holding (EEBH) up to the breaking point on muscle oxygenation.MethodsEight male runners participated in three randomised sessions each including two exercises on a motorised treadmill. The first exercise consisted in performing 10 –12 running bouts with EEBH of maximum duration either (separate sessions) at 60% (active recovery), 80% (passive recovery) or 100% (passive recovery) of the maximal aerobic velocity (MAV). Each repetition started at the onset of EEBH and ended at its release. In the second e...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Different endurance exercises modulate NK cell cytotoxic and inhibiting receptors
AbstractPurposeInduction of IDO depends on the activation of AhR forming the AhR/IDO axis. Activated AhR can transcribe various target genes including cytotoxic and inhibiting receptors of NK cells. We investigated whether AhR and IDO levels as well as activating (NKG2D) and inhibiting (KIR2DL1) NK cell receptors are influenced by acute exercise and different chronic endurance exercise programs.Methods21 adult breast and prostate cancer patients of the TOP study (NCT02883699) were randomized to intervention programs of 12  weeks of (1) endurance standard training or (2) endurance polarized training after a cardio...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sex differences in cardiovascular adaptations in recreational marathon runners
AbstractIntroductionThere are well-established sex differences in central hemodynamic and cardiac adaptations to endurance exercise; however, controversial evidence suggests that excessive endurance exercise may be related to detrimental cardiovascular adaptations in marathoners.PurposeTo examine left ventricle (LV) structure, LV function, 24-h central hemodynamics and ventricular –vascular coupling in male and female marathoners and recreationally active adults.Methods52 marathoners (41  ± 5 years,n = 28 female, completed 6 ± 1 marathons/3 years)...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Caffeine, genetic variation and anaerobic performance in male athletes: a randomized controlled trial
ConclusionCaffeine had no effect on anaerobic performance and variations in several genes did not modify any effects of caffeine.Trial registrationThis study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02109783). (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Men exhibit faster skeletal muscle tissue desaturation than women before and after a fatiguing handgrip
AbstractPurposeThe purpose was to test the hypothesis that sex and fatigue effect of the early phase of skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation (StO2, %) desaturation rate as well as that strength matched adults may exhibit similar responses.MethodsTwenty-four adults visited the laboratory twice to quantify this early phase of desaturation during vascular occlusion tests (VOT) while in a rested state. The second visit included a sustained handgrip task at 25% of maximal muscular strength until task failure. At failure, a post-task VOT was initiated. Muscle desaturation was defined as StO2 and collected by a near-infrared spectr...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Efficacy of estimating VO2max with the Heart Rate Ratio Method in middle-aged and older adults
AbstractPurposeInvestigate difference, agreement, and bias between maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) measured by indirect calorimetry and the Heart Rate Ratio Method (HRRM) for estimating VO2max using measured and age-predicted maximum heart rate (HRmax) in a sample of middle-aged and older adults.MethodsEleven men and nine women (age: 61.8  ± 8.5 years, VO2max: 36.6  ± 9.5 mL/kg/min,N = 20) had their VO2max measured via a maximal graded exercise test and confirmed using a verification bout on a treadmill ergometer. Participants ’ VO2max was estimate...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cyclic eccentric stretching induces more damage and improved subsequent protection than stretched isometric contractions in the lower limb
ConclusionFor MG, the action of stretching an active muscle seems to be more important for causing damage than a sustained contraction at a long length. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Age-related declines in muscle and respiratory function are proportionate to declines in performance in Master Track Cyclists
AbstractPurposeRespiratory and musculoskeletal function decline with age, irrespective of physical activity levels. Previous work has suggested that the age-related rate of decline in function of these two systems might be similar, but it is not known to what extent each system contributes to decreasing performance in ageing master cyclists. Therefore, the purposes of this study are (1) whether the age-related rate of decline in respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength, muscle architecture, muscle function, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit and performance in master cyclists is uniform and (2) which parameter...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of 4-weeks of elastic variable resistance training on the electrochemical and mechanical components of voluntary electromechanical delay durations
ConclusionsThese findings indicated that a structured, VRT program utilizing multi-joint exercise was sufficient to induce decreases in the electrochemical and mechanical processes associated with step isometric muscle contractions. In addition, the utilization of the electromyographic, mechanomyographic, and force signals were capable of quantifying electrochemical and mechanical component changes associated with voluntary muscle contraction. Thus, EMDE-M, EMDM-F, and EMDE-F can be useful in quantifying physiological changes in athletic, clinical, and applied research interventions. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - November 5, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research