Inspiratory muscle training improves cerebrovascular and postural control responses during orthostatic stress in older women
ConclusionIMT improves the interplay of the respiratory pump, hemodynamic, cerebrovascular and postural balance responses during orthostatic stress in older women. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Influence of aerobic fitness on gastrointestinal barrier integrity and microbial translocation following a fixed-intensity military exertional heat stress test
AbstractPurposeExertional-heat stress adversely disrupts gastrointestinal (GI) barrier integrity, whereby subsequent microbial translocation (MT) can result in potentially serious health consequences. To date, the influence of aerobic fitness on GI barrier integrity and MT following exertional-heat stress is poorly characterised.MethodTen untrained (UT;VO2max = 45 ± 3 ml·kg−1·min−1) and ten highly trained (HT;VO2max = 64 ± 4 ml·kg−1·min−1) males completed an ecologically valid (military) 80-mi...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Inflammatory responses to acute exercise during pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with COPD
This study assessed inflammatory responses to exercise in COPD patients at the start (phase 1) and end (phase 2) of pulmonary rehabilitation.MethodsBlood samples were collected before and after an acute exercise bout at the start (phase 1,n = 40) and end (phase 2,n = 27) of pulmonary rehabilitation. The primary outcome was change in fibrinogen concentrations. Secondary outcomes were changes in CRP concentrations, total/differential leukocyte counts, markers of neutrophil activation (CD11b, CD62L and CD66b), and neutrophil subsets (mature, suppressive, imm ature, progenitor).ResultsAcute exercise...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Humidity prevents the exercise-induced formation of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite in exhaled breath condensate in recreational cyclists
AbstractPurposeThe aerobic exercise affects the respiratory redox-state. The influence of different relative humidity (RH) levels on the formation of respiratory reactive chemical species associated with redox-state altered by exercise has been poorly explored. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of two different RH conditions (40% vs. 90%) on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and nitrite in exhaled breath condensate ([H2O2]EBC and [NO2−]EBC) and spirometry parameters in recreational cyclists.MethodsSixteen men and women (12/4) (mean age  ± SD: 23.5 ± 2.2 years) comp...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Local knee heating increases spinal and supraspinal excitability and enhances plantar flexion and dorsiflexion torque production of the ankle in older adults
ConclusionThe spinal and supraspinal reflex excitability of older adults increased during local knee-heating application. The improved motor drive transmission observed in older adults was accompanied by increased voluntarily induced torque production of the ankle muscles during isometric/isokinetic contractions. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute mechanical, physiological and perceptual responses in older men to traditional-set or different cluster-set configuration resistance training protocols
AbstractPurposeThe aims of this study were to compare mechanical outputs (i.e. power and impulse), physiological (i.e. heart rate) and perceptual (i.e. effort and fatigue) responses in older men to traditional-set or different cluster-set configuration resistance training protocols.MethodsIn a randomized cross-over design, 20 healthy old men (aged 67.2  ± 2.1 years) completed four resistance training sessions using the back squat exercise loaded with optimal power loads. Training configurations were: traditional (TRA), three sets of six repetitions with 120-s rest between each set; Cluster-set 1 (...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The role of alanine glyoxylate transaminase-2 (agxt2) in β-alanine and carnosine metabolism of healthy mice and humans
AbstractPurposeChronic β-alanine supplementation leads to increased levels of muscle histidine-containing dipeptides. However, the majority of ingested β-alanine is, most likely, degraded by two transaminases: GABA-T and AGXT2. In contrast to GABA-T, the in vivo role of AGXT2 with respect to β-alanine metabolism is unk nown. The purpose of the present work is to investigate if AGXT2 is functionally involved in β-alanine homeostasis.MethodsMuscle histidine-containing dipeptides levels were determined in AGXT2 overexpressing or knock-out mice and in human subjects with different rs37369 genotypes which is...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Multiorgan contribution to non-shivering and shivering thermogenesis and vascular responses during gradual cold exposure in humans
AbstractPurposeHuman brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to be a significant thermoeffector in non-shivering thermogenesis (NST), albeit with individual variations in the BAT activity. We hypothesized that humans with less BAT would have more contribution from the skeletal muscle (SM) to NST or earlier shivering onset and greater vasoconstriction to compensate for less BAT-mediated thermogenesis.MethodsEighteen males participated in this study. Their BAT activity and detectable volume were investigated. A gradual cold exposure was conducted for inducing NST at 18.6  °C and initiating shivering at 11.6 °C....
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Arterial blood gases and ventilation at rest by age and sex in an adult Andean population resident at high altitude
AbstractPurposeArterial blood gases (ABG) are influenced by the altitude above sea level, age and sex. Most studies have been conducted at sea level and in small populations ascending to or residents at very high altitudes. Our objective was to evaluate the ventilation and ABG by age and sex in an Andean population resident at high altitude (2640  m).MethodsAnalytical cross-sectional study was done in healthy volunteers. ABG and minute ventilation (VE) were measured.T test and ANOVA for differences by sex and age, and Pearson test for correlations between age, VE and ABG were performed.ResultsWe included 374 adults, 5...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of long-term athletic training on muscle morphology and tendon stiffness in preadolescence: association with jump performance
ConclusionLong-term artistic gymnastics training during preadolescence seems to be associated with increased muscle strength and jumping performance but not with training-induced muscle hypertrophy or altered tendon stiffness in the plantar flexors. Athletes benefit more from tendon stiffness and non-athletes more from muscle strength for increased jumping performance. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Heat adaptation in humans: the significance of controlled and regulated variables for experimental design and interpretation
AbstractHerein, the principles of homoeostasis are re-visited, but with an emphasis upon repeated homoeostatic disturbances that give rise to physiological adaptation. The central focus is human heat adaptation, and how, for experimental purposes, one might standardise successive adaptation stimuli, and then evaluate and compare the resulting adaptations. To provide sufficient background for that discussion, the principles of physiological control and regulation have been reviewed. The case is presented that, since it is the regulated variables that drive both the effector organs and the processes of physiological adaptati...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Intra-individual physiological response of recreational runners to different training mesocycles: a randomized cross-over study
ConclusionOn a group level, none of the interventions altered\({\dot{\text V}}{\text O}_{2 {\rm submax}}\), V2, V4 or TTE, while HVLIT and HFT improved\({\dot{\text V}}{\text O}_{2 {\rm peak}}\). The mean adaptation index indicated similar numbers of positive, negative and non-responders to HIIT, HVLIT and HFT, but more very positive responders to HVLIT than HFT or HIIT. 46% responded positively to two mesocycles, while 23% did not respond to any. These findings indicate that the magnitude of responses to HIIT, HVLIT and HFT is highly individual and no pattern was apparent. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 12, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Spleen contraction elevates hemoglobin concentration at high altitude during rest and exercise
AbstractPurposeHypoxia and exercise are known to separately trigger spleen contraction, leading to release of stored erythrocytes. We studied spleen volume and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) during rest and exercise at three altitudes.MethodsEleven healthy lowlanders did a 5-min modified Harvard step test at 1370, 3700 and 4200  m altitude. Spleen volume was measured via ultrasonic imaging and capillary Hb with Hemocue during rest and after the step test, and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), heart rate (HR), expiratory CO2 (ETCO2) and respiratory rate (RR) across the test.ResultsResting spleen volume was reduced with...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 10, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of acute aerobic, resistance and combined exercises on 24-h glucose variability and skeletal muscle signalling responses in type 1 diabetics
ConclusionCOMB is more effective in reducing IG fluctuations compared to single-mode AER or RES exercise. Moreover, COMB simultaneously activates muscle signalling pathways involved in substrate metabolism and anabolic adaptations, which can help to improve glycaemic control and maintain muscle health in T1D. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Whole-body heat exchange in women during constant- and variable-intensity work in the heat
ConclusionNeither whole-body heat loss nor heat storage was modulated by the partitioning of work intensity, indicating that time-weighted averaging is appropriate for estimating metabolic demand to assess occupational heat stress in women. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 9, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Force enhancement in the human vastus lateralis is muscle-length-dependent following stretch but not during stretch
AbstractPurposeForce enhancement is the phenomenon of increased forces during (transient force enhancement; tFE) and after (residual force enhancement; rFE) eccentric muscle actions compared with fixed-end contractions. Although tFE and rFE have been observed at short and long muscle lengths, whether both are length-dependent remains unclear in vivo.MethodsWe determined maximal-effort vastus lateralis (VL) force-angle relationships of eleven healthy males and selected one knee joint angle at a short and long muscle lengths where VL produced approximately the same force (85% of maximum). We then examined tFE and rFE at thes...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Spirulina supplementation improves oxygen uptake in arm cycling exercise
AbstractPurposeSpirulina has previously been reported to improve high-intensity exercise performance and hemoglobin. However, spirulina ’s effect on arm cycling exercise has yet to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the responses of spirulina supplementation on hemoglobin and on oxygen uptake, RER and HR during seated arm cycling exercise.MethodsIn a double-blinded randomized crossover design, eleven males untrained in arm cycling ingested 6  g/day of spirulina or placebo for seven days. Seated on the Arm Crank Ergometer, each participant performed a baseline V̇O2max test, and then af...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The inclusion of interstimulus interval variability does not mitigate electrically-evoked fatigue of the knee extensors
ConclusionContrary to expectations, the VFT protocol did not attenuate fatigue development, which suggests no benefit to mimicking the inherent variability of motor unit discharge rates. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 4, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Molecular mechanisms involved in the positive effects of physical activity on coping with COVID-19
ConclusionA tigth association between PA and reduction in inflammation status allows effective counteracting of SARS-CoV2 infection. It is therefore essential to persuade people to keep active. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Influence of sprint exercise on aortic pulse wave velocity and femoral artery shear patterns
This study examined if sprint exercise, which typically increases aortic stiffness is associated with increased peripheral retrograde blood flow and impaired microvascular function.MethodsTwenty participants (10 women; age: 27  ± 5 years) underwent arterial stiffness, shear rate, and microvascular function assessment at three time points: baseline; following time control; ~ 2 min post a 30-s cycle ergometer sprint against 7.0% body mass. Aortic stiffness was assessed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (c fPWV). Superficial femoral artery (SFA) diameter and blood velocity ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 3, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Water immersion methods do not alter muscle damage and inflammation biomarkers after high-intensity sprinting and jumping exercise
AbstractPurposeThe aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared to active recovery only on the resolution of inflammation and markers of muscle damage post-exercise.MethodsNine physically active men (n = 9; age 20 ‒35 years) performed an intensive loading protocol, including maximal jumps and sprinting on four occasions. After each trial, one of three recovery interventions (10 min duration) was used in a random order: cold-water immersion (CWI, 10 °C), thermoneutral water immersion (TWI, 24 °C), contra st water therapy (CW...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - September 2, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Muscle temperature kinetics and thermoregulatory responses to 42  °C hot-water immersion in healthy males and females
AbstractPurposeTo determine the vastus lateralis muscle temperature kinetics during and after passive heating, to exam the effect of sex on thermoregulatory responses, and the thermal safety and tolerance of the 42  °C hot-water immersion protocol.MethodsThirty participants (15 males, 15 females) underwent a 2  h 42 ºC hot-water immersion to the waist level. Vastus lateralis, rectal and skin temperature, thermal sensation, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were measured during the passive heating and recovery period. Participant recovery was monitored until muscle temperature returned to baseline.R...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 31, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A multidimensional assessment of dyspnoea in healthy adults during exercise
AbstractPurpose(1) To determine whether healthy humans can distinguish between the intensity and unpleasantness of exertional dyspnoea; (2) to evaluate the reliability of qualitative dyspnoea descriptors during exercise; and (3) to assess the reliability of the Multidimensional Dyspnoea Profile (MDP)MethodsForty-four healthy participants (24M:20F, 25  ± 5 years) completed maximal incremental cycling tests on three visits. During visit 1, participants rated the intensity and unpleasantness of dyspnoea simultaneously throughout exercise using the modified 0–10 category-ratio Borg scale. On vis...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Blunted cardiac output response to exercise in adolescents born preterm
AbstractPurposePremature birth is associated with lasting effects, including lower exercise capacity and pulmonary function, and is acknowledged as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The aim was to evaluate factors affecting exercise capacity in adolescents born preterm, including the cardiovascular and pulmonary responses to exercise, activity level and strength.Methods21 preterm-born and 20 term-born adolescents (age 12 –14 years) underwent strength and maximal exercise testing with thoracic bioimpedance monitoring. Baseline variables were compared between groups and ANCOVA was used to compare heart rat...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 30, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Impact of catheterization on shear-mediated arterial dilation in healthy young men
In this study, we evaluated shear-mediated dilation following catheterization in healthy young men.MethodsTwenty-six (age: 24.4  ± 3.8 years, BMI: 24.3 ± 2.8 kg m−2,VO2peak: 50.5  ± 8.8 ml/kg/min) healthy males underwent unilateral transradial catheterization. Shear-mediated dilation of both radial arteries was measured using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) pre-, and 7 days post-catheterization.ResultsFMD was reduced in the catheterized arm [9.3  ± 4.1% to 4.3 ± 4.1% (P 
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 28, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Muscle activity in asymmetric bench press among resistance-trained individuals
ConclusionsAsymmetric bench press loads reduced chest and shoulder muscle activity on the de-loaded side while maintaining the muscle activity for the loaded side. The authors recommend resistance-trained participants struggling with strength imbalances between sides, or activities require asymmetric force generation (i.e., alpine skiing or martial arts), to implement asymmetric training as a supplement to the traditional resistance training. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 27, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

PGC-1 α alternative promoter (Exon 1b) controls augmentation of total PGC-1α gene expression in response to cold water immersion and low glycogen availability
AbstractThis investigation sought to determine whether post-exercise cold water immersion and low glycogen availability, separately and in combination, would preferentially activate either the Exon 1a or Exon 1b Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1 α) promoter. Through a reanalysis of sample design, we identified that the systemic cold-induced augmentation of total PGC-1α gene expression observed previously (Allan et al. in J Appl Physiol 123(2):451–459, 2017) was largely a result of increased expression from the alternative promoter (Exon 1b), rather than canonical ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The influence of Achilles tendon mechanical behaviour on “apparent” efficiency during running at different speeds
AbstractPurposeWe investigated the role of elastic strain energy on the “apparent” efficiency of locomotion (AE), a parameter that is known to increase as a function of running speed (up to 0.5–0.7) well above the values of “pure” muscle efficiency (about 0.25–0.30).MethodsIn vivo ultrasound measurements of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle –tendon unit (MTU) were combined with kinematic, kinetic and metabolic measurements to investigate the possible influence of the Achilles tendon mechanical behaviour on the mechanics (total mechanical work,WTOT) and energetics (net energy c...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 25, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Attentional focus does not impact locomotor –respiratory coupling in trained runners
ConclusionThese findings suggest attentional focus is not driving the high levels of LRC seen in trained endurance athletes but may relate to running economy and perceptual responses. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 24, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of a cooling vest with sham condition on walking capacity in heat-sensitive people with Multiple Sclerosis
This study evaluates the effects of a cooling vest with sham condition on walking capacity using a commercially-available cooling vest specifically designed for pwMS.MethodsA counter-balanced, cross-over design was used to assess the effects of a cooling vest (CryoVest Comfort, CryoInnov, France) (COLD) from a menthol-induced sham condition (CON) on ground walking time to exhaustion (Tex, s) and distance at exhaustion (Dex, m) in ambulatory pwMS. Secondary outcomes were heart rate (HR, bpm), thermal sensation (Tsens), skin chest (Tchest) and back (Tback) temperature.ResultsTen females with Multiple Sclerosis (59  &p...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 20, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Optimal load for a torque-velocity relationship test during cycling
This study compared the goodness of fit of single sprints performed against traditional (7.5% of the body mass) vs. optimal load (calculated based on the force production capacity and ergometer specificities), and examined if reducing the load in fatigued state enhancesT–V andP–V relationship goodness of fit.MethodsThirteen individuals performed sprints before (PRE) and after (POST) a fatiguing task against different loads: (1) TRAD: traditional, (2) OPT: optimal, and (3) LOW-OPT: optimal load reduced according to fatigue levels.ResultsAt PRE, OPT sprints presented a higherR2 of theT–V relationship (0.92 ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 20, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Estimating cardiorespiratory fitness from heart rates both during and after stepping exercise: a validated simple and safe procedure for step tests at worksites
ConclusionThe HR index, based on a combination of HR measurements during and after stepping exercise, offers a validated\(\dot{\text{{V}}}{{\text{O}}}_{\text{2max}}\) estimation procedure suitable for use in the workplace. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute partial sleep deprivation and high-intensity interval exercise effects on postprandial endothelial function
This study investigated the acute-partial sleep deprivation (APSD) and HIIE interaction on postprandial FMD.MethodsFifteen healthy males (age 31  ± 5 years) participated in: (a) reference sleep (~ 9.5 h) with no HIIE (RS), (b) RS and HIIE (RSX), and (c) APSD and HIIE (SSX). HIIE was performed in 3:2 min intervals at 90% and 40% of VO2 reserve. FMD was assessed the night before (D1), the morning of the next day (D2), 1  h (1hrPE) and 4 h post HIIE (4hrPE).ResultsFMD% change was lower at RS compared to both RSX (F1,14 = 23.96,p 
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Head-down tilt bed rest with or without artificial gravity is not associated with motor unit remodeling
ConclusionSixty days of HDBR with or without artificial gravity does not induce alterations in motor unit number and size in the ADM or TA muscles in healthy individuals. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Ultrasonographic assessment of the aging trunk muscles: ‘brutal tone’ but should be impartial
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Custom foot orthoses improve performance, but do not modify the biomechanical manifestation of fatigue, during repeated treadmill sprints
AbstractPurposeWe determined the effect of custom foot orthotics manufactured from ethyl-vinyl acetate (EVA) and expanded thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) materials, both compared to a control condition (CON; shoes only) during repeated sprints on running mechanical alterations.MethodsEighteen males performed eight, 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery on an instrumented sprint treadmill in three footwear conditions (EVA, TPU and CON). Mechanical data consisted of continuous (step-by-step) measurement of running kinetics and kinematics, which were averaged for each sprint for further analysis.ResultsDistance ran in 5  s dec...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Association between muscle aerobic capacity and whole-body peak oxygen uptake
In this study, linear regression analysis in two leg muscles was performed to det ermine whether MOC values could be used to predict whole-body peak oxygen uptake.MethodsMOC was measured with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in  the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles of 26 participants (age, 27.1 ± 5.8 years old). Whole-body peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was determined  by indirect calorimetry during a continuous ramp protocol on a cycle ergometer.ResultsVO2 peak values were significantly correlated with the muscle recovery rate constant (k)  of&n...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effect of intensive prior exercise on muscle fiber activation, oxygen uptake kinetics, and oxygen uptake plateau occurrence
AbstractPurposeWe tested the hypothesis that the described increase in oxygen uptake (\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2}}\))-plateau incidence following a heavy-severe prior exercise is caused by a steeper increase in\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{2}}\) and muscle fiber activation in the submaximal intensity domain.MethodsTwenty-one male participants performed a standard ramp test, a\(\dot{V}{\text{O}}_{{{\text{2max}}}}\) verification bout, an unprimed ramp test with an individualized ramp slope and a primed ramp test with the same ramp slope, which was preceded by an intensive exercise at 50% of the difference between gas exchange threshold...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

5  km front crawl in pool and open water swimming: breath-by-breath energy expenditure and kinematic analysis
ConclusionsSmall fluctuations were observed for energetic variables in both conditions, but changes inC were lower in swimming pool than in open water. Coaches should adjust the training plan accordingly to the specificity of open water swimming. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline in the knee extensors decreases single-limb isometric time to task failure
This study (1) compared the quality of pain caused by a hypertonic saline injection into the vastus lateralis in resting and exercise conditions, and (2) investigated whether this pain contributes to changes in time to task failure.MethodsOn separate days, 18 participants completed a time to task failure at 20% maximal voluntary torque (MVT), a resting hypertonic saline intramuscular injection, and in a further three visits a time to task failure at 10% MVT following injection of isotonic saline, hypertonic saline or a control (no injection).ResultsIn a subset of eligible participants (n = 12), the hypertonic...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Response to a letter to the editor from Dr. Timur Ekiz regarding our article “Age-related changes in muscle thickness and echo intensity of trunk muscles in healthy women: comparison of 20–60s age groups’’
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Attenuated activation of knee extensor muscles during fast contractions in older men and women
AbstractAimReduced physical function and increased risk of falls in older adults are accompanied by age-related reductions in torque development of leg muscles, although the mechanisms and potential sex differences are not understood.PurposeTo determine the mechanistic origins (neural vs. muscular) for the age-related reduction in torque development, we compared the peak rates of torque development (RTD) during electrically-evoked and fast voluntary contractions of the knee extensors between young and older men and women.MethodsSets of single- and double-pulse electrical stimulations evoked contractions of the knee extenso...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

High-intensity decreasing interval training (HIDIT) increases time above 90% $$\dot{V}$$ V ˙ O 2 peak
ConclusionHIDIT showed the highestT >  90%\(\dot{V}\)O2peak, suggesting that it may be a good strategy to increase time close to\(\dot{V}\)O2peak, despite similar Tlim, [La], and RPE at Tlim. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Synergistically Enhanced Electrocatalytic Stability of Pt Catalyst Supported by Doped Porous Carbon Nanostructure for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
In this study, a doped porous carbon (DPC) as a support was prepared with polyaniline as the main carbon source, iron nitrate nonahydrate as a metal doping source, and dicyandiamide as a nitrogen doping source in the presence of 20 nm silica bead as a template. The carbon support showed fairly high specific surface area (~ 740 m2 g−1), well-defined pore structure, and a proper nitrogen doping (~ 4.9 at.%). The Pt cathode catalyst deposited on the doped porous carbon using an NaBH4 reduction method (Pt/DPC) exhibited significantly improved ORR performance in the half and single cells, compared with the conventional ca...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Gold and Iron-Oxide Nanoparticle Co-modified rGO-TEPA Hybrid for Sensitive Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen
AbstractHerein we report a label-free amperometric immunosensor based on reduced graphene oxide-tetraethylene pentamine (rGO-TEPA) hybrid material co-modified by gold and iron-oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Au/MNPs-rGO-TEPA) for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The Au/MNPs-rGO-TEPA nanomaterials were prepared and coated on the working electrode as a sensing platform for antibody (anti-CEA) immobilization and signal amplification. This nanomaterial exhibited some excellent functionalities, such as magnetic and enhanced electrical properties due to its large specific surface area and favorable conductivity. Thioni...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Fabrication of Composite Material with Pd Nanoparticles and Graphene on Nickel Foam for Its Excellent Electrocatalytic Performance
AbstractIncorporation of precious metallic nanoparticles onto a carbon support material is used to obtain an electrocatalyst for ethanol oxidation. A composite material of spherical palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs), reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and polydopamine (PDA) on three-dimensional nickel foam (NF) substrate (Pd/rGO/PDA@NF) has been synthesized for ethanol electrocatalysis. The Pd nanoparticles were obtained via reduction of precursor K2PdCl4 using ascorbic acid at 60  °C for 80 min. The rGO with large specific surface area was used in catalysts to provide large amounts of active sites for Pd NPs. Mean...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Synthesis and Characterization of AgPd Bimetallic Nanoparticles as Efficient Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction
AbstractThe synthesis of AgPd bimetallic nanoparticles was carried out by a simple polyol method in order to obtain an improved control of the morphology and the particle size. The nanoparticles were characterized using aberration-corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Also, parallel beam X-ray diffraction analysis was carried out to evaluate the crystallographic structure. High-angle annular dark field (HAADF)-STEM images of the AgPd bimetallic nanoparticles were obtained. The contrast of the images shows that the nanoparticles have an alloy structure with an average size of 10.17  nm and icosahe...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Recent Advances in Nanocasting Cobalt-Based Mesoporous Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion
AbstractThe generation of novel mesoporous materials with well-defined structure and accessible pore networks is helpful in both fundamental and energy-related research. Nanocasting mesoporous earth-abundant materials and their composite materials offer opportunities to make electrochemically active materials that allow scalable production and cost-effectiveness. Recently, due to their intrinsic open pore structure as well as high surface areas, various mesoporous cobalt-based ordered materials have been applied to electrocatalysis, rechargeable batteries, and supercapacitors. In this review, we have critically evaluated t...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Evaluating the Effect of WO 3 on Electrochemical and Corrosion Properties of TiO 2 -RuO 2 - Coated Titanium Anodes with Low Content of RuO 2
AbstractThe electrochemical and corrosion characterization of Ti0.97Ru0.03O2/Ti  electrodes modified with WO3 was reported. Modification of Ti0.97Ru0.03O2/Ti electrodes with WO3 was previously described as improving the effectiveness of an azo dye degradation in a photoelectrochemical treatment. Thus, the effect of WO3 introduction to oxide film on electrode surface on electrochemical behaviour and stability of the modified electrodes was investigated. Moreover, corrosion behaviour of Ti0.97Ru0.03O2/Ti electrodes modified with WO3 was evaluated with the application of potentiodynamic polarization sweep method and open...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Catalytic Activity of Nanosized Ruthenium Oxide-Coated Titanium Anodes Prepared by Thermal Decomposition for Oxygen Evolution in Sulfuric Acid Solutions
AbstractThe effects of the nanoscale particle size of RuO2 in thermally prepared RuO2-coated Ti anodes on electrochemical kinetic parameters such as the active surface area and Tafel slope for oxygen evolution in sulfuric acid solutions were investigated. RuO2/Ti anodes with four different average sizes of RuO2 particles —5.6 nm, 6.8 nm, 14.6 nm, and 21.2 nm—were prepared. The double-layer charge corresponding to the active surface area for oxygen evolution of the anodes was shown to increase with decreasing average RuO2 particle size. The polarization curves of the anodes showed that the oxygen evolution curre...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - August 5, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research