The relationship between stiffness and pain following unaccustomed eccentric exercise: the effects of gentle stretch and repeated bout
AbstractPurposeTo determine how muscle stiffness and pain which develop after eccentric exercise are affected by gentle stretching and repeated exercise.MethodsTwenty-one healthy female participants undertook eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors and changes in resting elbow flexion angle (REFA; a measure of muscle stiffness), pain on stretch scale, pain elicited by pressure (PPT pain, a measure of mechanoreceptor hypersensitivity), and upper arm girth were followed for 7 days after exercise. The effects of gentle passive stretching on pain and muscle stiffness were investigated 2 and 4 days after exercise. Eleven partic...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of exercise in normobaric hypoxia on hemodynamics during muscle metaboreflex activation in normoxia
AbstractPurposeLittle is known about the cardiovascular effects of the transition from exercise in hypoxia (EH) to normoxia. This investigation aimed to assess hemodynamics during the metaboreflex elicited in normoxia after EH.MethodsTen trained athletes (four females and six males, age 35.6  ± 8.4 years) completed a cardiopulmonary test to determine the workload at anaerobic threshold (AT). On separate days, participants performed three randomly assigned exercise sessions (10 min pedalling at 80% of AT): (1) one in normoxia (EN); (2) one in normobaric hypoxia with FiO2 15.5% (EH15.5%); and (...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Suitability of jumps as a form of high-intensity interval training: effect of rest duration on oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate
AbstractPurposeHigh-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to be an effective endurance training method. However, most HIT research has been conducted on running and cycling. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of intermittent exercises such as jumps as a type of HIT.MethodsRespiratory gases, heart rate and ground reaction forces were recorded for 21 participants (age 25  ± 4 years, mass 73 ± 12 kg, 13 male) during 5 distinct jump sessions on different days that varied with respect to the rest durations in between series (0, 15 or 30 s) and ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Neuromuscular adaptations to wide-pulse high-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation training
ConclusionThree weeks of WPHF NMES increased electrically evoked forces but induced no other changes in plantar flexor neuromuscular properties. Before introducing WPHF NMES clinically, optimal training program characteristics (such as frequency, duration and intensity) remain to be identified. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Muscle quality as a complementary prognostic tool in conjunction with sarcopenia assessment in younger and older individuals
AbstractPurposeThis pilot study investigated differences in lean tissue mass, muscle strength, muscle quality (strength per unit of muscle mass; MQ), and functional performance in healthy younger and older individuals. The most robust predictors of appendicular lean mass (ALM) were then determined in each group.MethodsFifty younger (18 –45 years) and 50 older (60–80 years) participants completed tests of upper and lower body strength alongside body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry from which upper- and lower-body MQ were estimated. Available cut-points for older people were used to dete...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Characterization of torque generating properties of ankle plantar flexor muscles in ambulant adults with cerebral palsy
ConclusionReduced torque and fascicle shortening during supramaximal stimulation of the tibial nerve indicate impaired contractile properties of plantar flexor muscles in adults with CP. Maximal torque was observed at a more plantarflexed position in adults with CP indicating an altered torque-fascicle length/ankle angle relation. The findings suggest that gait rehabilitation in adults with CP may require special focus on improvement of muscle contractility. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Damage protective effects conferred by low-intensity eccentric contractions on arm, leg and trunk muscles
This study investigated whether 10% EC would confer damage protective effect on high-intensity eccentric contractions (80% EC) for nine different muscle groups.MethodsUntrained young men were placed to an experimental or a control group (n = 12/group). Experimental group performed 50 eccentric contractions with a load corresponding to 10% EC at 2 days prior to 50 eccentric contractions with 80% EC for the elbow flexors and extensors, pectoralis, knee flexors and extensors, plantar flexors, latissimus, abdominis and erector spinae . Control group performed 80% EC without 10% EC. Changes in maximal voluntary is...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Regional differences in facial skin blood flow responses to thermal stimulation
ConclusionsThese findings indicate that a large regional variation exists in facial skin blood flow response to local heating or cooling and that the regional variation did not correspond to the unique SkBF responses in the previous studies. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Combining supervised run interval training or moderate-intensity continuous training with the diabetes prevention program on clinical outcomes
AbstractPurposeThe present study was designed to evaluate the 16  weeks diabetes prevention program (DPP) combined with instructed run sprint interval training (INT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on glycemic control, body composition, fitness, exercise adherence, and perceived exercise enjoyment in sedentary, adults with prediabetes.MethodsParticipants completed three weekly supervised sessions of INT (4 –10 bouts of 30 s maximal sprints followed by a 4 min active recovery) or MICT (30–60 min at 45–55% HRR) exercise coupled with the DPP for 16 weeks. At bas...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

First-language acquisition of synthetic compounds in Estonian, Finnish, German, Greek, Lithuanian, Russian and Saami
AbstractIn this first cross-linguistic study of the emergence and early development of synthetic compounds we present the strictly parallel analysis of systematically collected longitudinal data from seven languages: the Finno-Ugric languages Finnish, Saami, Estonian and the Indo-European languages Lithuanian, Russian, Greek and German. The data of spontaneous interactions between children and parents allow insights usually not obtainable via transversal formal tests. For example, the target of acquisition is the specific parental child-directed speech and not the target languages as represented in grammars, dictionaries a...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A case for syntactic case: the accusative in Tundra Yukaghir
AbstractThis paper provides a description of the Accusative case in Tundra Yukaghir. Contrary to the previous analyses, I argue that Tundra Yukaghir has a syntactic Accusative case that is realised by two dedicated morphological forms, the distribution of which depends on a complex network of lexical specifications, the semantics of the NP and its structural properties. The description of the Accusative serves as a background for the discussion of two difficult questions of case theory. First, I show that Differential Argument Marking in Tundra Yukaghir cannot be reduced to one or more overarching syntactic or semantic fea...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Indonesian prefixes PE- and PEN- : A study in productivity and allomorphy
This study examines two nominalizing prefixes in Indonesian:PE- andPEN-, which derive nouns from verbs with a range of meanings similar to that found in-er suffix in English. The prefixPE- is form-invariant, whereasPEN- has several nasal allomorphs. Given their similarity in form and function, the question arises of whetherPE- andPEN- are allomorphs. We conducted a corpus-based analysis of their productivity, using the written Indonesian corpus in the Leipzig Corpora Collection. In this corpus,PEN- is apparently more productive thanPE-. Interestingly, the frequency of words withPEN- correlates significantly with the produc...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sprint running: from fundamental mechanics to practice —a review
AbstractIn this review, we examine the literature in light of the mechanical principles that govern linear accelerated running. While the scientific literature concerning sprint mechanics is comprehensive, these principles of fundamental mechanics present some pitfalls which can (and does) lead to misinterpretations of findings. Various models of sprint mechanics, most of which build on the spring –mass paradigm, are discussed with reference to both the insight they provide and their limitations. Although much research confirms that sprinters to some extent behave like a spring–mass system with regard to gross ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute cardiopulmonary responses to strength training, high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training
This study examines the acute responses to ST, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT).MethodsTwelve young male subjects (age 23.4  ± 2.6 years; BMI 23.7 ± 1.5 kg/m2) performed an incremental exertion test and were randomized into HIIT (4  × 4-min intervals), MCT (continuous cycling) and ST (five body-weight exercises) which were matched for training duration. The cardiopulmonary (impedance cardiography, ergo-spirometry) and metabolic response were monitored.ResultsSimilar peak blood lactate responses we...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute effects of different set configurations during a strength-oriented resistance training session on barbell velocity and the force –velocity relationship in resistance-trained males and females
ConclusionsThe administration of very short intra-set rest periods does not allow for the attainment of higher velocities than traditional set configurations during strength-oriented resistance training sessions conducted with the bench press exercise when the work-to-rest ratio is equated. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 6, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Impact of 8  weeks of repeated ischemic preconditioning on running performance
ConclusionOur data suggest that over a normal 8-week season in a population of highly trained middle-distance runners there is no benefit of undergoing chronic, repeated IPC treatments before training for augmenting maximal aerobic power or 1-km performance time. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Stretch –shortening cycle exercise produces acute and prolonged impairments on endurance performance: is the peripheral fatigue a single answer?
ConclusionThese findings demonstrate that impairment in endurance performance induced by prior SSC protocol was mediated by two distinct mechanisms, where the acute impairment was related to an exacerbated degree of peripheral and central fatigue, and the prolonged impairment was due to elevated perceived muscle soreness. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Blood flow restriction increases myoelectric activity and metabolic accumulation during whole-body vibration
The objective of this study was to evaluate the additional effect of BFR on myoelectric activity and metabolic accumulation during WBV training.MethodsFifteen active men performed three sessions in a counterbalanced order on three different days: whole-body vibration exercise (WBV), whole-body vibration exercise with blood flow restriction (WBV  + BFR), and a control session (CON) with neither WBV nor BFR. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was measured in six lower limb muscles throughout each exercise session; lactate and reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations were determined prior to, immediately after...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 4, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The time course of cross-education during short-term isometric strength training
This study examined the time course of contralateral adaptations in maximal isometric strength (MVC), rate of force development (RFD), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) rise (RER) during 4  weeks of unilateral isometric strength training with the non-dominant elbow flexors.MethodsTwenty participants were allocated to strength training (n = 10, three female, two left hand dominant) or control (n = 10, three female, two left hand dominant) groups. Both groups completed testing at baseline and following each week of training to evaluate MVC strength, EMG amplitude, RFD and RER at early (RFD5...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 4, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

On the emergence of a classic work: a short history of the impact of Gordon Tullock ’s Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies, and Theft
AbstractGordon Tullock ’s “Welfare Costs of Tariffs, Monopolies, and Theft” is by now widely regarded to be a classic work in public choice. However, like many “classic papers,” it was not always so highly regarded. It was rejected at several journals before finding its way to print and arguably took two or thre e decades to be fully appreciated. This paper discusses developments in the public choice and rent seeking literatures that helped bring Tullock’s paper to its status as a classic work in political economy. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Rent-seeking in the classroom and textbooks: Where are we after 50  years?
AbstractIn this paper, we provide an overview of the influence of Tullock ’s work on rent-seeking in the area of economics education. After summarizing the basic rent-seeking model in both a domestic and international context, we conduct an analysis of undergraduate and graduate textbooks in public economics. We find a majority of undergraduate texts cover rent-seeking in depth, but two texts provide zero coverage. No graduate textbook surveyed mentions rent-seeking. We conclude by summarizing the economic education literature on rent-seeking, which can be divided into either classroom experiments or popular culture ...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Uncontestable favoritism
AbstractOne might obtain special favor or avoid disfavor by winning a competitive contest, a socially wasteful process that has been studied extensively in the rent-seeking literature. But favor or disfavor might also be uncontestable. In that case it will be efficient along some dimensions but grossly inequitable. The rent-seeking literature, in focusing on contest success functions, has tended to ignore the institutional roots of uncontestable rent-creation and rent-extraction. But casual observation suggests that institutional rules and cultural norms often ensure that favor and disfavor cannot be easily contested. Unde...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Rent seeking at 52: an introduction to a special issue of public choice
AbstractA half century after he developed it, Gordon Tullock ’s idea of rent seeking is more relevant than ever. Though the concept has gained widespread acceptance among academics, it has yet to make an impression on public discourse. But with favoritism, corruption, and the power of special interests in the headlines, the idea deserves broader attention. In this special issue ofPublic Choice we commemorate Tullock ’s insight. Contributors examine the making of this classic piece and its effect on economic theory, empirical analysis, and economic teaching. Original papers also develop new insights into questio...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Measuring rent-seeking
AbstractSome 30  years ago Gordon Tullock, in his capacity as Editor of Public Choice, made a pointed effort to motivate researchers to measure and quantify resource investments in rent-seeking activities. Despite Tullock’s identification of this aspect of rent-seeking as a significant gap in the literature and call to arms, this remains an under-studied topic of importance. Why is this? In our opinion, the answer is that, for a variety of reasons, measuring rent-seeking turns out to be very difficult. In this paper we identify and discuss several of the difficulties, both theoretical and empirical, althou gh we...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Transitional gains and rent extraction
AbstractTullock (Bell J Econ 6:671 –678,1975) described a transitional gains trap in which the present value of rents is capitalized in the value of an asset required to get the rents. Owners of the assets just earn a normal rate of return on their assets, despite the inefficient policies that produced the rents. The trap was that undoing the inefficient policy would impose a transitional loss on the owners of those assets. Tullock characterized the creation of transitional gains as a mistake, but combined with McChesney ’s (J Leg Stud 16(1):101–118,1987) rent extraction framework, the creation of transit...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Rents and economic development: the perspective of Why Nations Fail
We present the approach to comparative economic development ofWhy Nations Fail. Economic prosperity requires inclusive economic institutions —those which create broad based incentives and opportunities in society. Extractive economic institutions, which lack these properties, create poverty. Variation in economic institutions is created by differences in political institutions. Inclusive economic institutions are the result of politica l choices which arise under inclusive political institutions: a strong state and a broad distribution of power in society. When either of these conditions fails one has extractive poli...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The efficiency of regulatory arbitrage
AbstractClassic public choice skepticism about the regulatory state, based on theories of rent-seeking, rent extraction and regulatory capture, is based on the unrealistic, and usually unstated, assumption of a monopolist regulator. In practice, the regulatory state is polycentric, involving numerous quasi-independent agencies with overlapping responsibilities. This has led to a more optimistic picture based on the idea of regulatory arbitrage: when firms can, to some extent, pick and choose their preferred regulator, regulatory agencies are constrained to deliver relatively efficient regulatory policies. In our view, this...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A culture of rent seeking
AbstractTullock [J Dev Econ 67(2):455 –470,1967] introduced the concept of rent seeking and highlighted the social costs associated with collecting and lobbying for or against tariffs, investing in human and physical capital to facilitate or protect against theft, and expending resources to establish a monopoly. A large portion of the rent-seeking literature suggests how formal and informal institutions impact for rent-seeking activities. Culture also affects rent seeking. Communities can have aculture of rent seeking (CoRS), i.e., a perception shared by members of a society that having influence over political alloc...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Is development uniquely modern? Ancient Athens on the doorstep
AbstractBy offering out-of-sample observations, pre-modern case studies can provide unique insights into the process of economic development. We focus on the case of ancient Athens in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. During that time, Athens moved beyond the logic of rent-seeking and rent-creation that grips natural states, displaying many features of development present in the modern world. Athenian development rested on a set of institutions different from those prevalent in the modern world: in particular, Athens lacked liberal democratic institutions and strong central governments with high state capacity. The findings y...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Tullock and the welfare costs of corruption: there is a “political Coase Theorem”
AbstractGordon Tullock developed an approach to understanding dynamic processes of political change and policy outcomes. The key insight is the notion that political insiders  have a comparative advantage—because they face lower transaction costs—in manipulating rules. The result is that political actors can collect revenues from threatening to restrict, or offering to loosen, access to valuable permissions, permits, or services. To the extent that the ability to pa y for such favorable treatment is a consequence of private activities that produce greater social value, there is a “political Coase the...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 3, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Synthesis of Nickel Nanoparticles with Controlled Pyrophoricity and Average Size
AbstractThe nickel formate decomposition in an argon flow at 209 °C with subsequent treatment of the obtained nanopowder in a hydrogen flow for a given time was shown to enable one to control the pyrophoricity and average size of Ni nanoparticles. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Interaction of Ionic Liquids with Sulfur
AbstractThe interaction of tri-n-butylmethylphosphonium dimethyl phosphate and 1,3-dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate with elemental sulfur in a benzene medium has been described. According to13C and17O NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry, the chemical reaction involves only the dimethyl phosphate anion. The reaction mechanism and the reaction product composition have been proposed. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Heat Capacity and Thermal Expansion of Yttrium Tantalate
AbstractThe isobaric heat capacities of two monoclinic (M' andM) modifications of yttrium orthotantalate at temperatures 5 –1300 K have been measured by the adiabatic and differential scanning calorimetry methods. It has been demonstrated that the difference in structure between the crystal lattices ofM' andM has little effect in the heat capacity, and the difference between the heat capacities of these phasesCp(M)– Cp(M') is small, always positive, and increases in the range of the lowest temperatures. The unit cell parameters ofM-YTaO4 have been determined as a function of temperature in the range 300 –...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 2, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Intra-party politics and interest groups: missing links in explaining government effectiveness
AbstractThe article sheds light on two missing links in the existing literature on government ’s policy preferences and policy choices, namely the roles played by party factions and trade unions as political actors able to affect government’s decision-making power. The content analysis of a wide typology of documents (i.e., investiture speeches, parliamentary debates, motions discussed d uring parties’ and trade unions’ congresses) allows to locate cabinets, parties, party factions and trade unions on a common pro-state/pro-market scale. Using these new data sources, we perform a multivariate time-s...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The incumbent ’s preference for imperfect commitment
AbstractUsing a model with forward-looking voting strategies, we examine the tax policies of public officials who maximize the weighted average of rents and benefits to their specific electoral clienteles when commitment is possible. We assume that the degree of commitment to a tax policy can be varied through its design and institutional anchoring. At the center of the analysis lies the question of the extent to which public officials restrict the policy space of future governments. On the one hand, stronger restrictions make it more difficult for political opponents to enact unwanted policy changes, but, on the other han...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

An empirical examination of institutions and cross-country incarceration rates
AbstractResearch converges upon institutional explanations for why some countries incarcerate more prisoners than others. The types of institutions that are particularly important are less well understood. This paper investigates empirically the associations between economic, political and legal institutions and incarceration rates in a large cross-section of countries. Using data from 2001 to 2011, we find that countries with smaller prison populations have civil legal origins and fewer years under communism. Our findings also suggest that economic institutions and other economic factors related to economic performance do...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Randall G. Holcombe: Political capitalism: how economic and political power is made and maintained
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Adaptation and central banking
AbstractWhat or who governs central bank decisions? Most considerations focus on motivations. Instead, we consider the extent to which specific behaviors have adaptive value in the context of central banking. From that perspective, poor decisions are not the product of poor motivations. They are, instead, a product of the poor institutions within which central bank decision makers operate. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Milan Vaishnav, When crime pays: money and muscle in Indian politics . New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2017. xxiii  + 410 pages. USD 40.00 (cloth)
(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Crowdfunding defense
AbstractNational defense is the hard case for the voluntary provision of public goods because without recourse to taxation it is difficult to overcome the free-rider problem, much less provide defense superior to that of government provision because of the large costs associated with national security and war-making. The theoretical explanations for how collective action problems can be solved privately generally have not been brought to bear on national defense, despite being applied to other public goods. I use the theoretical solutions to the collective action problem provided by Olson to understand the extensive privat...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sabotage in team contests
AbstractIn the contest literature, sabotage is defined as a deliberate and costly activity that damages the opponent ’s likelihood of winning the contest. Most of the existing results suggest that, anticipating a possible sabotage, contestants would be discouraged from exerting high efforts. In this paper we investigate the act of sabotage in a team contest wherein team members exert costly efforts as a contribu tion to their team’s aggregate effort, which in turn determines the contest’s outcome. For the baseline model with no sabotage, there exists a corner equilibrium implying a free-rider problem in e...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Is civic duty the solution to the paradox of voting?
AbstractAlthough sense of civic duty is seen by many scholars as the most obvious solution to the paradox of voting, very few empirical studies provide clear evidence on that motive. We use blood donation to build proxies, focusing only on intrinsic motivations, and then introduce such measures into electoral turnout regressions. Our results show that civic duty has a strong influence on voter turnout rates, confirming that the satisfaction voters receive from voting matters regardless of election outcomes. The results are even stronger when we incorporate the number of plasma and platelet donations, which take more time a...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Electoral systems and trade-policy outcomes: the effects of personal-vote incentives on barriers to international trade
AbstractDespite established benefits in free trade, protectionism persists to varying degrees across the world. Why is that? Political institutions govern the ways in which competing trade-policy preferences are aggregated, shaping policy outcomes. The ubiquitous binary PR/plurality indicator in the trade-politics literature is divorced from comparative institutional research. We build on the latter body of research to generate a new 13-point index that captures the extent to which electoral systems incentivize personal-vote cultivation, based on a combination of established theoretical and new empirical evidence on candid...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Do sanctions lead to a decline in civil liberties?
AbstractIn this paper, we examine the effect of US-imposed sanctions on the civil liberties of the targeted countries for the 1972 –2014 period. To deal with the problem of selection and to control for the pre-sanction dynamics, we use a potential outcomes framework, which does not rely on the selection of matching variables and has the further advantage of uncovering the effect of the treatment on the outcome variable over t ime. What we find is that sanctions result in a decline in civil liberties, measured either by the Freedom House civil liberties index or by the Cingranelli and Richards empowerment rights index...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Political regimes and publicly provided goods: why democracy needs development
AbstractWhile most of the theoretical literature suggests that democracy promotes the provision of public goods, the findings of empirical studies are inconclusive. Drawing on a simple model, this paper aims at reconciling theory and evidence. We argue that the stronger dependence of more democratic governments upon public support has two opposing effects: on the one hand, it encourages these governments to increase goods provision in order to generate more loyalty. On the other hand, it raises the leaders ’ incentives for kleptocratic behavior. The model predicts that the latter effect may dominate in poor countries...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Elections, recession expectations and excessive debt: an unholy trinity
AbstractIn the literature, it has been suggested that political budget cycles are context-conditional, i.e., do not occur in all countries or under all circumstances. What about the underlying economic conditions? It has already has been shown that recessionary expectations reinforce the political budget cycle. This paper argues theoretically that opportunistic policymakers expecting a recession during an election year allow the primary deficit to increase even more when the stock of debt is very high, but reduce the deficit by more during an expected boom (in an election year). For the empirical estimation we use panel da...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Is the market for digital privacy a failure?
AbstractConventional wisdom holds that the market for digital privacy fails owing to widespread informational asymmetry between digital firms and their customers, behavioral biases exhibited by those customers, and negative externalities from data resale. This paper supplies both theoretical and empirical reasons to question the standard market failure conclusion. On the theoretical side, I argue that digital markets are not qualitatively different from markets for other consumer goods. To wit, just as in traditional markets, it is costly to measure product attributes (such as “privacy”) and, just as in more tr...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

“Mao’s last revolution”: a dictator’s loyalty–competence tradeoff
AbstractAlthough competent (vs mediocre) subordinates, while better contributors to dictator success, are also more prone to treason, it remains unclear empirically how (and even whether) dictators address this loyalty –competence tradeoff. To throw light on this issue, we use a biographical dataset of Chinese Communist Party Central Committee (CC) members from 1945 to 1982 to investigate the tradeoff faced by Mao Zedong in selecting his senior officials. Our results suggest that during the Cultural Revolution ( 1966–1976), the foundation and consolidation of the new regime lowered the payoff from subordinate c...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Quantifying response variability of steel moment frames due to seismic uncertainties
AbstractSeismic uncertainties pose response estimation procedures with serious concerns about proper reflection of ground motion intensity measure (IM) and reasonable scaling of IM in a scenario-based study. The extent of response variability due to these uncertainties is quantified in this article for steel moment-resisting frames (SMRFs). For this purpose, three 3-, 7-, and 15-story SMRFs are designed and nonlinearly modeled in OpenSees Program. To establish an initial collection of building responses in a diverse range of intensities and for multiple ground motion records, incremental dynamic analysis is performed using...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - March 20, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Low-voltage multicolor electroluminescence from all-inorganic carbon dots/Si-heterostructured light-emitting diodes
AbstractLow-voltage and multicolor electroluminescent light-emitting diodes (LEDs) based upon carbon dots (CDs) are demonstrated by using simple all-inorganic CDs/Si heterostructures. Electroluminescence (EL) originations of the CDs/Si LEDs are investigated clearly without the interference of commonly used organic semiconductors. Three distinct peaks at 438, 540, and 600  nm are achieved in the EL spectra of the CDs/Si LEDs, and they are found to only originate from the CDs. Addition of a PMMA polymer does not influence the EL originations, but improves the flatness of the CD active layer, thereby enhancing the EL per...
Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology - March 19, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research