Bioactive molecules for regenerative pulp capping
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Nov 29;41:415-437. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a26.ABSTRACTSince the discovery of bioactive molecules sequestered in dentine, researchers have been exploring ways to harness their activities for dental regeneration. One specific area, discussed in this review, is that of dental-pulp capping. Dental-pulp caps are placed when the dental pulp is exposed due to decay or trauma in an attempt to enhance tertiary dentine deposition. Several materials are used for dental-pulp capping; however, natural biomimetic scaffolds may offer advantages over manufactured materials such as improved aesthetic, biocompatibility a...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 29, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: L L Whitehouse N H Thomson T Do G A Feichtinger Source Type: research

TWIST1 controls cellular senescence and energy metabolism in mesenchymal stem cells
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Nov 25;41:401-414. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a25.ABSTRACTMesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising cells for regenerative medicine therapies because they can differentiate towards multiple cell lineages. However, the occurrence of cellular senescence and the acquiring of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) limit their clinical use. Since the transcription factor TWIST1 influences expansion of MSCs, its role in regulating cellular senescence was investigated. The present study demonstrated that silencing of TWIST1 in MSCs increased the occurrence of senescence, characterised by a SASP pro...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 26, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: C Voskamp L A Anderson W J Koevoet S Barnhoorn P G Mastroberardino G J van Osch R Narcisi Source Type: research

Dentine matrix metalloproteinases as potential mediators of dentine regeneration
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Nov 24;41:392-400. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a24.ABSTRACTMatrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated not only in the regulation of developmental processes but also in the release of biologically active molecules and in the modulation of repair during tertiary dentine formation. Although efforts to preserve dentine have focused on inhibiting the activity of these proteases, their function is much more complex and necessary for dentine repair than expected. The present review explores the role of MMPs as bioactive components of the dentine matrix involved in dentine formation, repair and regenerati...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: E Guirado A George Source Type: research

Dentine matrix metalloproteinases as potential mediators of dentine regeneration
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Nov 24;41:392-40. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a24.ABSTRACTMatrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated not only in the regulation of developmental processes but also in the release of biologically active molecules and in the modulation of repair during tertiary dentine formation. Although efforts to preserve dentine have focused on inhibiting the activity of these proteases, their function is much more complex and necessary for dentine repair than expected. The present review explores the role of MMPs as bioactive components of the dentine matrix involved in dentine formation, repair and regeneratio...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 24, 2021 Category: Cytology Source Type: research

Tendon mechanobiology in small-animal experiments during post-transection healing
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Nov 2;41:375-391. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a23.ABSTRACTRuptures to tendons are common and costly, and no clinical consensus exists on the appropriate treatment and rehabilitation regimen to promote their healing as well as full recovery of functionality. Although mechanobiology is known to play an important role in tendon regeneration, the understanding of how mechano-regulated processes affect tendon healing needs further clarification. Many small-animal studies, particularly in rats and mice, have characterized the progression of healing in terms of geometrical, structural, compositional, mechanical, an...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 2, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: T Notermans H Hammerman P Eliasson H Isaksson Source Type: research

Current osteomyelitis mouse models, a systematic review
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Oct 21;41:334-374. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a22.ABSTRACTOsteomyelitis is an inflammatory bone disease caused by an infecting microorganism leading to a gradual bone loss. Due to the difficulty in studying osteomyelitis directly in patients, animal models allow researchers to investigate the pathogenesis of the infection and the development of novel prophylactic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial treatment strategies. This review is specifically focused on the in vivo mouse osteomyelitis studies available in literature. Thus, a systematic search on Web of Science and PubMed was conducted using the query ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 21, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: C Guarch-P érez M Riool S Aj Zaat Source Type: research

Bone infection: a clinical priority for clinicians, scientists and educators
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Oct 18;41:312-333. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a21.ABSTRACTBone infection has received increasing attention in recent years as one of the main outstanding clinical problems in orthopaedic-trauma surgery that has not been successfully addressed. In fact, infection may develop across a spectrum of patient types regardless of the level of perioperative management, including antibiotic prophylaxis. Some of the main unknown factors that may be involved, and the main targets for future intervention, include more accurate and less invasive diagnostic options, more thorough and accurate debridement protocols, and mo...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 18, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: T F Moriarty G Muthukrishnan J L Daiss C Xie K Nishitani Y Morita H Awad K L de Mesy Bentley E Masters T Bui M Yan J Owen B Mooney S Gill J Puetzler J C Wenke M Morgenstern W-J Metsemakers C Noll A Joeris R G Richards E M Schwarz S L Kates Source Type: research

Pulsed ultrasound for bone regeneration - outcomes and hurdles in the clinical application: a systematic review
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Oct 14;41:281-311. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a20.ABSTRACTImpaired bone-fracture healing is associated with long-term musculoskeletal disability, pain and psychological distress. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a non-invasive and side-effect-free treatment option for fresh, delayed- and non-union bone fractures, which has been used in patients since the early 1990s. Several clinical studies, however, have questioned the usefulness of the LIPUS treatment for the regeneration of long bones, including those with a compromised healing. This systematic review addresses the hurdles that the clinical ap...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 14, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: R Puts R Vico N Beilfu ß M Shaka F Padilla K Raum Source Type: research

Bone loss recovery in mice following microgravity with concurrent bone-compartment-specific osteocyte characteristics
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Oct 13;41:220-231. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a16.ABSTRACTSpace missions provide the opportunity to investigate the influence of gravity on the dynamic remodelling processes in bone. Mice were examined following space flight and subsequent recovery to determine the effects on bone compartment-specific microstructure and composition. The resulting bone loss following microgravity recovered only in trabecular bone, while in cortical bone the tissue mineral density was restored after only one week on Earth. Detection of TRAP-positive bone surface cells in the trabecular compartment indicated increased resorpti...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 13, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: S von Kroge E M W ölfel L B Buravkova D A Atiakshin E A Markina T Schinke T Rolvien B Busse K J ähn-Rickert Source Type: research

A bilayered tissue engineered in vitro model simulating the tooth periodontium
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Oct 11;41:232-245. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a17.ABSTRACTDue to the complexity of the structure of the tooth periodontium, regeneration of the full tooth attachment is not a trivial task. There is also a gap in models that can represent human tooth attachment in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to develop a bilayered in vitro construct that simulated the tooth periodontal ligament and attached alveolar bone, for the purpose of tissue regeneration and investigation of physiological and orthodontic loading. Two types of materials were used to develop this construct: sol-gel 60S10Mg derived scaffo...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 11, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: A Khadre E Lm Raif S Junaid O M Goudouri W Refaat A Ramadan A R Boccaccini R El-Gendy Source Type: research

Evidence for osteocyte-mediated bone-matrix degradation associated with periprosthetic joint infection (PJI)
In conclusion, the study identified previously unrecognised bone-matrix changes in PJI caused by multiple organisms deriving from osteocytes. Histological examination of bone collagen composition may provide a useful adjunct diagnostic measure of PJI.PMID:34622431 | DOI:10.22203/eCM.v042a19 (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: R T Ormsby A R Zelmer D Yang N J Gunn Y Starczak S P Kidd R Nelson L B Solomon G J Atkins Source Type: research

Hydrostatic pressure mimicking diurnal spinal movements maintains anabolic turnover in bovine nucleus pulposus cells in vitro
In conclusion, the study identified previously unrecognised bone-matrix changes in PJI caused by multiple organisms deriving from osteocytes. Histological examination of bone collagen composition may provide a useful adjunct diagnostic measure of PJI.PMID:34622431 | DOI:10.22203/eCM.v042a19 (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 8, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: R T Ormsby A R Zelmer D Yang N J Gunn Y Starczak S P Kidd R Nelson L B Solomon G J Atkins Source Type: research

Hydrostatic pressure mimicking diurnal spinal movements maintains anabolic turnover in bovine nucleus pulposus cells in vitro
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Oct 7;42:246-263. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a18.ABSTRACTTreatment strategies for progressive intervertebral-disc degeneration often alleviate pain and other symptoms. With the goal of developing strategies to promote the regeneration of the nucleus pulposus (NP), the present study tried to identify the biological effects of hydrostatic (HP) and osmotic pressures on NP cells. The study hypothesis was that a repetitive regimen of cyclic HP followed by constant HP in high-osmolality medium would increase anabolic molecules in NP cells. Bovine NP cells/clusters were enclosed within semi-permeable membrane pouc...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 7, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: F Vieira J Kang L Ferreira S Mizuno Source Type: research

Intervertebral disc decellularisation: progress and challenges
Eur Cell Mater. 2021 Oct 6;41:196-219. doi: 10.22203/eCM.v042a15.ABSTRACTIntervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration and the consequent low-back pain (LBP) affect over 80 % of people in western societies, constituting a tremendous socio-economic burden worldwide and largely impairing patients' life quality. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-based scaffolds, derived from decellularised tissues, are being increasingly explored in regenerative medicine for tissue repair. Decellularisation plays an essential role for host cells and antigen removal, while maintaining native microenvironmental signals, including ECM structure, composition a...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 6, 2021 Category: Cytology Authors: M F Fiordalisi A J Silva M Barbosa R M Gon çalves J Caldeira Source Type: research