Intervertebral disc and endplate cells response to IL-1 β inflammatory cell priming and identification of molecular targets of tissue degeneration.
Intervertebral disc and endplate cells response to IL-1β inflammatory cell priming and identification of molecular targets of tissue degeneration. Eur Cell Mater. 2020 Jun 02;39:227-248 Authors: De Luca P, de Girolamo L, Kouroupis D, Castagnetta M, Perucca Orfei C, Coviello D, Coco S, Correa D, Brayda-Bruno M, Colombini A Abstract Inflammation represents an important factor leading to metabolic imbalance within the intervertebral disc (IVD), conducive to degenerative changes. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the IVD and endplate (EP) cell behaviour in such pathological environments is essential ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 4, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Crosslinker concentration controls TGF β-3 release and annulus fibrosus cell apoptosis in genipin-crosslinked fibrin hydrogels.
In conclusion, FibGen could be used for delivering biologically active compounds and AF cells, provided that formulations supplied additional sites for cell-biomaterial binding and genipin concentrations were low. Results also highlighted a need for developing strategies that protect cells against acute crosslinker cytotoxicity to overcome challenges of engineering high-modulus cell carriers for musculoskeletal tissues that experience high mechanical demands. PMID: 32396210 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 14, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Bacteriophage therapy as a treatment strategy for orthopaedic-device-related infections: where do we stand?
Authors: Onsea J, Wagemans J, Pirnay JP, Di Luca M, Gonzalez-Moreno M, Lavigne R, Trampuz A, Moriarty TF, Metsemakers WJ Abstract Antibiotic resistance represents a key challenge of the 21st century. Since the pipeline of new antibiotics in development is limited, the introduction of alternative antimicrobial strategies is urgently required. Bacteriophage therapy, the use of bacterial viruses to selectively kill bacterial pathogens, is re-emerging as a potential strategy to tackle difficult-to-treat and multidrug-resistant pathogens. The last decade has seen a surge in scientific investigation into bacteriophage th...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 7, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Pathogen-specific antibody profiles in patients with severe systemic infections.
Authors: Normann N, Tietz G, Kühn A, Fuchs C, Balau V, Schulz K, Kolata J, Schuerholz T, Petersmann A, Stentzel S, Steil L, Kuhn SO, Meissner K, Völker U, Nauck M, Steinmetz I, Raafat D, Gründling M, Bröker BM Abstract Infections are often caused by pathobionts, endogenous bacteria that belong to the microbiota. Trauma and surgical intervention can allow bacteria to overcome host defences, ultimately leading to sepsis if left untreated. One of the main defence strategies of the immune system is the production of highly specific antibodies. In the present proof-of-concept study, plasma antibodies...
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 18, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Enhancement of fracture healing after citrulline supplementation in mice.
Authors: Meesters DM, Hannemann PF, van Eijk HM, Schriebl VT, Brink PR, Poeze M, Wijnands KA Abstract Around 10 % of long bone fractures show inadequate bone healing resulting in non-union development. A deregulated arginine-citrulline-nitric oxide metabolism caused by a poor nutritional status of the patients is a risk factor for non-unions. Additionally, previous research in mice with a disrupted arginine to citrulline conversion showed delayed healing. The study hypothesis was that stimulating said metabolism could positively influence the healing process through promotion of collagen synthesis and angiogenesis....
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 22, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Intervertebral disc and endplate cell characterisation highlights annulus fibrosus cells as the most promising for tissue-specific disc degeneration therapy.
Authors: De Luca P, Castagnetta M, de Girolamo L, Coco S, Malacarne M, Ragni E, Viganò M, Lugano G, Brayda-Bruno M, Coviello D, Colombini A Abstract Degenerative processes of the intervertebral disc (IVD) and cartilaginous endplate lead to chronic spine pathologies. Several studies speculated on the intrinsic regenerative capacity of degenerated IVD related to the presence of local mesenchymal progenitors. However, a complete characterisation of the resident IVD cell populations, particularly that isolated from the endplate, is lacking. The purpose of the present study was to characterise the gene expression...
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Initiation and emerging complexity of the collagen network during prenatal skeletal development.
Authors: Ahmed S, Nowlan NC Abstract The establishment of a complex collagen network is critical for the architecture and mechanical properties of cartilage and bone. However, when and how the key collagens in cartilage and bone develop has not been characterised in detail. The study provides a detailed qualitative characterisation of the spatial localisations of collagens I-III, V-VI and IX-XI in the mouse and their regional architecture variation over three developmentally significant time points: when the rudiment starts to form at E13.5 [Theiler stage (TS) 22], when mineralisation is present at E16.5 (TS25) and...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 28, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

The chondrogenic differentiation potential of dental pulp stem cells.
Authors: Longoni A, Utomo L, van Hooijdonk IE, Bittermann GK, Vetter VC, Kruijt Spanjer EC, Ross J, Rosenberg AJ, Gawlitta D Abstract Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are particularly promising for tissue engineering (TE) due to the ease of their isolation procedure, great expansion potential and capability to differentiate towards several cell types of the mesodermal, ectodermal and endodermal lineages. Although several studies hint that DPSCs exhibit potential for cartilage tissue formation, the chondrogenic potential of DPSCs has only been marginally explored. Thus, the aim of the present study was to closely inve...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 23, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Prophylaxis of implant-related infections by local release of vancomycin from a hydrogel in rabbits.
Authors: Boot W, Vogely HC, Jiao C, Nikkels PG, Pouran B, van Rijen MH, Ekkelenkamp MB, Hänsch GM, Dhert WJ, Gawlitta D Abstract Local prophylaxis with antibiotic-loaded bone cement is a successful method to prevent post-operative infections in patients receiving orthopaedic implants. No comparable method is available for uncemented implants. Therefore, a hydrogel consisting of hyaluronic and polylactic acids was evaluated in a rabbit model for delivery of antimicrobial agents to prevent post-operative infections. In a pilot study, the suitability of the in vivo model was assessed by testing the hydrogel as ca...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 21, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Deriving a dose and regimen for anti-glucosaminidase antibody passive-immunisation for patients with Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis.
Authors: Lee CC, Southgate RD, Jiao C, Gersz E, Owen JR, Kates SL, Beck CA, Xie C, Daiss JL, Post V, Moriarty TF, Zeiter S, Schwarz EM, Muthukrishnan G Abstract Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) osteomyelitis remains a major clinical problem. Anti-glucosaminidase (Gmd) antibodies (1C11) are efficacious in prophylactic and therapeutic murine models. Feasibility, safety and pharmacokinetics of 1C11 passive immunisation in sheep and endogenous anti-Gmd levels were quantified in osteomyelitis patients. 3 sheep received a 500 mg intravenous (i.v.) bolus of 1C11 and its levels in sera were determined by enzyme-linked imm...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 1, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Revisiting the "race for the surface" in a pre-clinical model of implant infection.
Revisiting the "race for the surface" in a pre-clinical model of implant infection. Eur Cell Mater. 2020 Jan 29;39:77-95 Authors: Shiels SM, Mangum LH, Wenke JC Abstract Orthopaedic implant use increases infection risk. Implant infection risk can be explained by the "race for the surface" concept, where there is competition between host-cell integration and bacterial colonisation. Although generally accepted, the temporal dynamics have not been elucidated in vivo. Using a bilateral intramedullary rat model, Staphylococcus aureus was injected into the tail vein either immediately aft...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 31, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Link N suppresses interleukin-1 β-induced biological effects on human osteoarthritic cartilage.
Link N suppresses interleukin-1β-induced biological effects on human osteoarthritic cartilage. Eur Cell Mater. 2020 Jan 15;39:65-76 Authors: Alaqeel M, Grant MP, Epure LM, Salem O, AlShaer A, Huk OL, Bergeron SG, Zukor DJ, Kc R, Im HJ, Anbazhagan AN, Antoniou J, Mwale F Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of diarthrodial joints associated with extracellular matrix proteolytic degradation under inflammatory conditions, pain and disability. Currently, there is no therapy to prevent, reverse or modulate the disease course. The present study aimed at evaluating the regenerative potential of Link...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 17, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

YAP/TAZ regulates the expression of proteoglycan 4 and tenascin C in superficial-zone chondrocytes.
Authors: Delve E, Co V, Regmi SC, Parreno J, Schmidt TA, Kandel RA Abstract The roles of cell division control protein 42 homologue (CDC42) and actin polymerisation in regulating the phenotype of superficial-zone chondrocytes (SZCs) have been demonstrated in vitro; however, the signalling pathway(s) downstream have yet to be fully elucidated. The study hypothesis was that Yes-associated protein (YAP) and transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) act downstream to regulate proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) and tenascin C (TNC). Bovine SZCs grown in monolayer were treated with ML141 (CDC42 inhibitor) or the actin...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 11, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Degenerative lumbar disc disease: in vivo data support the rationale for the selection of appropriate animal models.
Authors: Fusellier M, Clouet J, Gauthier O, Tryfonidou M, Le Visage C, Guicheux J Abstract Since low-back pain is increasing in ageing populations, current research efforts are focused on obtaining a better understanding of the pathophysiology of intervertebral disc degeneration and on developing new therapeutic strategies. This requires adequate and clinically relevant models of the disease process. Ex vivo models can provide insights into isolated aspects of the degenerative/regenerative processes involved; although, ultimately, in vivo models are needed for preclinical translational studies. Such models have bee...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 8, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Functional cell phenotype induction with TGF- β1 and collagen-polyurethane scaffold for annulus fibrosus rupture repair.
In conclusion, TGF-β1-containing collagen-PU constructs can induce the functional cell phenotype of human AF cells in vitro and in situ. This combined cellular, biomaterial and bioactive agent therapy has a great potential for AF tissue regeneration and rupture repair. PMID: 31899537 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 5, 2020 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Dexamethasone: chondroprotective corticosteroid or catabolic killer?
Authors: Black R, Grodzinsky AJ Abstract While glucocorticoids have been used for over 50 years to treat rheumatoid and osteoarthritis pain, the prescription of glucocorticoids remains controversial because of potentially harmful side effects at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. One member of the glucocorticoid family, dexamethasone (DEX) has recently been demonstrated to rescue cartilage matrix loss and chondrocyte viability in animal studies and cartilage explant models of tissue injury and post-traumatic osteoarthritis, suggesting the possibility of DEX as a disease-modifying drug if used appropriately....
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Vibration treatment modulates macrophage polarisation and enhances early inflammatory response in oestrogen-deficient osteoporotic-fracture healing.
In conclusion, vibration treatment could positively modulate the impaired innate immune response and promote macrophage polarisation in osteoporotic-fracture healing. PMID: 31697398 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Effective repair of articular cartilage using human pluripotent stem cell-derived tissue.
In this report, the potential of hESC-derived articular-like cartilage to repair osteochondral defects created in the rat trochlea was evaluated. Articular cartilage-like tissues were generated from hESCs and implanted into the defects. After 6 and 12 weeks, the defects were evaluated histologically and immunohistochemically, and the quality of repair was assessed using a modified ICRS II scoring system. Following 6 and 12 weeks after implantation, hESC-derived cartilage tissues maintained their proteoglycan and type II collagen-rich matrix and scored significantly higher than control defects, which had been filled with fi...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 8, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Adhesion, integration and osteogenesis of human dental pulp stem cells on biomimetic implant surfaces combined with plasma derived products.
Authors: Irastorza I, Luzuriaga J, Martinez-Conde R, Ibarretxe G, Unda F Abstract Dental implants are the usual therapy of choice in the dental clinic to replace a loss of natural teeth. Over recent decades there has been an important progress in the design and manufacturing of titanium implant surfaces with the goal of improving their osteointegration. In the present work, the aim was to evaluate the usefulness of hDPSCs (human dental pulp stem cells), in combination with autologous plasma components, for in vitro bone generation on biomimetic titanium dental implant materials. In this context, the combination of ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

High glucose exposure promotes proliferation and in vivo network formation of adipose-tissue-derived microvascular fragments.
Authors: Laschke MW, Seifert MS, Scheuer C, Kontaxi E, Metzger W, Menger MD Abstract High glucose concentrations have been shown to activate endothelial cells and promote angiogenesis. In the present study, it was investigated whether high glucose concentrations could improve the vascularisation capacity of adipose-tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF). Ad-MVF were isolated from the epididymal fat pads of donor mice and cultivated for 24 h in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution supplemented with vehicle or 30 mM glucose. Protein expression, morphology, viability and proliferation of the cultivated ad-MV...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Biofabrication of multiscale bone extracellular matrix scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.
Authors: Freeman FE, Browe DC, Nulty J, Von Euw S, Grayson WL, Kelly DJ Abstract Interconnected porosity is critical to the design of regenerative scaffolds, as it permits cell migration, vascularisation and diffusion of nutrients and regulatory molecules inside the scaffold. 3D printing is a promising strategy to achieve this as it allows the control over scaffold pore size, porosity and interconnectivity. Thus, the aim of the present study was to integrate distinct biofabrication strategies to develop a multiscale porous scaffold that was not only mechanically functional at the time of implantation, but also faci...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Woven bone overview: structural classification based on its integral role in developmental, repair and pathological bone formation throughout vertebrate groups.
Authors: Shapiro F, Wu JY Abstract Cortical bone development is characterised by initial formation of woven bone followed by deposition of lamellar bone on the woven scaffold. This occurs in normal bone formation as an integral obligate self-assembly pattern throughout all vertebrate groups, with specific temporal and spatial features. It also occurs in repair bone, modified by the biophysical/mechanical environment, and in pathological bone, modified by the specific disorder and its severity. Two spatially distinct osteoblast cell populations synthesise woven and lamellar bone: mesenchymal osteoblasts surround the...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP6) is a cross-species tendon marker.
Authors: Turlo AJ, Mueller-Breckenridge AJ, Zamboulis DE, Tew SR, Canty-Laird EG, Clegg PD Abstract The main challenge in tendon injury management is suboptimal tissue healing that fails to re-establish original tendon function. Tissue bioengineering is a promising approach for tendon therapy, with potential to improve its functional outcomes. However, evaluation criteria for tissue-engineered tendon are unclear due to the lack of specific markers of differentiated tendon. The study aim was to identify a panel of genes that characterised tendons in comparison to cartilage or muscles and validate those genes, both i...
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Complete regeneration of large bone defects in rats with commercially available fibrin loaded with BMP-2.
In conclusion, commercially available fibrin is a very efficient carrier for rhBMP-2 to graft critical-size cortical bone defects and might be a more optimal delivery vehicle for BMP-2-induced bone regeneration than currently available collagen sponges. PMID: 31529455 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Collagen type X is essential for successful mesenchymal stem cell-mediated cartilage formation and subsequent endochondral ossification.
Authors: Knuth CA, Andres Sastre E, Fahy NB, Witte-Bouma J, Ridwan Y, Strabbing EM, Koudstaal MJ, van de Peppel J, Wolvius EB, Narcisi R, Farrell E Abstract n tissue engineering, endochondral ossification (EO) is often replicated by chondrogenically differentiating mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro and achieving bone formation through in vivo implantation. The resulting marrow-containing bone constructs are promising as a treatment for bone defects. However, limited bone formation capacity has prevented them from reaching their full potential. This is further complicated since it is not fully understood how...
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Diverse effects of pulsed electrical stimulation on cells - with a focus on chondrocytes and cartilage regeneration.
Authors: Ning T, Zhang K, Chin Heng B, Ge Z Abstract Biological effects of pulsed electrical stimulation (PES) on cells and tissues have been intensively studied with the aim of advancing their biomedical applications. These effects vary significantly depending on PES parameters, cell and tissue types, which can be attributed to the diverse variety of signaling pathways, ion channels, and epigenetic mechanisms involved. The development of new technology platforms, such as nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) with finely tuned parameters, have added further complexity. The present review systematically examine...
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 5, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Biology of soft tissue repair: gingival epithelium in wound healing and attachment to the tooth and abutment surface.
Authors: Gibbs S, Roffel S, Meyer M, Gasser A Abstract Epithelium attachment to the tooth or abutment surface is necessary to form a biological seal preventing pathogens and irritants from penetrating the body and reaching the underlying soft tissues and bone, which in turn can lead to inflammation and subsequent bone resorption. The present review investigated oral wound closure and the role of micro-environment, saliva, crevicular fluid and microbiota in wound healing. The importance of the junctional epithelium (peri-implant epithelium) attachment to the abutment surface was investigated. Current research focuse...
Source: European Cells and Materials - August 16, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Meniscus regeneration combining meniscus and mesenchymal stromal cells in a degradable meniscus implant: an in vitro study.
Authors: Hagmeijer MH, Vonk LA, Fenu M, van Keep YW, Krych AJ, Saris DB Abstract Meniscus regeneration is an unmet clinical need as damage to the meniscus is common and causes early osteoarthritis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of a one-stage cell-based treatment for meniscus regeneration by augmenting a resorbable collagen-based implant with a combination of recycled meniscus cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Cell communication and fate of the different cell types over time in co-culture were evaluated by connexin 43 staining for gap junctions and polymerase chain reacti...
Source: European Cells and Materials - August 14, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Recombinant human FGF18 preserves depth-dependent mechanical inhomogeneity in articular cartilage.
Authors: Meloni GR, Farran A, Mohanraj B, Guehring H, Cocca R, Rabut E, Mauck RL, Dodge GR Abstract Articular cartilage is a specialised tissue that has a relatively homogenous endogenous cell population but a diverse extracellular matrix (ECM), with depth-dependent mechanical properties. Repair of this tissue remains an elusive clinical goal, with biological interventions preferred to arthroplasty in younger patients. Osteochondral transplantation (OCT) has emerged for the treatment of cartilage defects and osteoarthritis. Fresh allografts stored at 4 °C have been utilised, though matrix and cell viability los...
Source: European Cells and Materials - August 10, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Characterisation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of supercritical-CO2-foamed β-TCP/PLCL composites for bone applications.
Characterisation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of supercritical-CO2-foamed β-TCP/PLCL composites for bone applications. Eur Cell Mater. 2019 Aug 05;38:35-50 Authors: Pitkänen S, Paakinaho K, Pihlman H, Ahola N, Hannula M, Asikainen S, Manninen M, Morelius M, Keränen P, Hyttinen J, Kellomäki M, Laitinen-Vapaavuori O, Miettinen S Abstract Most synthetic bone grafts are either hard and brittle ceramics or paste-like materials that differ in applicability from the gold standard autologous bone graft, which restricts their widespread use. Therefore, the aim of the study was to deve...
Source: European Cells and Materials - August 7, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Twelve-day medium pumping into tubular cell-laden scaffold using a lab-made PDMS connector.
Authors: Duong VT, Dang TT, Kim JP, Kim K, Ko H, Hwang CH, Koo KI Abstract In the current study, a method is proposed to supply culture medium into a two-layered cell-laden tubular scaffold in order to enhance cell proliferation, confluence, and viability. The two-layered cell-laden tubular scaffold was made of calcium-alginate mixed with fibroblast cells (NIH/3T3) using a lab-made double- coaxial laminar-flow generator. Afterwards, the tubular scaffold was connected to a syringe pump system using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-connector for long-term cell culture. Three medium pumping conditions were applied ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - July 25, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Paracrine effects of living human bone particles on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.
Authors: Atasoy-Zeybek A, Ivkovic A, Beyzadeoglu T, Ona A, Evans CH, Kose GT Abstract Bone autografting remains the clinical model of choice for resolving problematic fractures. The precise mechanisms through which the autograft promotes bone healing are unknown. The present study examined the hypothesis that cells within the autograft secrete osteogenic factors promoting the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts. Particles of human bone ("chips") were recovered at the time of joint replacement surgery and placed in culture. Then, conditioned media were added to cultures of hum...
Source: European Cells and Materials - July 25, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

A murine femoral ostectomy model with hardware exchange to assess antibiotic-impregnated spacers for implant-associated osteomyelitis.
Authors: Trombetta RP, de Mesy Bentley KL, Schwarz EM, Kate SL, Awad HA Abstract Implant-associated osteomyelitis is a chronic infection that complicates orthopaedic surgeries. Once infected, 50 % of patients suffer treatment failure, resulting in high healthcare costs. While various small animal models have been developed to investigate the efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic treatments, the minute scale of murine-model bone and hardware has been prohibitive for evaluating interventions with a complete implant exchange in the setting of an infected critical defect. To address this, the aim of the present stud...
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 28, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Establishment of a clinically relevant large animal model to assess the healing of metaphyseal bone.
In conclusion, the novel metaphyseal fracture model is beneficial for studying healing and treatment options for the enhancement of metaphyseal bone defects. PMID: 31219613 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

A metaphyseal fracture rat model for mechanistic studies of osteoporotic bone healing.
Authors: Wong RM, Thormann U, Choy MH, Chim YN, Li MC, Wang JY, Leung KS, Cheng JC, Alt V, Chow SK, Cheung WH Abstract Most osteoporotic fractures occur at metaphyseal regions of long bones. The present study proposed a clinically relevant animal model that satisfied: i) induction of osteoporosis, ii) unilateral complete osteotomy at metaphysis, iii) internal fixation. 6 months old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were randomly divided into the ovariectomised-metaphyseal osteotomy (OVX, n = 32) and metaphyseal osteotomy (SHAM, n = 32) groups. The metaphyseal-osteotomy model was created with a plate-fixation of t...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Systemic sclerostin antibody treatment increases osseointegration and biomechanical competence of zoledronic-acid-coated dental implants in a rat osteoporosis model.
Authors: Korn P, Kramer I, Schlottig F, Tödtman N, Eckelt U, Bürki A, Ferguson SJ, Kautz A, Schnabelrauch M, Range U, Kneissel M, Stadlinger B Abstract Osseointegration of dental implants can be promoted by implant-surface modifications using bisphosphonate coatings. In addition, it is of clinical interest to promote peri-implant bone formation and to restore bony structure in low bone-mass patients. The present study evaluated a combination of an anti-resorptive zoledronic acid (ZOL) implant-coating and a systemically applied sclerostin antibody, a known bone anabolic treatment principle, versus sole scl...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in 3D conditions - comparison of spheroids and polystyrene scaffolds.
Authors: Rumiński S, Kalaszczyńska I, Długosz A, Lewandowska-Szumieł M Abstract Expansion and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro are routinely performed in two-dimensional (2D) environments. The study hypothesis was that the utilisation of three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions, mimicking the natural stem cell niche, might increase the osteogenic commitment of ADSCs. Therefore, human ADSCs were seeded in 3D culture systems lacking bioactive material components: spheroids and polystyrene scaffolds. ALP activity, a marker of early osteogenesis, was higher in ADSC spheroids and ADSC ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

The role of bacterial stimuli in inflammation-driven bone formation.
Authors: Croes M, Kruyt MC, Boot W, Pouran B, Braham MV, Pakpahan SA, Weinans H, Vogely HC, Fluit AC, Dhert WJ, Alblas J, Öner FC Abstract Immune cells and their soluble factors regulate skeletal cells during normal bone regeneration and pathological bone formation. Bacterial infections can trigger immune responses that activate pro-osteogenic pathways, but these are usually overshadowed by osteolysis and concerns of systemic inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether the transient local inflammatory reaction to non-viable bacterial immune agonists could lead to favourable new bone formation....
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 18, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Cells under pressure - the relationship between hydrostatic pressure and mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis.
Authors: Pattappa G, Zellner J, Johnstone B, Docheva D, Angele P Abstract Early osteoarthritis (OA), characterised by cartilage defects, is a degenerative disease that greatly affects the adult population. Cell-based tissue engineering methods are being explored as a solution for the treatment of these chondral defects. Chondrocytes are already in clinical use but other cell types with chondrogenic properties, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are being researched. However, present methods for differentiating these cells into stable articular-cartilage chondrocytes that contribute to joint regeneration are not...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Short link N acts as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drug.
This study aimed to determine if sLN, could prevent OA disease progression. Skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) of their left femorotibial joints to induce joint degeneration typical of OA. Beginning 3 weeks post-operatively, and every three weeks thereafter for 12 weeks, either saline (1 mL) or sLN (100 μg in 1 mL saline) was injected intraarticularly into the operated knee. Six additional rabbits underwent sham surgery but without ACLT or post-operative injections. The effects on gross joint morphology and cartilage histologic changes were eval...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Carrageenan enhances chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in human bone marrow stem cell culture.
In conclusion, carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide, enhanced extracellular matrix deposition and promoted chondrogenesis and osteogenesis but not adipogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell cultures. PMID: 31038192 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 2, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

A crosslinked collagen membrane versus a non-crosslinked bilayer collagen membrane for supporting osteogenic functions of human bone marrow-multipotent stromal cells.
Authors: El-Jawhari JJ, Moisley K, Jones E, Giannoudis PV Abstract Barrier membranes are popularly used for guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, more knowledge is needed to assess how these membranes could be of therapeutic value when populated with native multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), particularly in the orthopaedic field. The present manuscript investigated the activities of human bone marrow-multipotent stromal cells (BM-MSCs) when loaded on to two differently structured pure collagen membranes. A crosslinked collagen membrane (CS) was tested versus a non-crosslinked bilayer collagen membrane, Bio-Gide&r...
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Understanding tissue-engineered endochondral ossification; towards improved bone formation.
Authors: Knuth C, Kiernan C, Wolvius E, Narcisi R, Farrell E Abstract Endochondral ossification (EO) is the process by which the long bones of the body form and has proven to be a promising method in tissue engineering for achieving cell-mediated bone formation. The present review centred on state-of-the-art research pertaining to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated endochondral bone formation, focusing on the role of donor cells, extracellular matrix and host immune cells during tissue-engineered bone formation. Possible research avenues to improve graft outcome and bone output were highlighted, as well as emer...
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Platelet-rich fibrin secretome induces three dimensional angiogenic activation in vitro.
In conclusion, reducing the RCF according to the low-speed centrifugation concept (LSCC) resulted in increased growth factor release and angiogenic structure formation with EC mono-culture, suggesting that PRF may be a highly beneficial therapeutic tool for tissue engineering applications. PMID: 30963526 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Antibiotic-eluting resorbable bone-void filler evaluated in a large animal infection prevention model.
Authors: Ferrell Z, Grainger DW, Sinclair KD Abstract Periprosthetic infection in total knee arthroplasty is a difficult-to-treat complication. Current implant revision procedures use non-degradable, antibiotic-loaded bone cement for local antimicrobial delivery. As a permanent foreign body, antibiotic-loaded bone cement is susceptible to bacterial colonisation after antibiotic release. In this first step, of a multi-study approach, an infection prevention model assessed a resorbable, antibiotic-eluting bone-void filler for preventing infection in a large animal model. Four groups of sheep were utilised to monitor ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Effective use of mesenchymal stem cells in human skin substitutes generated by tissue engineering.
Authors: Martin-Piedra MA, Alfonso-Rodriguez CA, Zapater A, Durand-Herrera D, Chato-Astrain J, Campos F, Sanchez-Quevedo MC, Alamino M, Garzon I Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate toward epithelial cells and may be used as an alternative source for generation of heterotypical artificial human skin substitutes, thus, enhancing their development and translation potential to the clinic. The present study aimed at comparing four types of heterotypical human bioengineered skin generated using MSCs as an alternative epithelial cell source. Adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), dental pulp stem ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Nose to back: compatibility of nasal chondrocytes with environmental conditions mimicking a degenerated intervertebral disc.
Authors: Gay MH, Mehrkens A, Rittmann M, Haug M, Barbero A, Martin I, Schaeren S Abstract Nasal chondrocytes (NCs) have gained increased recognition for cartilage tissue regeneration. To assess NCs as a source for cell therapy treatment of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, tissue-forming properties of NCs under physiological conditions mimicking the degenerated IVD were compared to those of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs), two cell sources presently used in clinical trials. Cells were cultured in a combination of low glucose, hypoxia, acidity and inflammation for 28 d. Depend...
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Advances of hyaluronic acid in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering, including current clinical trials.
Authors: López-Ruiz E, Jiménez G, Álvarez de Cienfuegos L, Antic C, Sabata R, Marcha JA, Gálvez-Martín P Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA), as one of the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a significant role in a multitude of biological processes involving cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, wound healing and inflammation. Thanks to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and hygroscopic properties, HA has been used in its natural form for joint lubrication and ocular treatment. The chemical structure of HA can be easily modified by direct re...
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

The effects of ageing on dental pulp stem cells, the tooth longevity elixir.
Authors: Iezzi I, Pagella P, Mattioli-Belmonte M, Mitsiadis TA Abstract Stem cells are essential for tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout the lifespan of multicellular rganisms. The decline in stem cell function during advanced age is associated with a reduced regenerative potential of tissues that leads to an increased frequency of diseases. Age-related changes also occur in the dental pulp tissue that represents a reliable model tissue, with high regenerative capability, for studying senescence mechanisms. However, little information is available concerning the effects of ageing on dental stem-cell func...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Adipose-tissue-derived therapeutic cells in their natural environment as an autologous cell therapy strategy: the microtissue-stromal vascular fraction.
Authors: Nürnberger S, Lindner C, Maier J, Strohmeier K, Wurzer C, Slezak P, Suessner S, Holnthoner W, Redl H, Wolbank S, Priglinger E Abstract The prerequisite for a successful clinical use of autologous adipose-tissue-derived cells is the highest possible regenerative potential of the applied cell population, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Current isolation methods depend on high enzyme concentration, lysis buffer, long incubation steps and mechanical stress, resulting in single cell dissociation. The aim of the study was to limit cell manipulation and obtain a derivative comprising therapeutic cells (...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research