Establishment of a clinically relevant large animal model to assess the healing of metaphyseal bone.
In conclusion, the novel metaphyseal fracture model is beneficial for studying healing and treatment options for the enhancement of metaphyseal bone defects. PMID: 31219613 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

A metaphyseal fracture rat model for mechanistic studies of osteoporotic bone healing.
Authors: Wong RM, Thormann U, Choy MH, Chim YN, Li MC, Wang JY, Leung KS, Cheng JC, Alt V, Chow SK, Cheung WH Abstract Most osteoporotic fractures occur at metaphyseal regions of long bones. The present study proposed a clinically relevant animal model that satisfied: i) induction of osteoporosis, ii) unilateral complete osteotomy at metaphysis, iii) internal fixation. 6 months old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 64) were randomly divided into the ovariectomised-metaphyseal osteotomy (OVX, n = 32) and metaphyseal osteotomy (SHAM, n = 32) groups. The metaphyseal-osteotomy model was created with a plate-fixation of t...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Systemic sclerostin antibody treatment increases osseointegration and biomechanical competence of zoledronic-acid-coated dental implants in a rat osteoporosis model.
Authors: Korn P, Kramer I, Schlottig F, Tödtman N, Eckelt U, Bürki A, Ferguson SJ, Kautz A, Schnabelrauch M, Range U, Kneissel M, Stadlinger B Abstract Osseointegration of dental implants can be promoted by implant-surface modifications using bisphosphonate coatings. In addition, it is of clinical interest to promote peri-implant bone formation and to restore bony structure in low bone-mass patients. The present study evaluated a combination of an anti-resorptive zoledronic acid (ZOL) implant-coating and a systemically applied sclerostin antibody, a known bone anabolic treatment principle, versus sole scl...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 22, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells in 3D conditions - comparison of spheroids and polystyrene scaffolds.
Authors: Rumiński S, Kalaszczyńska I, Długosz A, Lewandowska-Szumieł M Abstract Expansion and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro are routinely performed in two-dimensional (2D) environments. The study hypothesis was that the utilisation of three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions, mimicking the natural stem cell niche, might increase the osteogenic commitment of ADSCs. Therefore, human ADSCs were seeded in 3D culture systems lacking bioactive material components: spheroids and polystyrene scaffolds. ALP activity, a marker of early osteogenesis, was higher in ADSC spheroids and ADSC ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 19, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

The role of bacterial stimuli in inflammation-driven bone formation.
Authors: Croes M, Kruyt MC, Boot W, Pouran B, Braham MV, Pakpahan SA, Weinans H, Vogely HC, Fluit AC, Dhert WJ, Alblas J, Öner FC Abstract Immune cells and their soluble factors regulate skeletal cells during normal bone regeneration and pathological bone formation. Bacterial infections can trigger immune responses that activate pro-osteogenic pathways, but these are usually overshadowed by osteolysis and concerns of systemic inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine whether the transient local inflammatory reaction to non-viable bacterial immune agonists could lead to favourable new bone formation....
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 18, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Cells under pressure - the relationship between hydrostatic pressure and mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis.
Authors: Pattappa G, Zellner J, Johnstone B, Docheva D, Angele P Abstract Early osteoarthritis (OA), characterised by cartilage defects, is a degenerative disease that greatly affects the adult population. Cell-based tissue engineering methods are being explored as a solution for the treatment of these chondral defects. Chondrocytes are already in clinical use but other cell types with chondrogenic properties, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), are being researched. However, present methods for differentiating these cells into stable articular-cartilage chondrocytes that contribute to joint regeneration are not...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 6, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Short link N acts as a disease modifying osteoarthritis drug.
This study aimed to determine if sLN, could prevent OA disease progression. Skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) of their left femorotibial joints to induce joint degeneration typical of OA. Beginning 3 weeks post-operatively, and every three weeks thereafter for 12 weeks, either saline (1 mL) or sLN (100 μg in 1 mL saline) was injected intraarticularly into the operated knee. Six additional rabbits underwent sham surgery but without ACLT or post-operative injections. The effects on gross joint morphology and cartilage histologic changes were eval...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 3, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Carrageenan enhances chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in human bone marrow stem cell culture.
In conclusion, carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide, enhanced extracellular matrix deposition and promoted chondrogenesis and osteogenesis but not adipogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell cultures. PMID: 31038192 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 2, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

A crosslinked collagen membrane versus a non-crosslinked bilayer collagen membrane for supporting osteogenic functions of human bone marrow-multipotent stromal cells.
Authors: El-Jawhari JJ, Moisley K, Jones E, Giannoudis PV Abstract Barrier membranes are popularly used for guided bone regeneration (GBR). However, more knowledge is needed to assess how these membranes could be of therapeutic value when populated with native multipotent stromal cells (MSCs), particularly in the orthopaedic field. The present manuscript investigated the activities of human bone marrow-multipotent stromal cells (BM-MSCs) when loaded on to two differently structured pure collagen membranes. A crosslinked collagen membrane (CS) was tested versus a non-crosslinked bilayer collagen membrane, Bio-Gide&r...
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 26, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Understanding tissue-engineered endochondral ossification; towards improved bone formation.
Authors: Knuth C, Kiernan C, Wolvius E, Narcisi R, Farrell E Abstract Endochondral ossification (EO) is the process by which the long bones of the body form and has proven to be a promising method in tissue engineering for achieving cell-mediated bone formation. The present review centred on state-of-the-art research pertaining to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-mediated endochondral bone formation, focusing on the role of donor cells, extracellular matrix and host immune cells during tissue-engineered bone formation. Possible research avenues to improve graft outcome and bone output were highlighted, as well as emer...
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 12, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Platelet-rich fibrin secretome induces three dimensional angiogenic activation in vitro.
In conclusion, reducing the RCF according to the low-speed centrifugation concept (LSCC) resulted in increased growth factor release and angiogenic structure formation with EC mono-culture, suggesting that PRF may be a highly beneficial therapeutic tool for tissue engineering applications. PMID: 30963526 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 11, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Antibiotic-eluting resorbable bone-void filler evaluated in a large animal infection prevention model.
Authors: Ferrell Z, Grainger DW, Sinclair KD Abstract Periprosthetic infection in total knee arthroplasty is a difficult-to-treat complication. Current implant revision procedures use non-degradable, antibiotic-loaded bone cement for local antimicrobial delivery. As a permanent foreign body, antibiotic-loaded bone cement is susceptible to bacterial colonisation after antibiotic release. In this first step, of a multi-study approach, an infection prevention model assessed a resorbable, antibiotic-eluting bone-void filler for preventing infection in a large animal model. Four groups of sheep were utilised to monitor ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - April 9, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Effective use of mesenchymal stem cells in human skin substitutes generated by tissue engineering.
Authors: Martin-Piedra MA, Alfonso-Rodriguez CA, Zapater A, Durand-Herrera D, Chato-Astrain J, Campos F, Sanchez-Quevedo MC, Alamino M, Garzon I Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate toward epithelial cells and may be used as an alternative source for generation of heterotypical artificial human skin substitutes, thus, enhancing their development and translation potential to the clinic. The present study aimed at comparing four types of heterotypical human bioengineered skin generated using MSCs as an alternative epithelial cell source. Adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs), dental pulp stem ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Nose to back: compatibility of nasal chondrocytes with environmental conditions mimicking a degenerated intervertebral disc.
Authors: Gay MH, Mehrkens A, Rittmann M, Haug M, Barbero A, Martin I, Schaeren S Abstract Nasal chondrocytes (NCs) have gained increased recognition for cartilage tissue regeneration. To assess NCs as a source for cell therapy treatment of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration, tissue-forming properties of NCs under physiological conditions mimicking the degenerated IVD were compared to those of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and articular chondrocytes (ACs), two cell sources presently used in clinical trials. Cells were cultured in a combination of low glucose, hypoxia, acidity and inflammation for 28 d. Depend...
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 23, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Advances of hyaluronic acid in stem cell therapy and tissue engineering, including current clinical trials.
Authors: López-Ruiz E, Jiménez G, Álvarez de Cienfuegos L, Antic C, Sabata R, Marcha JA, Gálvez-Martín P Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA), as one of the main components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), plays a significant role in a multitude of biological processes involving cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, wound healing and inflammation. Thanks to its excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and hygroscopic properties, HA has been used in its natural form for joint lubrication and ocular treatment. The chemical structure of HA can be easily modified by direct re...
Source: European Cells and Materials - March 20, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

The effects of ageing on dental pulp stem cells, the tooth longevity elixir.
Authors: Iezzi I, Pagella P, Mattioli-Belmonte M, Mitsiadis TA Abstract Stem cells are essential for tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout the lifespan of multicellular rganisms. The decline in stem cell function during advanced age is associated with a reduced regenerative potential of tissues that leads to an increased frequency of diseases. Age-related changes also occur in the dental pulp tissue that represents a reliable model tissue, with high regenerative capability, for studying senescence mechanisms. However, little information is available concerning the effects of ageing on dental stem-cell func...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 27, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Adipose-tissue-derived therapeutic cells in their natural environment as an autologous cell therapy strategy: the microtissue-stromal vascular fraction.
Authors: Nürnberger S, Lindner C, Maier J, Strohmeier K, Wurzer C, Slezak P, Suessner S, Holnthoner W, Redl H, Wolbank S, Priglinger E Abstract The prerequisite for a successful clinical use of autologous adipose-tissue-derived cells is the highest possible regenerative potential of the applied cell population, the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). Current isolation methods depend on high enzyme concentration, lysis buffer, long incubation steps and mechanical stress, resulting in single cell dissociation. The aim of the study was to limit cell manipulation and obtain a derivative comprising therapeutic cells (...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 24, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Large-scale secretome analyses unveil the superior immunosuppressive phenotype of umbilical cord stromal cells as compared to other adult mesenchymal stromal cells.
Authors: Islam A, Urbarova I, Bruun JA, Martinez-Zubiaurre I Abstract Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), given their regenerative potential, are being investigated as a potential therapeutic tool for cartilage lesions. MSCs express several bioactive molecules which act in a paracrine fashion to modulate the tissue microenvironment. Yet, little is known about the divergence of these signalling molecules in different MSC populations. The present study investigated secretomes of stromal cells harvested from Hoffa's fat pad (HFPSCs), synovial membrane (SMSCs), umbilical cord (UCSCs) and cartilage (ACs) by quantitative l...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 21, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

In vitro co-culture and ex vivo organ culture assessment of primed and cryopreserved stromal cell microcapsules for intervertebral disc regeneration.
Authors: Naqvi SM, Gansau J, Gibbons D, Buckley CT Abstract Priming towards a discogenic phenotype and subsequent cryopreservation of microencapsulated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may offer an attractive therapeutic approach for disc repair. It potentially obviates the need for in vivo administration of exogenous growth factors, otherwise required to promote matrix synthesis, in addition to providing 'off-the-shelf' availability. Cryopreserved and primed BMSC microcapsules were evaluated in an in vitro surrogate co-culture model system with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells under intervertebral disc (IVD)-like cult...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis as an organ disease: from the cradle to the graveApproaches to mimic the complexity of the skeletal mesenchymal stem/stromal cell niche in vitro.
Authors: Pereira AR, Trivanović D, Herrmann M Abstract Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are an essential element of most modern tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches due to their multipotency and immunoregulatory functions. Despite the prospective value of MSCs for the clinics, the stem cells community is questioning their developmental origin, in vivo localization, identification, and regenerative potential after several years of far-reaching research in the field. Although several major progresses have been made in mimicking the complexity of the MSC niche in vitro, there is need for compr...
Source: European Cells and Materials - February 13, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Therapeutic efficacy of intra-articular delivery of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells on early stage osteoarthritis.
The objective of the present study was to quantitatively assess the efficacy of encapsulated hMSCs as a disease-modifying therapeutic for OA, using a medial meniscal tear (MMT) rat model. It was hypothesized that encapsulated hMSCs would have a therapeutic effect, through paracrine-mediated action, on early OA development. Lewis rats underwent MMT surgery to induce OA. 1 d post-surgery, rats received intra-articular injections of encapsulated hMSCs or controls (i.e., saline, empty capsules, non-encapsulated hMSCs). Microstructural changes in the knee joint were quantified using equilibrium partitioning of a ionic contrast ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 31, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Osteoarthritis as an organ disease: from the cradle to the grave.
Authors: Aspden RM, Saunders FR Abstract Considered for decades as a cartilage disease, recent studies of osteoarthritis (OA) take us back to the concepts discussed at the naming of the disorder as "bone-joint-inflammation". By describing the joint as an organ, can OA be called an organ disease - similar to heart disease? Is there a systemic (which system?) involvement? Would this help with diagnosis or therapy? Hyperplasia of the joint tissues is one of the most notable early features of the disease: articular cartilage thickens, chondrocytes proliferate and increase matrix biosynthesis, but not its inco...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 31, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Accelerated bone formation by biphasic calcium phosphate with a novel sub-micron surface topography.
Authors: Duan R, van Dijk LA, Barbieri D, de Groot F, Yuan H, de Bruijn JD Abstract Osteoinductive calcium phosphate (CaP) bone grafts have equivalent performance to autografts in repairing critical-size bone defects. The osteoinductive potential of CaP is linked to the size of the surface topographical features. In the present study, two novel biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) bone grafts were synthesised with either sub-micron- (BCP
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 30, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Short-term foetal immobility temporally and progressively affects chick spinal curvature and anatomy and rib development.
Authors: Levillain A, Rolfe RA, Huang Y, Iatridis YC, Nowlan NC Abstract Congenital spine deformities may be influenced by movements in utero, but the effects of foetal immobility on spine and rib development remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) critical time-periods when rigid paralysis caused the most severe disruption in spine and rib development and (2) how the effects of an early, short-term immobilisation were propagated to the different features of spine and rib development. Chick embryos were immobilised once per single embryonic day (E) between E3 and E6 and harvested at E9...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Influence of retrieved hip- and knee-prosthesis biomaterials on microbial detection by sonication.
Authors: Karbysheva S, Grigoricheva L, Golnik V, Popov S, Renz N, Trampuz A Abstract Microorganisms' ability to adhere and form a biofilm differs among biomaterials; however, clinical data are conflicting. Microbial adherence and biofilm formation on different biomaterials of explanted joint prosthesis components were investigated. Consecutive patients with explanted joint prosthesis were prospectively included. The bacterial load dislodged from retrieved prosthetic components was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively in sonication-fluid cultures. For comparison between groups, one-way ANOVA and Wilcoxon signe...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 17, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Pyrocarbon versus cobalt-chromium in the context of spherical interposition implants: an in vitro study on cultured chondrocytes.
Authors: Hannoun A, Ouenzerfi G, Brizuela L, Mebarek S, Bougault C, Hassler M, Berthier Y, Trunfio-Sfarghiu AM Abstract In the context of shoulder surgical replacement, a new generation of spherical interposition implants has been developed, with the implant being a mobile spacer rubbing against the glenoid cartilage and humeral bone cavity. The aim of the present study was to compare pyrocarbon (PyC) versus cobalt-chromium (CoCr) implants, regarding preservation and regeneration of the surrounding tissues. The effect of the biomaterials on chondrocytes was analysed in vitro. Murine primary chondrocytes were grown ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - January 8, 2019 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Osmosensing, osmosignalling and inflammation: how intervertebral disc cells respond to altered osmolarity.
Authors: Sadowska A, Kameda T, Krupkova O, Wuertz-Kozak K Abstract Intervertebral disc (IVD) cells are naturally exposed to high osmolarity and complex mechanical loading, which drive microenvironmental osmotic changes. Age- and degeneration-induced degradation of the IVD's extracellular matrix causes osmotic imbalance, which, together with an altered function of cellular receptors and signalling pathways, instigates local osmotic stress. Cellular responses to osmotic stress include osmoadaptation and activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. This review summarises the current knowledge on how IVD cells sense local ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 21, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Mesenchymal stem cell secretome reduces pain and prevents cartilage damage in a murine osteoarthritis model.
Authors: Khatab S, van Osch GJ, Kops N, Bastiaansen-Jenniskens YM, Bos PK, Verhaar JA, Bernsen MR, van Buul GM Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent a promising biological therapeutic option as an osteoarthritis (OA)-modifying treatment. MSCs secrete factors that can counteract inflammatory and catabolic processes and attract endogenous repair cells. The effects of intra-articular injection of MSC secretome on OA-related pain, cartilage damage, subchondral bone alterations and synovial inflammation were studied in a mouse collagenase-induced OA model. The MSC secretome was generated by stimulating human ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - November 8, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Thermoreversible hyaluronan-hydrogel and autologous nucleus pulposus cell delivery regenerates human intervertebral discs in an ex vivo, physiological organ culture model.
Authors: Rosenzweig DH, Fairag R, Mathieu AP, Li L, Eglin D, D'Este M, Steffen T, Weber MH, Ouellet JA, Haglund L Abstract Numerous studies show promise for cell-based tissue engineering strategies aiming to repair painful intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, clinical translation to human IVD repair is slow. In the present study, the regenerative potential of an autologous nucleus pulposus (NP)-cell-seeded thermoresponsive hyaluronic acid hydrogel in human lumbar IVDs was assessed under physiological conditions. First, agarose-encased in vitro constructs were developed, showing greater than 90 % NP cell...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 30, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Age-dependent changes in intervertebral disc cell mitochondria and bioenergetics.
Authors: Hartman R, Patil P, Tisherman R, St Croix C, Niedernhofer LJ, Robbins PD, Ambrosio F, Van Houten B, Sowa G, Vo N Abstract Robust cellular bioenergetics is vital in the energy-demanding process of maintaining matrix homeostasis in the intervertebral disc. Age-related decline in disc cellular bioenergetics is hypothesised to contribute to the matrix homeostatic perturbation observed in intervertebral disc degeneration. The present study aimed to measure how ageing impacted disc cell mitochondria and bioenergetics. Age-related changes measured included matrix content and cellularity in disc tissue, as well as...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 20, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Preclinical in vivo models of fracture-related infection: a systematic review and critical appraisal.
Authors: Vanvelk N, Morgenstern M, Moriarty TF, Richards RG, Nijs S, Metsemakers WJ Abstract A fracture-related infection (FRI) is an important complication that can lead to an increase in morbidity, mortality and economic costs. Preclinical in vivo models are critical in the evaluation of novel prevention and treatment strategies, yet it is important that these studies recapitulate the features of an FRI that make it such a clinical challenge. The aim of this systematic review was to survey the available preclinical models of FRIs and assess which of the key FRI-specific parameters are incorporated in these models...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 19, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Lentiviral-based reporter constructs for profiling chondrogenic activity in primary equine cell populations.
Authors: Martin-Pena A, Porter RM, Plumton G, McCarrel TM, Morton AJ, Guijarro MV, Ghivizzani SC, Sharma B, Palmer GD Abstract Successful clinical translation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies for cartilage repair will likely require the implementation of standardised protocols and broadly applicable tools to facilitate the comparisons among cell types and chondroinduction methods. The present study investigated the utility of recombinant lentiviral reporter vectors as reliable tools for comparing chondrogenic potential among primary cell populations and distinguishing cellular-level variations of chon...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Cobalt ions stimulate a fibrotic response through matrix remodelling, fibroblast contraction and release of pro-fibrotic signals from macrophages.
Authors: Xu J, Nyga A, Li W, Zhang X, Gavara N, Knight MM, Shelton JC Abstract Many studies report the adverse responses to metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses, with tissues surrounding failed MoM hip prostheses revealing abundant tissue necrosis and fibrosis. These local effects appear to be initiated by metal ions released from the prosthesis causing the secretion of inflammatory mediators. However, little is known about the effect of the metal ions on tissue remodelling and pseudotumor formation, which are also associated with the failure of MoM hip prostheses. The peri-prosthetic soft tissue masses can lead to ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - October 5, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

The functional role of chondrogenic stem/progenitor cells: novel evidence for immunomodulatory properties and regenerative potential after cartilage injury.
Authors: Riegger J, Palm HG, Brenner RE Abstract Considering the poor intrinsic healing potential of articular cartilage, resident chondrogenic stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs) have gained attention in recent years. Although, CSPCs are attracted by a cartilage injury, knowledge about the post-traumatic behaviour and functional role of this cell population is fairly basic. The present study, not only elaborated on the regenerative capacities of CSPCs, but also illuminated potential immunomodulatory properties after cartilage trauma. Estimation of the CSPC population size within previously impacted cartilage explants by...
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 16, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Autologous bilayered self-assembled skin substitutes (SASSs) as permanent grafts: a case series of 14 severely burned patients indicating clinical effectiveness.
Authors: Germain L, Larouche D, Nedelec B, Perreault I, Duranceau L, Bortoluzzi P, Beaudoin Cloutier C, Genest H, Caouette-Laberge L, Dumas A, Bussière A, Boghossian E, Kanevsky J, Leclerc Y, Lee J, Nguyen MT, Bernier V, Knoppers BM, Moulin VJ, Auger FA Abstract Split-thickness skin autografts (AGs) are the standard surgical treatment for severe burn injuries. However, the treatment of patients with substantial skin loss is limited by the availability of donor sites for skin harvesting. As an alternative to skin autografts, our research group developed autologous self-assembled skin substitutes (SASSs), allo...
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 15, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Induced pluripotent stem cells for cartilage repair: current status and future perspectives.
Authors: Castro-Viñuelas R, Sanjurjo-Rodríguez C, Piñeiro-Ramil M, Hermida-Gómez T, Fuentes-Boquete IM, de Toro-Santos FJ, Blanco-García FJ, Díaz-Prado SM Abstract The establishment of cartilage regenerative medicine is an important clinical issue, but the search for cell sources able to restore cartilage integrity proves to be challenging. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are prone to form epiphyseal or hypertrophic cartilage and have an age-related limited proliferation. On the other hand, it is difficult to obtain functional chondrocytes from human embryonic stem c...
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 13, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Decellularised tissues obtained by a CO2-philic detergent and supercritical CO2.
Authors: Antons J, Marascio MG, Aeberhard P, Weissenberger G, Hirt-Burri N, Applegate LA, Bourban PE, Pioletti DP Abstract Tissue decellularisation has gained much attention in regenerative medicine as an alternative to synthetic materials. In decellularised tissues, biological cues can be maintained and provide cellular environments still unmet by synthetic materials. Supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) has recently emerged as a promising alternative decellularisation technique to aggressive detergents; in addition, scCO2 provides innate sterilisation. However, to date, decellularisation with scCO2 is limited to only a few...
Source: European Cells and Materials - September 6, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Localisation of mineralised tissue in a complex spinner flask environment correlates with predicted wall shear stress level localisation.
Authors: Melke J, Zhao F, van Rietbergen B, Ito K, Hofmann S Abstract Spinner flask bioreactors have often been employed for bone tissue engineering. However, the reasons for their success in facilitating bone growth remain inconclusive. It was hypothesised that engineered bone tissue formation can be attributed to mechanical stimuli, which can be predicted in the tissue engineered construct. To test the hypothesis and draw conclusions as to how mechanical stimulation affects cell behaviour, a multi- disciplinary approach using cell culture experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the complex ...
Source: European Cells and Materials - August 3, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Osteogenic extracellular matrix sheet for bone tissue regeneration.
Authors: Onishi T, Shimizu T, Akahane M, Omokawa S, Okuda A, Kira T, Inagak Y, Tanaka Y Abstract The application of extracellular matrix (ECM) sheets without a scaffold is not extensively reported in bone regenerative medicine. The aim of the present study was to demonstrate that an osteogenic ECM sheet (OECMS) can retain ECM integrity and growth factors to enhance bone formation in a rat non-union model. OECMS was produced from osteogenic cell sheets (OCS). Collagen and growth factor [bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2), vascular endothelial growth factors (VFGFs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and transf...
Source: European Cells and Materials - August 3, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Inhibition of apoptosis exacerbates fatigue-damage tendon injuries in an in vivo rat model.
Authors: Bell R, Robles-Harris MA, Anderson M, Laudier D, Schaffler MB, Flatow EL, Andarawis-Puri N Abstract Tendinopathy is a common and progressive musculoskeletal disease. Increased apoptosis is an end-stage tendinopathy manifestation, but its contribution to the pathology of the disease is unknown. A previously established in vivo model of fatigue damage accumulation shows that increased apoptosis is correlated with the severity of induced tendon damage, even in early onset of the disease, supporting its implication in the pathogenesis of the disease. Consequently, this study aimed to determine: (1) whether apo...
Source: European Cells and Materials - July 31, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Transcriptional activation of ENPP1 by osterix in osteoblasts and osteocytes.
Authors: Gao MM, Su QN, Liang TZ, Ma JX, Liang TZ, Stoddart MJ, Richards RG, Zhou ZY, Zou NX Abstract Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) is the main source of extracellular pyrophosphate. Along with tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), ENPP1 plays an important role in balancing bone mineralisation. Although well established in pre-osteoblasts, the regulating mechanisms of ENPP1 in osteoblasts and osteocytes remain largely unknown. Using bioinformatic methods, osterix (Osx), an essential transcription factor in osteoblast differentiation and osteocyte function, was found to have fi...
Source: European Cells and Materials - July 28, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Modulation of macrophage phenotype through controlled release of interleukin-4 from gelatine coatings on titanium surfaces.
Authors: Yang CL, Sun YH, Yu WH, Yin XZ, Weng J, Feng B Abstract Pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) macrophages initiate angiogenesis, while their prolonged activation can induce chronic inflammation. Anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2) macrophages promote vessel maturation and tissue regeneration. Biomaterials which can promote M2 polarisation after appropriate inflammation should enhance angiogenesis and wound healing. Herein, Interleukin-4 (IL-4), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, was adsorbed onto a titanium surface. Then, a genipin cross-linked gelatine hydrogel was coated onto the surface to delay IL-4 release. The cr...
Source: European Cells and Materials - July 28, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Nondestructive fluorescence lifetime imaging and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy detect cartilage matrix depletion and correlate with mechanical properties.
Authors: Haudenschild AK, Sherlock BE, Zhou X, Hu JC, Leach JK, Marcu L, Athanasiou KA Abstract Tissue engineers utilize a battery of expensive, time-consuming and destructive techniques to assess the composition and function of engineered tissues. A nondestructive solution to monitor tissue maturation would reduce costs and accelerate product development. As a first step toward this goal, two nondestructive, label-free optical techniques, namely multispectral fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIm) and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS), were investigated for their potential in evaluating the biochemical a...
Source: European Cells and Materials - July 28, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Cultivation of auricular chondrocytes in poly(ethylene glycol)/poly( ε-caprolactone) hydrogel for tracheal cartilage tissue engineering in a rabbit model.
Cultivation of auricular chondrocytes in poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(ε-caprolactone) hydrogel for tracheal cartilage tissue engineering in a rabbit model. Eur Cell Mater. 2018 Jun 21;35:350-364 Authors: Chang CS, Yang CY, Hsiao HY, Chen L, Chu IM, Cheng MH, Tsao CH Abstract Tissue engineering has the potential to overcome the limitations of tracheal reconstruction. To tissue-engineer a tracheal cartilage, auricular chondrocytes were encapsulated in a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEG/PCL) hydrogel. Chondrogenic genes, including Sox9, Acan and Col2a1, were up-re...
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Calcium and vitamin D in bone fracture healing and post-traumatic bone turnover.
Authors: Fischer V, Haffner-Luntzer M, Amling M, Ignatius A Abstract Calcium and vitamin D are essential for maintaining bone health. Therefore, deficiencies in calcium and vitamin D are major risk factors for osteoporosis development. Because sufficient amounts of calcium are also required for fracture-callus mineralisation, compromised bone repair that is frequently observed in osteoporotic patients might be attributed to calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. Consequently, calcium and vitamin D supplementation represents a potential strategy for treating compromised fracture healing in osteoporotic patients. Growin...
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 24, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Improved tendon healing using bFGF, BMP-12 and TGF β1 in a rat model.
In conclusion, implantation of a GF-loaded collagen sponge could provide a promising treatment, especially in high-performance athletes and revision cases prone to re-rupture. For conservative treatment, tiered percutaneous GF application could be an option for improving clinical outcome. PMID: 29897097 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 14, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Engineering of a complex bone tissue model with endothelialised channels and capillary-like networks.
This study showed the promise of engineering complex tissue constructs by means of human primary cells, paving the way for scaling-up and finally overcoming the challenge of engineering vascularised tissues. PMID: 29873804 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 8, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Thermoresponsive, redox-polymerized cellulosic hydrogels undergo in situ gelation and restore intervertebral disc biomechanics post discectomy.
In conclusion, CMC-MC is an injectable, tunable and biocompatible hydrogel with strong potential to be used as an NP replacement biomaterial since it can gel in situ, match NP properties, and restore IVD height and biomechanical function. Future investigations will evaluate herniation risk under severe loading conditions and assess long-term in vivo performance. PMID: 29845998 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Cells and Materials)
Source: European Cells and Materials - June 4, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Regional diversity in the murine cortical vascular network is revealed by synchrotron X-ray tomography and is amplified with age.
Authors: Núñez JA, Goring A, Javaheri B, Razi H, Gomez-Nicola D, Pitsillides AA, Thurner PJ, Gomez-Nicola D, Schneider P, Clarkin CE Abstract TCortical bone is permeated by a system of pores, occupied by the blood supply and osteocytes. With ageing, bone mass reduction and disruption of the microstructure are associated with reduced vascular supply. Insight into the regulation of the blood supply to the bone could enhance the understanding of bone strength determinants and fracture healing. Using synchrotron radiation-based computed tomography, the distribution of vascular canals and osteocyte lacunae...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 27, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research

Erythropoietin promotes network formation of transplanted adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments.
Authors: Karschnia P, Scheuer C, Heß A, Später T, Menger MD, Laschke MW Abstract The seeding of tissue constructs with adipose tissue-derived microvascular fragments (ad-MVF) is an emerging pre-vascularisation strategy. Ad-MVF rapidly reassemble into new microvascular networks after in vivo implantation. Herein it was analysed whether this process was improved by erythropoietin (EPO). Ad-MVF were isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)+ as well as wild-type C57BL/6 mice and cultivated for 24 h in medium supplemented with EPO (20 IU/mL) or vehicle. Freshly isolated, non-cultivated ad-MVF served as c...
Source: European Cells and Materials - May 17, 2018 Category: Cytology Tags: Eur Cell Mater Source Type: research