Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries.
Authors: Chin WS, Shiao JS, Liao SC, Kuo CY, Chen CC, Guo YL Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with ...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - January 5, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Single-session transcranial direct current stimulation induces enduring enhancement of visual processing speed in patients with major depression.
Authors: Gögler N, Willacker L, Funk J, Strube W, Langgartner S, Napiórkowski N, Hasan A, Finke K Abstract Attentional deficits are considered key cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) arising from abnormal activation patterns within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) alertness networks. Altering these activity patterns with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might thus ameliorate alertness-dependent cognitive deficits in MDD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study, we investigated the effect of a single session of anodal tDCS (2 mA) applied to...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - January 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid microglia and neurodegenerative markers in twins concordant and discordant for psychotic disorders.
Authors: Johansson V, Jakobsson J, Fortgang RG, Zetterberg H, Blennow K, Cannon TD, Hultman CM, Wetterberg L, Landén M Abstract Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - January 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Deficient amygdala-prefrontal intrinsic connectivity after effortful emotion regulation in borderline personality disorder.
Authors: Baczkowski BM, van Zutphen L, Siep N, Jacob GA, Domes G, Maier S, Sprenger A, Senft A, Willenborg B, Tüscher O, Arntz A, van de Ven V Abstract Emotion instability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with an impaired fronto-limbic inhibitory network. However, functional connectivity (FC) underlying altered emotion regulation in BPD has yet to be established. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate enduring effects of effortful emotion regulation on the amygdala intrinsic FC in BPD. In this multicenter study, resting-state fMRI was acquired before and after an emotion re...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - January 4, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Course of clinical high-risk states for psychosis beyond conversion
ConclusionsDuring follow-up, CHR symptoms remitted in one-third of initially CHR-positive patients, while almost 10% met CHR criteria newly in CHR-negative adults presenting at early detection services. The presence of CHR criteria seems to maintain the risk for lower functioning and mental disorders, particularly for affective disorders. Thus, therapeutic efforts targeting CHR patients should also focus on the current mental disorders as well as social and role functions to improve the long-term outcome. (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - January 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries
AbstractThe aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6  years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after inj ury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - January 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase immunoreactivity is abundantly present in human hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland, with reduced expression in paraventricular and suprachiasmatic neurons in chronic schizophrenia.
Authors: Bernstein HG, Müller S, Dobrowolny H, Wolke C, Lendeckel U, Bukowska A, Keilhoff G, Becker A, Trübner K, Steiner J, Bogerts B Abstract The vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in learning and memory and others) IRAP might play a role in schizophrenia. We studied the regional and cellular localiza...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - January 1, 2017 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Novelty seeking mediates the effect of DRD3 variation on onset age of amphetamine dependence in Han Chinese population.
In conclusion, DRD3 is a potential genetic factor in the susceptibility to AD and is associated with onset age of drug use through interaction with novelty seeking in a specific patient group in the Han Chinese population. PMID: 28028606 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

White matter correlates of the disorganized speech dimension in schizophrenia.
Authors: Viher PV, Stegmayer K, Giezendanner S, Federspiel A, Bohlhalter S, Wiest R, Strik W, Walther S Abstract Disorganized speech is related to functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. To test the association between formal thought disorders (FTDs) and white matter microstructure, we applied a behavioral rating and diffusion tensor imaging in 61 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The Bern Psychopathology Scale was used to rate the dimension of language abnormalities ranging from negative FTDs, basically unaltered speech, to positive FTDs. Tract-based spatial statistics indicated increased fraction...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Treatment recommendations for schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol dependence and stigmatizing attitudes of the public: results from a German population survey.
Authors: Speerforck S, Schomerus G, Matschinger H, Angermeyer MC Abstract In addition to mental health literacy, several potentially conflicting emotions and attitudes among the public are hypothesized to guide their recommendations for specific mental health treatments. It is unclear whether evidence-based treatment strategies are guided by pro-social or stigmatizing attitudes and emotions. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we asked respondents to what extent they would recommend psychotropic medication, psychotherapy and relaxation techniques for a person with mental illness d...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Single-session transcranial direct current stimulation induces enduring enhancement of visual processing speed in patients with major depression
AbstractAttentional deficits are considered key cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder (MDD) arising from abnormal activation patterns within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) alertness networks. Altering these activity patterns with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) might thus ameliorate alertness-dependent cognitive deficits in MDD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled study, we investigated the effect of a single session of anodal tDCS (2  mA) applied to the left dlPFC on different parameters of visual attention based on Bundesen’s theory of visual attention (Psyc...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Deficient amygdala –prefrontal intrinsic connectivity after effortful emotion regulation in borderline personality disorder
Abstract Emotion instability in borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been associated with an impaired fronto-limbic inhibitory network. However, functional connectivity (FC) underlying altered emotion regulation in BPD has yet to be established. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate enduring effects of effortful emotion regulation on the amygdala intrinsic FC in BPD. In this multicenter study, resting-state fMRI was acquired before and after an emotion regulation task in 48 BPD patients and 39 non-patient comparison individuals. The bilateral amygdalae were used as a seed in the whole-brain FC analysis and t...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid microglia and neurodegenerative markers in twins concordant and discordant for psychotic disorders
AbstractSchizophrenia and bipolar disorder are debilitating psychiatric disorders with partially shared symptomatology including psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairment. Aberrant levels of microglia and neurodegenerative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers have previously been found in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We aimed to analyze familial and environmental influences on these CSF markers and their relation to psychiatric symptoms and cognitive ability. CSF was collected from 17 complete twin pairs, nine monozygotic and eight dizygotic, and from one twin sibling. Two pairs were concordant for schizophrenia, and...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-related differences in inhibitory control and memory updating in boys with Asperger syndrome.
Authors: Weiss EM, Gschaidbauer B, Kaufmann L, Fink A, Schulter G, Mittenecker E, Papousek I Abstract Deficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls. We f...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 29, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Insulin-regulated aminopeptidase immunoreactivity is abundantly present in human hypothalamus and posterior pituitary gland, with reduced expression in paraventricular and suprachiasmatic neurons in chronic schizophrenia
AbstractThe vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in learning and memory and others) IRAP might play a role in schizophrenia. We studied the regional and cellular localization of IRAP in normal human brain with special emphasis on the hypothalamus and determined numerical densities of IRAP-expressing cells in the paraventri...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 29, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Treatment recommendations for schizophrenia, major depression and alcohol dependence and stigmatizing attitudes of the public: results from a German population survey
AbstractIn addition to mental health literacy, several potentially conflicting emotions and attitudes among the public are hypothesized to guide their recommendations for specific mental health treatments. It is unclear whether evidence-based treatment strategies are guided by pro-social or stigmatizing attitudes and emotions. In a representative population survey in Germany (n = 3642), we asked respondents to what extent they would recommend psychotropic medication, psychotherapy and relaxation techniques for a person with mental illness described in an unlabelled vignette. For each treatment recommendation, we ...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

White matter correlates of the disorganized speech dimension in schizophrenia
AbstractDisorganized speech is related to functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. To test the association between formal thought disorders (FTDs) and white matter microstructure, we applied a behavioral rating and diffusion tensor imaging in 61 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The Bern Psychopathology Scale was used to rate the dimension of language abnormalities ranging from negative FTDs, basically unaltered speech, to positive FTDs. Tract-based spatial statistics indicated increased fractional anisotropy in left hemispheric pathways of the language system in patients with negative FTDs. Thus, altered w...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Novelty seeking mediates the effect of DRD3 variation on onset age of amphetamine dependence in Han Chinese population
In conclusion,DRD3 is a potential genetic factor in the susceptibility to AD and is associated with onset age of drug use through interaction with novelty seeking in a specific patient group in the Han Chinese population. (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Age-related differences in inhibitory control and memory updating in boys with Asperger syndrome
AbstractDeficits in specific executive domains are highly prevalent in autism spectrum disorder; however, age-related improvements in executive functions (reflecting prefrontal maturational changes) have been reported even in individuals diagnosed with autism. The current study examined two components of cognitive flexibility (inhibition of prepotent responses and memory monitoring/updating) by using a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in a group of 23 boys with Asperger syndrome (AS) and 23 matched healthy controls. We found poorer inhibition and more repetitive responses in younger AS children solely, but comparable mem...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Obsessive-compulsive symptoms and overall psychopathology in psychotic disorders: longitudinal assessment of patients and siblings.
Authors: Schirmbeck F, Swets M, Meijer CJ, Zink M, de Haan L, GROUP investigators Abstract The course of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and its association with alterations in other clinical variables in patients with psychotic disorders is insufficiently known. Patients (n = 602) and unaffected siblings (n = 652) from the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study were investigated at baseline and after 3 years. Participants were assigned to four groups based on the course of OCS over time: no-OCS, persistent OCS, initial OCS and de novo OCS. In addition to cross-sectio...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Obsessive –compulsive symptoms and overall psychopathology in psychotic disorders: longitudinal assessment of patients and siblings
AbstractThe course of obsessive –compulsive symptoms (OCS) and its association with alterations in other clinical variables in patients with psychotic disorders is insufficiently known. Patients (n = 602) and unaffected siblings (n = 652) from the Dutch Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) study were investigated at baseline and after 3 years. Participants were assigned to four groups based on the course of OCS over time: no-OCS, persistent OCS, initial OCS and de novo OCS. In addition to cross-sectional compariso ns, longitudinal associations between changes in OCS and symptoms of s...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 17, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Decreased white matter FA values in the left inferior frontal gyrus is a possible intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia: evidences from a novel group strategy.
In this study, we minimized these interferences by using a novel group strategy. A total of 22 drug-naive and first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, along with 22 of their kin healthy siblings (HS), 22 non-kin healthy siblings (nHS) of other schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls (HC), were recruited. Brain imaging was acquired from the participants. Voxel-based analysis was used to investigate differences in white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging among the four groups. Two cognitive tests related to our findings were selected to confirm the related phenotypic changes. All of the FES, HS,...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Decreased white matter FA values in the left inferior frontal gyrus is a possible intermediate phenotype of schizophrenia: evidences from a novel group strategy
In this study, we minimized these interferences by using a novel group strategy. A total of 22 drug-naive and first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients, along with 22 of their kin healthy siblings (HS), 22 non-kin healthy siblings (nHS) of other schizophrenia patients and 22 healthy controls (HC), were recruited. Brain imaging was acquired from the participants. Voxel-based analysis was used to investigate differences in white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging among the four groups. Two cognitive tests related to our findings were selected to confirm the related phenotypic changes. All of the FES, HS,...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in drug-na ïve first episode patients with schizophrenia and major depression: effects of disease acuity and potential confounders.
This study suggests a role of lipid peroxidation particularly in drug-naïve acutely ill schizophrenia patients and highlights the importance of taking into account other confounding factors in biomarker studies. PMID: 27913877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 5, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in drug-na ïve first episode patients with schizophrenia and major depression: effects of disease acuity and potential confounders
This study suggests a role of lipid peroxidation particularly in drug-naïve acutely ill schizophrenia patients and highlights the importance of taking into account other confounding factors in biomarker studies. (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - December 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Repression of telomere-associated genes by microglia activation in neuropsychiatric disease.
Authors: Kronenberg G, Uhlemann R, Schöner J, Wegner S, Boujon V, Deigendesch N, Endres M, Gertz K Abstract Microglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and chronic stress. M1 polarization, ischemia, and Alzheimer p...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Repression of telomere-associated genes by microglia activation in neuropsychiatric disease
AbstractMicroglia senescence may promote neuropsychiatric disease. This prompted us to examine the relationship between microglia activation states and telomere biology. A panel of candidate genes associated with telomere maintenance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and cell-cycle regulation were investigated in M1- and M2-polarized microglia in vitro as well as in MACS-purified CD11b+ microglia/brain macrophages from models of stroke, Alzheimer ’s disease, and chronic stress. M1 polarization, ischemia, and Alzheimer pathology elicited a strikingly similar transcriptomic profile with, in particular, reduced expression of m...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Amygdala structure and aggressiveness in borderline personality disorder.
Authors: Mancke F, Herpertz SC, Hirjak D, Knies R, Bertsch K Abstract Aggressiveness is considered an important clinical feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has been associated with alterations of the amygdala. However, studies that analyzed the exact location of amygdala alterations associated with aggressiveness in BPD or that systematically compared female and male BPD patients are missing. In the current study, we therefore investigated a sex-mixed sample of BPD patients and healthy volunteers and applied an automated segmentation method that allows the study of both, alterations of amygdala vo...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Angry but not neutral faces facilitate response inhibition in schizophrenia patients.
Authors: Derntl B, Habel U Abstract Schizophrenia is a very heterogeneous disorder with extensive impairments in cognitive as well as emotional abilities. One critical domain is response inhibition, and previous studies in schizophrenia patients have mostly observed impairments, i.e., slower inhibition. Moreover, response inhibition to socially salient stimuli has not been investigated in schizophrenia so far. Therefore, to elucidate emotion-cognition interactions by examining potential emotional effects on inhibition processes and further investigate the association of cognition with inhibition we used an emotiona...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Amygdala structure and aggressiveness in borderline personality disorder
AbstractAggressiveness is considered an important clinical feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has been associated with alterations of the amygdala. However, studies that analyzed the exact location of amygdala alterations associated with aggressiveness in BPD or that systematically compared female and male BPD patients are missing. In the current study, we therefore investigated a sex-mixed sample of BPD patients and healthy volunteers and applied an automated segmentation method that allows the study of both, alterations of amygdala volume and localized amygdala shape. Volumetric results revealed no diff...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 22, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Angry but not neutral faces facilitate response inhibition in schizophrenia patients
AbstractSchizophrenia is a very heterogeneous disorder with extensive impairments in cognitive as well as emotional abilities. One critical domain is response inhibition, and previous studies in schizophrenia patients have mostly observed impairments, i.e., slower inhibition. Moreover, response inhibition to socially salient stimuli has not been investigated in schizophrenia so far. Therefore, to elucidate emotion –cognition interactions by examining potential emotional effects on inhibition processes and further investigate the association of cognition with inhibition we used an emotional stop signal task in 27 schi...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia.
Authors: Revsbech R, Mortensen EL, Nordgaard J, Jansson LB, Saebye D, Flensborg-Madsen T, Cutting J, Parnas J Abstract The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 "imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)" items, 10 "psychological understanding" items, and 10 "pra...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressed individuals improves suppression of irrelevant mental-sets.
Authors: Greenberg J, Shapero BG, Mischoulon D, Lazar SW Abstract An impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group. Improvements in mental-...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia
AbstractThe aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in mod...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depressed individuals improves suppression of irrelevant mental-sets
AbstractAn impaired ability to suppress currently irrelevant mental-sets is a key cognitive deficit in depression. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) was specifically designed to help depressed individuals avoid getting caught in such irrelevant mental-sets. In the current study, a group assigned to MBCT plus treatment-as-usual (n = 22) exhibited significantly lower depression scores and greater improvements in irrelevant mental-set suppression compared to a wait-list plus treatment-as-usual (n = 18) group. Improvements in mental-set-suppression were associated with improvements in depression sc...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Exploring possible association between D βH genotype (C1021T), early onset of conduct disorder and psychopathic traits in juvenile delinquents
In this study of juvenile delinquents from Northern Russia (n = 180), the polymorphism at -1021 was associated neither with early-onset CD nor with psychopathic traits. Association was found between psychopathic traits and early-onset CD, ADHD and mania. (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 4, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Rates and predictors of relapse in first-episode non-affective psychosis: a 3-year longitudinal study in a specialized intervention program (PAFIP).
This study explored the rate of first and second relapses and the predictors associated with these relapses in a large cohort of non-affective psychosis patients during a period of 3 years after the first break of the illness. From February 2001 to May 2014, sociodemographic and clinical data from an epidemiological cohort of 341 non-affective first-episode psychosis patients at risk of relapse were analysed at a specialized early intervention service. Logistic regression, Cox regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed to compare non-relapsed and relapsed patients. One hundred and sixty-six (48.7%) ...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - November 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Translational medicine: from disease- and patient-specific stem cell research to clinical trials and back again.
Authors: Jung M, Rujescu D PMID: 27783215 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Clinical and treatment-related predictors of cognition in bipolar disorder: focus on visual paired associative learning.
We report a possibly beneficial effect of valproate on PAL, which warrants further investigation. PMID: 27783216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Validity of remission and recovery criteria for schizophrenia and major depression: comparison of the results of two one-year follow-up naturalistic studies.
The objective of the present study was the application and comparison of common remission and recovery criteria between patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) under inclusion of other outcome parameters. Patients with schizophrenia and MDD who were treated as inpatients at the beginning of the study were examined within two naturalistic follow-up trials from admission to discharge of an inpatient treatment period and the one-year follow-up assessment. PANSS criteria of the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG) for schizophrenia and HAMD criteria of the ACNP Task Force in ...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and dynamics of the seizure threshold of electroconvulsive therapy.
Authors: Stephani C, Shoukier M, Ahmed R, Wolff-Menzler C Abstract During a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the level of currency necessary to induce an epileptic seizure in a patient may either remain relatively stable or-more often-may require repeated upward adjustment over time due to a constantly increasing seizure threshold. We aimed to determine whether a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which constitutes an important and ubiquitously expressed neurotrophine in the brain, affects the stimulation threshold of ECTs required to induce an epileptic seizure over time...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Rates and predictors of relapse in first-episode non-affective psychosis: a 3-year longitudinal study in a specialized intervention program (PAFIP)
This study explored the rate of first and second relapses and the predictors associated with these relapses in a large cohort of non-affective psychosis patients during a period of 3  years after the first break of the illness. From February 2001 to May 2014, sociodemographic and clinical data from an epidemiological cohort of 341 non-affective first-episode psychosis patients at risk of relapse were analysed at a specialized early intervention service. Logistic regression, Cox regression, and Kaplan–Meier survival analyses were performed to compare non-relapsed and relapsed patients. One hundred and sixty-six (...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and dynamics of the seizure threshold of electroconvulsive therapy
AbstractDuring a course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), the level of currency necessary to induce an epileptic seizure in a patient may either remain relatively stable or —more often—may require repeated upward adjustment over time due to a constantly increasing seizure threshold. We aimed to determine whether a common polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which constitutes an important and ubiquitously expressed neurotrophine in the brain , affects the stimulation threshold of ECTs required to induce an epileptic seizure over time. Twenty-seven adult patients who underwent at least ...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Validity of remission and recovery criteria for schizophrenia and major depression: comparison of the results of two one-year follow-up naturalistic studies
The objective of the present study was the application and comparison of common remission and recovery criteria between patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD) under inclusion of other outcome parameters. Patients with schizophrenia and MDD who were treated as inpatients at the beginning of the study were examined within two naturalistic follow-up trials from admission to discharge of an inpatient treatment period and the one-year follow-up assessment. PANSS criteria of the Remission in Schizophrenia Working Group (RSWG) for schizophrenia and HAMD criteria of the ACNP Task Force in ...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Clinical and treatment-related predictors of cognition in bipolar disorder: focus on visual paired associative learning
We report a possibly beneficial effect of valproate on PAL, which warrants further investigation. (Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Translational medicine: from disease- and patient-specific stem cell research to clinical trials and back again
(Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience)
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Aberrant activity and connectivity of the posterior superior temporal sulcus during social cognition in schizophrenia.
Authors: Mier D, Eisenacher S, Rausch F, Englisch S, Gerchen MF, Zamoscik V, Meyer-Lindenberg A, Zink M, Kirsch P Abstract Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective The...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Stigmatization of psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric service use: a vignette-based representative population survey.
Authors: Sowislo JF, Lange C, Euler S, Hachtel H, Walter M, Borgwardt S, Lang UE, Huber CG Abstract Background There is evidence for two different types and/or sources of mental illness stigma, namely the display of psychiatric symptoms and the use of psychiatric service institutions. However, no current study has compared the two. Furthermore, gaps exist in our knowledge of both types of stigma. Little is known about the perceived stigma of specific psychiatric service treatment environments, for instance forensic settings. In addition, systematic research on stigma attached to symptoms of personality disorders in...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research

Aberrant activity and connectivity of the posterior superior temporal sulcus during social cognition in schizophrenia
Abstract Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in social cognition. These impairments have been shown to go along with altered activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). However, studies that investigate connectivity of pSTS during social cognition in schizophrenia are sparse. Twenty-two patients with schizophrenia and 22 matched healthy controls completed a social-cognitive task for functional magnetic resonance imaging that allows the investigation of affective Theory of Mind (ToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions. Moreover, a resting-state measure...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Psychopathological and demographic characteristics of hallucinating patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an analysis based on AMDP data.
Authors: Baethge C, Jänner M, Gaebel W, Malevani J Abstract Hallucinations are at the core of the diagnosis of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and many neuroscience studies focus on hallucinations. However, there is a lack of data on prevalence, subtyping, and clinical correlates of hallucinations as well as on the comparison of hallucinating schizophrenia versus hallucinating schizoaffective patients. Analysis of all psychopathology evaluations is based on the AMDP scale in a German psychiatric university hospital between 2007 and 2013 regarding patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective diso...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - October 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research