From Illusive to all-Inclusive: How Pathfinder International amplified learning by doing scientific writing training
Knowledge and practices of scientific writing are no longer limited to academic environments (1). Developments in the use of evidence-based program implementation involve rigorous evidence generation, with clear and effective communication of whether an intervention or practice is proven to have achieved high impact (2). Operational and implementation research has increasingly promoted research findings to better healthcare delivery and management while considering contextual factors (3,4). Most program implementors have limited scientific writing exposure. As a result, they miss opportunities to share experiences obtained...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Bekele Belayihun, Mengistu Asnake, Gizachew Tessema, Yordanos Molla Source Type: research

Youth-Friendly Health Services in Ethiopia: What Has Been Achieved in 15 Years and What Remains to be Done
AbstractSince 2005, Pathfinder International has partnered with the Ethiopian Ministry of Health to implement integrated youth-friendly services (YFS), an evidence-based approach that reduces barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for young people. Program experience shares the 15-years journey, including milestones, achievements, scale-up efforts, learnings, and remaining YFS-provision gaps that must be filled to improve adolescent health in Ethiopia.The first phase of YFS initiation was an interactive process that involved consensus-building among public-sector stakeholders, the establishment of select...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Worknesh Kereta, Bekele Belayihun, Kidest Lulu Hagos, Yordanos B. Molla, Marta Pirzadeh, Mengistu Asnake Source Type: research

Trends in Modern Contraceptive Use in Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence from a decade-long Family Planning Program Implementation
The objective of this study is to be presenting empirical evidence from pathfinder monitoring and documentation exper ience, and lessons learned from a decade of family planning program implementation in Ethiopia from 2011 to 2019.Method: We accessed records of 24,621 women of reproductive age from Pathfinder International ‘s annual Follow-up survey database. The descriptive statistics (table and figure) used to estimate the changes in modern contraceptive prevalence rate and method mix from 2011 to 2019 where the organization implemented family planning services. The statistical stability of survey estimates across ...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Bekele Belayihun, Mengistu Asnake, Girma K. Gebre, Almaze Yirga, Elizabeth Futrell, Yordanos B. Molla Source Type: research

Referral Service Barriers in Ethiopia: experiences and perceptions of actors.
Conclusion: This study explored and described several referral service barriers in four regional states of Ethiopia. The referral service barriers were influenced by both individuals and health systems related factors. The investigators recommend implementing performance and quality improvement interventions to strengthen the referral systems. In addition, to address the barriers of referral system, improving the communication skills of health care providers was recommended. Furthermore, providing governing documents including referral protocol, referral service directory, and guidelines can solve some of the referral serv...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Aynalem Hailemichael, Bekele Belayihun, Mengistu Asnake, Kidest Lulu, Binyam Fekadu Desta, Lidya Genene, Amsalu Obssa, Birhanu Bekele, Fantaw Bihonegn, Wondwossen Tebeje, Mesele Damte Source Type: research

Time to fertility return after discontinuation of Intra-uterine contraceptive device: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Conclusion: Intra-uterine contraceptive users experienced a slight delay in fertility return compared with those who did not use contraception but not sustained in the long term. This study recommends a family planning counseling approach that includes time for fertility return after discontinuation to avoid confusion of contraceptive users. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021;35(SI-5):45-54]Keywords: time to fertility return, pregnancy rate, IUCD, contraceptive, meta-analysis (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Eskeziaw Abebe, Bekele Belayihun, Akine Eshete, Lebeza Alemu, Desalew Salew, Mengistu Asnake Source Type: research

Role and contribution of peer educators in youth-friendly health services in Ethiopia: evidence from programmatic experience with a peer education intervention
Conclusions: The findings show that peer educators play an important role in their communities by providing and dispensing different sexual and reproductive health information. More efforts need to be put towards reaching out-of-school youth so that they too can benefit from the program. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021;35(SI-5):37-44]Key words: peer educator; peer education; youth-friendly health service; adolescent and youth health service; Ethiopia (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Worknesh Kereta, Bekele Belayihun, Kidest Lulu Hagos, Mengistu Asnake Source Type: research

Point of care quality improvement approach increases immediate postpartum family planning uptake: A field report from Sululta district, Oromia, Ethiopia
Conclusion: The quality improvement implementation process created the opportunity for all health centers staff to appreciate broader system issues, identify gaps, use data to monitor progress and find feasible solutions tailored to their context. Most importantly, this quality improvement intervention can be expanded to similar health facilities in Ethiopia and the best practices can also be adopted to fit into different local contexts. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021;35(SI-5):27-36]Key words: Immediate postpartum family planning, quality, Integration, Service (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Amsalu Obssa, Aynalem Hailemichael, Bekele Belayihun, Luwam Teshome, Jean Jose Nzau Mvuezolo, Yordanos Molla, Mengistu Asnake Source Type: research

Modern contraceptives use and associated factors among adolescents and youth in Ethiopia
This study aims to assess trends and factors th at determine uptake of modern contraceptives among adolescents and youth aged 15-24 years in Ethiopia.Method: The analysis was conducted for 2,420 female adolescents and youth. The data were from the project annual population-based survey conducted in three rounds (2017-2019). The data was recorded in Pathfinder International ‟s program monitoring database. Statistical stability of survey estimates across three years was ascertained using variance estimate and coefficient of variation, and plausible interpretation of the observed trends was made referring to other national ...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 11, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Luwam Teshome, Bekele Belayihun, Habtamu Zerihun, Fisseha Moges, Awala Equar, Mengistu Asnake Source Type: research

Factors Associated with Long-acting Reversible Contraceptive Use in the Immediate Postpartum Period in Ethiopia
Conclusion: Immediate use of long-acting reversible counteractive after childbirth was influenced by different factors such as family planning information and counselling, staying in maternity waiting homes before delivery and getting child immunization services. Stakeholders working in family planning programs need further investigation about why women prefer long-acting reversible counteractive following a childbirth in health facilities. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021;35(SI-5):11-19]Keywords: Ethiopia, Family Planning, Postpartum Family Planning, Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 10, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Bekele Belayihun, Mengistu Asnake, Yewondwossen Tilahun, Yordanos Molla Source Type: research

Determinants of Family Planning Service Utilization and Health Facility Delivery in Six Regions of Ethiopia: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Conclusion: The main implication of this study ’s findings is that holistic interventions at household and health facility can influence the use of facility-based family planning and delivery services. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021;35(SI-5):03-10]Key words: family planning, health facility delivery, determinants, service utilization, and Ethiopia (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - January 10, 2022 Category: African Health Authors: Luche Tadesse Ejeta, Habtamu Zerihun Demeke, Binyam Fekadu Desta, Mengistu Asnake Kibret, Girma Kassie Gebre, Ismael Ali Beshir, Luwam Teshome Gari, Zergu Tafesse Tsegaye, Bekele Belayihun Tefera Source Type: research

Self-carifob hfa 2000
Biomedical research, no less than research in other fields, is conceived, designed and conducted almost exclusively by professionals. In view of the time-consuming mastery of knowledge and skills and costly technology that modern research demands it is difficult to see reasonable alternatives to this established approach. The role of the lay public does not extend beyond the giving of informed consent where the experiment utilizes human subjects itself the result of a relatively recent reexamination of pertinent ethical issues and of public pressure. Paradoxically this professional dominance applies even to areas such as s...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - December 21, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: EDITORIAL Source Type: research

Editorial
Those of us who teach in one or more of the Ethiopian training programs in community health are keenly aware of the wealth of information derived from student fieldwork. Only a small proportion of this work is published and therefore accessible to community health professionals. This is unfortunate, given the quality and relevance of much of the research conducted by students while in training. In this special issue of the Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 9 original research papers have been selected which are the result of work completed within these training programs. In certain instances manuscripts were submitte...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - December 3, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Charles Larson Source Type: research

Embedding implementation research to strengthen efforts towards improving primary health care in resource limited settings
Immunization reaches more people than any other health service and it is a vital component of primary health care (PHC) (1,2). The Immunization Agenda 2030 emphasizes building strong national immunization programs integrated into primary health care services as the basis for achieving high vaccination coverage (2). In Ethiopia, immunization services are the backbone of PHC and are delivered in all public health facilities across the country (1). Even though the national EPI target is to reach a coverage of 90%(1), achieving and maintaining high immunization coverage is challenged by multifaceted demand and supply side impl...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Binyam Tilahun , Meseret Zelalem, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Kabir Sheikh, Asm Shahabuddin, Alyssa Sharkey, Marta Feletto Source Type: research

Vaccine safety practices and its implementation barriers in Northwest Ethiopia: A qualitative study
Conclusion: Efforts to promote the safety of vaccines and vaccination practices is a complex phenomenon and demands multidisciplinary action. Based on our findings, improved vaccine storage and handling, proper administration of vaccines based on guidelines, proper disposal and management of waste, and effective communication, and monitoring can contribute to the safe delivery of vaccination practices. Furthermore, improving the financial freedom of the facilities could increase the availability of essential resources and equipment that can safely store vaccines. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3): 111-117]Keywords: Im...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Getasew Amare, Tewodros Seyoum, Tajebew Zayede, Ashenafi Tazebew, Alemayehu Teklu, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Berhanu Fikadie Endehabtu, Alyssa Sharkey, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Strategies to revitalize immunization service provision in urban settings of Ethiopia
Conclusions: The existing immunization service provision strategies in urban settings are not adequate to reach all children. Immunization service inaccessibility and substandard services were the main barriers hindering service provision. Program managers should expand routine service access to marginalized populations through outreach services, by strengthening the public-private partnership, and integrating technological innovations (like digitalization of the EPI program and application of mHealth reminders) to facilitate inter-facility linkage. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):98-110]Keywords: Immunization, Vacc...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Mulat Nigus, Solomon Assefa, Abiyot Biru, Alemayehu Teklu, Marta Feletto, Rajeev Gera, Antoinette Ba-Nguz, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Women's Independent Household Decision Making Power and its influence on their Autonomy in relation to Child Vaccinations: a mixed-method study among Women of Reproductive Age in Northwest Ethiopia
This study showed that nearly two-thirds, 61.6% of the women had household decision making power. Respondents of the qualitative study noted that women had low household decision making power. Women's household decision making power is associated with women's autonomy to vaccinate children (x2=92.775a, df=1, P
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Abebaw Addis Gelagay, Alehegn Bishaw Geremew, Alemayehu Teklu, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Alyssa Sharkey, Abraham Assan, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

How to optimize health facilities and community linkage in order to enhance immunization service? The case of West Amhara Region, Ethiopia
Conclusion: The linkage of community and facilities were not approached in the same manner within districts and facilities. Therefore, strengthening a common system for community-health facility linkage and community engagement is critical during immunization services. Establishing a strong strategy of incentivizing mechanisms is vital for the effective implementation of immunization services. An advocacy strategy to mobilize engagement among policy and decision-makers, and other key stakeholders was an important strategy for improving the program. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):75-85]Keywords: Community, Facility ...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Mastewal Kerebih, Amare Minyihun, Awol Gudale, Amsalu Shiferaw, Abay Hagos, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Alemayehu Teklu, Marta Feletto, Asm Shahabuddin, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

How to optimize Immunization Supply Management at different levels of the health system in Oromia Region? An implementation science research
Conclusion: This study showed that the existing immunization supply management practice is not optimal. Organizational, technical, and behavioral barriers were the identified determinants for low availability. Therefore, program managers and policymakers should emphasize addressing the identified barriers and tailoring the alternative strategies to ensure the availability of vaccines at the point of service delivery. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):65-74]Keywords: Immunization, Implementation research, Supply Management, Health system, Ethiopia (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Berhanu Fikadie Endehabtu, Yohannes Lakew, Bezuayehu Tegegn, Tekalign Morka, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Alemayehu Teklu, Asm Shahabuddin, Rajeev Gera, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Immunization data quality and factors influencing data generation, handling and use in Wogera District, Northern Ethiopia, 2020
Conclusion: The study revealed that health facilities over-reported immunization data elements in primary health care units. Attentions should be given to address organization, behavioral, technical, and contextual factors influencing immunization data quality, generation, handling, and use. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):56-64]Keywords: Immunization data quality, Factors influencing, Verification factor, Wogera district (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Tesfahun Hailemariam Madebo, Lemma Derseh Gezie, Alemayehu Teklu, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Asm Shahabuddin, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

The Implementation of Social and Behavior Change Communication Intervention to Improve Immunization Demand: A qualitative study in Awabel District, Northwest Ethiopia
Conclusion: The implementation of SBCC interventions is important to improve immunization demand. Despite its effectiveness, there are several multi-level barriers to its successful implementation. Further, greater investments are required to improve infrastructures, staff employment and capacity building. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):49-55]Keywords: Immunization, SBCC, Ethiopia (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Getnet Bayih, Alemayehu Teklu, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Terefe Tsedaw, Sisay Tefera, Marta Feletto, Asm Shahabuddin, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

The Burden of Internal Conflict on Expanded Programs on Immunization in Northwest Ethiopia: Implementation Science Study
Conclusion: Vaccination service delivery was found to have significantly declined in the study area. Security problems affected not only the service utilizers but also the service providers ’ wing as well. Coordination of stakeholders and strong leadership systems are crucial in maintaining optimum vaccination service delivery even at the time of conflict. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):39-48]Key words: Conflict, internally displaced, Immunization services (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Geta Asrade, Kassahun Alemu, Ejigu Gebeye, Melkamu Walle, Alemayehu Teklu, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Amsalu Shiferaw, Abraham Assan, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Assessment of immunization data management practices, facilitators, and barriers to immunization data quality in the health facilities of Tach Gayint district, Northwest Ethiopia
Conclusion: We found that majority of health workers use locally developed tools instead of using the standard data recording and reporting tools. Regular Performance Monitoring Team meetings and Lots Quality Assurance Sampling assessment were found to be facilitators. Furthermore, limited supportive supervision, vertical reporting and poor implementation of Community Health Information System were barriers. Therefore, strengthening the use of standard recording and reporting tools, conducting regular supportive supervision, and implementing routine vaccination services are recommended to improve the data management practi...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Biniam Kefiyalew, Solomon Abay, Workineh Mamo, Biruk Abate, Moges A. Chanyalew, Yejimawork Ayalew, Ambanesh Necho, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Alemayehu Teklu, Asm Shahabuddin, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Full immunization coverage and its determinants among children aged 12-23 months in Wogera district, Northwest Ethiopia
Conclusion: In this study, the full immunization coverage is found to be suboptimal, and it is far from the expected national target coverage. Maternal health care uptake; women empowerment; home visits by HEW during the first week of the postpartum period and male involvement in child immunization were found to be predictors of being fully vaccinated. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):16-27]Keywords: Full immunization, Children12-23 months, Northwest Ethiopia, Male involvement (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Abebaw Addis Gelagay, Alehegn Bishaw Geremew, Alemayehu Teklu, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Rajeev Gera, Antoinette Ba-Nguz, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Assessment of barriers to the implementation of community-based data verification and immunization data discrepancies between health facilities and the community in Tach Gayint district, Northwest Ethiopia.
Conclusion: This study revealed a poor level of CBDV implementation and barriers to its effective implementation which include lack of prioritizing CBDV, limited capacity among health staff in performing CBDV, and conflicting job roles among health staff. There was a high level of immunization data discrepancy for measles-1 and DTP/Pentalent-3 vaccines. Based on our finding, we make the following recommendations: building skills among health workers to perform CBDV, enhancing availability and use of standard CBDV tools, ensuring monitoring, and control mechanism, and setting clear definition of roles regarding CBDV, as wel...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Biniam Kefiyalew, Workineh Mamo, Moges A. Chanyalew, Solomon Abay, Biruk Abate, Ambanesh Necho, Yejimawork Ayalew, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Alemayehu Teklu, Amsalu Shiferaw, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Implementation fidelity and challenges of optimal cold chain management in Assossa district health system, Benshangul-Gumuz region, Western Ethiopia
Conclusions: Across the health facilities under study, implementation fidelity of cold chain management was considered poor. Human resource development, proper allocation and effective management of logistics and related finance could facilitate optimal cold chain management practices, and efforts to save lives through delivery of safe and quality vaccines. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-3):03-08]Keywords: Cold chain management, Implementation fidelity, Challenges, Ethiopia (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 25, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Tseganesh Gedlu, Kassahun Dessie Gashu, Netsanet Birhanu, Shawel Tessema, Tesfaye Deti, Zeleke Abebaw Mekonnen, Alemayehu Teklu, Amsalu Shiferaw, Binyam Tilahun Source Type: research

Editorial
The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development has come a long way since its first appearance in 1984. With the support that it has enjoyed from many institutions, groups and individuals, it is growing in strength and reputation. Its objective of promoting the primary health care approach is being fulfilled. In the words of a former Minister of Health of Ethiopia " the Journal is one of the few that has managed to reach the health professionals ...at the periphery where it is most needed. " We expressed " our hope that our Journal will enjoy the full support of, and close association with, the Ethiopian Public ...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - November 16, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Asfaw Desta Source Type: research

Health in ethiopia: a summary of 52 district health profiles
ABSTRACT:This paper integrates the data contained in 52 district health profiles completed during the years 1988 to 1991. These profiles encompass approximately 40% of the Ethiopian population and thus provide a summary assessment of health services and health status. Thirty percent of children were found to be attending school, 33% of children under five years of age were malnourished, and 35% of the population had access to safe water. The analysis was stratified by districts, urban versus rural populations, and hospital versus non hospital health institutions. Large disparities between districts were found in measures o...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 29, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Charles P. Larson, Tadele Desie Source Type: research

Letter to the Editor
As a former member of the now " defunct " Medical Advisory Board (MAB) for the Ministry of Health, I was glad to read the article by Dr. Yeshak Worku and Sinknesh Ejigu on: Some Chemical Constituents of selected water sources in and around Addis Ababa  (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Pawlos Quana ' a Source Type: research

< Review Article > Child health problems in Ethiopia
1. Global situation or child health The world population is growing at an alarming rate and particularly so in the developing nations. Over 80% of the world's children live in the developing world (1) where child mortality and morbidity rates are the highest. Each year about 14 million under-five children die from malnutrition and infection, i.e. , 40,000 daily or 2000 per hour, of which 98 % occur in the developing countries (1). The main causes of mortality in these countries are diarrhoeal diseases, pneumonia, perinatal and neonatal problems, measles, neonatal tetanus and malaria (Table 1), over 60% of which are prevent...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Amha Mekasha, Frew Lemma, Tesfaye Shiferaw Source Type: research

< Review Article > ORT in diarrhoea: An overview
Abstract:This paper attempts to summarize the development of ORT (Oral Rehydration Therapy) and its role as the major public health intervention for the control of diarrhoeal diseases. It also highlights the large number of scientific studies conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution). Improved ORS formulations trial including hypoosmolar solutions are described as these are areas of recent clinical studies that address the drawbacks in WHO/UNICEF ORS. However, until new ORS formulations are evaluated and implemented, the present glucose-based ORS does still save millions of lives and ne...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: M. K Bhattacharya , Telahun Teka Source Type: research

< Brief Communication > Comparative studies on two culture methods for hookworm species identification
Abstract:Ninety stool specimens obtained from patients referred to the National Research Institute of Health and found to reveal hookworm ova were cultured using the Test Tube Filter Paper and the Charcoal methods with a view to recover and identify the third stage larvae. Infective larvae were harvested in a total of 88(97.8%) specimens, 79(87.8%) of which were detected by both methods. Only 5(5.6%) and 4(4.4%) were exclusively detected by the Test Tube and Charcoal methods, respectively. Except in one specimen where filariforms of both species (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale) were encountered, N.americanus ...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Amha Kebede, Hussien Mohamed, Tilahun Woldemichael Source Type: research

The cercarial emergence rhythm of schistosoma mansoni in Ethiopia
Abstract:The cercarial emergence rhythm of Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria pfeifferi of Ethiopia origin was studied in irrigation canals in Metehara Sugar Estate in December (1992), January and February (1993). Snails were allowed to shed cercariae individually in vials containing 2 ml of aged water and exposed to natural light between 800 hr and 1500 hr. In addition, batches of five swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were exposed to canal water for an hour each between 800 hr and 1500 hr. The results indicate that peak cercarial emergence was between 900 hr and 1000 hr, while peak cercarial infectivity in mice was bet...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Fekadu Abebe, Shibru Tedla Source Type: research

Transmission dynamics of Schistosoma mansoni in an irrigation setting in Ethiopia
Summary: The transmission dynamics of S. mansoni was studied in the Metehara Sugar Estate for 12 months. The prevalence of human infection ranged from 7.4% to 71.3% for 6 villages in the Estate. The infection rate was highest in the 10-14 years of age while the intensity reached peak in the 5-9 years. There were significant variations in the focality and seasonality of transmission. Biomphalaria pfeifferi which was persistent year round, was most abundant during the dry season. Absence of potable water supply and sanitary facilities, proximity to irrigation canals, and overcrowding are some of the most important factors in...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Fekadu Abebe, Shibru Tedla, Hailu Birrie, Girmay Medhin Source Type: research

Estimation of child mortality in Addis Ababa
Abstract:Estimation of mortality level in children below the age of five may have profound impact on a number of demographic parameters. Childhood mortality data are also useful in assessing the impact of child survival programs and identifying child populations that are at risk. In March 1993 a survey was conducted to assess the child mortality rate in Addis Ababa. In the study a sample of 548 ever married women were interviewed regarding the number of children ever born, surviving and dead. A variant of the original Brass estimation procedure (Trussell's method) which is based on data classified by duration of marriage i...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Yared Mekonnen , Tekabe Ayalew, Amare Dejene Source Type: research

Community awareness and practice of family planning in an urban community in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Abstract:To assess community awareness and practices concerning family planning in an urban community in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, a survey was carried out in June and July 1993. Of the 536 people interviewed 332 (61.9%) had heard about family planning. The contraceptive prevalence rate in the community was 29.5%, with oral contraceptive pills being the most popular method. Contraceptive methods usage rate was observed to be significantly higher among people with permanent job (OR=1.98), among highly educated (OR=3.82) and among people with larger family size (OR=1.92) compared to the others. Health workers and radio were the...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 22, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Yemane Berhane , David Zakus Source Type: research

Breastfeeding In Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Results of a focus group study
Abstract:A large shift has been observed from breastfeeding to bottle feeding in the urban areas of developing countries. Non-optimal breastfeeding patterns are contributing to the diarrhoeal diseases and malnutrition problems in such areas. To examine the existent of non-optimal breastfeeding, to identify the segment of the population in which these practices exist, and to ultimately carry out well targeted interventions, a situation analysis study on the breastfeeding patterns of infants was undertaken in the capital city of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa. In-depth interviews and focus group discussion were used in this study. Th...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - October 6, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Tigest Ketsela, Derege Kebede, Channyalew Belachew, Hanna Neka Tibeb Source Type: research

Schistosomiasis and intestinal helminthic infections in Delo Awraja, Bale administrative region south Ethiopia
Abstract:A cross-sectional survey of schistosomiasis, intestinal helminthic infections and the snail intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis was conducted in Delo Awraja, Bale Administrative Region, South Ethiopia. Of 15 accessible communities studied, the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis exceeded 5% in five of them, reaching 48% in Meda. No S. haematobium infection was found except two imported cases diagnosed at Melkaaman at a temporary shelter for refugees returning from Somalia. Uninfected snail hosts of S. mansoni were collected from few water bodies. Other intestinal helminth parasites were also highly prevalen...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - September 23, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Terefe Wodimagegnehu, Hailu Birrie, Hailu Yeneneh Source Type: research

Diarrhoea-associated parasitic infectious agents in AIDS patients within selected Addis Ababa Hospitals
Abstract:The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients with chronic diarrhea. This prevalence was compared with two control groups: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seronegative diarrheal patients and HIV seropositive individuals without diarrhoea. Stool specimens from clinically diagnosed hospitalized AIDS patients in some hospitals in Addis Ababa were screened for parasite infection. Of 147 AIDS patients with chronic diarrhoea, 74 (50.3%) were infected with one kind or more of parasites. Out of 56 non-AIDS (seronegative) diarrhoe...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - August 31, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Bitew Fisseha, Beyene Petros, Tilahun Woldemichael, Hussien Mohamed Source Type: research

Gender Inequity in Higher Education in Ethiopia
Despite their recognizable role in the political arena and resultant gender mainstreamed policies, women in Ethiopia face day-to-day obstacles to ensure gender equity, and academia is no exception. In the past few decades, higher education in Ethiopia has rapidly expanded, resulting in increased enrollment of female students and faculty employment in various academic fields. Although the progress in the sector is highly promising, ensuring gender equality has still been a significant challenge. Several studies have revealed different barriers to women's academic, leadership, and research participation in higher educational...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - August 4, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Mahlet Yigeremu, Mulumebet Zenebe, Workeabeba Abebe, Mitike Molla Sisay Source Type: research

Female Academic Career Development and Administrative Positions at Addis Ababa University: a Mixed-Method Study
Conclusion: Female faculty involvement in the university administrative position and career development is very low. Both structural and personal factors such as gender roles affected their professional enhancement in academic ranks and hence positions. Creating a conducive platform for female faculty development is recommended to increase their involvement in administrative positions. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-2):30-39]Keywords: Addis Ababa University, administrative positions, career development, female academician, female faculty (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - August 2, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Berhan Tassew, Yalemwork Getnet, Adiam Nega, Etsehiwot Tilahun, Workeabeba Abebe, Meselech Roro, Mahlet Yigeremu, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Bezawit Ketema, Hanna Demisse, Meron Awraris, Seble Assefa, Selamawit Girma, Meaza Gezu, Mulumebet Zenebe, Abigia Source Type: research

Experience of Research Undertaking among Women Academia at Addis Ababa University: a Qualitative Study
Conclusion: This study has indicated that women in academia had limited research engagement in terms of grant application and publication in peer reviewed scientific journals. Balancing work and family life, low salary, lack of access to common University facilities were some of the challenges. While structural change ensures gender equality at a long time, addressing the gender gap in research is the responsibility of AAU. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-2):22-29]Keywords: Addis Ababa University, experience of research, women in academia (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - August 2, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Adiam Nega, Seble Assefa, Hanna Demisse, Meron Awraris, Bezawit Ketema , Berhan Tassew , Meaza Gezu, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Mulumebet Zenebe, Meselech Assegid, Yalemwork Getnet, Selamawit Girma, Abigia Wondimagegnehu, Etsehiwot Tilahun, Selamawit Hir Source Type: research

Gender Difference in Research Productivity and its Associated factors in Addis Ababa University: a Cross-Sectional study
AbstractBackground: Gender equity movements have increased the number of women going to higher institutions. However, the number of women participating in research is limited in creating a critical mass.Objective: To assess the gender gap in research and its associated factors determinants among faculty at Addis Ababa University.Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study from October 2018 to March 2019 using a structured self-administered questionnaire. University faculty who was lecturers and above level who served the University for more than a year were invited to participate in the study. Faculty were approached by d...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - August 2, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Meselech Roro , Workeabeba Abebe, Abigia Wondimagegnehu, Adiam Nega, Selamawit Girma, Yalemwork Getnet, Berhan Tassew , Mulumebet Zenebe, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Seble Assefa, Hanna Demisse, Meron Awraris, Etsehiwot Tilahun, Bezawit Ketema , Mahlet Yi Source Type: research

Women ’s Health Research Working Group: A Mentorship Model to Increase Women’s Participation in Research
Conclusion: Female-to-female mentorship had helped researchers in their early careers to publish and won grants. This could be an exemplary intervention which only requires a commitment of staff time. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-2):08-14]Keywords: Female faculty, Implementation research, Mentorship, Research working group (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - August 2, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Mitike Molla Sisay, Mahlet Yigeremu, Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel, Workeabeba Abebe Source Type: research

Gender Equality in Academics: Are we there?
Conclusions: Men outnumbered women and had more publications as well as research grant awards. This inequity in research universities demands promoting the efforts to increase the number of female faculty members in academics and adopting a more systematic approach for equitable opportunities that enhance female research productivity. Future studies should explore peculiar barriers and opportunities in each discipline. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(SI-2):03-07]Keywords: gender equality, grant awards, peer-reviewed articles, publication, sex difference (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - August 2, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Workeabeba Abebe, Nuhamin Tekle, Mitike Molla Sisay Source Type: research

Towards Building Resilience within and beyond the Health Systems
The phraseHealth Systems Resilience has become a buzz word, especially within the past year following the COVID-19 pandemic. The term resilience is used in different forms and meanings. It in general refers to reinstating back quickly to the before-the -crisis state, by tirelessly combating the crisis at present. The concept has its origins in the fields of engineering, environmental sciences, and ecology, developed to suggest that systems respond to shocks in a variety of ways: by absorbing them and returning to their original equilibrium or reaching a new equilibrium which makes them more resilient (1). In clinical psych...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - July 30, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Adamu Addissie Source Type: research

Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Associated Factors among Diabetic Patients Attending Health Care at Debre Tabor General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Conclusion: In the present study, the prevalence of smear-positive TB was 2.71%, prevalence lower than the national average. Duration of patients with DM was more associated with the prevalence of TB. DM patients should be screened forMycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Associated Factors among Diabetic Patients Attending Health Care at Debre Tabor General Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia.[Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2020; 35(2):000-000] (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - July 30, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Tesfaye Andualem, Ephrem Malede Source Type: research

Community-Based Assessment of People with Chronic Diseases and Conditions Worsening the Severity of COVID-19 in Addis Ababa City Administration
This study aimed to describe people who have chronic illnesses that could be underlying conditions for increased severity of COVID-19.Methods:A survey was conducted in May 2020 using active community-based case surveillance in 30 randomly selected woredas in Addis Ababa City. Data were collected from each household member by assessing for general conditions and diseases expected to increase their risk of suffering higher severity from COVID-19. Data were stored in M.S. Excel and analyzed using SPSS-version 26 for windows. Descriptive analysis was conducted to know the proportion of persons with chronic diseases, and thus t...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - July 30, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Bekele Chaka, Alemayehu Mekonnen, Tesfa Demilew, Yusuf Abdo, Filmona Bisrat, Abdulnasir Abagero Haji, Negussie Deyessa Source Type: research

Socio-demographic and Haematological Determinants of Breast Cancer in a Tertiary Health Care and Teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Conclusion and recommendations: Majority of the cases were less than 40 years of age and were not able to read and write. Most of the RBC parameters of cases were significantly lower than the controls. Therefore, attention should be given for exposed groups and those with the designated haematological abnormalities. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2020; 35(2):000-000] (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - July 30, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Fatuma Hassen, Fikre Enquselassie, Ahmed Ali, Adamu Addisse, Girma Taye, Mathewos Assefa, Aster Tsegaye Source Type: research

A Mediation Analysis of Determinants of New-born Care Practices in Four Regions of Ethiopia
Conclusion: New-born care practice is inadequate in general. However, birth preparedness and complication readiness have dual benefit of enhancing both maternal healthcare utilization and new-born care practices. Therefore, women shall be provided with information on benefits of facility delivery and getting professional assistance during delivery to improve new-born care practices.[Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2021; 35(2):000-000] (Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development)
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - July 30, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Alemayehu Hunduma, Gurmesa Tura, Lelisa Sena, Yemisrach Okwaraji Source Type: research

Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment among Adult People Living with HIV/AIDS Attending Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy at Adare Hospital, Southern Ethiopia
This study aimed to determine the magnitude and associated factors of adherence to ART among adult PLWHA attending (HAART) at Adare General Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 01/2018 to February 30/2018 at Adare Hospital. The participants were 370 adult people living with HIV/AIDS taking ART and who were selected by systematic random sampling technique. The data were collected by trained health professionals using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. The data collected was entered into a computer and analysed using SPSS version 1...
Source: Ethiopian Journal of Health Development - July 29, 2021 Category: African Health Authors: Muse Rike, Eskindir Loha, Andargachew Kassa Source Type: research