Adverse drug reactions of anti-epileptic drugs in children with epilepsy: a cross-sectional study Running Title: Adverse drug reactions to Anti-epileptic drugs.
CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive and neurological problems were the most common ADRs seen in children with epilepsy. Polytherapy significantly increases the likelihood of ADRs in children. PMID: 30854975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - March 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Kaushik S, Chopra D, Sharma S, Aneja S Tags: Curr Drug Saf Source Type: research

Intractable Generalized Epilepsy: Therapeutic Approaches.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent developments in therapeutic options, both medical and surgical, for patients with drug-resistant generalized epilepsy syndromes, which continue to be a multifaceted challenge for patients and physicians. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer generation pharmaceutical options are now available, such as brivaracetam, rufinamide, lacosamide, perampanel, and cannabidiol. Less restrictive dietary options appear to be nearly as effective as classic ketogenic diet for amelioration of seizures. The latest implantable devices include responsive neurostimulation and deep brain stimulati...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hwang ST, Stevens SJ, Fu AX, Proteasa SV Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Treatment of Neurological Manifestations of Gluten Sensitivity and Coeliac Disease.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper was to overview the current literature in order to establish the available treatment options for the neurological manifestations of gluten-related disorders (serologically confirmed gluten sensitivity and coeliac disease). RECENT FINDINGS: A range of debilitating neurological manifestations is increasingly being recognized in patients with gluten sensitivity with and without enteropathy even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Ataxia is the commonest neurological manifestation, followed by peripheral neuropathy. Epilepsy, headache, encephalopathy, var...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zis P, Hadjivassiliou M Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Risk Factors for Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) and Their Mitigation.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: People with epilepsy have an increased risk of mortality when compared to the general population. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of epilepsy-related death in children and adults. The purpose of this review is to discuss SUDEP, with an emphasis on SUDEP risk factors, their mitigation and prevention. RECENT FINDINGS: SUDEP affects approximately 1 in 1000 people with epilepsy each year. Recent studies suggest that the incidence in children is similar to that of adults. The most important risk factor for SUDEP is the presence and frequency of gener...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Whitney R, Donner EJ Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Estrus-Cycle Regulation of Cortical Inhibition.
Abstract Female mammals experience cyclical changes in sexual receptivity known as the estrus cycle. Little is known about how estrus affects the cortex, although alterations in sensation, cognition and the cyclical occurrence of epilepsy suggest brain-wide processing changes. We performed in vivo juxtacellular and whole-cell recordings in somatosensory cortex of female rats and found that the estrus cycle potently altered cortical inhibition. Fast-spiking interneurons were strongly activated with social facial touch and varied their ongoing activity with the estrus cycle and estradiol in ovariectomized femal...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Clemens AM, Lenschow C, Beed P, Li L, Sammons R, Naumann RK, Wang H, Schmitz D, Brecht M Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Neurological diseases in pregnancy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent research findings and current concepts related to care of neurologic diseases in pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy to the mother-infant dyad. Recent publications related to best practices for neurologic care, risks of pregnancy, rate of relapse during and after pregnancy, as well as medication safety in pregnancy and lactation for more commonly used neurologic medications are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Data continues to grow that women with neurologic conditions can experience pregnancy with minimal risks. Additionally, as more data is being published on medi...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Toscano M, Thornburg LL Tags: Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol Source Type: research

Sleep Abnormalities in Multiple Sclerosis.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the most well-documented sleep disorders seen in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), with a special focus on the impact on quality of life. RECENT FINDINGS: Sleep abnormalities in patients with MS are a multifactorial and relatively complex issue affecting approximately 60% of the patients while the pathophysiology of these symptoms is not fully understood. Circadian rhythm disorders and increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been recognized as potential players in affecting sleep homeostasis in MS patients. Medication-related side effects suc...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 31, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sakkas GK, Giannaki CD, Karatzaferi C, Manconi M Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Laser interstitial thermal therapy in drug-resistant epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: MRI-guided stereotactic laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) has been utilized in the surgical treatment of discrete, small epileptogenic lesions. This review summarizes the current literature and addresses the clinical application of this technique. RECENT FINDINGS: LiTT has the potential to reduce the morbidity and discomfort of epilepsy surgery. Review of data from retrospective, uncontrolled studies suggests that LiTT may offer benefit when treating drug-resistant epilepsy because of mesial temporal sclerosis, hypothalamic hamartoma, cavernous hemangioma, and small cortica...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shimamoto S, Wu C, Sperling MR Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Behavioral interventions in epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Behavioral intervention describes multiple modalities of treatments which are of increasing interest in epilepsy. This review addresses recent behavioral clinical trials in epilepsy including cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR), and self-management. Results and conclusions from updated Cochrane reviews and the recent International League Against Epilepsy Psychology task force are presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Two recent large randomized controlled trials (mindfulness and progressive muscle relaxation) reported improved seizure frequenc...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Haut SR, Gursky JM, Privitera M Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Risks and predictive biomarkers of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patient.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review updates our knowledge regarding sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patient (SUDEP) risks, risk factors, and investigations of putative biomarkers based on suspected mechanisms of SUDEP. RECENT FINDINGS: The overall incidence of SUDEP in adults with epilepsy is 1.2/1000 patient-years, with surprisingly comparable figures in children in recently published population-based studies. This risk was found to decrease over time in several cohorts at a rate of -7% per year, for unknown reasons. Well established risk factors include frequency of generalized tonic-clonic s...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 28, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Ryvlin P, Rheims S, Lhatoo SD Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Visual Function in Mice Lacking GM3 Synthase.
CONCLUSION: In the eye, neither histopathological abnormalities nor abnormal functions of the retina were found in GM3-deficient mice. Differing from the situation in patients with GM3 deficiency, the lack of GM3 in mice did not lead to optic nerve atrophy. PMID: 30688114 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hiraoka M, Ohkawa E, Abe A, Murata M, Go S, Inokuchi JI, Ohguro H Tags: Curr Eye Res Source Type: research

Cannabinoid therapy in epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the history, pharmacology, and clinical science of cannabidiol (CBD) in the treatment of epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase III randomized controlled trials and prospective open label trials have provided efficacy and safety data for the use of CBD in pediatric onset severe epilepsies. The product that was studied in the vast majority of these published trials, Epidiolex (>99% of CBD and
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Billakota S, Devinsky O, Marsh E Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review data on the comparative teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), focusing on major congenital malformations (MCMs), intrauterine growth restriction, impaired cognitive development, and behavioral adverse effects following prenatal exposure. RECENT FINDINGS: Prospective registries and meta-analyses have better defined the risk of MCMs in offspring exposed to individual AEDs at different dose levels. Valproate is the drug with the highest risk, whereas prevalence of MCMs is lowest with lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. For valproate, phenobarbital, phenyto...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Tomson T, Battino D, Perucca E Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Spectrum of GABAA receptor variants in epilepsy.
P, Lerche H Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent publications point to an increasingly important role of variants in genes encoding GABAA receptor subunits associated with both common and rare forms of epilepsies. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the current clinical phenotypes, genetic findings and pathophysiological mechanisms related to GABAA receptor variants. RECENT FINDINGS: Early work showed that inherited variants in GABRG2 and GABRA1 cause relatively mild forms of monogenic epilepsies in large families. More recent studies have revealed that de novo variants in several GABAA receptor ge...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Maljevic S, Møller RS, Reid CA, Pérez-Palma E, Lal D, May P, Lerche H Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Non-electroencephalography-based seizure detection.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is need for automated seizure detection using mobile or wearable devices, for objective seizure documentation and decreasing morbidity and mortality associated with seizures. Due to technological development, a high number of articles have addressed non-electroencephalography (EEG)-based seizure detection. However, the quality of study-design and reporting is extremely heterogeneous. We aimed at giving the reader a clear picture on the current state of seizure detection, describing the level of evidence behind the various devices. RECENT FINDINGS: Fifteen studies of phase-2 o...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Beniczky S, Jeppesen J Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Valproic acid and epilepsy: from molecular mechanisms to clinical evidences.
Abstract After more than a century from its discovery, valproic acid (VPA) still represents one of the most efficient antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Pre and post-synaptic effects of VPA depend on a very broad spectrum of actions, including the regulation of ionic currents and the facilitation of GABAergic over glutamatergic transmission. As a result, VPA indirectly modulates neurotransmitter release and strengthens the threshold for seizure activity. However, even though participating to the anticonvulsant action, such mechanisms seem to have minor impact on epileptogenesis. Nonetheless, VPA has been reported to exer...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Romoli M, Mazzocchetti P, D'Alonzo R, Siliquini S, Rinaldi VE, Verrotti A, Calabresi P, Costa C Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Status of Selinum spp. L. a Himalayan medicinal plant in India: a review of its pharmacology, phytochemistry and traditional uses.
Abstract There is a growing trend of herbal medicines in India as well as other parts of the world. The use of herbal medicines alone or alongside prescription drugs for disease management is quite common now. We hereby carry out a review of dominant species of Selinum mainly S. vaginatum C.B. Clarke and S. wallichianum (DC.) Raizada & H.O. Saxena which are potent source of herbal medicine and whose potential is still not exploited. They are found in Northern Himalayas in the states of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand in India, and also distributed in adjoining countries like China, Nepal, and West Pa...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Srivastava RP, Dixit P, Singh L, Verma PC, Saxena G Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Cannabinoid drugs: will they relieve or exacerbate tinnitus?
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent enthusiasm for cannabinoid drugs for the treatment of chronic pain and some forms of epilepsy, raises the question of whether they could be useful for other disorders associated with abnormal neuronal activity in the brain, such as subjective tinnitus. Indeed, there is evidence to indicate that some tinnitus sufferers self-medicate using Cannabis. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the available evidence relating to the effects of cannabinoids on tinnitus. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite the fact that cannabinoids have been shown to decrease neuronal hyperactivity in ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zheng Y, Smith PF Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Understanding the Role of Hypoxia Inducible Factor During Neurodegeneration for New Therapeutics Opportunities.
ski A Abstract Neurodegeneration (NDG) is linked with the progressive loss of neural function with intellectual and/or motor impairment. Several diseases affecting older individuals, including Alzheimer's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, Multiple Sclerosis and many others, are the most relevant disorders associated with NDG. Since other pathologies such as refractory epilepsy, brain infections, or hereditary diseases such as "neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation", also lead to chronic brain inflammation with loss of neural cells, NDG can...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Merelli A, Rodríguez JCG, Folch J, Regueiro MR, Camins A, Lazarowski A Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation Leads to Epileptic Neuronal Apoptosis.
CONCLUSION: The study presented herein demonstrates the interaction between NLRP3 inflammasome and epilepsy progression. In addition, MCC950 might represent an important therapeutic drug for the treatment of NLRP3 inflammasome driven epileptogenic activity. PMID: 30468127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen K, Mao Q, Yin X, Zhang C, Jin Y, Deng A, Gu Z, Chen B Tags: Curr Neurovasc Res Source Type: research

The inhibition of digitoxin on Store Operated Calcium Entry is dependent on the phosphorylation sites and pore region of Orai1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified two sites critical for the inhibition on Orai1 channels, providing valuable targets for future design of SOCE inhibitors. PMID: 30421677 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou L, Chi X, Zhu Y, Zhang T, Liu J, Ma G, He L, Zhang S, Gao P, Zhou Y, Liu J, Wang Y Tags: Curr Mol Med Source Type: research

A Probable Topiramate-Induced Limbs Paraesthesia and Rigid Fingers Flexion.
We report on a girl affected by epileptic seizures treated with levetiracetam for five years. Due to worsening of the seizures, the dosage of this drug was increased and afterwards lowdosage topiramate was initiated. After 12 days from the introduction of topiramate, the girl began to present neurologic signs including limbs rigidity, pain, incoordination and flexed fingers. Gradual withdrawn of the topiramate resulted in progressive resolution of the symptomatology. This clinical episode could represent a probable topiramate-related side effect (Naranjo score 5), never reported before in this form. PMID: 29437013 [Pu...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pratico AD, Ruggieri M, Falsaperla R, Pavone P Tags: Curr Drug Saf Source Type: research

Current Treatment Strategies and Future Treatment Options for Dravet Syndrome.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dravet syndrome is a rare but severe genetic epilepsy that has unique treatment challenges. This is a review of current and future potential treatment options. RECENT FINDINGS: Treatment for Dravet syndrome should encompass many aspects of the syndrome such as gait, behavior, and nutrition, as well as focus on seizure control. Many sodium channel blockers should be avoided as they are likely to exacerbate seizures. Current options for treatment include valproic acid, clobazam, stiripentol, and ketogenic diet. Testing is underway for several new treatment options with unique mechani...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ziobro J, Eschbach K, Sullivan JE, Knupp KG Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetic Considerations with the Use of Antiepileptic Drugs in Patients with HIV and Organ Transplants.
e; JJ Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antiepileptic drugs are frequently administered to patients with HIV infection or in recipients of organ transplants. The potentially serious drug-drug interactions between the "classic" antiepileptic drugs, antiretrovirals, and immunosuppressants have been extensively studied. Evidence-based information on the second and third generation of antiepileptic drugs is almost non-existent. The purpose of this review is to analyze the pharmacokinetic profile of these newer agents to assess their potential for drug interactions with antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants. ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Asconapé JJ Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

The Impact of Interictal Discharges on Performance.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Our purpose is to review evidence relating to the concept that interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) impair brain performance. RECENT FINDINGS: Sophisticated measures of motor and cognitive performance have clarified older observations, confirming that in both animals and humans, IEDs affect aspects of performance, IED morphology, frequency, anatomical distribution, and duration matter. However, we now know that it is difficult to draw a line between IEDs and seizures, not only by electrical criteria but even by metabolic and molecular measures. IEDs impair performance acutely ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Faught E, Karakis I, Drane DL Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Managing Antiepileptic Medication in Dialysis Patients.
is SR Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss available information on the management of epilepsy patients on renal replacement therapy. Older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) pharmacology will be reviewed, as well as the need to supplement dosages during or after hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and continuous renal replacement treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The great majority of anticonvulsants have been studied in patients with renal failure. Many of them have also been assessed during renal replacement therapy. For some, data are scant, and choice of managemen...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mora Rodríguez KA, Benbadis SR Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is a known interrelationship between sleep and epilepsy. This review highlights the recent findings regarding interactions between sleep and circadian rhythms and the manifestations of epilepsy and surgical treatments for refractory epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: CLOCK gene expression may be reduced within the epileptogenic focus in patients with refractory epilepsy. Interictal epileptiform discharges during NREM and especially REM sleep may lateralize to the epileptogenic hemisphere. Intracranial video EEG monitoring and EEG from implanted responsive neurostimulator devices conf...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 27, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Daley JT, DeWolfe JL Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Cell Volume Control in Healthy Brain and Neuropathologies.
Abstract Regulation of cellular volume is a critical homeostatic process that is intimately linked to ionic and osmotic balance in the brain tissue. Because the brain is encased in the rigid skull and has a very complex cellular architecture, even minute changes in the volume of extracellular and intracellular compartments have a very strong impact on tissue excitability and function. The failure of cell volume control is a major feature of several neuropathologies, such as hyponatremia, stroke, epilepsy, hyperammonemia, and others. There is strong evidence that such dysregulation, especially uncontrolled cell swe...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wilson CS, Mongin AA Tags: Curr Top Membr Source Type: research

Cannabis for the Treatment of Epilepsy: an Update.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: For millennia, there has been interest in the use of cannabis for the treatment of epilepsy. However, it is only recently that appropriately powered controlled studies have been completed. In this review, we present an update on the research investigating the use of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis, in the treatment of epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: While the anticonvulsant mechanism of action of CBD has not been entirely elucidated, we discuss the most recent data available including its low affinity for the endocannabinoid receptors and possible indirect mo...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gaston TE, Szaflarski JP Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Sleep-Wake Disorders in Stroke-Increased Stroke Risk and Deteriorated Recovery? An Evaluation on the Necessity for Prevention and Treatment.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sleep-wake disorders (SWD) are common not only in the general population but also in stroke patients, in whom SWD may be pre-existent or appear "de novo" as a consequence of brain damage. Despite increasing evidence of a negative impact of SWD on cardiocerebrovascular risk, cognitive functions, and quality of life, SWD are insufficiently considered in the prevention and management of patients with stroke. This narrative review aims at summarizing the current data on the bidirectional link between SWD and stroke. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies have demonstrated that slee...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 7, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Duss SB, Brill AK, Bargiotas P, Facchin L, Alexiev F, Manconi M, Bassetti CL Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Acute Symptomatic Seizures and Provoked Seizures: to Treat or Not to Treat?
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute symptomatic and provoked seizures by definition occur in close proximity to an event and are considered to be situational. The treatment implications and likelihood of recurrence of acute symptomatic and provoked seizures differ from unprovoked seizures. In this article, the authors review the literature on acute symptomatic and provoked seizures with regard to therapeutic approach and risk of recurrence. RECENT FINDINGS: In the acute period, patients who suffer from acute symptomatic and provoked seizures have higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Patients with acute symp...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gunawardane N, Fields M Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Reducing the Risk of Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP).
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent reports have highlighted an increase in the number of epilepsy-related deaths. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is thought to be the number one cause of death in chronic epilepsy. This review provides a summary of the current evidence of how to communicate, stratify, and mitigate known risk factors for SUDEP. RECENT FINDINGS: There is now a clearer understanding of the possible pathological mechanisms that contribute to SUDEP. SUDEP is the culmination of multifactorial predisposing and precipitating factors and has been linked to particular candidate genes. A numb...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Watkins L, Shankar R Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Diffuse low-grade glioma, oncological outcome and quality of life: a surgical perspective.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Because diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG) is constantly migrating in the brain until malignant transformation, the historic wait-and-watch attitude was replaced by an early therapeutic management. Moreover, advances in cognitive neurosciences allowed an improved understanding of neuroplasticity reactional to DLGG growth. Here, the aim is to reevaluate the role of surgery regarding both oncological and functional outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent data evidenced the significant benefit of maximal well tolerated resection on survival and quality of life (QoL). By removing a diffuse neop...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Duffau H Tags: Curr Opin Oncol Source Type: research

The Anticonvulsant Effects of Ketogenic Diet on Epileptic Seizures and Potential Mechanisms.
CONCLUSION: In this review, we systematically reviewed the effects and possible mechanisms of ketogenic diet on epilepsy, which may optimize the therapeutic strategies against epilepsy. PMID: 28521671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhang Y, Xu J, Zhang K, Yang W, Li B Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Unexpected Effects of Acetylcholine Precursors on Pilocarpine Seizure- Induced Neuronal Death.
CONCLUSION: These seemingly contradictory results may be attributed to both epileptogenic features and neuroprotective functions of several acetylcholine precursors. PMID: 28521701 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 29, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee M, Choi BY, Suh SW Tags: Curr Neuropharmacol Source Type: research

Regulation of Ion Channels by MicroRNAs and the Implication for Epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this focused review is to describe recent studies supporting a critical role of microRNAs in the regulation of ion channels and discuss the resulting implications for the modulation of neuronal excitability in epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: MicroRNA-induced silencing of ion channels has been shown in several different studies in recent years, and some of these reports suggest a prominent role in epilepsy. The ion channels regulated by microRNAs include ligand- and voltage-gated channels and are not only limited to the central nervous system but have also been found in the p...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gross C, Tiwari D Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Diagnostic Biomarkers Of Epilepsy.
CONCLUSIONS: ongoing research on diagnostic biomarkers of epilepsy is promising and future pre-clinical and clinical studies are warranted. PMID: 30003857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sueri C, Gasparini S, Balestrini S, Labate A, Gambardella A, Russo E, Leo A, Casarotto S, Pittau F, Trimboli M, Cianci V, Ascoli M, Cavalli SM, Ferrigno G, Aguglia U, Ferlazzo E Tags: Curr Pharm Biotechnol Source Type: research

Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage revealed antiphospholipid syndrome in a male patient: benefit from comprehensive treatment.
We report a 45-year-old male patient presented to us with fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting for two months with a history of recurring epilepsy. On examination, he had a low blood pressure (95/53 mmHg) and hyponatremia (117.9 mmol/L). His abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan showed bilateral diffusely enlarged adrenal hemorrhage. Laboratory studies revealed evidence of APS secondary to SLE. He remains well with adrenal lesions shrunken under the treatment of steroid, cyclophosphamide, hydroxychloroquine, warfarin, oxcarbazepine and entecavir. We present such a case to warning that the correct ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Xu J, Zhou Q, Jiang N, Liu Z, Gao H, Sui Y, Liu R, Liu P, Cui Y Tags: Curr Med Res Opin Source Type: research

Pediatric neuroanesthesia.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pediatric neuroanesthesia is a fascinating, yet challenging branch of anesthesia. This review highlights some of the recent insights into pediatric neuroanesthesia from the past 18 months. RECENT FINDINGS: Although there are incontrovertible evidences in animals suggesting that prolonged exposure to general anesthesia causes long-term neurological impairment, the translational relevance of these findings in humans is debatable. Early surgery for pediatric drug-refractory epilepsy is supported by emerging literature, but poses unique perioperative problems for the treating neuroanes...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lamsal R, Rath GP Tags: Curr Opin Anaesthesiol Source Type: research

Therapeutic Symptomatic Strategies in the Parasomnias.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review was to discuss the currently available pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment options for parasomnias. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent pathophysiological findings about sleep structure in parasomnias helped understanding several drug mechanisms of action. Serotoninergic theory accounts for the effect of serotoninergic drugs. Study about spectral analysis of sleep showed the effect of clonazepam on spectral bands. Cannabinoids proved to be effective in some of parasomnias, as in many other neurological disorders. A series of therapeutic strategies were anal...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - June 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Manni R, Toscano G, Terzaghi M Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Seizure detection: do current devices work? And when can they be useful?
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The unpredictability and apparent randomness of epileptic seizures is one of the most vexing aspects of epilepsy. Methods or devices capable of detecting seizures may help prevent injury or even death and significantly improve quality of life. Here, we summarize and evaluate currently available, unimodal, or polymodal detection systems for epileptic seizures, mainly in the ambulatory setting. RECENT FINDINGS: There are two broad categories of detection devices: EEG-based and non-EEG-based systems. Wireless wearable EEG devices are now available both in research and commercial arena...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - May 23, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhao X, Lhatoo SD Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Neuroimaging in epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy neuroimaging is important for detecting the seizure onset zone, predicting and preventing deficits from surgery and illuminating mechanisms of epileptogenesis. An aspiration is to integrate imaging and genetic biomarkers to enable personalized epilepsy treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The ability to detect lesions, particularly focal cortical dysplasia and hippocampal sclerosis, is increased using ultra high-field imaging and postprocessing techniques such as automated volumetry, T2 relaxometry, voxel-based morphometry and surface-based techniques. Statistical analysis of PET ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - May 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sidhu MK, Duncan JS, Sander JW Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Reverse iontophoretic extraction of gabapentin: a mechanistic study.
Abstract The work was aimed at extracting gabapentin by transdermal reverse iontophoresis to check its feasibility for noninvasive therapeutic drug monitoring. Gabapentin was delivered in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at a therapeutic concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml. The same media was also used in receiver compartment. Extractions were carried out under an electric field of 5 V (current intensity range 0.3 mA/cm2-0.5 mA/cm2), provided by a custom-made power source for a period of 4 h. Samples were withdrawn at hourly intervals and drug content was analyzed by HPLC. Parameters studied were effect of donor conc...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - May 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Chakrabarty S, Ghosh B, Giri TK, Khanam J Tags: Curr Drug Deliv Source Type: research

Neurostimulation for Memory Enhancement in Epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Memory is one of the top concerns of epilepsy patients, but there are no known treatments to directly alleviate the memory deficits associated with epilepsy. Neurostimulation may provide new therapeutic tools to enhance memory in epilepsy patients. Here, we critically review recent investigations of memory enhancement using transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), chronic intracranial stimulation, and acute intracranial stimulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Existing literature suggests that transcranial direct curren...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - April 19, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Meisenhelter S, Jobst BC Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Ictal Interictal Continuum Patterns.
We present a case illustrating the clinical nuances of these patterns. We propose an algorithm for a personalized and targeted approach to ictal interictal patterns based on risk stratification according to clinical, EEG, imaging, and invasive monitoring markers. PMID: 29666958 [PubMed] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - April 18, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Osman GM, Araújo DF, Maciel CB Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

The benefit of prescribing vitamin D as add on therapy on the electrocardiographic changes in epileptic patients.
This study aimed to show that epileptic patients who treated with antiepileptic drugs supplemented with vitamin D are free from the electrocardiograph changes compared with those treated with antiepileptic drugs. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included, 121 epileptic patients aged
Source: Epilepsy Curr - April 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Al-Nimer MSM Tags: Curr Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Epilepsy: a special disease.
PMID: 29493558 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - March 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Elger CE Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Neurostimulation for drug-resistant epilepsy: a systematic review of clinical evidence for efficacy, safety, contraindications and predictors for response.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurostimulation is becoming an increasingly accepted treatment alternative for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) who are unsuitable surgery candidates. Standardized guidelines on when or how to use the various neurostimulation modalities are lacking. We conducted a systematic review on the currently available neurostimulation modalities primarily with regard to effectiveness and safety. RECENT FINDINGS: For vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), there is moderate-quality evidence for its effectiveness in adults with drug-resistant partial epilepsies. Moderate-to-low-quality evid...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - March 2, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Boon P, De Cock E, Mertens A, Trinka E Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Treating Immune-Related Epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review explores different treatment modalities for immune-mediated epilepsy, including epilepsy caused by autoantibodies as well as epilepsy in the context of systemic autoimmune disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Autoimmune epilepsy is an increasingly recognized entity. Conventional treatments for epilepsy, such as antiseizure medications and epilepsy surgery, are less successful in treating epilepsy caused by autoimmune disease. Immunomodulatory therapies such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasma exchange are generally more successful in treating immune-mediated...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bhatia S, Schmitt SE Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and source localization: their value in epilepsy.
eck M Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Source localization of cerebral activity using electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) can reveal noninvasively the generators of the abnormal signals recorded in epilepsy, such as interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) and seizures. Here, we review recent progress showcasing the usefulness of these techniques in treating patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: The source localization of IEDs by high-density EEG and MEG has now been proved in large patient cohorts to be accurate and clinically relevant, with positive and negative predictiv...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 9, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mégevand P, Seeck M Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research