FDA Safety Warning on the Cardiac Effects of Lamotrigine: An Advisory From the Ad Hoc ILAE/AES Task Force
Epilepsy Curr. 2021 Feb 28:1535759721996344. doi: 10.1177/1535759721996344. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33641454 | DOI:10.1177/1535759721996344 (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacqueline A French Emilio Perucca Josemir W Sander Lennart Bergfeldt Michel Baulac David S Auerbach Mark Keezer Roland D Thijs Orrin Devinsky David G Vossler Timothy E Welty Source Type: research

FDA Safety Warning on the Cardiac Effects of Lamotrigine: An Advisory From the Ad Hoc ILAE/AES Task Force
Epilepsy Curr. 2021 Feb 28:1535759721996344. doi: 10.1177/1535759721996344. Online ahead of print.NO ABSTRACTPMID:33641454 | DOI:10.1177/1535759721996344 (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - March 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacqueline A French Emilio Perucca Josemir W Sander Lennart Bergfeldt Michel Baulac David S Auerbach Mark Keezer Roland D Thijs Orrin Devinsky David G Vossler Timothy E Welty Source Type: research

Integration of Internet of Things with quantum dots: A state-of-the-art of medicine
Curr Pharm Des. 2021 Feb 21. doi: 10.2174/1381612827666210222113740. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInternet of Things (IoT) emerges as disruptive innovation and development in the fields of drug delivery and biomedical sciences using on-target active transportation, sensors, wearable devices, real-time diagnostics, etc. Semiconducting fluorescence emitting material, quantum dots on integration with IoT displayed interesting results in healthcare sector especially in hospitals and pathological laboratories. Presently, the integrated system is used to improve productivity without the interference of human and offer cost-effe...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Drashti Desai Pravin Shende Source Type: research

Integration of Internet of Things with quantum dots: A state-of-the-art of medicine
Curr Pharm Des. 2021 Feb 21. doi: 10.2174/1381612827666210222113740. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInternet of Things (IoT) emerges as disruptive innovation and development in the fields of drug delivery and biomedical sciences using on-target active transportation, sensors, wearable devices, real-time diagnostics, etc. Semiconducting fluorescence emitting material, quantum dots on integration with IoT displayed interesting results in healthcare sector especially in hospitals and pathological laboratories. Presently, the integrated system is used to improve productivity without the interference of human and offer cost-effe...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Drashti Desai Pravin Shende Source Type: research

Integration of Internet of Things with quantum dots: A state-of-the-art of medicine
Curr Pharm Des. 2021 Feb 21. doi: 10.2174/1381612827666210222113740. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInternet of Things (IoT) emerges as disruptive innovation and development in the fields of drug delivery and biomedical sciences using on-target active transportation, sensors, wearable devices, real-time diagnostics, etc. Semiconducting fluorescence emitting material, quantum dots on integration with IoT displayed interesting results in healthcare sector especially in hospitals and pathological laboratories. Presently, the integrated system is used to improve productivity without the interference of human and offer cost-effe...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Drashti Desai Pravin Shende Source Type: research

Integration of Internet of Things with quantum dots: A state-of-the-art of medicine
Curr Pharm Des. 2021 Feb 21. doi: 10.2174/1381612827666210222113740. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInternet of Things (IoT) emerges as disruptive innovation and development in the fields of drug delivery and biomedical sciences using on-target active transportation, sensors, wearable devices, real-time diagnostics, etc. Semiconducting fluorescence emitting material, quantum dots on integration with IoT displayed interesting results in healthcare sector especially in hospitals and pathological laboratories. Presently, the integrated system is used to improve productivity without the interference of human and offer cost-effe...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Drashti Desai Pravin Shende Source Type: research

Integration of Internet of Things with quantum dots: A state-of-the-art of medicine
Curr Pharm Des. 2021 Feb 21. doi: 10.2174/1381612827666210222113740. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTInternet of Things (IoT) emerges as disruptive innovation and development in the fields of drug delivery and biomedical sciences using on-target active transportation, sensors, wearable devices, real-time diagnostics, etc. Semiconducting fluorescence emitting material, quantum dots on integration with IoT displayed interesting results in healthcare sector especially in hospitals and pathological laboratories. Presently, the integrated system is used to improve productivity without the interference of human and offer cost-effe...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 23, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Drashti Desai Pravin Shende Source Type: research

Disease Modification in Epilepsy: Behavioural Accompaniments
Curr Top Behav Neurosci. 2021 Feb 16. doi: 10.1007/7854_2020_216. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAccording to the definition of epileptogenesis, "disease modification" refers to every clinically relevant therapeutic outcome which does not necessarily prevent epilepsy onset but significantly improves the disease course by reducing seizure burden and/or decreases concomitant comorbidities. In this light, understanding comorbidities development, their characteristics, and the neurobiological causes represents a major issue both in clinical and preclinical research. This chapter is summarizing and critically evaluatin...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Emilio Russo Rita Citraro Source Type: research

Disease Modification in Epilepsy: Behavioural Accompaniments.
Abstract According to the definition of epileptogenesis, "disease modification" refers to every clinically relevant therapeutic outcome which does not necessarily prevent epilepsy onset but significantly improves the disease course by reducing seizure burden and/or decreases concomitant comorbidities. In this light, understanding comorbidities development, their characteristics, and the neurobiological causes represents a major issue both in clinical and preclinical research. This chapter is summarizing and critically evaluating the preclinical improvements over time in the study of epilepsy comorbiditie...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 16, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Russo E, Citraro R Tags: Curr Top Behav Neurosci Source Type: research

Accreditation of Epilepsy Centers.
This article provides some of the background and processes that led to the criteria by which epilepsy centers are now accredited. PMID: 33567887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Labiner DM Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Genetic Dystonias: Update on Classification and New Genetic Discoveries.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the advent of next-generation sequencing, the number of genes associated with dystonia has been growing exponentially. We provide here a comprehensive review of the latest genetic discoveries in the field of dystonia and discuss how the growing knowledge of biology underlying monogenic dystonias may influence and challenge current classification systems. RECENT FINDINGS: Pathogenic variants in genes without previously confirmed roles in human disease have been identified in subjects affected by isolated or combined dystonia (KMT2B, VPS16, HPCA, KCTD17, DNAJC12, SLC18A2) and c...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 9, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Keller Sarmiento IJ, Mencacci NE Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Does Stress Trigger Seizures? Evidence from Experimental Models.
Abstract This chapter describes the experimental evidence of stress modulation of epileptic seizures and the potential role of corticosteroids and neurosteroids in regulating stress-linked seizure vulnerability. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that is characterized by repeated seizures. There are many potential causes for epilepsy, including genetic predispositions, infections, brain injury, and neurotoxicity. Stress is a known precipitating factor for seizures in individuals suffering from epilepsy. Severe acute stress and persistent exposure to stress may increase susceptibility to seizures, thereby ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 6, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Reddy DS, Thompson W, Calderara G Tags: Curr Top Behav Neurosci Source Type: research

Untangling a Web: Basic Mechanisms of the Complex Interactions Between Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Epilepsy.
Abstract Seizures have sleep-wake and circadian patterns in various epilepsies and, in turn, disrupt sleep and circadian rhythms. The resultant sleep deprivation (SD) is an exacerbating factor for seizures that sets up a vicious cycle that can potentially lead to disease progression and even to epilepsy-related mortality. A variety of cellular or network electrophysiological changes and changes in expression of clock-controlled genes or other transcription factors underlie sleep-wake and circadian distribution of seizures, as well as the disruptions seen in both. A broad understanding of these mechanisms may help ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Maganti RK, Jones MV Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Cells That "Fire Together, Wire Together", but Do They Transcribe Together in Epilepsy?
Cells That "Fire Together, Wire Together", but Do They Transcribe Together in Epilepsy? Epilepsy Curr. 2021 Jan 29;:1535759721990042 Authors: Quiñones S, Dulla C Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 33508978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 29, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Quiñones S, Dulla C Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

A reappraisal of injuries and accidents in people with epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review data on injuries and traffic accidents affecting people with epilepsy with emphasis on the overall risk of injuries, specific types of injuries, and risk factors. RECENT FINDINGS: Population-based studies of incident epilepsy cohorts indicate that the risk of physical injuries in people with epilepsy in general is increased only modestly. The risk is higher in selected populations that attend epilepsy clinics or referral centers. Soft tissue injuries, dislocations, and fractures are the most common injures, whereas the greatest increase in risk is reported for more uncomm...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 19, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asadi-Pooya AA, Tomson T Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Cognition, Behavior, and Psychosocial Effects of Seizures in the Developing Brain.
Abstract Epilepsy, a complex neurological disorder of recurrent seizures, is associated with significant impacts on the developing brain. Patients commonly face multiple comorbidities, including debilitating effects on cognition, behavior, and psychiatric outcomes. These conditions can be a source of great distress for patients that may even be greater than the burden of epilepsy itself. Here we investigate the relationship between seizures and the development of these comorbidities, specifically cognition, memory, learning, behavior, and psychiatric disorders. We first delineate the current research methodology i...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lin K, Stafstrom CE Tags: Curr Top Behav Neurosci Source Type: research

In Up to My Ears and Temporal Lobes: Effects of Early Life Stress on Epilepsy Development.
Abstract Epilepsy and stress are each significant concerns in today's society, bearing heavy impacts on mental and physical health and overall quality of life. Unfortunately, the intersection between these is potentially even more concerning, as stress is a frequent trigger of seizures and may contribute to neural hyperexcitability. A growing body of research suggests a connection between early life stress (occurring in the prenatal or postnatal stage) and later development of epilepsy. While the larger part of this literature suggests that early life stress increases vulnerability for epilepsy development, there ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Liening AN, Epps SA Tags: Curr Top Behav Neurosci Source Type: research

Alterations of Neuronal Dynamics as a Mechanism for Cognitive Impairment in Epilepsy.
Abstract Epilepsy is commonly associated with cognitive and behavioral deficits that dramatically affect the quality of life of patients. In order to identify novel therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing these deficits, it is critical first to understand the mechanisms leading to cognitive impairments in epilepsy. Traditionally, seizures and epileptiform activity in addition to neuronal injury have been considered to be the most significant contributors to cognitive dysfunction. In this review we however highlight the role of a new mechanism: alterations of neuronal dynamics, i.e. the timing at which neurons and...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 17, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Lenck-Santini PP, Sakkaki S Tags: Curr Top Behav Neurosci Source Type: research

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent comorbidity in patients with epilepsy and is associated with important psychosocial and academic consequences. Evidence are now available to guide diagnosis and treatment of patients with both ADHD and epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: The prevalence of ADHD varies from 12 to 39% in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy to 70% in drug-resistant epilepsy. The diagnosis of ADHD requires parent-validated and teacher-validated rating scales, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and DSM-V, to ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 13, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rheims S, Auvin S Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Sleep: Astrocytes Take Their Toll on Tired Flies.
Abstract Calcium signalling in astrocytes modulates sleep, yet how astrocytes communicate with neural circuits that control sleep is unclear. A new study now uncovers a calcium-dependent relay between astrocytes and neurons that promotes sleep homeostasis in fruit flies. PMID: 33434483 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 11, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Jepson JEC Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function in neuronal and synaptic development and signaling.
Abstract The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, among the ionotropic glutamate receptors, are fundamental to integrating and transducing complex signaling in neurons. Glutamate activation of these receptors mediates intracellular signals essential to neuronal and synaptic formation and synaptic plasticity and also contribute to excitotoxic processes in several neurological disorders. The NMDA receptor signaling is mediated by the permeability to Ca2+ and by the large network of signaling and scaffolding proteins associated mostly with the large C-terminal domain of GluN2 subunits. Important studies showed that ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 8, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Pagano J, Giona F, Beretta S, Verpelli C, Sala C Tags: Curr Opin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Getting a Foot IN the Door: GABAergic INterneuron-Specific Enhancers.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 33412946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 7, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Goldberg EM Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Medical Foods: Science, Regulation, and Practical Aspects. Summary of a Workshop.
Abstract On August 13-14, 2019, the Healthcare Nutrition Council and the ASN held the Medical Foods Workshop: Science, Regulation, and Practical Aspects. Medical food products help patients manage their disease and improve their quality of life. Yet many hurdles exist to getting patients new products. In this workshop, participants addressed some of these hurdles, with specific emphasis on topics like the statutory term distinctive nutritional requirements, the regulatory term modification of the diet alone, the role of clinical guidelines, the requirement that medical foods be used under medical supervision, and ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 1, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Holmes JL, Biella A, Morck T, Rostorfer J, Schneeman B Tags: Curr Dev Nutr Source Type: research

Dravet syndrome.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will illustrate the electroclinical description of Dravet syndrome, highlighting the difficulty to understand correlation between the SCN1A mutation and clinical characteristics, including the frequent comorbidities. Therefore, the efficacy of the new treatment options, which now become available, should not only focus on seizure frequency reduction but also on the long-term effects on these comorbidities, such as intellectual disability, motor and sleep problems. RECENT FINDINGS: Comprehensive guidelines for a more standardized treatment in children with Dravet syndrom...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lagae L Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Design and Synthesis of a Novel Gabapentin-Phosphotidylcholine Conjugate for Targeting to Phospholipase A2 Enzyme through Nanostructured Lipid Carrier.
CONCLUSION: The formulated Nanostructured lipid carrier of Gabapentin-Phosphotidylcholine conjugate may be able to use to prevent seizure. PMID: 33357184 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 24, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Anjali P B, Jawahar N, Jubie S, Yadav N, Selvaraj A, Selvamuthukumar S Tags: Curr Comput Aided Drug Des Source Type: research

Foreword: Epilepsy Monitoring in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care: Part II.
PMID: 33308489 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Fierman AH Tags: Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care Source Type: research

Clinician-Focused Overview and Developments in Polysomnography.
Abstract Purpose of Review: Polysomnography (PSG) represents a fundamental diagnostic tool used in the evaluation of sleep disorders. It represents a simultaneous recording of sleep staging, eye movements, electromyographic tone, respiratory parameters, and electrocardiogram. It is particularly helpful in the assessment of sleep-disordered breathing and its management, propensity for excessive sleepiness, complex behaviors during sleep, including motor disturbances of sleep, sleep-related epilepsy, and parasomnias. This review is intended to summarize the indications for PSG, the limitations and challenges of this...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Markun LC, Sampat A Tags: Curr Sleep Med Rep Source Type: research

Neuroprotective and Neurorestorative Effects of Epo and VEGF: Perspectives for New Therapeutic Approaches to Neurological Diseases.
CONCLUSION: Because the Epo and VEGF signalling pathways are connected in several ways, we conclude that more experimental studies, primarily studies designed to thoroughly assess the functional interactions between Epo and VEGF in the brain under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, are needed. PMID: 31942853 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ureña-Guerrero ME, Castañeda-Cabral JL, Rivera-Cervantes MC, Macias-Velez RJ, Jarero-Basulto JJ, Gudiño-Cabrera G, Beas-Zárate C Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Experimental Models for the Discovery of Novel Anticonvulsant Drugs: Focus on Pentylenetetrazole-Induced Seizures and Associated Memory Deficits.
Abstract Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder characterized by irregular, excessive neuronal excitability, and recurrent seizures that affect millions of patients worldwide. Currently, accessible antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) do not adequately support all epilepsy patients, with around 30% patients not responding to the existing therapies. As lifelong epilepsy treatment is essential, the search for new and more effective AEDs with an enhanced safety profile is a significant therapeutic goal. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that can induce biochemical, molecular, and anatomic chan...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Alachkar A, Ojha SK, Sadeq A, Adem A, Frank A, Stark H, Sadek B Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

EPO and EPO-Receptor System as Potential Actionable Mechanism for the Protection of Brain and Heart in Refractory Epilepsy and SUDEP.
lli A Abstract The most important activity of erythropoietin (EPO) is the regulation of erythrocyte production by activation of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), which triggers the activation of anti-apoptotic and proliferative responses of erythroid progenitor cells. Additionally, to erythropoietic EPO activity, an antiapoptotic effect has been described in a wide spectrum of tissues. EPO low levels are found in the central nervous system (CNS), while EPO-R is expressed in most CNS cell types. In spite of EPO-R high levels expressed during the hypoxicischemic brain, insufficient production of endogenous cerebr...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Auzmendi J, Puchulu MB, Rodríguez JCG, Balaszczuk AM, Lazarowski A, Merelli A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

The Potential Clinical Properties of Magnesium.
Abstract A significant percentage of costs in pharmaceutical markets is devoted to supplements, due to the confidence of consumers on the beneficial effects of these products. Magnesium is one of the supplements with enduring and increasing popularity. According to what is reported online this metal ion can cure, or prevent, almost all kind of diseases. This review aims at illustrating a series of scientifically demonstrated cases in which magnesium was used in clinical practice. Except for its ordinary use as antacid and laxative, other ascertained uses, reported in scientific literature, consist in helping to tr...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Crisponi G, Nurchi VM, Cappai R, Zoroddu MA, Gerosa C, Piras M, Faa G, Fanni D Tags: Curr Med Chem Source Type: research

Olfactory Testing in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: a Systematic Review.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Olfactory testing is a potentially safe, cost-effective, bedside evaluation tool for diagnosis, monitoring, and risk assessment for surgery in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients, but testing methods and relevant olfactory domains are not standardized. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate olfactory tests in TLE and summarize the results of the literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Olfactory tests varied significantly in odorant administration tools and devices, target odorants, evaluation timing, and grading scales. The Smell Threshold Test and University of Pennsylvania Smell Ide...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 10, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Hwang BY, Mampre D, Penn R, Anderson WS, Kang J, Kamath V Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Basics of modern epilepsy classification and terminology.
CONCLUSION: Adopting a classification system that uses plain language allows for more effective and efficient communication between individuals and across specialties. Definitions of various syndromes and seizure types have evolved over time and are reviewed. PMID: 33153903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 2, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Varnado S, Price D Tags: Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care Source Type: research

Psychiatric Comorbidities in Pediatric Epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychiatric comorbidities are close to 5-times higher in children and youth with epilepsy (CYE) compared to general population. With epilepsy being one of the most common neurological disorders in children, we provide a timely review of psychiatric issues in CYE. RECENT FINDINGS: A meta-analysis found a pooled prevalence of anxiety in 18.9% and depression in 13.5% of CYE. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is 2.5 to 5.5 times higher in CYE compared to healthy counterparts. Recent evidence highlights that behavioral adverse effects may lead to discontinuation of anti-ep...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dagar A, Falcone T Tags: Curr Psychiatry Rep Source Type: research

Treatment of Epilepsy Associated with Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia.
This article reviews recent studies that help understanding the epileptogenicity and potential therapeutic options in PNH. RECENT FINDINGS: New noninvasive diagnostic and intracerebral EEG analytic tools demonstrated that cortical hyperexcitability and aberrant connectivity (between nodules and cortices and among nodules) are likely mechanisms causing epilepsy in most patients. The deeply seated PNH, if epileptogenic, are ideal target for stereotactic ablative techniques, which offer concomitant ablation of multiple regions with relatively satisfactory seizure outcome. Advance in diagnostic and analytic tools have enh...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Khoo HM, Gotman J, Hall JA, Dubeau F Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

HFO to Measure Seizure Propensity and Improve Prognostication in Patients With Epilepsy.
Abstract The study of high frequency oscillations (HFO) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) as biomarkers of epileptic activity has merely focused on their spatial location and relationship to the epileptogenic zone. It has been suggested in several ways that the amount of HFO at a certain point in time may reflect the disease activity or severity. This could be clinically useful in several ways, especially as noninvasive recording of HFO appears feasible. We grouped the potential hypotheses into 4 categories: (1) HFO as biomarkers to predict the development of epilepsy; (2) HFO as biomarkers to predict the occurren...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jacobs J, Zijlmans M Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Night Watch on the Titanic: Detecting Early Signs of Epileptogenesis in Alzheimer Disease.
Abstract Aberrant cortical network excitability is an inextricable feature of Alzheimer disease (AD) that can negatively impact memory and accelerate cognitive decline. Surface electroencephalogram spikes and intracranial recordings of nocturnal silent seizures in human AD, coupled with the abnormal neural synchrony that precedes development of behavioral seizures in mouse AD models, build the case for epileptogenesis as an early therapeutic target for AD. Since most individuals with AD do not develop overt seizures, leveraging functional biomarkers of epilepsy risk to stratify a heterogeneous AD patient populatio...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Lam AD, Noebels J Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Loss of GABAergic Interneurons in Seizure-Induced Epileptogenesis-Two Decades Later and in a More Complex World.
PMID: 33059465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Dudek E Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

"mTORopathies: A Road Well-Traveled".
"mTORopathies: A Road Well-Traveled". Epilepsy Curr. 2020 Oct 14;:1535759720959320 Authors: Crino PB PMID: 33052752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 14, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Crino PB Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Seizure-Induced Neurogenesis: 1 Out of 3 Ain't Bad.
PMID: 33012181 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Parent JM Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Is fMRI Ready to Replace IAP? Wait, Wait, …We Are Not There Yet! Commentary on: Lesser, RP. Can fMRI Substitute for the Wada Test? Epilepsy Curr. 2003;3(6):210-211. 10.1046/j.1535-7597.2003.03613.x. PMID: 15346156.
Is fMRI Ready to Replace IAP? Wait, Wait,…We Are Not There Yet! Commentary on: Lesser, RP. Can fMRI Substitute for the Wada Test? Epilepsy Curr. 2003;3(6):210-211. 10.1046/j.1535-7597.2003.03613.x. PMID: 15346156. Epilepsy Curr. 2020 Oct 05;:1535759720948113 Authors: Szaflarski JP PMID: 33012192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Szaflarski JP Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Brain Inflammation and Seizures: Evolving Concepts and New Findings in the Last 2 Decades.
Abstract The concept of brain inflammation and its role in epilepsy has much evolved during the last 2 decades since my original Epilepsy Currents commentary,1 and even more since its first description in autoptic tissue from Rasmussen's encephalitis or in epilepsies developing after central nervous system (CNS) infections. The new vision stems from in-depth investigations carried out since 1999 in preclinical models of provoked seizures and acquired epilepsies and in human focal epilepsies.2 This commentary reports my subjective historical perspective of the progress in the field, also considering if predictions ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 4, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vezzani A Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

The Nose Knows: Intranasal Midazolam To Treat Acute Seizures During Inpatient Epilepsy Monitoring.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 32940057 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 16, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vossler DG Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Brain calcification because of neurocysticercosis: a vast field to be explored.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminthic infection of the central nervous system caused by the larval stage of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Endemic regions include Latin American countries, sub-Saharan Africa, and large regions of Asia, including the Indian subcontinent and is a global health problem. Seizures are the most common manifestation and approximately 30% of adult-onset seizures in endemic regions are attributable to NCC. Calcifications because of neurocysticercosis is the most common finding on imaging in endemic regions and are important seizure foci contributin...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 28, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Bustos JA, Coyle CM Tags: Curr Opin Infect Dis Source Type: research

Treatment of Refractory Convulsive Status Epilepticus: A Comprehensive Review by the American Epilepsy Society Treatments Committee.
Abstract PURPOSE: Established tonic-clonic status epilepticus (SE) does not stop in one-third of patients when treated with an intravenous (IV) benzodiazepine bolus followed by a loading dose of a second antiseizure medication (ASM). These patients have refractory status epilepticus (RSE) and a high risk of morbidity and death. For patients with convulsive refractory status epilepticus (CRSE), we sought to determine the strength of evidence for 8 parenteral ASMs used as third-line treatment in stopping clinical CRSE. METHODS: A structured literature search (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL) was performed to i...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Vossler DG, Bainbridge JL, Boggs JG, Novotny EJ, Loddenkemper T, Faught E, Amengual-Gual M, Fischer SN, Gloss DS, Olson DM, Towne AR, Naritoku D, Welty TE Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Genetics of Epileptic Networks: from Focal to Generalized Genetic Epilepsies.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Seizures can arise in neocortical, thalamocortical, limbic or brainstem networks. Here, we review recent genetic mechanisms implicated in focal and genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs). RECENT FINDINGS: Pathogenic variation in GAP activity toward RAGs 1 (GATOR1) complex genes (i.e., DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3) mainly result in focal epilepsies. They are associated with high rates of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy and malformations of cortical development (MCD), where "two-hits" in GATOR1-related pathways are also found in MCDs. Large-scale sequencing studies continue t...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 12, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Qaiser F, Yuen RKC, Andrade DM Tags: Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanism of a Specific NLRP3 Inhibitor to Alleviate Seizure Severity Induced by Pentylenetetrazole.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that CY-09 may represent an important treatment agent for epilepsy and other NLRP3 inflammasome-associated diseases. PMID: 32778044 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 9, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Shen K, Jiang W, Zhang C, Cai L, Wang Q, Yu H, Tang Z, Gu Z, Chen B Tags: Curr Mol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Advances in repeat expansion diseases and a new concept of repeat motif-phenotype correlation.
Abstract Recently repeat expansions have been found in more than 10 diseases in the past two years. Because the same repeat motifs are found in similar disease (as exemplified by benign adult familial myoclonic epilepsy) or in diseases with overlapping phenotype (as exemplified by fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome, neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease, oculopharyngeal myopathy with leukoencephalopathy, and oculopharyngodistal myopathy), we propose a new concept of 'repeat motif-phenotype correlation', which argue for toxic gain-of-function mechanism caused by expanded repeats, rather than altered functions of ge...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 6, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ishiura H, Tsuji S Tags: Curr Opin Genet Dev Source Type: research

Ketogenic diet as a metabolic treatment for mental illness.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ketogenic diets, which have been used to treat drug-refractory paediatric epilepsy for over 100 years, are becoming increasingly popular for the treatment of other neurological conditions, including mental illnesses. We aim to explain how ketogenic diets can improve mental illness biopathology and review the recent clinical literature. RECENT FINDINGS: Psychiatric conditions, such as schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder and binge eating disorder, are neurometabolic diseases that share several common mechanistic biopathologies. These include glucose hypometabolism, neurotrans...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 5, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Norwitz NG, Dalai SS, Palmer CM Tags: Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes Source Type: research

Contribution of PET-MRI in brain diseases in clinical practice.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hybrid PET- MRI is a technique that has the ability to improve diagnostic accuracy in many applications, whereas PET and MRI performed separately often fail to provide accurate responses to clinical questions. Here, we review recent studies and current developments in PET-MRI, focusing on clinical applications. RECENT FINDINGS: The combination of PET and MRI imaging methods aims at increasing the potential of each individual modality. Combined methods of image reconstruction and correction of PET-MRI attenuation are being developed, and a number of applications are being introduced...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 15, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Pyatigorskaya N, Habert MO, Rozenblum L Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research