Time to Start Calling Things by Their Own Names? The Case for Antiseizure Medicines.
Abstract Medicines currently used in the management of epilepsy have been developed to suppress seizures, and they have no known impact on the underlying disease. Using the term "antiepileptic" to describe these compounds is misleading because it suggests an action on the epilepsy itself. Pharmacological agents that have a merely symptomatic effect should be referred to as antiseizure medicines. Using appropriate terminology is especially important at a time innovative treatments targeting the development of epilepsy and its comorbidities are being actively pursued. PMID: 32077329 [PubMed - as suppl...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 20, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: French JA, Perucca E Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

EPO And EPO-Receptor System As Potential Actionable Mechanism To Protection of Brain And Heart In Refractory Epilepsy And SUDEP.
li A Abstract The most important activity of erythropoietin (EPO) is the regulation of erythrocyte production by activation of the erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R), which triggers the activation of antiapoptotic and proliferative responses of erythroid progenitor cells. Additionally, to erythropoietic EPO activity, an antiapoptotic effect has been described in a wide spectrum of tissues. EPO low levels are found in the central nervous system (CNS), while EPO-R is expressed in most CNS cell types. In spite of EPO-R high levels expressed during hypoxic-ischemic brain, insufficient production of endogenous cerebral EP...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Auzmendi J, Pûchulu MB, Garcia Rodriguez JC, Balaszczuk AM, Lazarowski A, Merelli A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and dementia.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To illustrate the frequency and trends of the comorbidity of epilepsy and dementia and the effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on cognitive functions. RECENT FINDINGS: Although the mortality and incidence of epilepsy are decreasing overall, they are increasing in the elderly as a result of population growth and increased life expectancy. Alzheimer's disease and other dementias are among the commonest causes of seizures and epilepsy. Epilepsy can be also complicated by cognitive impairment, suggesting a bidirectional association. Although epilepsy with onset in the elderly can be ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Beghi E, Beghi M Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

The cognitive costs, contraindications and complications of epilepsy surgery in adults.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Access to epilepsy surgery is rapidly growing throughout the world. While it is an established and effective treatment for seizures, epilepsy surgery has the potential to exacerbate cognitive comorbidities of the condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Not all surgical patients experience a postoperative decline in cognitive function. Postoperative cognitive function depends upon the functional integrity of the tissue to be removed and the functional reserve of the structures that remain in situ. While developments in surgical technique can reduce the cognitive morbidity of epilepsy surgery, t...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 18, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Baxendale S Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Epigenetic Therapeutic Intervention for a Rare Epilepsy Disorder.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 32064921 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Sint Jago SC, Lubin FD Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Vulnerabilities in a Dominant Receptor Subunit.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 32064923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 17, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Weston M Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Chance and risk in epilepsy.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy is a dynamical disorder of the brain characterized by sudden, seemingly unpredictable transitions to the ictal state. When and how these transitions occur remain unresolved questions in neurology. RECENT FINDINGS: Modelling work based on dynamical systems theory proposed that a slow control parameter is necessary to explain the transition between interictal and ictal states. Recently, converging evidence from chronic EEG datasets unravelled the existence of cycles of epileptic brain activity at multiple timescales - circadian, multidien (over multiple days) and circannual ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Baud MO, Proix T, Rao VR, Schindler K Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

What has been the impact of new drug treatments on epilepsy?
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nearly two dozen antiseizure medications (ASMs) with different mechanisms of action have been introduced over the past three decades with the aim of providing better efficacy or safety profile than the previous drugs. Several new ASMs with improvement on a classic drug family or have novel mechanisms of action have been recently approved for epilepsy. The present review explored recent studies or guidelines on new agents and discussed the potential impact of these novel treatments on epilepsy management and future directions of research. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term cohort studies sh...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Chen Z, Brodie MJ, Kwan P Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Clinical advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of epilepsy.
PMID: 32049740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 11, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Walker MC Tags: Curr Opin Neurol Source Type: research

Epilepsy in brain metastasis: an emerging entity.
ino A Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to highlight advances in the management of seizures in brain metastases from solid tumors. RECENT FINDINGS: The highest risk for seizures is in patients with melanoma and lung cancer. There is lack of data on the efficacy of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), but interactions between enzyme-inducing AEDs and anticancer agents must be avoided. Levetiracetam and valproic acid are the most appropriate drugs. Prophylaxis with AEDs for patients with brain metastases without a history of seizures is not recommended. Total resection of a brain metastasis allow...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - February 8, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Rudà R, Mo F, Pellerino A Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Gene therapy repairs for epileptic brain: Potential for treatment and future directions.
Abstract Gene therapy may provide a valuable alternative for recognized therapeutic approaches to specific types of epilepsy. Focal lesion appears to be best candidate's form of therapeutic approaches for epilepsies. Gene therapy has been explored to generate antiepileptogenic (determent of progress of epilepsy in subject at threat after having an epileptogenic injury), antiseizure (diminution of severity of seizures), and disease-modifying (modification of the instinctive history of the disease) effects. Advancement of innovative therapeutic alternatives, specifically those with the capability to be remedial is a...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 31, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ahmad MA, Pottoo FH, Akbar M Tags: Curr Gene Ther Source Type: research

Therapy in Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy (SHE).
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss current options and new advances in the treatment of sleep-related hypermotor epilepsy (SHE), focusing on pharmacological and surgical treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Carbamazepine (CBZ) has traditionally been regarded as the first-line treatment option in SHE patients. In patients showing an unsatisfactory response to monotherapy, topiramate (TPM), lacosamide (LCM) and acetazolamide (ACZ) could be reasonable add-on strategies. The increasing understanding of the role of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) in SHE pat...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 30, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Asioli GM, Rossi S, Bisulli F, Licchetta L, Tinuper P, Provini F Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

Epilepsy Benchmarks Area IV: Limit or Prevent Adverse Consequence of Seizures and Their Treatment Across the Life Span.
In this study, we review the progress made in these areas since the 2016 review of the Benchmarks Area IV and discuss challenges and opportunities for future study. PMID: 31973592 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 23, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Jones JE, Asato MR, Brown MG, Doss JL, Felton EA, Kearney JA, Talos D, Dacks PA, Whittemore V, Poduri A, NINDS/AES Benchmarks Stewards Committee Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Neuroprotective and Neurestorative Effects of Epo and VEGF: Perspectives for New Therapeutic Approaches to Neurological Diseases.
CONCLUSION: Because the Epo and VEGF signalling pathways are connected in several ways, we conclude that more experimental studies, primarily studies designed to thoroughly assess the functional interactions between Epo and VEGF in the brain under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions, are needed. PMID: 31942853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 13, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Ureña-Guerrero ME, Castañeda-Cabral JL, Rivera-Cervantes MC, Macias-Velez RJ, Jarero-Basulto JJ, Gudiño-Cabrera G, Beas-Zárate C Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of Advanced Imaging Technologies in the Presurgical Workup of  Epilepsy.
Cost-Effectiveness of Advanced Imaging Technologies in the Presurgical Workup of Epilepsy. Epilepsy Curr. 2020 Jan 07;:1535759719894307 Authors: Kwon CS, Chang EF, Jetté N Abstract The cost-effectiveness and benefit of many diagnostic tests used in the presurgical evaluation for persons with epilepsy is for the most part uncertain as is their influence on decision-making. The options we have at our disposal are ever increasing. Advanced imaging modalities aim to improve surgical candidacy by helping us better define the epileptogenic zone and optimize surgical planning. However, judicious ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 7, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Kwon CS, Chang EF, Jetté N Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Role of Lacosamide in Preventing Pentylenetetrazole Kindling-Induced Alterations in the Expression of the Gamma-2 Subunit of the GABAA Receptor in Rats.
CONCLUSION: LCM could exhibit modulatory effects on the GABAergic system of the hippocampus that may be independent of the anticonvulsant action. PMID: 31894752 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - January 1, 2020 Category: Neurology Authors: Gáll Z, Kelemen K, Mihály I, Salamon P, Miklóssy I, Zsigmond B, Kolcsár M Tags: Curr Mol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Preventing Birth Defects by Changing Maternal Antiepileptic Drug Therapy: We've Come a Long Way, Baby.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31847579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Noe K Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

KCC2 Much Chloride Might Not Be the Only Problem.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31826658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Weston M Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Mortality in Epilepsy: Referral to a Specialty Center Makes a Difference.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31826659 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 12, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hogan RE Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Strokes or Seizures? What's the Score?
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31802720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Bermeo-Ovalle A Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Solid Evidence for a Thin Hypothesis.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31802721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 5, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shih J Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Therapeutic targets for the treatment of comorbidities associated with epilepsy.
Abstract One of the most common neurological disorder occurs among 1% of population worldwide is epilepsy. Therapeutic failure is common with epilepsy and nearly about 30% of patient fall in this category. Seizure suppression should not be the only goal while treating epilepsy but associated comorbidities which can further worsen the condition should also be considered. Treatment of such comorbidities like depression, anxiety, cognition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and, various other disorder which co-exist with epilepsy or are caused due to epilepsy should also be treated. Novel targets or the existi...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - December 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gangar K, Bhatt LK Tags: Curr Mol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes after childhood convulsive status epilepticus.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is widely accepted that childhood convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) has associated short-term and long-term mortality and morbidity. However, the role of CSE itself on subsequent adverse outcomes is still debated. In addition, whether prolonged seizures cause any long-term hippocampal injury and developmental or memory impairment is uncertain. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of long-term outcomes after childhood CSE, highlighting data from recent literature on this subject. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term outcome after childhood CSE is favorable in previously normal c...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 8, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pujar S, Scott RC Tags: Curr Opin Pediatr Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatments for fragile X syndrome based on synaptic dysfunction.
CONCLUSION: In this concise review, we summarize and analyze the main hypotheses proposed to explain synaptic dysregulation in FXS, by reviewing the scientific evidence that led to pharmaceutical clinical trials and their outcome. PMID: 31682210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - November 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Telias M Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Role of Adenosine Kinase Inhibitor in Adenosine Augmentation Therapy for Epilepsy: A potential novel drug for epilepsy.
Abstract Epilepsy, an ancient disease, is defined as an enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures and by the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological and social consequences of this condition. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is currently used as first-line treatment for patients with epilepsy, however, around 36% patients are diagnosed into refractory epilepsy, which means two or more AEDs has been considered as failed after sufficiently correct usage. Unfortunately, it is unlikely that the improvement of efficacy of AEDs will be easily achieved, especially no AEDs shows efficacy in ceasing epileptogenesi...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 13, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang X, Li T Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research

Carboxypeptidase A6 Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Up-regulating AKT Signaling Pathway.
In conclusion, our study revealed that CPA6 could promote HCC cell proliferation and migration via AKT-mediated signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CPA6 is a promising diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target to improve the prognosis of HCC. PMID: 31612389 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - October 1, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Huang QB, Zhang HW, Liao ZB Tags: Curr Med Sci Source Type: research

One Seizure Please, Hold the Sprouts: The Role of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Sprouting in Epilepsy.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31558042 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Beenhakker M, Ritger M Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Deep Brain Stimulation for Epilepsy: Biomarkers for Optimization.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Two large-scale controlled clinical trials have provided Class I evidence for the benefit of deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a therapy for refractory epilepsy. However, the efficacy has been variable, with some patients not achieving any improvement in their seizure control. This disparity could be the result of suboptimal stimulation parameters/electrodes or alternatively a difference in the type of seizures being treated. This review presents the most recent clinical results with a focus on two major targets for DBS, the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and the hippocampus. We d...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Dell KL, Cook MJ, Maturana MI Tags: Curr Treat Options Neurol Source Type: research

An Ancient Enzyme Takes a Hit in Epilepsy.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31530017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Eid T Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Delay of Treatment, After Diagnosis, as a Contributor to the "Treatment Gap" in Epilepsy.
Delay of Treatment, After Diagnosis, as a Contributor to the "Treatment Gap" in Epilepsy. Epilepsy Curr. 2019 Sep 17;:1535759719874793 Authors: Hogan RE Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31530018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 17, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hogan RE Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Scurrying to Understand Sudden Expected Death in Epilepsy: Insights From Animal Models.
Abstract Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the leading cause of death in patients with refractory epilepsy, accounting for up to 17% of deaths in patients with epilepsy. The pathophysiology of SUDEP has remained unclear, largely because it is unpredictable and commonly unwitnessed. This poses a great challenge to studies in patients. Recently, there has been an increase in animal studies to try to better understand the pathophysiology of SUDEP. In this current review, we focus on developments through seizure-induced death models and the preventative strategies they may reveal. PMID: 31526023 [Pub...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Li R, Buchanan GF Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

How High Can Patients Get on CBD?
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31526024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Birnbaum A Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

More Is More: Potential Benefits of Characterizing High-Frequency Activity Over Long Durations.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31526032 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Sudhakar SK, Ahmed OJ Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Rise and Fall of the Empire: Conquering Alzheimer's Disease by Targeting Adult Neurogenesis.
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31526033 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Varma P, Hsieh J Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

EEG Reactivity in Coma After Cardiac Arrest: Is it Enough to Wake Up the Dead?
Abstract [Box: see text]. PMID: 31526034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee JW Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Painful Seizures: a Review of Epileptic Ictal Pain.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature regarding the prevalence, pathophysiology, and anatomic networks involved with painful seizures, which are a rare but striking clinical presentation of epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent large case series have explored the prevalence of the main cephalgic, somatosensory, and abdominal variants of this rare disorder. Research studies including the use of electrical stimulation and functional neuroimaging have demonstrated the networks underlying painful somatosensory or visceral seizures. Improved understanding of some of the overlapping mechanisms...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 10, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Hwang ST, Goodman T, Stevens SJ Tags: Curr Pain Headache Rep Source Type: research

Lessons learned from recent clinical trials of ketogenic diet therapies in adults.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although ketogenic diet therapies (KDTs) were first developed as a treatment for patients with epilepsy, their potential efficacy for a broader number of neurologic and nonneurologic disorders and conditions has been explored over the last 10-20 years. The most recent clinical trials of KDTs in adults have highlighted common methodological aspects that can either facilitate or thwart appropriate risk/benefit analyses, comparisons across studies, and reproducibility of findings in future studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent evidence suggests that KDTs not only improve seizure control, b...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: McDonald TJW, Cervenka MC Tags: Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care Source Type: research

Blocking TrkB's Effectors Reveal Benefits of the Road Not Taken.
Abstract TrkB-Shc Signaling Protects Against Hippocampal Injury Following Status Epilepticus Huang YZ, He XP, Krishnamurthy K, McNamara JO. J Neurosci. 2019;39(23):4624-4630. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2939-18.2019. Epub March 29, 2019. PMID: 30926745 Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a common and commonly devastating form of human epilepsy for which only symptomatic therapy is available. One cause of TLE is an episode of de novo prolonged seizures (status epilepticus [SE]). Understanding the molecular signaling mechanisms by which SE transforms a brain from normal to epileptic may reveal novel targets for preventive and...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Danzer SC Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Moving Metabolism to Make Inroads in a Model of Mitochondrial Epilepsy.
Abstract Brain Metabolism Modulates Neuronal Excitability in a Mouse Model of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Jakkamsetti V, Marin-Valencia I, Ma Q, Good LB, Terrill T, Raiasekaran K, Pichumani K, Khemtong C, Hooshyar MA, Sundarrajan C, Patel MS, Bachoo RM, Malloy CR, Pascual JM. Sci Transl Med. 2019;11(480). pii: eaan0457. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.aan0457. Glucose is the ultimate substrate for most brain activities that use carbon, including synthesis of the neurotransmitters glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid via mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Brain metabolism and neuronal excitability are ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Lyman KA, Chetkovich DM Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes after childhood convulsive status epilepticus.
Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is widely accepted that childhood convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) has associated short-term and long-term mortality and morbidity. However, the role of CSE itself on subsequent adverse outcomes is still debated. In addition, whether prolonged seizures cause any long-term hippocampal injury and developmental or memory impairment is uncertain. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of long-term outcomes after childhood CSE, highlighting data from recent literature on this subject. RECENT FINDINGS: Long-term outcome after childhood CSE is favorable in previously normal c...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - September 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pujar S, Scott RC Tags: Curr Opin Pediatr Source Type: research

It's a Storm, It's a Gale: Epilepsy Initiation From the Corticostriatal Circuit.
scaron;ek L Abstract Impaired Cortico-Striatal Excitatory Transmission Triggers Epilepsy Miyamoto H, Tatsukawa T, Shimohata A, Yamagata T, Suzuki T, Amano K, Mazaki E, Raveau M, Ogiwara I, Oba-Asaka A, Hensch TK, Itohara S, Sakimura K, Kobayashi K, Kobayashi K, Yamakawa, K, Nature Communications. 2019;10:1917; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09954-9 . STXBP1 and SCN2A gene mutations are observed in patients with epilepsies, although the circuit basis remains elusive. Here, we show that mice with haplodeficiency for these genes exhibit absence seizures with spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) initiated by reduced c...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 27, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Velíšek L Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Mom Controls the Thermostat: Mitochondria Influence the Neuronal Firing Set Point.
Abstract Mitochondrial Regulation of the Hippocampal Firing Rate Set Point and Seizure Susceptibility Styr B, Gonen N, Zarhin D, Ruggiero A, Atsmon R, Gazit N, Braun G, Frere S, Vertkin I, Shapira I, Harel M, Heim LR, Katsenelson M, Rechnitz O, Fadila S, Derdikman D, Rubinstein M, Geiger T, Ruppin E, S.sky I. Neuron. 2019. pii: S0896-6273(19)30334-4. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2019.03.045. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 31047779 . Maintaining average activity within a set-point range constitutes a fundamental property of central neural circuits. However, whether and how activity set points are regulated remains unknown. In...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 26, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gallagher MJ Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Putting a Band-Aid on a Broken Leg: Antiseizure Medications Are Inferior to Immune Therapies in Autoimmune Epilepsy.
Abstract Evaluation of Seizure Treatment in Anti-LGI1, Anti-NMDAR, and Anti-GABABR Encephalitis de Bruijn MAAM, van Sonderen A, van Coevorden-Hameete MH, Bastiaansen AEM, Schreurs MWJ, Rouhl RPW, van Donselaar CA, Majoie MHJM, Neuteboom RF, Sillevis Smitt PAE, Thijs RD, Titulaer MJ. Neurology. 2019;92(19): e2185-e2196. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000007475. Epub April 12, 2019. PMID: 30979857 OBJECTIVE: This nationwide cohort study evaluates seizure responses to immunotherapy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in patients with anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), anti-NMDA receptor (NMDAR), and anti-gamma-aminobu...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 22, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gaspard N Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Combining Electrical and Magnetic Fields for Source Analysis: A(n) Attractive or Repelling Thought.
CONCLUSION: Electromagnetic source imaging has accuracy similar to established imaging methods and provides clinically useful, new information in 34% of the patients. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides class IV evidence that EMSI had a concordance of 53% to 89% and 35% to 73% (depending on analysis) for the localization of epileptic focus when compared to intracranial recordings (IZ and SOZ), respectively. PMID: 31418289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Shih JJ Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research

Concurrent Quinidine and Phenobarbital in the Treatment of a Patient with 2 KCNT1 Mutations.
We report the case of an infant with 2 KCNT1 mutations who experienced minor relief with quinidine and discuss the drug's important interaction with phenobarbital. PMID: 31388363 [PubMed] (Source: Epilepsy Curr)
Source: Epilepsy Curr - August 9, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Passey CC, Erramouspe J, Castellanos P, O'Donnell EC, Denton DM Tags: Curr Ther Res Clin Exp Source Type: research

Effect of levetiracetam on cognitive function and clonic seizure frequency in children with epilepsy.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical effect of levetiracetam in the treatment of children with epilepsy. METHODS: 136 children with epilepsy were selected from January 2017 to December 2017. According to the random number table method, they were divided into the experimental group and the conventional group, 68 cases in each group. The conventional group was treated with valproate, while the experimental group was treated with levetiracetam. The effective rate, the cognitive function and the frequency of clonic seizures in the two groups were compared. RESULTS: There was no significant difference ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 29, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Zhou S, Zhan Q, Wu X Tags: Curr Mol Med Source Type: research

Therapeutic Potential of Agonists and Antagonists of A1, A2a, A2b And A3 Adenosine Receptors.
Abstract Adenosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside and an essential component of the energy production and utilization systems of the body. Adenosine is formed by the degradation of adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) during energy-consuming processes. Adenosine regulates numerous physiological processes through activation of four subtypes of G-protein coupled membrane receptors viz. A1, A2A, A2B and A3. Its physiological importance depends on the affinity of these receptors and the extracellular concentrations reached. ATP acts as a neurotransmitter in both peripheral and central nervous systems. In the peripheral n...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Jamwal S, Mittal A, Kumar P, Alhayani DM, Al-Aboudi A Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Medicinal Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential of Agonists, Antagonists and Allosteric Modulators of A1 Adenosine Receptor: Current Status and Perspectives.
Abstract Adenosine is a purine nucleoside, responsible for the regulation of a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological conditions by binding with four G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), namely A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs). In particular, A1 AR is ubiquitously present, mediating a variety of physiological processes throughout the body, thus represents a promising drug target for the management of various pathological conditions. Agonists of A1 AR are found to be useful for the treatment of atrial arrhythmia, angina, type-2 diabetes, glaucoma, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression and ...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 15, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Deb PK, Deka S, Borah P, Abed SN, Klotz KN Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research

Loss of Function of Phosphodiesterase 11A4 Shows that Recent and Remote Long-Term Memories Can Be Uncoupled.
Abstract Systems consolidation is a process by which memories initially require the hippocampus for recent long-term memory (LTM) but then become increasingly independent of the hippocampus and more dependent on the cortex for remote LTM. Here, we study the role of phosphodiesterase 11A4 (PDE11A4) in systems consolidation. PDE11A4, which degrades cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), is preferentially expressed in neurons of CA1, the subiculum, and the adjacently connected amygdalohippocampal region. In male and female mice, deletion of PDE11A enhances remote LTM for...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - July 2, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Pilarzyk K, Klett J, Pena EA, Porcher L, Smith AJ, Kelly MP Tags: Curr Biol Source Type: research

Heartbreakers-Cardiac Stress After Uncomplicated Generalized Convulsive Seizures.
Abstract Blood Markers of Cardiac Stress After Generalized Convulsive Seizures. Nass RD, Motloch LJ, Paar V, Lichtenauer M, Baumann J, Zur B, Hoppe UC, Holdenrieder S, Elger CE, Surges R. Epilepsia. 2019;60(2):201-210. doi:10.1111/epi.14637. Epub 2019 Jan 15. PMID: 30645779 Objective: Generalized convulsive seizures (GCS) are associated with high demands on the cardiovascular system, thereby facilitating cardiac complications. To investigate occurrence, influencing factors, and extent of cardiac stress or injury, the alterations and time course of the latest generation of cardiac blood markers were investigated af...
Source: Epilepsy Curr - June 30, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Gaspard N Tags: Epilepsy Curr Source Type: research