What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?
In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on E. coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic) > log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/ EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic) ≈ log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic) < log(1/EC50-aerobic). Furthermore, this division was not based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level or the interaction energy (Ebinding) ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Glucosamine suppresses platelet-activating factor-induced activation of microglia through inhibition of store-operated calcium influx
In this study, we determined that endogenous PAF exert autocrine effects on microglia activation, as well as the underlying mechanism involved. We also investigated the effect of D-glucosamine (GlcN) on PAF-induced cellular activation in human HMO6 microglial cells. PAF induced sustained intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) increase through store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOC) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. PAF also induced pro-inflammatory markers through NFκB/COX-2 signaling. GlcN significantly inhibited PAF-induced Ca2+ influx and ROS generation without significant cytotoxicity. GlcN downregulated excess...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Tetrachlorobenzoquinone exhibits neurotoxicity by inducing inflammatory responses through ROS-mediated IKK/IκB/NF-κB signaling
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Juanli Fu, Qiong Shi, Xiufang Song, Xiaomin Xia, Chuanyang Su, Zixuan Liu, Erqun Song, Yang Song Tetrachlorobenzoquinone (TCBQ) is a joint metabolite of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Previous studies have been reported that TCBQ contributes to acute hepatic damage due to its pro-oxidative nature. In the current study, TCBQ showed the highest capacity on the cytotoxicity, ROS formation and inflammatory cytokines release among four compounds, i....
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 22, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Sexual disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to mixtures of 17α-ethinylestradiol and 17β-trenbolone
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Stefan Örn, Henrik Holbech, Leif Norrgren Environmental estrogens and androgens can be present simultaneously in aquatic environments and thereby interact to disturb multiple physiological systems in organisms. Studies on interaction effects in fish of androgenic and estrogenic chemicals are limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate feminization and masculinization effects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to combinations of two synthetic steroid hormones detected in environmenta...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hepatic miRNA profiles and thyroid hormone homeostasis in rats exposed to dietary potassium perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)
Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Hongyan Dong, Ivan Curran, Andrew Williams, Genevieve Bondy, Carole L. Yauk, Michael G. Wade Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been widely used in a variety of industrial and commercial applications as a surfactant and stain repellent. PFOS causes liver damage (including liver tumors) in experimental animals, primarily via interaction with PPARα and CAR/PXR. We investigated the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in PFOS-induced hepatotoxicity, and mechanisms involved in abnormal thyroid hormone (TH...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 21, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Subacute effects of low dose lead nitrate and mercury chloride exposure on kidney of rats
In this study, we showed that MC caused more harmful effects than LN in rats. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Fusarium toxin zearalenone and deoxynivalenol affect murine splenic antioxidant functions, interferon levels, and T-cell subsets
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the Fusarium toxin zearalenone (ZEA) and deoxynivalenol (DON) on splenic antioxidant functions, IFN levels, and T-cell subsets in mice. Herein, 360 mice were assigned to nine groups for a 12-day study. Mice were administered an intraperitoneal injection for 4 consecutive days with different concentrations of ZEA alone, DON alone, or ZEA+DON. Spleen and blood samples were collected on days 0, 3, 5, 8, and 12. Mice in each of the experimental groups showed dysreglated splenic antioxidant functions, IFN levels, and T-cell subset frequencies, suggesting that the immune system had bee...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Transdermal Toxicity Of Topically Applied Anticoagulant Rodenticide Warfarin In Rats
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Vesna Subota, Ivana Mirkov, Jelena Demenesku, Aleksandra Popov Aleksandrov, Marina Ninkov, Dina Mileusnic, Dragan Kataranovski, Milena Kataranovski Occupational/accidental exposure data have showed hemorrhage as a result of transdermal exposure to warfarin, however, other effects are not known. In the present study, the impact of epicutaneous application of 10μg or 100μg of warfarin (three times, once a day) on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear cells (PBMC) was examined in r...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The oxidative stress response of myclobutanil and cyproconazole on Tetrahymena thermophila
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ai-Guo Huang, Xiao Tu, Lei Liu, Gao-Xue Wang, Fei Ling Using Tetrahymena thermophila as experimental models, the oxidative stress of triazole fungicides myclobutanil (MYC) and cyproconazole (CYP) was investigated. Results showed that 24-h EC50 values for MYC and CYP were 16.67 (13.37-19.65) and 20.44 (18.85-21.96) mg/L, respectively; 48-h EC50 values for MYC and CYP were 14.31 (13.13-15.42) and 18.76 (17.09-20.31) mg/L, respectively. Reactive oxygen species was significantly induced and cytotoxicity was ca...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Grafting of gallic acid onto chitosan nano particles enhances antioxidant activities in vitro and protects against ochratoxin A toxicity in catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
This study aimed to prepare and characterize enzymatic modified chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) with gallic acid (GA) or octyl gallate (OG) to optimize its potential in human application and to evaluate their protective role against ochrtoxin A (OTA) toxicity in catfish. The modified CSNPs have average size around 90nm with positive charge and high scavenging activity especially GA-CSNPs. In the in vivo study, catfish were divided into 8 groups and treated for 3 weeks as follow: the control group, OTA-treated group (1mg/kg b.w.), the groups treated with CSNPs, GA-CSNPs or OG-CSNPs (280mg/kg b.w.) anole or in combination wit...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Perfluorocarbon attenuates inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and histopathologic changes in paraquat-induced acute lung injury in Rats
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Zahra Khalighi, Asghar Rahmani, Javad Cheraghi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Koroush Soleimannejad, Ruhangiz Asadollahi, Khairollah Asadollahi The effects of perfluorocarbon (PFC) on paraquat (PQ) induced acute lung injury (ALI) was evaluated among rats. Twenty four Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control group injected by saline physiologic 0.9%, PFC group injected by Perfluorocarbon, PQ group injected by PQ and PQ +PFC group injected by PFC one hour after receiving paraquat. Bronchoalveular flu...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose conjugated cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticle (2DG-MNP) as a targeting agent for breast cancer cells
In this study, 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose (2DG) was conjugated to -COOH modified cobalt ferrite magnetic nanoparticles (COOH-MNPs), which were designed to target tumor cells as a potential targetable drug/gene delivery agent for cancer treatment. According to our results, it is apparent that, 2DG labeled MNPs were internalized more efficiently than COOH-MNPs under the same conditions in all cell types (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cancer and MCF-10A normal breast cells) (p<0.001). Moreover, the highest amount of uptake was observed in MDA-MB-231, followed by MCF-7 and normal MCF-10A cells for both MNPs. The apoptotic effects o...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Thapsigargin Induces Apoptosis When Autophagy is Inhibited in HepG2 Cells and Both Processes are Regulated by ROS-dependent pathway
Publication date: Available online 9 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Congcong Wang, Tao Li, Shusheng Tang, Dongxu Zhao, Chaoming Zhang, Shen Zhang, Sijun Deng, Yan Zhou, Xilong Xiao Thapsigargin (TG), is widely used to induce endoplasmic reticular stress. Treated with TG for a long time, cells suffer the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to elude apoptosis, but may activate autophagy. However, the switch between autophagy and apoptosis is unclear. To clarify the key signal for selection of these two protective responses, we studied the correlation of autophagy and apoptosi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 11, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Grape-seed proanthocyanidins inhibit the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediator expression in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppressing MAPK and NF-κb signal pathways
In conclusion, our results show that GSPs extract showed its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties by suppressing the activation of MAP kinases and NF-κB signal transduction pathways. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 9, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Integrative genomic and proteomic profiling of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells reveals signatures of endosulfan exposure
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Deepa Gandhi, Prashant Tarale, Pravin K. Naoghare, Amit Bafana, Krishnamurthi Kannan, Saravanadevi Sivanesan Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is known to induce multiple disorders/abnormalities including neuro-degenerative disorders in many animal species. However, the molecular mechanism of endosulfan induced neuronal alterations is still not well understood. In the present study, the effects of sub-lethal concentration of endosulfan (3μM) on human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) was investigated...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 9, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Aluminum trichloride inhibits osteoblastic differentiation through inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in rat osteoblasts
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Zheng Cao, Yang Fu, Xudong Sun, Qiuyue Zhang, Feibo Xu, Yanfei Li Exposure to Aluminum(Al) suppresses bone formation. Osteoblastic differentiation plays a key role in the process of bone formation. However, the effect of Al on osteoblastic differentiation is still controversial, and the mechanism remains unclear. To investigate the effect of Al on osteoblastic differentiation and whether Wnt signaling pathway was involved in it, the primary rat osteoblasts were exposed to 1/40 IC50, 1/20 IC50 and 1/10 IC50...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 9, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Textile industrial effluent induces mutagenicity and oxidative DNA damage and exploits oxidative stress biomarkers in rats
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Muhammad Furqan Akhtar, Muhammad Ashraf, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Aqeel Javeed, Ali Sharif, Ammara Saleem, Bushra Akhtar Exposure to complex mixtures like textile effluent poses risks to animal and human health such as mutations, genotoxicity and oxidative damage. Aim of the present study was to quantify metals in industrial effluent and to determine its mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential and effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in effluent exposed rats. Metal analysis revealed presence of high amou...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 9, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The chromium accumulation and its physiological effects in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to different levels of dietary chromium (Cr6+) concentrations
Publication date: Available online 5 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang Juvenile rockfish (mean length 13.7±1.7cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr6+) at 0, 30, 60, 120 and 240mg/kg. The profile of chromium in the tissues of rockfish is dependent on the exposure periods and chromium concentration. After 4 weeks, the order of chromium accumulation in tissues was liver > kidney > spleen > intestine > gill > muscle. The dietary chromium expo...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 6, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Synergistic effect of radon and sodium arsenite on DNA damage in HBE cells
In this study, HBE cells were exposed to different concentrations of sodium arsenite, different radon exposure times, or a combination of these two factors. The results showed a synergistic effect of radon and sodium arsenite in cell cytotoxicity as determined by cell viability. Elevated intracellular ROS levels and increased DNA damage indexed by comet assay and γ-H2AX were detected. Moreover, DNA HR repair in terms of Rad51 declined when the cells were exposed to both radon and sodium arsenite. The synergistic effect of radon and sodium arsenite in HBE cells may be attributed to the enhanced DSBs and inhibited HR p...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 3, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Presence of Carbon Nanostructures in Bakery Products Induces Metabolic Stress in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells through CYP1A and p53 Gene Expression
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ahmed M. Al-Hadi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A. Alshatwi Ingredients commonly present in processed foods are excellent substrates for chemical reactions during modern thermal cooking or processing, which could possibly result in deteriorative carbonization changes mediated by a variety of thermal reactions. Spontaneous self-assembling complexation or polymerization of partially combusted lipids, proteins, and other food macromolecules with synthetic food additives during high te...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 3, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Does Maternal MDR1 C1236T Polymorphism Have an Effect on Placental Arsenic Levels?
Publication date: Available online 3 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Dilek Kaya-Akyüzlü, Zeliha Kayaaltı, Derya Doğan, Tülin Söylemezoğlu To detect whether maternal MDR1 C1236T polymorphism has an effect on placental arsenic levels, 112 mother–placenta pairs were examined. Venous blood samples from mothers were collected to investigate the C1236T polymorphism which was detected by standard PCR–RFLP technique. Placentas were collected to measure arsenic levels by GF-AAS. The MDR1 C1236T genotype frequencies of mothers were found as 30.3% homo...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 3, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Association between Delta-aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Polymorphism and Placental Lead Levels
This study suggested that maternal ALAD G177C polymorphism was associated with placental lead levels. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 3, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Postnatal exposure to PFOS, but not PBDE 99, disturb dopaminergic gene transcription in the mouse CNS
Publication date: Available online 30 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Stefan Hallgren, Henrik Viberg The CNS of breast feeding infants and toddlers may be exposed to persistent organic pollutants via lactational transfer. Here, 10 days old mice were exposed to single oral doses of either PFOS, PBDE99 or vehicle control and were examined for changes in dopaminergic gene transcription in CNS tissue collected at 24hours or 2 months post exposure.qPCR analyses of brain tissue from mice euthanized 24hrs post exposure revealed that PFOS affected transcription of Dopamine receptor-D5 ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Inhalation exposure or body burden? Better way of estimating risk – An application of PBPK model
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 41 Author(s): Dipanjali Majumdar, Chirasree Dutta, Subha Sen We aim to establish a new way for estimating the risk from internal dose or body burden due to exposure of benzene in human subject utilizing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We also intend to verify its applicability on human subjects exposed to different levels of benzene. We estimated personal inhalation exposure of benzene for two occupational groups namely petrol pump workers and car drivers with respect to a control group, only environmentally exp...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 30, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Retene causes multifunctional transcriptomic changes in the heart of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos
This study explored the cardiac transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eleuteroembryos exposed to retene, an AhR-agonistic PAH. The embryos were exposed to retene (nominal concentration 32μg/L) and control, their hearts were collected before, at and after the onset of the visible signs of developmental toxicity, and transcriptomic changes were studied by microarray analysis. Retene up- or down-regulated 122 genes. The largest Gene Ontology groups were signal transduction, transcription, apoptosis, cell growth, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion/mobility, cardiovascular development, xenobiotic metabolism, protein ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 28, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Daily intake of lead in Wistar rats at different ages: Biochemical, genotoxic and physiological effects
Publication date: Available online 25 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Cássia Regina Bruno Nascimento, Claudia Bueno dos Reis Martinez The effects of the daily intake of feed containing lead (2.0mg Pb kg-1) were evaluated in 45 (Pb45) and 90 (Pb90)-day-old Wistar female rats. Compared to the respective control groups, Pb45 rats consumed more feed and showed greater weight gain, but these parameters returned to control values in Pb90 rats. Higher blood glucose levels were observed in both Pb groups, whereas plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pb45 but lower in the...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 26, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Waterborne Psychoactive Drugs Impair the Initial Development of Zebrafish
Publication date: Available online 23 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Fabiana Kalichak, Renan Idalencio, João Gabriel S. Rosa, Tiago A de Oliveira, Gessi Koakoski, Darlan Gusso, Murilo S de Abreu, Ana Cristina V. Giacomini, Heloísa H.A. Barcellos, Michele Fagundes, Angelo L. Piato, Leonardo J.G. Barcellos The contamination of rivers and other natural water bodies, including underground waters, is a current reality. Human occupation and some economic activities generate a wide range of contaminated effluents that reach these water resources, including psy...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 23, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Identification of functional genes involved in Cd2+ response of Chinese surf clam (Mactra chinensis) through transcriptome sequencing
In this study, we carried out transcriptome sequencing to develop molecular resources for M. chinensis and conducted an acute test of Cd2+ stimulation through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to analyze the relative expression of six functional genes. A total of 100,839 transcripts and 56,712 unigenes were obtained from 39.9 million filtered reads and 21,305 unigenes were annotated by hitting against NCBI database. According to the results of qRT-PCR, heat shock protein 22 (Hsp22) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450(2C31)) were inhibited in the low concentration, and induced in the high concentration of Cd2+; Thioredoxin perox...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 22, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Th1/Th2 paradigm in Lambda cyhalothrin-induced spleen toxicity: The role of thymoquinone
This study investigates the retrofitted role of thymoquinone (TQ) in the Th1/Th2 paradigm imbalance in lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) treated rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats were formed: Group I served as control. Group II received 5mg TQ/(kg bw) daily. Group III received 0.6mg LCT/(kg bw). Group IV was treated with TQ and LCT. All treatments were given orally for 10 weeks. The LCT-treated group elicited a significant increase in MDA and NO levels with up-regulation of NF-κB/p65 and pro-inflammatory genes expression and their levels. Meanwhile, GSH and immunoglobulins concentrations were markedly decreased concomitan...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 22, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Acute exposure of mercury chloride stimulates the tissue regeneration program and reactive oxygen species production in the Drosophila midgut
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Zhi Chen, Xiaochun Wu, Hongjie Luo, Lingling Zhao, Xin Ji, Xianfeng Qiao, Yaping Jin, Wei Liu We used Drosophila as an animal model to study the digestive tract in response to the exposure of inorganic mercury (HgCl2). We found that after oral administration, mercury was mainly sequesterred within the midgut. This resulted in increased cell death, which in turn stimulated the tissue regeneration program, including accelerated proliferation and differentiation of the intestinal stem cells (ISCs). We furt...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 22, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of Cerebralcare granule® on spontaneously hypertensive rats from the perspective of the gaseous triumvirate NO-CO-H2S system
This study was designed to verify the antihypertensive effect of CG and to characterize its mechanism of action, especially from the perspective of gasotrasmmiter NO/cGMP, CO/HO and H2S/CSE systems. By using the widely used in vitro model of rat isolated thoracic aortic rings, the vasorelaxant effect of CG were studied. Furthermore, we assessed the chronic hypotensive effect of CG on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and further to explore the potential mechanisms of its antihypertensive activity. Data in the present study demonstrated that oral treatment with CG could induce a potent antihypertensive effect. CG could...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 22, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Rubratoxin-B-induced secretion of chemokine ligands of cysteine–cysteine motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and its dependence on heat shock protein 90 in HL60 cells
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Hitoshi Nagashima To elucidate the mechanism underlying rubratoxin B toxicity, the effects of rubratoxin B on the secretion of CCR5 chemokines, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, were investigated. In addition, to examine whether the molecular chaperone 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) contributes to rubratoxin B toxicity, the effects of Hsp90-specific inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, were investigated. Exposure to rubratoxin B for 24h induced secretion of each CCR...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 19, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Exposure to difenoconazole causes changes of thyroid hormone and gene expression levels in zebrafish larvae
In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to various concentrations of difenoconazole from fertilization to 120h post-fertilization (hpf), and the whole body content of thyroid hormone and gene transcription in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis were investigated. Results showed thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly decreased, while triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were not changed. Moreover, the mRNA transcription of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (crh), thyroid-stimulating hormone (tshβ), transthyretin (ttr), thyronine deiodinase (dio1 and dio2), uridine diphosphate ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 19, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Prenatal alcohol exposure inducing the apoptosis of mossy cells in hippocampus of SMS2−/− mice
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Lai Wang, Lin Wu, Xiaoqing Wang, Jiexin Deng, Zhanyou Ma, Wenjuan Fan, Weiya He, Jinbo Deng In order to understand the mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis through the ceramide pathway, sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockout (SMS2−/−) mice were used to make the prenatal alcohol exposure model, and the role of ceramide regulation on alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis was studied in the offspring. Initially the levels of serum sphingomyelin (SM) were detected with enzymatic method in P0 pups af...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The toxic effects of ammonia exposure on antioxidant and immune responses in Rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii during thermal stress
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Shin-Hu Kim, Jun-Hwan Kim, Myoung-Ae Park, Seong Don Hwang, Ju-Chan Kang Rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean weight 14.53±1.14cm, and mean weight 38.36±3.45g) were exposed for 4 weeks (2 weeks and 4 weeks) with the different levels of ammonia in the concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0mg/L at 19 and 24°C. The ammonia exposure induced significant alterations in antioxidant responses. The activities of SOD, CAT, and GST were considerably increased by the ammonia exposure depending on water te...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on bioaccumulation and oxidative stress in different organs of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
In this study, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were exposed to different concentrations of small and large ZnO NPs in vivo. Accumulation in various organs/tissues (liver, gill, intestine, kidney, brain and muscle) and possible oxidative stress mechanisms were investigated comparatively. Fish were exposed to 1 and 10mg/L concentrations of small (10–30nm) and large (100nm) ZnO NPs semi-statically for 14 days. Both small and large ZnO NPs accumulated substantially in the tissues. Accumulation for the small ZnO NPs was significantly higher compared to larger NPs under same exposure regimes. Significant fluctuations ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effect of lipopolysaccharide-induced obesity and its chronic inflammation on influenza virus-related pathology
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Sun-Young Ahn, Sung-Hwa Sohn, Sang-Yeon Lee, Hye-Lim Park, Yong-Wook Park, Hun Kim, Jae-Hwan Nam Obese individuals show increased susceptibility to infection, low vaccine efficacy, and worse pathophysiology. However, it is unclear how obesity affects these events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity-triggered chronic inflammation on immune cells after influenza virus infection. Control and lipopolysaccharide mice, in which an osmotic pump continually released Tween saline or li...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Fucoidan ameliorates steatohepatitis and insulin resistance by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
In conclusion, fucoidan ameliorated the development of HFD-induced NAFLD in rats that may be, at least partly, related to its hypolipidemic, insulin sensitizing, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

QSAR analyses of organophosphates for insecticidal activity and its in-silico validation using molecular docking study
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Ravi Ranjan Kumar Niraj, Vandana Saini, Ajit Kumar The present work was carried out to design and develop novel QSAR models using 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR with CoMFA methodology for prediction of insecticidal activity of organophosphate (OP) molecules. The models were validated on an entirely different external dataset of in-house generated combinatorial library of OPs, by completely different computational approach of molecular docking against the target AChE protein of Musca domestica. The dock scores were obse...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Application of the yeast-based reporter gene bioassay for the assessment of estrogenic activity in cow's milk from Poland
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Sylwia Stypuła-Trębas, Maria Minta, Lidia Radko, Jan Żmudzki Milk contain compounds acting through the estrogen receptor signaling. The still open question whether such estrogens pose a risk for human health, encouraged us to measure the overall estrogenic activity of cow's milk in the in vitro yeast reporter bioassay. First, we assessed the ability of the bioassay to detect estrogens frequently detected in milk. The relative potencies of 16 compounds descended in the order: 17β-estradiol (17β-...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Blocking TGF-β expression inhibits silica particle-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition in human lung epithelial cells
In this study, we determined the expression of TGF-β-Smad2/3, EMT- and ECM-related markers in lung epithelial cells treated with silica particle by RT-PCR, western-blot and ELISA. In order to explore the role of TGF-β, we used TGF-β inhibitor in the cell model. We found that the cells lost the expression of epithelial phenotypic markers and acquired increased expression of mesenchymal cells markers with ECM deposition after treatment with silica particle. Moreover, the changes of EMT-related event was restricted in response to TGF-β inhibitor. These findings suggest that EMT is essentially involved in t...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Quantitative structure–activity/ecotoxicity relationships (QSAR/QEcoSAR) of a series of phosphonates
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Alina-Maria Petrescu, Mihai V. Putz, Gheorghe Ilia In this paper the structure–toxicity relationship studies were performed for a series of 60 phosphonates. The toxicity of the compounds was determined by two ways: by quantifying the measured toxicity values, Mlog(1/MRIC50) collected by literature, for rodents species; second by using EcoSAR software version 1.11, for calculating the toxicity for fish species, considered as dependent variables and they were related to structural features obtained by mo...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The influence of oxidative stress induced by iron on telomere length
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Marta Kepinska, Jakub Szyller, Halina Milnerowicz Oxidative stress can be induced by increased concentrations of iron in the body and consequently can cause shortening of telomeres. Telomeres, called mitotic clocks, are non-coding fragments at the end of chromosomes. During the replication of genetic material they are shortened, playing the role of ageing biomarkers in eukaryotes. In human endothelial cells, oxidative stress causes a decrease in telomerase activity. Shortening of chromosomes in telomeric par...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects
Publication date: November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 40, Issue 3 Author(s): Frank B. Antwi, Gadi V.P. Reddy The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Rubratoxin-B–induced secretion of chemokine ligands of cysteine–cysteine motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and its dependence on heat shock protein 90 in HL60 cells
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Hitoshi Nagashima To elucidate the mechanism underlying rubratoxin B toxicity, the effects of rubratoxin B on the secretion of CCR5 chemokines, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5, in a human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, were investigated. In addition, to examine whether the molecular chaperone 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) contributes to rubratoxin B toxicity, the effects of Hsp90-specific inhibitors, radicicol and geldanamycin, were investigated. Exposure to rubratoxin B for 24h induced secretion of each CCR5...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of different smoking habits during music festivals through wastewater analysis
Publication date: Available online 2 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Tomáš Mackuľak, Roman Grabic, Marián Gál, Miroslav Gál, Lucia Birošová, Igor Bodík Wastewater analysis is a powerful method that can provide useful information about the abuse of legal and illicit drugs. The aim of our study was to determine nicotine consumption during four different music festivals and to find a connection between smoking and preferences for specific music styles using wastewater analysis. The amount of the nicotine metabolite cotin...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ethylene bisdithiocarbamate pesticides Maneb and Mancozeb cause metal overload in human colon cells
Publication date: Available online 7 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Lisa Hoffman, Louis Trombetta, Diane Hardej Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ethylene bisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides Maneb and Mancozeb are equipotent gastrointestinal toxicants that produce cell loss and metal accumulation within HT-29 and Caco2 colon cells. Nabam, MnCl2, CuCl2 and ZnCl2 exposure produced no loss of viability up to 200μM and increases in metal levels were noted but not to the same extent as Maneb and Mancozeb. EBDC exposure caused increases in copper levels (20-200...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Time-dependent hormesis of chemical mixtures: A case study on sulfa antibiotics and a quorum-sensing inhibitor of Vibrio fischeri
This study investigated the time-dependent hormesis of single and binary mixtures of QSI and SAs of Vibrio fischeri (V.fischeri) for 0-24h. Although the low-dose SAs stimulated the expression of LuxR protein, the high-dose SAs could inhibit bacteria growth by competitively binding to dihydropteroate synthase. Moreover, AinR protein was bound to Benzofuran-3(2H)-one (B3O) with low concentration, thus the N-octanoyl homoserine lactone signal molecules (C8) has chance to bind to LuxR protein to promote light emission. The hormesis effect induced by the mixtures could be deduced that SAs promoted the expression of LuxR protein...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxicological evaluation of Yulangsan polysaccharide in Wistar rats: A 26-week oral gavage study
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Chunxia Chen, Zhihuan Nong, Mingyu Meng, Qingwei Wen, Xing Lin, Feizhang Qin, Jianchun Huang, Renbin Huang Although numerous studies have proven the medicinal values of Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP), the toxicity of this active ingredient is unknown. In the acute toxicity study, a single oral administration of 24g/kg YLSP caused neither toxicological symptoms nor mortality, and the LD50 was estimated>24g/kg. In the chronic toxicity study, we administered doses of 0, 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4g/kg YLSP in...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A pilot study of low-moderate drinking water arsenic contamination and chronic diseases among reproductive age women in Timiş County, Romania
Publication date: Available online 10 November 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Celeste D. Butts, Michael S. Bloom, Iulia A. Neamtiu, Simona Surdu, Cristian Pop, Doru Anastasiu, Edward F. Fitzgerald, Eugen S. Gurzau We conducted a pilot study of associations between drinking water contaminated by inorganic arsenic (iAs), mostly<10μg/L, and self-reported chronic diseases in 297 pregnant women. Adjusted for confounding variables, we identified a positive association between iAs and heart disease (OR=1.63, 95%CI 0.81-3.04, p=0.094), which was stronger for women living at the...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research