Depletion of mitochondrial enzyme system in liver, lung, brain, stomach and kidney induced by benzo(a)pyrene
Publication date: Available online 4 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Xiaoying Ji, Yongfei Li, Jianlong He, Walayat Shah, Xiaochang Xue, Guodong Feng, Huqin Zhang, Meili Gao Mitochondrial dysfunction has recently received considerable attention as it plays an important role in adult human pathology caused by various drugs, endogenous agents and environmental agents. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant mainly derived from anthropogenic activity during incomplete combustion of organic materials from various sources. The present study aimed to evaluat...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Bis-GMA affects craniofacial development in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio)
Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Alexander G. Kramer, Jompobe Vuthiganon, Christopher S. Lassiter Estrogen is a steroid hormone that is vital in vertebrate development and plays a role in a variety of developmental processes including cartilage and craniofacial formation. The effects of estrogen can be mimicked by other compounds found in the environment known as xenoestrogens. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a known xenoestrogen and is combined with glycidyl methacrylate to make Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA), a major component in dental res...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 3, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Molecular Mechanism of Brain Impairment Caused by Drinking-Acquired Fluorosis and Selenium Intervention
This study investigated the molecular mechanism of brain impairment induced by drinking fluoridated water and selenium intervention. Results showed that the learning and memory of rats in NaF group significantly decreased. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression levels of Cytc mRNA and protein, and the expression levels of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 mRNA significantly increased; by contrast, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 protein levels significantly decreased. Compared with the NaF group, the mRNA levels of Cytc and Caspase-9, as well as the protein levels of Cytc in NaF+Se group, significantly decreased. Conversely...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 3, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Levels of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites in Urine among General U.S. Population
Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ram B. Jain, Private Consultant, Dacula Georgia Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for years 2003-2008 were used to study the factors that affect urinary levels of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine. Separate regression models were fitted for children aged 6-11 years, adolescents aged 12-19 years, and adults aged ≥ 20 years. Specifically, DAP metabolites that were analyzed were: dimethylphosphate (DMP), diethylphosphate (DEP), dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), and diethylthiop...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 29, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Bisphenol A disrupts glucose transport and neurophysiological role of IR/IRS/AKT/GSK3β axis in the brain of male mice
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 43 Author(s): Jing Li, Yixin Wang, Fangfang Fang, Donglong Chen, Yue Gao, Jingli Liu, Rong Gao, Jun Wang, Hang Xiao Bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent chemicals for daily use, was recently reported to disturb the homeostasis of energy metabolism and insulin signaling pathways, which might contribute to the increasing prevalence rate of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the underlying mechanisms are remained poorly understood. Here we studied the effects of low dose BPA on glucose transport and the IR/IRS/AKT/G...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 26, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Thyroid Endocrine Disruption of Azocyclotin to Xenopus laevis during Metamorphosis
In conclusion, the results of the present study showed that azocyclotin could alter the mRNA expression of genes involved in TH signaling as well as the thyroid hormone concentrations in X. laevis tadpoles, leading to endocrine disruption of thyroid system, and that azocyclotin had obvious inhibitory effects on X. laevis metamorphosis. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Low-dose and combined effects of oral exposure to bisphenol A and diethylstilbestrol on the male reproductive system in adult Sprague-Dawley rats
In this study, we investigated the effects of low-dose and combined exposure of bisphenol A (BPA) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) on the reproductive system in adult male rats. The results showed that the sperm motility decreased in the BPA/DES and combined groups. Sperm deformity ratios and histological lesions of the testes were significantly higher and more significant, respectively, in the combined group compared with the single treated groups. No dose-effect relationship or significant additive effect on serum hormone levels was observed after combined exposure to BPA/DES. Ultrastructural results showed lesions of the S...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Influence of MRP1 G1666A and GSTP1 Ile105Val genetic variants on the urinary and blood arsenic levels of Turkish smelter workers
This study suggested that MRP1 G1666A alone and, also, combined with GSTP1 Ile105Val were associated with inter-individual variations in urinary arsenic levels, but not with blood arsenic levels. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Photo-protective effect of sargachromenol against UVB radiation-induced damage through modulating cellular antioxidant systems and apoptosis in human keratinocytes
Publication date: Available online 23 February 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Pattage Madushan Dilhara Jayatissa Fernando, Mei Jing Piao, Susara Ruwan Kumara Madduma Hewage, Hee Kyoung Kang, Eun Sook Yoo, Young Sang Koh, Mi Hee Ko, Chang Sik Ko, Sang Hee Byeon, Seung Ri Mun, Nam Ho Lee, Jin Won Hyun The aim of this study was to evaluate the photo-preventive effects of sargachromenol (SC) against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes via assessing the antioxidant properties and underlying molecular mechanisms. SC exhibited a significant scavenging...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

AhR activation by 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin inhibit the development of mouse intestinal epithelial cells
In this study, we demonstrated that 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) inhibited the in vitro development of mouse intestinal organoids. The number of Paneth cells in the small intestine and the depth of crypts of the small and large intestines were reduced in mice administrated with FICZ. Immunohistochemical and flow cytometric assays revealed that AhR was highly expressed in Lgr5+ stem cells. FICZ inhibited Wnt signaling lowering the level of β-catenin protein. Gene expression analyses demonstrated that FICZ increased expression of Lgr5, Math1, BMP4, and Indian Hedge...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Benzo(a)pyrene induces interleukin (IL)-6 production and reduces lipid synthesis in human SZ95 sebocytes via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway
This study demonstrates that BaP can activate AhR signaling pathway, and exhibits pro-inflammatory effects and inhibition effects on sebum production in human sebocytes. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms of pharmacogenomic VIP variants in Li nationality of southern China
Conclusions The findings of our study complement the pharmacogenomics database with information on members of the Li ethnicity and provide a stronger scientific basis for safer drug administration, which may help clinicians to predict individual drug responses, thereby avoiding the risk of adverse effects and optimizing efficacy in this population. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Levetiracetam attenuates rotenone-induced toxicity: A rat model of Parkinson's disease
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 42 Author(s): Oytun Erbaş, Mustafa Yılmaz, Dilek Taşkıran Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation anti-epileptic drug, is used for treatment of both focal and generalized epilepsy. Growing body of evidence suggests that LEV may have neuroprotective effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of LEV on rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in rats. Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with rotenone (3μg/μl in DMSO) or vehicle (1μl DMSO) into the left substantia n...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of maternal exposure to Di-n-butyl phthalate during pregnancy and breastfeeding on ovarian development and function of F1 female rats
This study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) during pregnancy and breastfeeding on F1 ovarian development and function. A rat model of maternal exposure to DBP during pregnancy and breastfeeding was established by gavage feeding female Sprague Dawley rats with 0, 10, 100, or 600mg/kg/day DBP from gestational day (GD) 12 to postnatal day (PND) 21. F1 offspring were weaned on PND21 and were not exposed to DBP afterward. The age of vaginal opening and estrus onset, estrous cyclicity, c-Kit-ligand expression on ovarian granulosa cells, and the weight of ovaries and uterus of F1...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nanopharmaceutical approach using pelargonidin towards enhancement of efficacy for prevention of alloxan-induced DNA damage in L6 cells via activation of PARP and p53
Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Asmita Samadder, Suresh K. Abraham, Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh Alloxan is an environmental food contaminant that causes DNA damage in living cells and induces hyperglycemia. Pelargonidin (PG), an active ingredient found in extract of various fruits and vegetables has been nano-encapsulated (NPG) with poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and tested for efficacy in prevention of alloxan (ALX)-induced DNA damage in L6 cells in vitro. Glucose-uptake, reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) generation, glucose-transporter-4, g...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Copper oxide nanoparticle induces inflammatory response and mucus production via MAPK signaling in human bronchial epithelial cells
In this study, we investigated the effect of CuONPs on human epithelial cell line H292. CuONPs treatment caused a significant increase in IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression and protein levels in H292 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The mRNA expression and protein levels of MUC5AC were consistent with those of proinflammatory mediators. Additionally, CuONPs treatment increased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Erk, JNK, and p-38 compared to that of control in a concentration-dependent manner. However, co-treatment with CuONPs and each MAPK inhibitor significantly decreased the phosphorylati...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pro/antioxidant status in young healthy women using oral contraceptives
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Katarzyna Kowalska, Halina Milnerowicz The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of oral contraceptives (OCs) on pro/antioxidant status in the blood of healthy women aged 20-25 years. Individuals were divided into OCs users and OCs nonusers. Markers of oxidative stress in the blood such as Cu, Cu/Zn ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione oxidized (GSSG), and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were determined. Antioxidants such as glutathione reduced (GSH), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR),...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Levetiracetam attenuates rotenone-induced toxicity; a rat model of Parkinson's disease
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Oytun Erbaş, Mustafa Yılmaz, Dilek Taşkıran Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation anti-epileptic drug, is used for treatment of both focal and generalized epilepsy. Growing body of evidence suggests that LEV may have neuroprotective effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of LEV on rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in rats. Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with rotenone (3μg/μl in DMSO) or vehicle (1μl DMSO) into the left ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Neuroprotection of luteolin against methylmercury-induced toxicity in lobster cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea
In conclusion, luteolin prevented oxidative stress indices and neurobehavioral deficits in a Nauphoeta cinerea model of MeHg toxicity. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In vitro inhibitory effects of palonosetron hydrochloride, bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide on purified paraoxonase-I (hPON1) from human serum
In this study, we investigated the effects of the drugs, palonosetron hydrochloride, bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide, on human serum paraoxonase-I (hPON1) enzyme activity in in vitro conditions. The enzyme was purified ∼231-fold with 34.2% yield by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex A-50 ion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-200 gel-filtration chromatography from human serum. hPON1 exhibited a single protein band on the SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The inhibition studies were performed on paraoxonase activity of palonosetron hydrochloride, bevacizumab and cyclophosphamide. K i constan...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Building up a QSAR model for toxicity toward Tetrahymena pyriformis by the Monte Carlo method: A case of benzene derivatives
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 42 Author(s): Alla P. Toropova, Terry W. Schultz, Andrey A. Toropov Data on toxicity toward Tetrahymena pyriformis is indicator of applicability of a substance in ecologic and pharmaceutical aspects. Quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) between the molecular structure of benzene derivatives and toxicity toward T. pyriformis (expressed as the negative logarithms of the population growth inhibition dose, mmol/L) are established. The available data were randomly distributed three times into the visible training an...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 3, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The protective effect of dopamine against OGD/R injury-induced cell death in HT22 mouse hippocampal cells
In conclusion, dopamine protected HT22 cells from OGD/R injury-induced cell death only at a particular point in time, suggesting that it may be useful for treating severe ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 30, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of soluble sulfide on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryonic development
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Lingling Wu, Ying Shao, Zhangjun Hu, Hongwen Gao Zebrafish embryos were used to investigate the developmental effects of sulfide. Mortality, teratogenic effects, and developmental parameters of early developmental embryos were recorded. The biodistribution of sulfide in developing zebrafish embryos and larvae were measured through fluorescence imaging. The influences of sulfide on the cardiac function and development velocity of zebrafish embryos were dependent on sulfide concentration. Heart rate and develo...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 30, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

High Glucose Regulates LN Expression in Human Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cells through ROS/Integrin αvβ3 Pathway
Publication date: Available online 29 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jing Liu, Jinxing Quan, Jing Feng, Qi Zhang, Yanjia Xu, Jia Liu, Wenhui Huang, Juxiang Liu, Limin Tian Diabetes mellitus can cause a wide variety of vascular complications and is one of the major risk factors for Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD). The present study was designed investigate the expression of laminin (LN) in human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (HLSECs) induced by high glucose and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and integrin αvβ3 in the regulation of LN ex...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 30, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

QSARs for estimating intrinsic hepatic clearance of organic chemicals in humans
Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Alessandra Pirovano, Stefan Brandmaier, Mark A.J. Huijbregts, Ad M.J. Ragas, Karin Veltman, A. Jan Hendriks Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) were developed to predict the in vitro clearance (CLINT) of xenobiotics metabolised in human hepatocytes (118 compounds) and microsomes (115 compounds). Clearance values were gathered from the scientific literature and multiple linear models were built and validated selecting at most 6 predictors from a pool of over 2000 potential molecular descri...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Paraquat inhibited differentiation in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) and down regulated miR-200a expression by targeting CTNNB1
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Min Huang, Dan Lou, Ya-Peng Wang, Qian Cai, Hong-hui Li Paraquat (PQ) exposure influences central nervous system and results in serious neuro toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of PQ exposure in the development of CNS remains unclear. In present study, we investigated microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profiling and cell differential status following PQ treatment in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) as well as involved mechanism. Microarray profiling of miRNAs expression of PQ treated cell line...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Bisphosphonates: pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, mechanisms of action, clinical applications in children, and effects on tooth development
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ana Prates Soares, Renan Fernandes do Espírito Santo, Sérgio Roberto Peres Line, Maria das Graças Farias Pinto, Pablo de Moura Santos, Maria Betânia Pereira Toralles, Alexandre Ribeiro do Espírito Santo Bisphosphonates (BPs) avidly bind to calcium crystals and inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption, making them useful for treatment of skeletal disorders such as osteoporosis, Paget's disease, osteogenesis imperfecta and metastatic bone diseases. BPs therapeutically act by ca...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

H3K9 acetylation change patterns in rats after exposure to traffic-related air pollution
Publication date: Available online 23 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Rui Ding, Yongtang Jin, Xinneng Liu, Ziyi Zhu, Yuan Zhang, Ting Wang, Yinchun Xu Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) has been acknowledged as a potential risk factor for numerous respiratory disorders including lung cancer; however, the exact mechanisms involved are still unclear. Here we investigated the effects of TRAP exposure on the H3K9 acetylation in rats. The exposure was performed in both spring and autumn with identical study procedures. In each season, 48 healthy Wistar rats were exposed to dif...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zearalenone impairs the male reproductive system functions via inducing structural and functional alterations of sertoli cells
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): WangLong Zheng, ShunYe Pan, Guangguang Wang, Ya Jun Wang, Qing Liu, JianHong Gu, Yan Yuan, Xue Zhong Liu, Zong Ping Liu, Jian Chun Bian The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ZEA on the cytoskeletal structure, and factors specifically expressed by Sertoli cells. Primary Sertoli cells from rats aged 18∼21 days were exposed to increasing ZEA concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20μg·mL−1) for 24h. The results of immunofluorescence showed disruption of α-tubulin filaments a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Gadi V.P. Reddy, Frank B. Antwi The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust® WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol® ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct® (azadirachtin), Met52®...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Aconitum carmichaelii protects against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity via B-cell lymphoma-2 protein-mediated inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction
Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Gunhyuk Park, Ki Mo Kim, Songie Choi, Dal-Seok Oh We previously reported the clinical profile of processed Aconitum carmichaelii (AC Aconibal®), which included inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 activity in healthy male adults. CYP2E1 is recognized as the enzyme that initiates the cascade of events leading to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced toxicity. However, no studies have characterized its role in APAP-induced hepatic injury. Here, we investigated the protective effects of AC on APAP-induced hepatot...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Building up a QSAR model for toxicity towards Tetrahymena Pyriformis by the Monte Carlo method: A case of benzene derivatives
Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Alla P. Toropova, Terry W. Schultz, Andrey A. Toropov Data on toxicity towards Tetrahymena pyriformis is indicator of applicability of a substance in ecologic and pharmaceutical aspects. Quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) between the molecular structure of benzene derivatives and toxicity towards Tetrahymena pyriformis (expressed as the negative logarithms of the population growth inhibition dose, mmol/L) are established. The available data were randomly distributed three times into t...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In vitro Study of the Effect of Metabolism Enzymes on Benzo(a)pyrene-induced DNA Damage in the Scallop Chlamys farreri
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yuefeng Cai, Luqing Pan, Jingjing Miao Acute toxicity effect of Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on isolated scallop (Chlamys farreri) digestive gland cells was studied and a dose-dependent increase in toxicity was observed. The 8μg/L of BaP had a significant toxic effect on isolated cells (p<0.05). In order to study the mechanism of CYP450, GST, SOD and MXR transporters involved in the production of DNA strand breakage such as DNA adduct formation and oxidative DNA damage by BaP were investigated in isolated d...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 17, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genistein ameliorated endothelial nitric oxidase synthase uncoupling by stimulating sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Hua-ping Zhang, Jia-hui Zhao, Hai-xia Yu, Dong-xing Guo Endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) uncoupling plays a causal role in endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Genistein consumption has been associated with the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling has not been reported. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced injury on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established to evaluate the effect of genistein on eNOS ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 17, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

L-theanine alleviates the neuropathological changes induced by PCB (Aroclor 1254) via inhibiting upregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in rat brain
In conclusion, L-theanine shows a protective role against PCBs-induced oxidative damage in rat brain. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 15, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Partitioning and Kinetics of Methylmercury among Organs in Captive Mink (Neovison vison): A Stable Isotope Tracer Study
The objective of this study was to determine the partition coefficients between blood and brain, liver and kidney and fur for MeHg under steady-state conditions and to measure the half-lives for MeHg in these organs. Captive mink (Neovison vison) were fed a diet enriched with two stable isotopes of Hg, Me199Hg and Me201Hg for a period of 60 days. After a period of 10 days the diet was changed to contain only Me201Hg so that, between days 10 and 60, we were able to measure both uptake and elimination rates from blood, brain, liver kidney and fur. Liver and kidney response was very rapid, closely following changes in blood c...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 15, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pretilachlor has the potential to induce endocrine disruption, oxidative stress, apoptosis and immunotoxicity during zebrafish embryo development
The objectives of the present study were to investigate the toxic effects of pretilachlor on zebrafish during its embryo development. The results demonstrated that the transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal/thyroid (HPG/HPT) axis was increased after exposure to 50, 100, 200μg/L pretilachlor for 96h, the aromatase activity, vitellogenin (VTG) and thyroid hormones T3 and T4 levels in zebrafish were also up-regulated simultaneously. Pretilachlor exposure induced a noticeable increase in ROS level, increased the transcription and level of antioxidant proteins (e.g., CAT, SOD and GPX). Moreover...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 13, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Exposure to fipronil elevates systolic blood pressure and disturbs related biomarkers in plasma of rats
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Joao Leandro Chaguri, Antonio Francisco Godinho, Daniel França Horta, Victor Hugo Gonçalves Rizzi, Jose Sergio Possomato-Vieira, Regina Aparecida Nascimento, Carlos Alan Dias-Junior Recent reports show that fipronil affects non-target organisms, including environmental species populations and potentially humans. We aimed to examine if fipronil exposure affects the systolic blood pressure and related biomarkers. Thus, fipronil was orally administered to rats (30mg/kg/day) during 15 days (Fip...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Curcumin and β-caryophellene attenuate cadmium quantum dots induced oxidative stress and lethality in Caenorhabditis elegans model system
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Swati Srivastava, Aakanksha Pant, Shalini Trivedi, Rakesh Pandey Curcumin (CUR) and β-caryophellene (BCP) are well known bioactive phytomolecules which are known to reduce oxidative stress in living organisms. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to explore the possible effects of CUR and BCP in suppression of cadmium quantum dots (CdTe QDs) induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. CdTe QD are luminescent nanoparticles extensively exploited for in vivo imaging, but long term bioaccumulation conf...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Lovastatin induces platelet apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Qing Zhao, Ming Li, Mengxing Chen, Ling Zhou, Lili Zhao, Renping Hu, Rong Yan, Kesheng Dai Statins are widely used in the prevention of atherosclerosis and treatment of coronary artery disease because of pleiotropic effects on thrombosis. Thrombocytopenia and hemorrhage occurred in some statin-treated patients, but the reason remains unclear. In the current study, we show that lovastatin dose-dependently induces depolarization of mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, leading to up-regulation of Bak...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nickel(II)-induced nasal epithelial toxicity and oxidative mitochondrial damage
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yoon-Jin Lee, Soo-Sung Lim, Byoung Joon Baek, Je-Min An, Hae-Seon Nam, Kee-Min Woo, Moon-Kyun Cho, Sung-Ho Kim, Sang-Han Lee In probing the underlying mechanisms of nickel(II)-induced cytotoxicity on nasal epithelium, we investigated the effects of nickel(II) acetate on nasal epithelial RPMI-2650 cells. Nickel(II) elicited apoptosis, as signified by pyknotic and fragmented nuclei, increased caspase-3/7 activity, and an increase in annexin V binding, hypodiploid DNA, and Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Nickel(II...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Lipid emulsion reverses bupivacaine-induced apoptosis of h9c2 cardiomyocytes: PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway
In this study, the roles of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the molecular mechanism of LE-induced protection and its relationship with mPTP were explored. h9c2 cardiomyocytes were randomly divided into several groups: control, BPV, LE, BPV+LE. To study the effect of LE on mPTP, atractyloside (Atr, 20μM, mPTP opener) and cyclosporine A (CsA, 10μM, mPTP blocker) were used. To unravel whether LE protects heart through the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway, cells were treated with LY294002 (LY, 30μM, PI3K blocker) or TWS119 (TWS 10μM, GSK-3β block...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 42 Author(s): Nicole M. Roy, Bruno Carneiro, Jeremy Ochs Glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) like Roundup® are used extensively in agriculture as well as in urban and rural settings as a broad spectrum herbicide. Its mechanism of action was thought to be specific only to plants and thus considered safe and non-toxic. However, mounting evidence suggests that GBHs may not be as safe as once thought as initial studies in frogs suggest that GBHs may be teratogenic. Here we utilize the zebrafish vertebrate model system to study early ef...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Molecular and biochemical evidence on the protection of cardiomyocytes from phosphine-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis by acetyl-l-carnitine
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 42 Author(s): Amir Baghaei, Reza Solgi, Abbas Jafari, Amir Hossein Abdolghaffari, Alireza Golaghaei, Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Maryam Baeeri, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) on pathologic changes of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, ATP production, oxidative stress, and cellular apoptosis/necrosis induced by aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning. The study groups included: the Sham that received almond o...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Protective effects of carnosine alone and together with alpha-tocopherol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus ethanol-induced liver injury
Publication date: March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 42 Author(s): Esra Betül Kalaz, A. Fatih Aydın, Işın Doğan-Ekici, Jale Çoban, Semra Doğru-Abbasoğlu, Müjdat Uysal The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carnosine (CAR) alone and together with vitamin E (Vit E) on alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) in rats. ASH was induced by ethanol (3 times; 5g/kg; 12h intervals, via gavage), followed by a single dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10mg/kg; i.p.). CAR (250mg/kg; i.p.) and Vit E (200mg d-α-tocopherol/kg; via gavage) were administered 30min b...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver in rats and its potential mechanisms
In this study, high-fat diet was used to induce NAFLD in rats for eight weeks. DEHP treated groups received (0.05, 5, 500mg/kg daily, respectively) dose by gavage during the whole experiment period. Our results indicated that the detrimental effects of DEHP on high-fat diet induced NAFLDs were mediated via increasing lipid accumulation in the liver and causing lipid peroxidation and inflammation. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 25, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Effect of Phytosterol Protects Rats Against 4-Nitrophenol-induced Liver Damage
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jiaqin Chen, Meiyan Song, Yansen Li, Yonghui Zhang, Kazuyoshi Taya, ChunMei Li We investigated the effect of phytosterol (PS) in regard to liver damage induced by 4-Nitrophenol (PNP). Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups (Control, PS, PNP, and PNP+PS). The PS and PNP+PS groups were pretreated with PS for one week. The PNP and PNP+PS groups were injected subcutaneously with PNP for 28 days. The control group received a basal diet and was injected with vehicle alone. Treatment with PS prevente...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in hospital waste of Lahore Pakistan
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Muhammad Ashfaq, Khujasta Nawaz Khan, Sana Rasool, Ghulam Mustafa, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Faizan Nazar, Qian Sun, Chang-Ping Yu In the present study, wastewater and sludge samples of two major hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan were analyzed by developing an HPLC-UV method for the possible occurrence of five frequently used fluoroquinolone antibiotics i.e. ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, sparfloxacin, moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin. The highest detected concentration was for moxifloxacin in both wastewat...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Molecular simulation study of the Specific combination between four kinds of phthalic acid esters and human serum albumin
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2015 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Zhiwei Wu, Zhongsheng Yi, Lu Dong, Aiqian Zhang The interaction between endocrine disruptor phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and Human serum albumin (HSA) was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. The efficiency of energy transfer and the distance between HSA and PAEs were calculated. The results showed that all of the four kinds of PAEs could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the HSA, with the mechanisms of static quenching and non-radiative energy transfer. Molecular docking s...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?
In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on E. coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic) > log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/ EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic) ≈ log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic) < log(1/EC50-aerobic). Furthermore, this division was not based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level or the interaction energy (Ebinding) ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 23, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research