Impact of High-Fat Diet on Liver Genes Expression Profiles in Mice Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
In conclusion, significant alterations in the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions or drug toxicity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The herbicide glyphosate is a weak inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase in rats
In conclusion, GLP is a weak inhibitor of AChE in rats. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of chronic exposure to benzalkonium chloride in Oncorhynchus mykiss: cholinergic neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, peroxidative damage and genotoxicity
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): S.C. Antunes, B. Nunes, S. Rodrigues, R. Nunes, J. Fernandes, A.T. Correia Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is one of the most used conservatives in pharmaceutical preparations. However, its use is limited to a small set of external use formulations, due to its high toxicity. Benzalkonium chloride effects are related to the potential exertion of deleterious effects, mediated via oxidative stress and through interaction with membrane enzymes, leading to cellular damage. To address the ecotoxicity of this specific co...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hepatic and renal toxicological evaluations of an industrial ovotoxic chemical, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide, in both sexes of Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Amos Olalekan Abolaji, Pere-Ebi Toloyai, Titilope Deborah Odeley, Susan Akinduro, Joao Batista Rocha, Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi 4-Vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) is an industrial occupational health hazard chemical because it induces ovotoxicity in rodents. The current study investigated the impacts of VCD on selected hepatic and renal markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in both sexes of Wistar rats. Thus, male and female rats were randomly distributed into four groups of ten rats per group, and dose...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Human exposure to acrolein: time-dependence and individual variation in eye irritation
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Anna-Sara Claeson, Nina Lind The aim of the study was to examine the time dependence on sensory irritation detection following exposure to threshold levels of acrolein, in humans. The exposures occurred in an exposure chamber and the subjects were breathing fresh air through a mask that covered the nose and mouth. All participants participated in four exposure conditions, of which three consisted of a mixture of acrolein and heptane and one of only heptane. Exposure to acrolein at a concentration half of the TLV-C...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of a fungicide formulation on embryo-larval development, metamorphosis, and gonadogenesis of the south american toad Rhinella arenarum
This study represents the first evidence of toxic effects exerted by Maxim® XL on amphibians. Finally, our findings highlight the properties of this fungicide that might jeopardize non-target living species exposed to it in agricultural environments. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Dietary vitamin C reduced mercury contents in the tissues of juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus exposed with and without mercury
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jun-ho Lee, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Hyeonho Yun, Seunghan Lee, Youngjin Park, Sungchul C. Bai A 2×3 factorial design was employed to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C (L-ascorblyl-2-monophosphate, C2MP) levels on growth and tissue mercury (Hg) accumulations in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Six experimental diets with two levels of mercuric chloride (0 or 20mg HgCl2/kg diet) and three levels of vitamin C (0, 100, or 200mg C2MP/kg diet) were added to the basal diet. At the end of ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of Combined Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene on Immune Cells in the Blood and Spleen in Balb/c Mice
This study aimed to explore the toxic effect on the spleen and relevant immune responses of Balb/c mice caused by exposure to a combination of formaldehyde and benzene. Balb/c mice were divided randomly into five groups (n=9/group): blank control group (Ctrl); solvent ([corn] Oil) control; formaldehyde only (FA, 3mg/m3); benzene only (BZ, 150mg/kg BW); and, formaldehyde+benzene group (FA+BZ). Exposures were performed for 8hr/d, 5 d/wk, for 2 wk. Tail blood was collected after the final exposure; 24-hr later, the mice were euthanized to permit assessment of a variety of immune endpoints. The endpoints’ three areas wer...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Characteristic manifestations of acute paint thinner-intoxicated children
In this study, we evaluated the acute clinical and para-clinical abnormalities arising from paint thinner (PT) poisoning in children. Data were collected from 2008 to 2013, and sourced from the medical records of PT-intoxicated children and through questionnaires. A total of 42 children were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 37.2 ±2.4 months. The participants ranged from10 to 96 months of age; with a median age of 3 months; and a modal age of 24 months. The sex ratio in the study was 22 male (64.9%) to 20 female (35.1%). Clinical biochemistry results of participants revealed the significant presence of alkalin...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effects of elevated carbon dioxide and temperature levels on tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus): Respiratory enzymes, blood pH and hematological parameters
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 44 Author(s): Hasan Kaya, Olcay Hisar, Sevdan Yılmaz, Mert Gürkan, Şükriye Aras Hisar Oreochromis mossambicus were exposed to two different temperature and carbon dioxide partial pressure levels for about two weeks, as the ambient (Control; 25°C, 3.3mg/L CO2), high CO2 (25°C, 14mg/L CO2), high temperature (30°C, 3mg/L CO2) and combined (30°C, 14.1mg/L CO2) groups. No mortality was observed during the experiments. As a result of the study, elevated CO2 concentrations cause negative effects on the hematolog...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Zearalenone impairs the male reproductive system functions via inducing structural and functional alterations of sertoli cells” [Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 42 (2016) 146–155]
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): WangLong Zheng, ShunYe Pan, Guangguang Wang, Ya Jun Wang, Qing Liu, JianHong Gu, Yan Yuan, Xue Zhong Liu, Zong Ping Liu, Jian Chun Bian (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Purification and Characterization of The Carbonic Anhydrase Enzyme from Black Sea Trout (Salmo trutta Labrax Coruhensis) Kidney and Inhibition Effects of Some Metal Ions on Enzyme Activity
In this study, the carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme was purified from Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta Labrax Coruhensis) kidney with a specific activity of 603.77EU/mg and a yield of 35.5% using Sepharose-4B-L-tyrosine- sulphanilamide affinity column chromatography. For determining the enzyme purity and subunit molecular mass, sodiumdodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed and single band was observed. The molecular mass of subunit was found approximately 29.71kDa. The optimum temperature, activation energy (Ea ), activation enthalpy (ΔH) and Q10 values were obtained from Arrhenius plo...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet
In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This vari...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Combined toxicity of silica nanoparticles and methylmercury on cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos
This study was to investigate the combined toxicity of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and methylmercury (MeHg) on cardiovascular system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Ultraviolet absorption analysis showed that the co-exposure system had high absorption and stability. The dosages used in this study were based on the NOAEL level. Zebrafish embryos exposed to the co-exposure of SiNPs and MeHg did not show any cardiovascular malformation or atrioventricular block, but had an inhibition effect on bradycardia. Using o-Dianisidine for erythrocyte staining, the cardiac output of zebrafish embryos was decreased gradually in SiN...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces 5-fluorouracil resistance in human colon cancer cells
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Joon Ki Kim, Kyoung Ah Kang, Mei Jing Piao, Yea Seong Ryu, Xia Han, Pattage Madushan Dilhara Jayatissa Fernando, Min Chang Oh, Jeong Eon Park, Kristina Shilnikova, Sun Jin Boo, Soo-Young Na, Yong Joo Jeong, Seung Uk Jeong, Jin Won Hyun Colon cancer can be treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but 5-FU resistance frequently occurs. We determined whether 5-FU resistance arises as a result of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. 5-FU–resistant SNUC5 colon cancer cells (SNUC5/FUR cells) expressed higher l...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effect of tramadol hydrochloride on early life stages of fish
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Pavla Sehonova, Lucie Plhalova, Jana Blahova, Petra Berankova, Veronika Doubkova, Miroslav Prokes, Frantisek Tichy, Vladimir Vecerek, Zdenka Svobodova The aim of this study was to perform the fish embryo acute toxicity test (FET) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) and the early-life stage toxicity test on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) with tramadol hydrochloride. The FET was performed using the method inspired by the OECD guideline 236. Newly fertilized zebrafish eggs were exposed to tramadol hydrochloride at concen...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Steroid androgen 17α-methyltestosterone induces malformations and biochemical alterations in zebrafish embryos
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 44 Author(s): Carla Letícia Gediel Rivero-Wendt, Rhaul Oliveira, Marta Sofia Monteiro, Inês Domingues, Amadeu Mortágua Velho Maia Soares, Cesar Koppe Grisolia The synthetic androgen 17α-methyltestosterone is widely used in fish aquaculture for sex reversion of female individuals. Little is known about the amount of MT residues reaching the aquatic environment and further impacts in non-target organisms, including fish early-life stages. Thus, in this work, zebrafish embryos were exposed to two forms of 17&...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effect of occupational exposure on pro/antioxidant balance in the blood of non-smoking and smoking smelters with diabetes
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 44 Author(s): A. Bizoń, J. Antonowicz-Juchniewicz, M. Milnerowicz, M. Śliwińska-Mossoń, H. Milnerowicz Arsenic, lead and cadmium, potent environmental toxicants have been reported to induce diabetes mellitus, but their potential biological mechanism(s) have not been much investigated. The present study was designed to correlate parameters of pro/antioxidant balance with occupational exposure on heavy metals and smoking in smelters with diabetes compared on control group. The results showed a significant increase in the concentra...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Inhibitory effects and mechanism of 25-OH-PPD on glomerular mesangial cell proliferation induced by high glucose
Conclusion The protective effects of PPD on GMC from HG-induced hypertrophy may be associated with the inhibition of [Ca2+]і transient and decreasing expression of COX-1 via the oxidative-stress injure pathway. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effect of lead exposure on expression of SIRT1 in the rat hippocampus
We examined the effects of maternal rat ingestion of Pb in drinking water during gestation and lactation on the expression of SIRT1 and CREB in the hippocampus of their offspring at postnatal week 3 (PNW3) and 52 (PNW52), and then reexamined these effects in offspring after intragastric administration of resveratrol for 4 weeks. Pb exposure decreased SIRT1 and CREB phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner in the rat hippocampus at both PNW3 and 52, and resveratrol reversed those losses. These results indicated that SIRT1 might be a novel target to prevent Pb neurotoxicity. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Morin downregulates nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and activating HO-1 induction
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 44 Author(s): Matharage Gayani Dilshara, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga Jayasooriya, Seungheon Lee, Yung Hyun Choi, Gi-Young Kim Morin possesses anti-inflammatory activity against septic shock and allergic responses, and prevents acute liver damage. However, the biological mechanism of action of morin in neuroinflammation remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated whether morin has the ability to attenuate expression of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipo...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Leaf extracts from Teucrium ramosissimum protect against DNA damage in human lymphoblast cell K562 and enhance antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activity
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 44 Author(s): Mohamed Ben Sghaier, Manel Ben Ismail, Ines Bouhlel, Kamel Ghedira, Leila Chekir-Ghedira The in vitro antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antiproliferative activities of Teucrium ramosissimum extracts were investigated. The antioxidant activities of the tested extracts were evaluated through three chemical assays: The Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, the reducing power and the ferric reducing antioxidant power. TR1 fraction from methanol extract showed the best antioxidant activity evaluated by the CUPRAC, RP and FRAP ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Electron microscopic ultrastructural study on the toxicological effects of AgNPs on the liver, kidney and spleen tissues of albino mice
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 44 Author(s): Mohammad Azam Ansari, Arun Kumar Shukla, Mohammad Oves, Haris M Khan The present study deals with the intraperitoneal administration of 500, 1000, 3000, and 5000mg/kg of AgNPs in albino mice for 28 days to evaluate the potential toxicological effects of AgNPs on blood biochemical parameters and to investigate the light and electron microscopic histopathological alterations on three major targets organs i.e., liver, kidney and spleen. The AgNPs was well tolerated and no mortality was observed even at the highest dose i.e...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Recent advances (2010–2015) in studies of cerium oxide nanoparticles’ health effects
Publication date: June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 44 Author(s): Yan Li, Peng Li, Hua Yu, Ying Bian Cerium oxide nanoparticles, widespread applied in our life, have attracted much concern for their human health effects. However, most of the works addressing cerium oxide nanoparticles toxicity have only used in vitro models or in vivo intratracheal instillation methods. The toxicity studies have varied results and not all are conclusive. The information about risk assessments derived from epidemiology studies is severely lacking. The knowledge of occupational safety and health (OSH) f...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate Induces Apoptosis of GC-2spd Cells via TR4/Bcl-2 Pathway
This study investigated the role of the testicular orphan nuclear receptor4 (TR4)/Bcl-2 pathway in apoptosis induced by DEHP, which resulted in reproductive damage. To elucidate the mechanism underpinning the male reproductive toxicity of DEHP, we sought to investigate apoptotic effects, expression levels of TR4/Bcl-2 pathway in GC-2spd cells, including TR4, Bcl-2 and caspase-3. GC-2spd cells were exposed to various concentrations of DEHP (0, 50, 100, or 200μM). The results indicated that, with the increase of the concentrations of DEHP, the survival rate of cell decreased gradually. DEHP exposure at over 100μM signi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - April 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Glutathione S-transferase in the midgut tissue of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars exposed to dietary cadmium
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Milena Vlahović, Larisa Ilijin, Marija Mrdaković, Dajana Todorović, Dragana Matić, Jelica Lazarević, Vesna Perić Mataruga Activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST) in midgut of gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to 10 and 30μg Cd/g dry food was examined. Based on the enzyme reaction through conjugation with glutathione, overall activity remained unaltered after acute and chronic treatment. No-observed-effect-concentration (10μg Cd/g dry food) significantly increased activity only after 3-day recov...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - April 6, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxic effects upon exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (chrysene) in scallop Chlamys farreri during the reproduction period
This study aims to investigate potential toxic effects of chrysene (CHR) on mature scallop Chlamys farreri during the reproduction period, using indicators of antioxidant defences and oxidative stress. Scallops were exposed to 0.2, 0.8 and 3.2μg/L waterborne CHR for 21 days, at day 10 scallops were induced to spawn. At days 1, 3, 6, 10, 11, 15 and 21, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PC) and DNA strand breaks in digestive glands were examined by separately ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - April 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Natural iron chelators: Protective role in A549 cells of flavonoids-rich extracts of Citrus juices in Fe3+-induced oxidative stress
Publication date: April 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 43 Author(s): Nadia Ferlazzo, Giuseppa Visalli, Santa Cirmi, Giovanni Enrico Lombardo, Pasqualina Laganà, Angela Di Pietro, Michele Navarra Exogenous iron in particulate matter and imbalanced iron homeostasis cause deleterious effects on health. Natural and synthetic iron chelators may be of therapeutic benefit, therefore we evaluated the protective effect of Citrus flavonoids-rich extracts from bergamot and orange juices in iron overloaded human lung epithelial cells. Cytofluorimetric, biochemical and genotoxic analyses w...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nonylphenol-induced Hyperadrenalism Can Be Reversed/Alleviated by Inhibiting of 11-β Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1
This study examined the effect of PF915275 (a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor) on hyperadrenalism and adipogenesis in male rats exposed to NP during development. The results showed that treatment with the 11β-HSD1 inhibitor PF915275 reversed/alleviated NP-induced hyperadrenalism via the following mechanisms: (1) decreasing serum corticosterone, 11β-hydroxylase, and aldosterone synthase levels; (2) significantly increasing PPARα protein and mRNA expression. In adipose tissue, NP significantly increased PPARγ mRNA expression, whereas PF915275 significantly decreased the level of mRNA expression; and (...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Deoxynivalenol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells
In this study, we investigated the toxic and apoptotic effects of DON in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), a good model for studying inflammation. The results show that DON significantly inhibited the viability of HUVECs. DON could also inhibit the proliferation of HUVECs through G2/M phase arrest in cell cycle progression. Moreover, oxidative stress induced by DON was indicated by observations of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, DON also causes mitochondrial damage by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing apoptosis by up-regulation of apoptosis-related g...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Protective effect of Geraniol on the transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease
Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yasir Hasan Siddique, Falaq Naz, Smita Jyoti, Fahad Ali, Ambreen Fatima, Rahul, Saba Khanam The role of Geraniol was studied on the transgenic Drosophila model flies expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS) in the neurons. Geraniol at final concentration of 10, 20 and 40μM was mixed with the diet and the flies were allowed to feed on it for 24 days. The effect of geraniol was studied on the climbing ability, activity pattern, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl, glutathione, dopamine content...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pomegranate protects liver against cecal ligation and puncture-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats through TLR4/NF‐κB pathway inhibition
This study was designed to investigate potential protective effects of pomegranate against sepsis-induced acute liver injury in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Pomegranate was orally given (800mg/kg/day) for two weeks before sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pomegranate improved survival and attenuated liver inflammatory response, likely related to downregulation of mRNA expression of toll like recptor-4, reduced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65, decreased mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor‐alpha ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Assessment of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou by Concentration Monitoring and Bio-effects Monitoring Process
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Haijing Yu, Wenping CaoGraphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Deoxynivalenol induces apoptosis in PC12 cells via the mitochondrial pathway
In this study the impact of DON treatment on apoptotic pathways in PC12 cells was determined. The effects of DON were evaluated on (i) typical indicators of apoptosis, including cellular morphology, cell activity, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and apoptosis ratio in PC12 cells, and on (ii) the expression of key genes and proteins related to apoptosis, including Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, cytochrome C (Cyt C), apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), cleaved-Caspase9, and cleaved-Caspase3. DON treatment inhibited proliferation of PC12 cells, induced significant morphological changes and apoptosis, promoted the release of Cyt C and AIF...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluated the adverse effects of cadmium and Aluminum via drinking water to kidney disease patients: Application of a novel solid phase microextraction method
Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Abdul Haleem Panhwar, Tasneem Gul Kazi, Naeemullah, Hassan Imran Afridi, Faheem Shah, Mohammad Balal Arain, Salma Aslam Arain In present study aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in ground water samples and assesses human health risks associated with elevated concentrations of toxic metals in dissolve form, using a novel solid phase microextraction (SPμE). Ground water sample (n=200) and biological sample (blood) of patients have chronic kidney disorders (CKD) along with healthy control subjec...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A disrupts adrenal steroidogenesis in adult mouse offspring
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Samantha Medwid, Haiyan Guan, Kaiping Yang The present study sought to determine if prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) alters adrenal steroidogenesis in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA (25mg BPA/kg food pellet) via diet from day 7 to the end of pregnancy. At eight weeks of age, offspring were sacrificed, blood samples and adrenal glands were collected for hormone assays and western blot analysis, respectively. We found that: (1) BPA increased adrenal gland weight in both males and females...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effect of metal accumulation-associated oxidative stress on the combined toxicity of quantum dots with Cu2+ to Bacillus subtilis
Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jianhua Zhao, Yuxia Zhao, Bo Liu, Ken Zhong, Hejin Yao, Kuangfei Lin Quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles can coexist with Cu2+ in soil and can adsorb Cu2+ entering into bacterial cells, thereby promoting cellular copper accumulation and enhancing the combined toxicity of these two chemicals. Toxicity test results on Bacillus subtilis showed that the addition of safe concentrations of MPA-CdTe QDs to Cu2+ culture (levels under IC50 value) resulted in higher toxicity with about twofold reduction in cell viability a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pomegranate protects liver against cecal ligation and puncture‐induced oxidative stress and inflammation in rats through TLR4/NF‐κB pathway inhibition
This study is designed to investigate potential protective effects of pomegranate against sepsis‐induced acute liver injury in rats and possible underlying mechanisms. Pomegranate was orally given (800mg/kg/day) for two weeks before sepsis induction by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Pomegranate improved survival and attenuated liver inflammatory response, likely related to downregulation of mRNA expression of toll like recptor-4, reduced nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of proinflammatory transcription factor NF-κB subunit p65, decreased mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor‐alpha...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Integrated Biomarkers Induced by Chlorpyrifos in Two Different Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) for Environmental Risk Assessment
This study was performed to understand how chlorpyrifos (CHL) affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and adults, by exposing this model organism to various concentrations of the insecticide. The 96-h acute toxicity test to determine the effect of CHL on adult zebrafish yielded a LC50 of 709.43μg/L−1. Small molecular weight proteins less than 25kDa and phospholipids were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS/MS in order to compare expression patterns, revealing that some peaks were dramatically altered after CHL treatment. Whereas no acute toxicity was detected in the embryo toxicity test, malformation of zebrafish larvae wa...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effects of α-tocopherol administration in chronically lead exposed workers
Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Sławomir Kasperczyk, Michał Dobrakowski, Aleksandra Kasperczyk, Ewa Nogaj, Marta Boroń, Ewa Birkner The aim of the study was to investigate whether α-tocopherol supplementation for workers who are chronically exposed to lead would normalize/improve the values of parameters that are associated with the lead-induced oxidative stress. Study population included chronically lead exposed males who were divided into two groups. Workers in the first group (reference group) were not given any antioxidants, w...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Skin necrosis caused by prallethrin—A worldwide used insecticide
We report a case of necrosis caused by the use of prallethrin (mosquito repellent) on the skin in a 67-year-old diabetic female patient suffering from delusions of parasitosis. Cutaneous toxicity due to pyrethroids is less known or reported, despite well-documented pyrethroid poisoning involving the gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiac, and nervous systems. Skin irritation has been described after acute accidental exposure but, as far as we know, no data have been published on the effects of pyrethroids when applied directly to the skin. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Alterations in antioxidant/oxidant gene expression and proteins following treatment of transformed and normal colon cells with tellurium compounds
Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Puneet Vij, Diane Hardej The current study evaluated the potential of TeCl4 and DPDT to accumulate within cells and cause oxidative stress. HO-1, antioxidant gene expression and protein alterations were studied. • Significant Te accumulation was observed in HT-29 cells (500–1000μM DPDT; 125–1000μM TeCl4) and CCD-18Co cells (500μM DPDT and TeCl4). • Significant increases in HO-1 were observed with 250–1000μM DPDT and 62.5–1000μM TeCl4 in HT-29 cells and in 500&nd...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of adenosine isolated from Cordyceps cicadae against oxidative and ER stress damages induced by glutamate in PC12 cells
In this study, the protective effects of adenosine from Cordyceps cicadae against glutamate-induce oxidative stress in PC12 cells was evaluated. The exposure of PC12 cells to glutamate (5mM) induced the formation of ROS, increased Ca2+ influx, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and up regulated the expression of pro-apoptotic factor Bax. However, pretreatment with adenosine markedly increased cell viability, decreased the elevated levels of ROS and Ca2+ induced by glutamate. Furthermore adenosine increased the activities of GSH-Px and SOD, as well as retained mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio,...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The toxic effects on the stress and immune responses in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii exposed to hexavalent chromium
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang Juvenile Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 13.7±1.7cm, and mean weight 55.6±4.8g) were exposed for 4 weeks with the different levels of dietary chromium (Cr6+) concentration (0, 30, 60, 120 and 200mg/L). The plasma cortisol and heat shock protein 70 was evaluated as stress indicators. Plasma cortisol was significantly increased in response to the dietary chromium exposure over 120mg/kg at 2 and 4 weeks. Heat shock protein 70 was also notably increased over 120mg/kg at 2 we...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Phenolic acid protects of renal damage induced by ochratoxin A in a 28-days-oral treatment in rats
In conclusion, ChlA, at given concentration, improved biochemical parameters altered in urine and serum and pathological damages in kidneys induced by OTA exposure, showing a good protective activity, but not by an apparent antioxidant mechanism. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Skin necrosis caused by prallethrin- a worldwide used insecticide
We report a case of necrosis caused by the use of prallethrin (mosquito repellent) on the skin in a 67-year-old diabetic female patient suffering from delusions of parasitosis. Cutaneous toxicity due to pyrethroids is less known or reported, despite well-documented pyrethroid poisoning involving the gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiac, and nervous systems. Skin irritation has been described after acute accidental exposure but, as far as we know, no data have been published on the effects of pyrethroids when applied directly to the skin. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Plasma Phthalate and Bisphenol A Levels and Oxidant-Antioxidant Status in Autistic Children
This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with “Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium lev...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ribosomal protein L7 as a suitable reference gene for quantifying gene expression in gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa
Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Qing Liu, Kun Lei, Qingqing Ma, Fei Qiao, Zi-cheng Li, Li-hui An Expression levels of eight candidate reference genes were quantified in tissues of gastropod Bellamya aeruginosa exposed for 10 d to various stressors, including fasting, 17β-estradiol, 17α-methyltestosterone, and Cd2+. The results showed that 18s rRNA was the most highly expressed of the candidate reference genes, while H2A was the least expressed. There were no significant changes (p >0.05) in the expression of the eight gene...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Natural Iron Chelators: Protective Role In A549 Cells Of Flavonoids Fraction From Citrus Juices in Fe3+-Induced Oxidative Stress
Publication date: Available online 7 March 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Nadia Ferlazzo, Giuseppa Visalli, Santa Cirmi, Giovanni Enrico Lombardo, Pasqualina Laganà, Angela Di Pietro, Michele Navarra Exogenous iron in particulate matter and imbalanced iron homeostasis cause deleterious effects on health. Natural and synthetic iron chelators may be of therapeutic benefit, therefore we evaluated the protective effect of two Citrus flavonoids-rich extracts from bergamot and orange juices in iron overloaded human lung epithelial cells. Cytofluorimetric, biochemical and genotoxi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 7, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Desmethylanhydroicaritin isolated from Sophora flavescens, shows antitumor activities in U87MG cells via inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion
This study is the first report of the antitumor activities of desmethylanhydroicaritin (DMAI) isolated from Sophora flavescens on U87MG cells. Human glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive malignant type of brain tumors and highly diffuses to around normal brain tissues. DMAI showed anti-proliferation effects on U87MG cells at the concentration of 30μM, however did not affect to HEK-293 cells. DMAI induced anti-proliferation effects via ERK/MAPK, PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway and G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. DMAI led to morphological change and inhibition of filapodia formation through regulation of Rac 1 and Cdc 42....
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - March 6, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research