Non-cytotoxic concentrations of acetaminophen induced mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant response in HepG2 cells
Publication date: Available online 1 July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Tingfen Zhang, Qiang zhang, Jiabin Guo, Haitao Yuan, Hui Peng, Lan Cui, Jian Yin, Li Zhang, Jun Zhao, Jin Li, Andrew White, Paul L. Carmichael, Carl Westmoreland, Shuangqing Peng Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in acute, severe liver injury caused by overdose of acetaminophen (APAP). However, whether mitochondrial biogenesis is involved is unclear. Here we demonstrated that mitochondrial biogenesis, as indicated by the amounts of mitochondrial DNA and proteins, increased significantly in ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of maternal stress during pregnancy on learning and memory via hippocampal BDNF, Arc (Arg3.1) expression in offspring
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Su-zhen Guan, Li Ning, Ning Tao, Yu-long Lian, Ji-wen Liu, Tzi Bun Ng The intrauterine environment has a significant long-term impact on individual’s life, this study was designed to investigate the effect of stress during pregnancy on offspring’s learning and memory abilities and analyze its mechanisms from the expression of BDNF and Arc in the hippocampus of the offspring. A rat model of maternal chronic stress during pregnancy was mating from 3rd day during been subjecting to chronic unpredicta...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effect of the Fusarium toxins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, on the mouse brain
We examined brain weight, protein, antioxidant indicators, and apoptosis. After 3 and 5days of treatment, increased levels of nitric oxide, total nitric oxide synthase, hydroxyl radical scavenging, and malondialdehyde were observed in the treatment groups. This was accompanied by reduced levels of brain protein, superoxide dismutase (apart from the low-dose zearalenone groups), glutathione, glutathione peroxidase activity, and percentage of apoptotic cells. By day 12, most of these indicators had returned to control group levels. The effects of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol were dose-dependent, and were synergistic in com...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - July 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Alteration in bone geometric and mechanical properties, histomorphometrical parameters of trabecular bone, articular cartilage, and growth plate in adolescent rats after chronic co-exposure to cadmium and lead in the case of supplementation with green, black, red and white tea
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Agnieszka Tomczyk, Siemowit Muszyński, Radosław Radzki Adolescent male Wistar rats were used to check whether regular consumption of black, red, white, or green tea would have a protective effect on femur development during 12-week exposure to Cd and Pb (7mg Cd and 50mg Pb in 1kg of the diet). The animals were randomly divided (n=12) into a positive control (without Cd, Pb and teas), a negative control group (Cd and Pb), and...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 30, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Nanotoxicological study of polyol-made cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles in rabbit
In this study we aim to synthesize and characterize such objects using polyol process in order to assess its nanotoxicological profile in vitro as well as in vivo. The produced particles consist of a cobalt-zinc ferrite phase corresponding to the Zn0.8Co0.2Fe2O4 composition. They are isotropic in shape single crystals of 8nm in size. The thermal variation of their dc-magnetization confirms their superparamagnetic behavior. In vitro, acute exposure (4h) to them (100μgmL−1) induced an important decrease of healthy Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) viability. In vivo investigation in New-Zealand rabbits...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 30, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genetic polymorphisms study of Pharmacogenomic VIP variants in Han ethnic of China's Shaanxi province
Conclusions Our study have supplemented the Han Chinese data related to pharmacogenomics and illustrated differences in genotypic frequencies of selected VIP variants' among the Han population and 15 other populations. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 28, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

ROS-mediated apoptosis of HAPI microglia through p53 signaling following PFOS exposure
In this study, the effect of PFOS on microglial apoptosis was examined. The results showed that PFOS could significantly reduce the cell viability and mediate cell apoptosis in HAPI microglia, which was closely accompanied with ROS production and p53 overexpression. Moreover, p53 interference significantly ameliorated PFOS-triggered cytotoxic effects in HAPI microglia, including the downregulation of cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase 3. Interestingly, NAC, a ROS inhibitor, inhibited p53 expression, and decreased the apoptosis of HAPI microglia. Taken together, these findings suggest that upregulated production of ROS plays ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 28, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Memory deficit, toxic effects and activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and NTPDase in brain of Wistar rats submitted to orally treatment with alpha-terpinene
Publication date: Available online 24 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Matheus D. Baldissera, Carine F. Souza, Thirssa H. Grando, Michele R. Sagrillo, Gerson F. B De Brum, Kátia Nascimento, Diulle S. Peres, Miriãn F. Maciel, Sérgio O. Silveira, Sonia C.A. Da Luz, Pedro H. Doleski, Daniela B.R. Leal, Aleksandro S. da Silva, Silvia G. Monteiro The neurotoxic effects and activity of Na+, K+-ATPase and NTPDase in Wistar rats after treatment with α-terpinene (daily oral administration of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0mLkg−1 for 10 days) were examined. Resu...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Cerebral ganglion ultrastructure and differential proteins revealed using proteomics in the aplysiid (Notarcus leachii cirrosus Stimpson) under cadmium and lead stress
This study provided positive insights into the mechanisms of Cd and Pb toxicity. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Accumulation of neurotoxic organochlorines and trace elements in brain of female European eel (Anguilla anguilla)
Publication date: Available online 21 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): C. Bonnineau, D. Scaion, B. Lemaire, C. Belpaire, J-P. Thomé, M. Thonon, M. Leermaker, Y. Gao, C. Debier, F. Silvestre, P. Kestemont, J-F. Rees Xenobiotics such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) and metals have been suggested to play a significant role in the collapse of European eel stocks in the last decades. Several of these pollutants could affect functioning of the nervous system. Still, no information is so far available on levels of potentially neurotoxic pollutants in eel brain. In presen...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

PM2.5 collected in China cause inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in macrophages through the multiple pathways
In this study, we investigated the toxicological properties of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 mm (PM2.5) collected in an urban area in China (Shenyang), focusing on inflammation and oxidative stress tightly linked to respiratory diseases. Exposure to PM2.5 significantly increased the expression levels of inflammatory (interleukin-1β and cyclooxygenase-2) and oxidative stress (heme oxygenase1) genes in the mouse macrophages. PM2.5-caused inflammatory response was strongly suppressed by endotoxin neutralizer (polymyxin B) and knock-out of toll-like receptor 4, while oxidative stress was not. On the other hand, an antioxida...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The application of the comet assay to assess the genotoxicity of environmental pollutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans
This study aimed to establish a protocol for cell dissociation from the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to assess the genotoxicity of the environmental pollutant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using the alkaline version of the single cell electrophoresis assay (comet assay). BaP genotoxicity was assessed in C. elegans (wild-type [WT]; N2, Bristol) after 48h exposure (0 to 40μM). Induction of comets by BaP was concentration-dependent up to 20μM; comet % tail DNA was ∼30% at 20μM BaP and ∼10% in controls. Similarly, BaP-induced DNA damage was evaluated in C. elegans mutant strains deficient in DNA repair....
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Thymoquinone effectively alleviates lung fibrosis induced by paraquat herbicide through down-regulation of pro-fibrotic genes and inhibition of oxidative stress
This study indicated that TQ has the preventive and therapeutic potentials for the treatment of lung fibrosis by inhibition of oxidative stress and down-regulation of profibrotic genes. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 18, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxic effects and depuration after the dietary lead(II) exposure on the bioaccumulation and hematological parameters in starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus)
Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): In-Ki Hwang, Kyeong-Wook Kim, Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang Platichthys stellatus (mean length 20±2cm, mean weight 160.15±15g) were exposed to the different levels of dietary lead (II) at the concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240mg/kg for 4 weeks. Depuration was conducted for 2 weeks after exposure. The lead exposure over 60mg Pb/kg induced the significant bioaccumulation in tissues of P.stellatus (5–30μg/g tissue), except for brain and muscle where the exposure to 240mg Pb/kg caused the bio...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Protective potential of epigallocatechin-3-gallate against benign prostatic hyperplasia in metabolic syndrome rats
In this study, rat model of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) accompanied with metabolic syndrome was induced by fed on high-fat diet for 12 weeks combined with testosterone injection (10mg/kg/d) from 9th to 12th weeks. EGCG was orally given from 9th to 12th weeks. Finally, the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, prostate weight, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes, and prostatic expression of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) were evaluated. It was found that EGCG significantly decreased the levels of glucose...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 15, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ligustrazine improves blood circulation by suppressing Platelet activation in a rat model of allergic asthma
Publication date: Available online 15 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yajuan Wang, Huizhi Zhu, Jiabing Tong, Zegeng Li Chuan-xiong (Ligusticum wallichii) is a traditional herbal medicine in Eastern Asia, but the effect of its active component ligustrazine remains unclear. We explored its effect and possible mechanism in a well-characterized rat model of allergic asthma. Ligustrazine suppressed bronchial hyper-responsiveness to methacholine, and suppressed lung inflammation in asthmatic rats. Ligustrazine exhibited potent immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory effects: it suppres...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 15, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Inhibitory effect of aminoethyl-chitooligosaccharides on invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Sugyeong Hong, Dai-Nghiep Ngo, Moon-Moo Kim Chitooligosaccharides (COS) have been reported to show a variety of biological efficacies such as anti-bacterial activity, anti-tumor activity and immune activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate the inhibitory effect of aminoethyl-chitooligosaccharides (AE-COS) synthesized from COS that were substituted hydroxyl groups with aminoethyl group at C-6 position on cell invasion of human fibrosarcoma cells. First of all, the effect of AE-COS on cell viability wa...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by timosaponin A-III.
In this study, the apoptotic effects of TSA-Ⅲ were investigated in HepG2 cells. Treatment with TSA-Ⅲ significantly inhibited cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by inducing apoptosis in HepG2 cells. This induction was associated with increased fluorescence intensity of Annexin V-FITC, activation of caspases, and altered expression of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family members. In addition, TSA-III mediated mitochondrial dysfunction with the release of HtrA2/Omi, Smac/Diablo, and cytochrome c. These findings suggest that TSA-III induces mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of Trace Element and Mineral Status and Related to Levels of Amino Acid in Children with Phenylketonuria
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Fazilet Gok, Suat Ekin, Murat Dogan The aim of the present study was to examine trace elements (Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb), minerals (Ca, Mg, K), amino acids status in children with phenylketonuria and also whether they were correlated with each other in phenylketonuric patients. It has been found out that the HPA group was significantly lower than the control group with regards to Zn, Se, K, Ca, Mg and Zn/Cr levels (p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.001, p<0.01, p<0.01 and p&a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Toxicology of Indium Tin Oxide
Publication date: Available online 10 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): M. Ernst Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a technologically important semiconductor. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis and/or interstitial fibrosis) in ITO-exposed workers warrants a review of the toxicological hazards. Short- and long-term inhalation studies in rats and mice revealed persistent alveolar proteinosis, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs down to concentrations as low as 0.01mg/m3. In rats, the incidences of bronchiolo-alveolar adenomas ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genetic variation at Q192R and L55M polymorphisms in PON1
Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Siuli Mitra, Gautam K. Kshatriya Earlier we have reported Q192R allele frequencies among four Indian populations as a part of an investigation of the distribution of Paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms. Here we present the results obtained after screening eleven populations representing different regions of India for Q192R and L55M. Population genetic analysis examining the effect of micro-evolutionary forces at these loci confirmed genetic differentiation at Q192R earlier suggested. The study groups showed high frequenci...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 8, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Michał Dobrakowski, Natalia Pawlas, Edyta Hudziec, Agnieszka Kozłowska, Agnieszka Mikołajczyk, Ewa Birkner, Sławomir Kasperczyk The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2 days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 7, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 Up-regulates Stem Cell Markers in Benzo[a]pyrene-induced Malignant Transformation of BEAS-2B Cells
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yonghong Liu, Ruitao Lu, Junlian Gu, Yanxuan Chen, Xueyan Zhang, Lan Zhang, Hao Wu, Wenfeng Hua, Jun Zeng Recently, Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) has been proposed to be a common marker of cancer stem cells and can be induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) exposure. However, the underlying mechanism of how ALDH1A1 contributes to B[a]P-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells remains unclear. Here, we found that B[a]P up-regulated expression levels of stem cell markers (ABCG2, SOX2, c-Myc...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 7, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mitophagy inhibits proliferation by decreasing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in arsenic trioxide-treated HepG2 cells
In this study, HepG2 cells were used to assess mitophagy and proliferation arrest in response to As2O3 exposure. The stimulatory effect of As2O3 on mitophagy was investigated by assessing morphology (mitophagosome and mitolysosome) and relevant proteins (PINK1, LC3 II/I, and COX IV). Additionally, the relationship of mitophagy and proliferation was explored through the use of mitophagy inhibitors (CsA, Mdivi-1). Interestingly, the inhibition of mitophagy rescued proliferation arrest by restoring COX-2 protein level and countered the elimination of mitochondria-located COX-2 and up-regulated the COX-2 mRNA level. Taken toge...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 6, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dien-16,15-olide induced glioma cell autophagy via ROS generation and activation of p38 MAPK and ERK-1/2
This study further attempted to investigate the involvement of HCD-induced autophagy in brain tumor cell lines neuroblastoma N18 and glioma C6 through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of p38 and ERK-1/2 pathway. The results demonstrated that HCD increased the hyper-generation of ROS and decreased cellular antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione s transferase (GST). Furthermore, HCD increased the expressions of autophagic marker proteins LC3-II and Beclin-1 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Additionally, HC...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 6, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Dioscin alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury through regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation
In conclusion, dioscin showed protective effect against DMN-induced acute liver injury via ameliorating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, which should be developed as a new candidate for the treatment of acute liver injury in the future. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

α-Lipoic acid protects against the cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by cadmium in HepG2 cells through regeneration of glutathione by glutathione reductase via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 5 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Chunli Shi, Xue Zhou, Jiayu Zhang, Jiachun Wang, Hong Xie, Zhigang Wu α-lipoic acid (α-LA) is a potent natural antioxidant, which is capable of regenerating glutathione (GSH). However, the mechanisms by which α-LA regenerates reduced glutathione (rGSH) via the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) by glutathione reductase (GR) are still not well understood. In the present study, we investigated if α-LA replenished rGSH by GR via Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway in cadmium-treated HepG2 cel...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Exogenous Gas6 Attenuates Silica-Induced Inflammation on Differentiated THP-1 Macrophages
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yan Shen, Xiuqing Cui, Yi Rong, Zhihong Zhang, Lili Xiao, Ting Zhou, Weihong Chen Growth arrest specific 6 (Gas6) has been reported to be related to the modulation of innate immunity. To investigate the potential effect of Gas6 on the regulation of inflammations induced by silica, differentiated THP-1 macrophages were exposed to different concentrations of silica for 6h and 24h. Additionally, silica-activated macrophages were treated with Gas6 antibody and Gas6 respectively. Expression levels of Gas6 and infl...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 3, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Andrographolide-induced apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cells: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Li-Li Gu, Xin-Yue Zhang, Wen-Min Xing, Jia-Dong Xu, Hong Lu Andrographolide sodium bisulfate as a kind of soluble derivative of andrographolide(AD), is obviously known to be nephrotoxicity, but AD hasn’t been reported clearly. Our study aimed to investigate the induction of apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells by AD and its possible mechanism. Our results demonstrated that AD (0∼250μmol/L) inhibited Hk-2 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apopto...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 3, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Sulfur mustard causes oxidants/antioxidants imbalance through the overexpression of free radical producing-related genes in human mustard lungs
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony, Amir Nejad-Moghadam, Mostafa Ghanei, Yunes Panahi The aim of this study is to analyze oxidative stress (OS) and changes in expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing-related genes in mustard lungs. Human lung biopsies provided from controls (n=5) and sulfur mustard (SM)-exposed patients (n=6). Changes in expression of dual oxidases (DUOXs), aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil Peroxidase (EPO) were measured using RT2 Profil...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 3, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Phenolic acid protects of renal damage induced by ochratoxin A in a 28-days-oral treatment in rats” [Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 43 (2016) 105–111]
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): L.N. Cariddi, F.M. Escobar, M.C. Sabini, N.A. Campra, G. Bagnis, D. Decote-Ricardo, C.G. Freire-de-Lima, F. Mañas, L.I. Sabini, A.M. Dalcero (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Desmethylanhydroicaritin isolated from Sophora flavescens, shows antitumor activities in U87MG cells via inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion” [Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 43 (2016) 140–148]
Publication date: Available online 2 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Chang-Won Kang, Nan-Hee Kim, Hyun Ah Jung, Hyung-Wook Choi, Min-Jae Kang, Jae-Sue Choi, Gun-Do Kim (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Enhancement of anti-proliferative activities of Metformin, when combined with Celecoxib, without increasing DNA damage
This study was designed to explore the potential synergistic toxic effects of anti-diabetic drug (Metformin), and an analgesic drug (Celecoxib) at cellular level. MTT assay run on Vero cell line revealed that the combinations of Metformin and Celecoxib augment the anti-proliferative effects, whereas Single cell gel electrophoresis spotlighted that Metformin produce non-significant DNA damage with the threshold concentration of 400μg/ml in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (lymphocytes and monocytes), while Celecoxib produced significant (P<0.05) DNA damage (class III comets) above the concentration of 75μg/ml...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Punicalagin alleviates hepatotoxicity in rats challenged with cyclophosphamide
This study investigated the possible hepatoprotection of punicalagin in rats received cyclophosphamide (20mg/kg/day, i.p, for 7 days). Punicalagin given at two doses, 15 and 30mg/kg/day, p.o., for 7 days, starting the same day of cyclophosphamide administration. Punicalagin significantly and dose-dependently reduced the elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase, and liver nuclear factor-κB p65, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, inducible nitric oxide synthase, caspases 3 and 9 activities, and prevented the decrease of hepatic total antioxidant capac...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Betaine treatment decreased oxidative stress, inflammation, and stellate cell activation in rats with alcoholic liver fibrosis
In conclusion, these results indicate that the antifibrotic effect of BET may be related to its suppressive effects on oxidant and inflammatory processes together with HSC activation in alcoholic liver fibrosis. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxicological Effects of Chlorpyrifos on growth, enzyme activity and chlorophyll a synthesis of Freshwater Microalgae
In this study, the results showed that EC50 values ranging from 7.63 to 19.64mg/L, indicating the Chlorpyrifos had a relatively limited to the growth of algae during the period of the acute toxicity experiment. Moreover, when two kinds of algae were exposed to a medium level of Chlorpyrifos, SOD and CAT activities were importantly advanced. Therefore, the growth rate and SOD and CAT activities can be highly recommended for the eco-toxicological assessment. In addition, chlorophyll a also could be used as a targeted parameter for assessing the eco-toxicity of Chlorpyrifos on both Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Merismopedia sp. G...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

PROFENOFOS INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS AND IN SILICO MODELLING OF HATCHING ENZYME, ZHE1 IN ZEBRAFISH (Danio rerio) EMBRYOS
Publication date: Available online 1 June 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Rajesh Pamanji, Bomma Yashwanth, Janapala Venkateswara Rao The current study was aimed to investigate the oxidative stress response in zebrafish embryos exposed to sub-lethal (LC10) and lethal (LC50) concentrations of profenofos for 96-h and in silico modelling of zebrafish hatching enzyme, ZHE1 to explain the delayed hatching. Embryos exposed to profenofos under semi-static conditions significantly diminished glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Glutathione reductase (GR) levels, but increased the a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - June 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Perfluorooctane sulfonate-induced testicular toxicity and differential testicular expression of estrogen receptor in male mice
In this study, 0, 0.5 and 10mg/kg/day PFOS were given by oral gavage to adult mice for 5 weeks. In the 10mg/kg group, serum testosterone levels decreased significantly. Sperm counts declined which might be associated with the decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis of germ cells. In relation to increased apoptosis, bax, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-3 levels elevated significantly, indicating that PFOS induced germ cell apoptosis by activating the mitochondrial pathway. In addition, the increase in levels of testicular estrogen receptor (ER) β was observed in both 0.5 and 10mg/kg group, whereas a decre...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Toxic effects of imidacloprid on adult loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Xiaohua Xia, Xiaopei Xia, Weiran Huo, Hui Dong, Linxia Zhang, Zhongjie Chang The present investigation was aimed to assess the effects of imidacloprid on the survival, genetic materials, hepatic transaminase activity and histopathology of loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus). The values of LC50 (24, 48, 72 and 96hours) of imidacloprid were 167.7, 158.6, 147.9 and 145.8mg/L, respectively, and the safety concentration was 42.55mg/L. The erythrocyte micronuclei assays and the comet assay results showed that imidacl...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of various LED light spectra on antioxidant and immune response in juvenile rock bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus exposed to bisphenol A
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ji Yong Choi, Tae Hwan Kim, Young Jae Choi, Na Na Kim, Sung-Yong Oh, Cheol Young Choi Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in plastics and plasticizers. As an environmental toxin included in industrial wastewater, it contaminates the aquatic environment and is known to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Particular wavelengths of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are known to affect the endocrine regulation of fish. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of green and red LED light on the antioxidant and ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Oxidative stress responses in gills of goldfish, Carassius auratus, exposed to the metribuzin-containing herbicide Sencor
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Viktor V. Husak, Nadia M. Mosiichuk, Ivan V. Maksymiv, Janet M. Storey, Kenneth B. Storey, Volodymyr I. Lushchak Metribuzin belongs to the family of asymmetrical triazine compounds and is an active ingredient in many commercial herbicides including Sencor. Effects on goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) of exposure for 96h to 7.14, 35.7 or 71.4mgL−1 Sencor 70 WG (corresponding to 5, 25 and 50mgL−1 of metribuzin) were examined by evaluating oxidative stress markers and activities of antioxidant and assoc...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 31, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A reliable, non-invasive technique for measuring growth in tadpoles exposed to salt
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Matthew S. Weeg, Jacqualine B. Grant The use of chemical de-icers raises salt levels in roadside streams and ponds, which has adverse effects on tadpole development. Experiments on the effects of de-icers on tadpole development are often hampered by difficulties measuring body size without introducing handling stress that may skew results or cause unintended mortality. We have found a linear relationship between surface area and body mass in tadpoles that is unaffected by exposure to salt. Measuring surface area i...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of urinary metal concentrations and sperm DNA damage in infertile men from an infertility clinic
This study aimed to examine associations between urinary metal concentrations and sperm DNA damage. Thirteen metals [arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn)] were detected in urine samples of 207 infertile men from an infertility clinic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and also, sperm DNA damage (tail length, percent DNA tail, and tail distributed moment) were assessed using neutral comet assay. We found that urinary Hg and Ni were associated with increasing trends f...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Shift from Darbepoetin-α to Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator Decreases Serum Aluminium Concentration in Patients on Hemodialysis
Conclusion We found the shift from DPO to CERA results in lower Al levels, a reduced inflammatory response, and an increase in RBC number and PTH level in uremic patients on hemodialysis. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

miRNA-216 and miRNA-499 Target cyb561d2 in Zebrafish in Response to Fipronil Exposure
In this study, we evaluated the effects of fipronil on miR-194a, miR-216b, miR-429, miR-499 and cyb561d2 in zebrafish and investigated whether these four miRNAs could regulate the expression of cyb561d2 in both mRNA and protein levels. The expression of cyb561d2 was upregulated in both mRNA and protein level in a dose-dependent manner upon stimulation of fipronil, and miR-216b and miR-499 were downregulated concurrently, whereas there was no significant changes were observed in the expression level of miR-194a and miR-429. The dual luciferase report assay demonstrated that miR-216b and miR-499 interacted with cyb561d2 3'-u...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay’s Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea
Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yang-Guang Gu, Hong-Hui Huang, Qin Lin Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay’s Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18–1.16, 0.002–0.919, 0.40–2.85, 0.07–4.10, 0.004–0.055, 0.14–1.19, 0.014–0.070, and 4.57–15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As conce...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 24, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Oxidative stress mediates dibutyl phthalateinduced anxiety-like behavior in Kunming mice
In this study, we found that neurobehavioral changes induced by DBP may be mediated by oxidative damage in the mouse brain, and that the co-administration of Mangiferin (MAG, 50mg/kg/day) may protect the brain against oxidative damage caused by DBP exposure. The results of ethological analysis (elevated plus maze test and open-field test), histopathological examination of the brain, and assessments of oxidative stress (OS) in the mouse brain showed that there is a link between oxidative stress and anxiety-like behavior produced by DBP at higher doses (25 or 125mg/kg/day). Biomarkers of oxidative stress encompass reactive o...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae
This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and<LOD to 8.0ngg−1 milk fat, respectively. PCB congeners −153, −138, −180 and −170 dominated in the PCB profiles, while p,ṕ-DDE was the most abundant OCP. PCB-126 was the most abundant non-ortho PCB, while among mono-ortho ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Dietary vitamin C reduced mercury contents in the tissues of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) exposed with and without mercury
Publication date: July 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 45 Author(s): Jun-Ho Lee, Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Hyeonho Yun, Seunghan Lee, Youngjin Park, Sungchul C. Bai A 2×3 factorial design was employed to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin C (l-ascorblyl-2-monophosphate, C2MP) levels on growth and tissue mercury (Hg) accumulations in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Six experimental diets with two levels of mercuric chloride (0 or 20mg HgCl2/kg diet) and three levels of vitamin C (0, 100, or 200mg C2MP/kg diet) were added to the basal diet. At the end of 6 weeks ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Three components of cigarette smoke altered the growth and apoptosis of metastatic colon cancer cells via inducing the synthesis of reactive oxygen species and endoplasmic reticulum stress
In this study, the effect of formaldehyde (FA), benzene (Bz), and isoprene (IP), which are included in main components of CS, on cell viability and apoptosis of SW620 colorectal cancer cells was examined to identify the connection between CS components and colon cancer. In cell viability assay, FA, Bz, and IP decreased cell viability of SW620 cells in a dose dependent manner. In Western blot assay, the protein expression of cell cycle related genes, cyclin D1 & E1, was decreased by FA, Bz, and IP, which corresponded to their inhibitory effect on cell viability. In addition, FA, Bz, and IP increased the protein expr...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - May 21, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research