Evaluation of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and NFkB activation, oxidative stress response, acetylcholinesterase activity, and histopathological changes in rainbow trout brain exposed to linuron
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ahmet Topal, Gonca Alak, Serdar Altun, Hüseyin Serkan Erol, Muhammed Atamanalp Linuron is a widely used herbicide to control grasses and annual broad leaf weeds. It is known that linuron has toxic effects on different organisms. However, the toxic effects of linuron on aquatic organisms, especially fish, is completely unknown. Thus, we aimed to investigate changes in 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) activity, histopathological changes, antioxidant responses and acetylcho...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Study on the relationship of genotoxic and oxidative potential of a new mixed chelate copper antitumoral drug, Casiopeina II-gly (Cas II-gly) in Drosophila melanogaster
Publication date: Available online 13 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Vega E. Jiménez, Pimentel Emilio, Martha P. Cruces, A. Amaya-Chávez, L. Ruiz-Azuara The present study evaluates the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in a wild strain of Drosophila melanogaster and the genotoxic potential induced by Cas II-gly (a new antineoplastic drug) using the somatic mutation and recombination test. Larvae 48h old were treated with Cas II-gly in a range of 0 to 1.5mM and aliquot were taken every 24h to have individuals treated for 24, 48, 72h and adultho...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Improved building up a model of toxicity towards Pimephales promelas by the Monte Carlo method
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Alla P. Toropova, Andrey A. Toropov, Maria Raskova, Ivan Raska By optimization of so-called correlation weights of attributes of simplified molecular input-line entry system (SMILES) quantitative structure − activity relationships (QSAR) for toxicity towards Pimephales promelas are established. A new SMILES attribute has been utilized in this work. This attribute is a molecular descriptor, which reflects (i) presence of different kinds of bonds (double, triple, and stereo chemical bonds); (ii) presence of ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Dietary exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (BDE-47) inhibits development and alters thyroid hormone-related gene expression in the brain of Xenopus laevis tadpoles
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Alexandra T. Yost, Leah M. Thornton, Barney J. Venables, Marlo K. Sellin Jeffries Few studies have investigated the thyroid-disrupting effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) across multiple levels of biological organization in anurans, despite their suitability for the screening of thyroid disruptors. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on development, thyroid histology and thyroid hormone-related gene expression in Xenopus laevis expose...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 11, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Development of an in vitro test battery for the screening of the receptor-mediated mechanism and the spindle-poison mode of action of estrogenic compounds
In this study, a battery of tests, suitable for reproductive toxicology testing, was developed with the objective of detecting the mechanism of action of estrogenic and xenoestrogenic compounds. With this aim, two compounds known for their estrogenic activity, diethylstilbestrol and 17β-estradiol, were used to set up four different in vitro tests: 1) bovine oocyte in vitro maturation assay, 2) bovine preimplantation embryo in vitro culture assay and 3) MCF-7 and 4) BALB/3T3 cell lines proliferation and cytotoxicity assay, respectively. The results show that this battery of tests allows to identify and to distinguish b...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Role of DNA methylation in bisphenol Aexposed mouse spermatocyte
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Li Yin, Yanlin Dai, Jiang Xiao, Yong Liu, Hongqiang Chen, Fei Han, Jia Cao, Jinyi Liu As a widespread environmental contaminant, bisphenol A (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane, BPA) has been implicated in male reproductive function injury. Previous studies have investigated the mechanisms of DNA damage and oxidative stress caused by BPA; however, little is known regarding its impact on DNA methylation. In this paper, we assessed the adverse effects of BPA on mouse spermatocytes and investigated a potential role of ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Protective effect of quercetin in gentamicin-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo in blood cells. Effect on gentamicin antimicrobial activity
Publication date: Available online 9 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Pamela Soledad Bustos, Romina Deza-Ponzio, Paulina Laura Páez, Ines Albesa, José Luis Cabrera, Miriam Beatriz Virgolini, María Gabriela Ortega We have evaluated the effect of gentamicin and gentamicin plus quercetin on ROS production, endogenous antioxidant defenses (SOD and CAT) and lipid peroxidation in vitro on human leukocytes and in vivo on whole rat blood. Gentamicin generated ROS production in human leukocytes, produced a dual effect on both enzymes dosage-dependent and generated an in...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 10, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, As and MeHg) as risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: A general review of metal mixture mechanism in brain
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Venkatanaidu Karri, Marta Schuhmacher, Vikas Kumar Human exposure to toxic heavy metals is a global challenge. Concurrent exposure of heavy metals, such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and methylmercury (MeHg) are particularly important due to their long lasting effects on the brain. The exact toxicological mechanisms invoked by exposure to mixtures of the metals Pb, Cd, As and MeHg are still unclear, however they share many common pathways for causing cognitive dysfunction. The combination of metals may produce...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Metabolism and toxicity of arsenicals in mammals
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Adeel Sattar, Shuyu Xie, Mian Abdul Hafeez, Xu Wang, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Zahid Iqbal, Yuanhu Pan, Mujahid Iqbal, Muhammad Abubakr Shabbir, Zonghui Yuan Arsenic (As) is a metalloid usually found in organic and inorganic forms with different oxidation states, while inorganic form (arsenite As-III and arsenate As-v) is considered to be more hazardous as compared to organic form (methylarsonate and dimethylarsinate), with mild or no toxicity in mammals. Due to an increasing trend to using arsenicals as growth pro...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Lead accumulation and metallothionein content in female rats of different ages and generations after daily intake of Pb-contaminated food
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Cássia Regina Bruno Nascimento, Wagner Ezequiel Risso, Claudia Bueno dos Reis Martinez Female Wistar rats of different ages (45, 90 and 140 days) and generations (mothers and offspring) were fed a feed containing 2.0mg of Pb kg−1 daily from weaning and the Pb accumulation was determined in different organs and in maternal milk, in addition metallothioneins (MTs) content was determined the liver and kidneys. The results showed that Pb accumulation exhibited the following pattern: bone>liver&...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Dietary exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ether 47 (PBDE-47) inhibits development and alters thyroid hormone-related gene expression in the brain of Xenopus laevis tadpoles
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Alexandra T. Yost, Leah M. Thornton, Barney J. Venables, Marlo K. Sellin Jeffries Few studies have investigated the thyroid-disrupting effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) across multiple levels of biological organization in anurans, despite their suitability for the screening of thyroid disruptors. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effects of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) on development, thyroid histology and thyroid hormone-related gene expression in Xenopus laevi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - November 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Gallic acid attenuates chromium-induced thyroid dysfunction by modulating antioxidant status and inflammatory cytokines
In conclusion, GA has shown strong modulatory potential against PD-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in albino rats. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Diazepam influences urinary bioindicator of occupational toluene exposure
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Alberto Thalison Silveira, Ana Carolina Campos Albuquerque, José Salvador Lepera, Isarita Martins In the present study, we investigated the influence of diazepam (DZP) on the excretion of TOL by examining their urinary metabolites, hippuric acid (HA) and ortho-cresol (o-C). Male Wistar rats were exposed to TOL (20ppm) in a nose-only exposure chamber (6h/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks) with simultaneous administration of DZP (10mg/kg/day). Urinary o-C levels were determined by GC-MS, while HA, creatinine (CR)...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Strain differences in intestinal toxicity of warfarin in rats
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Ivana Mirkov, Aleksandra Popov Aleksandrov, Marina Ninkov, Dina Mileusnic, Jelena Demenesku, Lidija Zolotarevski, Vesna Subota, Debora Stefik, Dragan Kataranovski, Milena Kataranovski Intestinal hemorrhage characterizes effectiveness of warfarin (WF) as rodenticide and is among adverse effects of therapy in humans. Having in mind genetic variations in the effectiveness of WF in wild rats and in the doses required for therapeutic effect, strain differences in the intestinal toxicity of oral warfarin in rats were e...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Thyroid endocrine disruption in male zebrafish following exposure to binary mixture of bisphenol AF and sulfamethoxazole
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Bareum Kwon, Younglim Kho, Pan-Gyi Kim, Kyunghee Ji Thyroid endocrine disruption by bisphenol AF (BPAF) alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole (SMX) exposure was evaluated in adult male zebrafish. Changes in thyroid gene expression were examined using microarrays and were linked to effects on thyroxine hormone production and expression of genes related to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. BPAF alone or in combination with SMX affected genes related to thyroid hormone production and receptor activity...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The suppressive effects of aluminum chloride on the osteoblasts function
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Yanzhu Zhu, Feibo Xu, Xijun Yan, Liguang Miao, Haitao Li, Chongwei Hu, Zhongying Wang, Shizhen Lian, Zhuo Feng, Yanfei Li Aluminum (Al) exposure impairs bone formation, and bone formation is mediated by the osteoblasts. But effects of Al on the osteoblasts function remain elusive. The osteoblasts were exposed to 0, 0.0252, 0.126, 0.252mg/mL AlCl3·6H2O for 24h. The osteoblasts viability, TGF-β1, BMP-2, IGF-I and Cbfα1 mRNA expressions, and GSH-Px and SOD activities, ROS concentration were determined. The...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead in human hair and typical foods in eleven Chinese cities
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Tong Zhou, Zhu Li, Fan Zhang, Xiaosan Jiang, Weiming Shi, Longhua Wu, Peter Christie Concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in 384 human hair samples and 445 purchased food samples from 11 cities in China. The mean concentrations of hair As, Cd and Pb were 0.23, 0.062 and 2.45mgkg−1, respectively. The As, Cd and Pb concentrations in different foods were lower than the national maximum allowable contaminant levels. By comparison, males had higher hair As concentrations but lower C...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Changes in the levels of l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine and propionyl-l-carnitine are involved in perfluorooctanoic acid induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo
In conclusion, changes in the levels of LC, ALC and PLC in early embryonic stages are associated with PFOA induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryos. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Combined effects of low levels of palmitate on toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles to THP-1 macrophages
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Qin Jiang, Xiyue Li, Shanshan Cheng, Yuxiu Gu, Gui Chen, Yuexin Shen, Yixi Xie, Yi Cao We have recently proposed that the interaction between food components and nanoparticles (NPs) should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of NPs. In the present study, we used THP-1 differentiated macrophages as a model for immune cells and investigated the combined toxicity of low levels of palmitate (PA; 10 or 50μM) and ZnO NPs. The results showed that PA especially at 50μM changed the size, Zeta potential and UV–v...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pim-2 protects H9c2 cardiomyocytes from hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis via downregulation of Bim expression
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Yan Xu, Yawei Xing, Yanjie Xu, Chahua Huang, Huihui Bao, Kui Hong, Xiaoshu Cheng We know that silencing Bim, a pro-apoptosis protein, significantly attenuates glucose and oxygen-deprived induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the Bim activation in the heart have remained unknown. Pim-2 is one of three Pim serine/threonine kinase family members thought to be involved in cell survival and proliferation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were subjected to a hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) co...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Coniferaldehyde inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis through the PKC α/β II/Nrf-2/HO-1 dependent pathway in RAW264.7 macrophage cells
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Ki Mo Kim, Deok Rim Heo, Young-A. Kim, Jun Lee, No Soo Kim, Ok-Sun Bang Coniferaldehyde (CA) exerts anti-inflammatory properties by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To define the regulation mechanism by which CA induces a cytoprotective function and HO-1 expression, the up-stream regulations involved in the activation of nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf)-2/HO-1 pathway were investigated. CA dramatically increased the Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-in...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zearalenone as an endocrine disruptor in humans
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Karolina Kowalska, Dominika Ewa Habrowska-Górczyńska, Agnieszka Wanda Piastowska-Ciesielska Zearalenone (ZEA), a fungal mycotoxin, is present in a wide range of human foods. Many animal studies have found ZEA to possess a disruptive effect on the hormonal balance, mainly due to its similarity to naturally-occurring estrogens. With increasing consciousness of the adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on human health, it is becoming more important to monitor ZEA concentrations in food and identify its potential e...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Contribution of oxidative stress to TiO2 nanoparticle-induced toxicity
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Bin Song, Ting Zhou, WenLong Yang, Jia Liu, LongQuan Shao With the rapid development of nanotechnology, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used in many fields. People in such workplaces or researchers in laboratories are at a higher risk of being exposed to TNPs, so are the consumers. Moreover, increasing evidence revealed that the concentrations of TNPs are elevated in animal organs after systematic exposure and such accumulated TNPs could induce organ dysfunction. Although cellular responses such as oxida...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 25, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pyrogallol abates VSMC migration via modulation of Caveolin-1, Matrix metalloproteinase and intima hyperplasia in carotid ligation mouse
This study attempted to dissect the role of Cav-1 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) in VSMC migration and to investigate the effect of pyrogallol on VSMC mobility during carotid artery ligation mice. The mRNA expression of MMP-3 and MMP-13 was down-regulated in cultured VSMC prepared from Cav-1-deficient (Cav-1 KO) mice whereas MMP-14 expression was up-regulated. Pyrogallol effectively inhibited the migration of Cav-1 KO VSMC by promoting the expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2. Pyrogallol also inhibited the migration of Cav-1 wild type (WT) VSMC, however, by increasing TIMP-1 expression and repr...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Prenatal Paraquat exposure induces neurobehavioral and cognitive changes in mice offspring
Publication date: Available online 13 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yassine Ait bali, Saadia Ba M’hamed, Mohammed Bennis In the present work, we investigated developmental toxicity of Paraquat (PQ), from the 1st or 6th day of mating and throughout the gestation period. We have examined several parameters, including toxicity indices, reproductive performance, sensorimotor development, as well as anxiety and cognitive performance of the offspring. Our results showed that exposure to 20mg/kg of Paraquat during the first days of pregnancy completely prevents pregnancy in treate...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Cadmium tolerant characteristic of a newly isolated Lactococcus Lactis Subsp. Lactis
This study indicated that ultrastructural analysis can be a supplemental method to study heavy metal resistance mechanism of microorganism and the newly isolated lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis has great potential to be applied to decontamination of heavy metals. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides on alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mice exposed to PM2.5
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Xu Chu, Xiao-Ju Liu, Jing-Man Qiu, Xiao-Li Zeng, Hai-Rong Bao, Juan Shu Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are used for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the effects of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) and Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharides (CPP) on alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytosis and inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) associated with exposure to particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5). A mouse model of COP...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 14, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Assessing placental corticotrophin-releasing hormone disruption by hexestrol in a cell model
This study showed that hexestrol exposure might be a concern for pregnant women. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 13, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Life-cycle exposure to BDE-47 results in Thyroid Endocrine Disruption to adults and offsprings of zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Publication date: Available online 12 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Xuesong Zhao, Xin Ren, Baixiang Ren, Zhouying Luo, Rong Zhu 2,2,4',4'-Tetrabromodi-phenyl ether (BDE-47) is predominantly concentrated in humans and wildlife and disturbs thyroid hormone homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to characterize the thyroid endocrine disruption induced by life-cycle exposure to BDE-47 in adults and offspring of zebrafish (Danio rerio). We exposed zebrafish embryos at the blastula stage to different concentrations of BDE-47 (1, 5, and 10μg/L). Exposure duration was 180days unti...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 13, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Perturbation of metabonome of embryo/larvae zebrafish after exposure to fipronil
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Lu Yan, Chenxue Gong, Xiaofeng Zhang, Quan Zhang, Meirong Zhao, Cui Wang The escalating demand for fipronil by the increasing insects’ resistance to synthetic pyrethroids placed a burden on aquatic vertebrates. Although awareness regarding the toxicity of fipronil to fish is arising, the integral alteration caused by fipronil remains unexplored. Here, we investigated on the development toxicity of fipronil and the metabolic physiology perturbation at 120hour post fertilization through GC-MS metabolomics on z...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 6, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Refuse leachate exposure causes changes of thyroid hormone level and related gene expression in female goldfish (Carassius auratus)
Publication date: Available online 5 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yufeng Gong, Hua Tian, Xiaona Zhang, Yifei Dong, Wei Wang, Shaoguo Ru To elucidate the potential thyroid disrupting effects of refuse leachate on females, female goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to 0.5% diluted leachates from each step of a leachate treatment process (i.e. raw leachate before treatment, after membrane bioreactor treatment, and the final treated leachate) for 21 days. Raw leachate exposure caused disturbances in the thyroid cascade of female fish, as evidenced by the elevated plasma 3,3ʹ,...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Low dose extended exposure to saxitoxin and its potential neurodevelopmental effects: A review
Publication date: December 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 48 Author(s): Katie O’Neill, Ian F. Musgrave, Andrew Humpage Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are a group of potent neurotoxins well known for their role in acute paralytic poisoning by preventing the generation of action potentials in neuronal cells. They are found in both marine and freshwater environments globally and although acute exposure from the former has previously received more attention, low dose extended exposure from both sources is possible and to date has not been investigat...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Potential anti-inflammatory natural products from marine algae
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): I.P. Shanura Fernando, Jae-Woon Nah, You-Jin Jeon Inflammatory diseases have become one of the leading cause of health issue throughout the world, having a considerable influence on healthcare costs. With the emerging developments in natural product, synthetic and combinatorial chemistry, a notable success has been achieved in discovering natural products and their synthetic structural analogs with anti-inflammatory activity. However, many of these therapeutics have indicated detrimental side effects upon prolonge...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 4, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Biosynthesis of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and their in vitro cytotoxicity against cardiac cell lines of Catla catla
Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Fu-Yan Xing, Lin-Lin Guan, Yan-Long Li, Chun-Juan Jia This work reports a one-step simple synthesis method for functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by a Platanus orientalis leaf extract polyphenol-mediated deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO). Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization revealed the successful deoxygenation of GO and subsequent stabilization by oxidized polyphenols of plant extract. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses were used ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 3, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Curcumin-cyclodextrin complexes enhanced the anti-cancer effects of curcumin
In conclusion, these results suggested that CD15 formulation should be used as a system for improving curcumin delivery and its therapeutic efficacy in lung cancer. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Chlorhexidine possesses unique cytotoxic actions in rat thymic lymphocytes: Its relation with electrochemical property of membranes
Publication date: Available online 1 October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Kayo Nonami, Shohei Saitoh, Yumiko Nishimura-Danjyobara, Shiro Ishida, Yasuo Oyama Chlorhexidine (CHX) is an antibacterial agent used in various types of pharmaceutical products. Therefore, CHX is easily found around us. Owing to its positive charge, the electrochemical property of cell membranes was assumed to be a key point of cytotoxic action of CHX. Depolarization of membranes attenuated the cytotoxic action of CHX in rat thymic lymphocytes. CHX interfered with annexin V binding to membranes. Manipulations to ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - October 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Low Dose Extended Exposure to Saxitoxin and its potential neurodevelopmental effects: a review.
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Katie O’Neill, Ian F Musgrave, Andrew Humpage Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogs, the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are a group of potent neurotoxins well known for their role in acute paralytic poisoning by preventing the generation of action potentials in neuronal cells. They are found in both marine and freshwater environments globally and although acute exposure from the former has previously received more attention, low dose extended exposure from both sources is possible and to date has not been i...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 29, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Gestational and lactational exposure to low-dose bisphenol A increases Th17 cells in mice offspring
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Shimeng Luo, Yun Li, Yingpei Li, Qixing Zhu, Jianhua Jiang, Changhao Wu, Tong Shen Increasing evidence demonstrates that perinatal exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA) can cause immune disorders throughout the life span. However, the biological basis for these immune disorders is poorly understood and the effects of exposure to BPA on Th17 development are unknown. The present study sought to characterize alterations of Th17 cells in childhood and adulthood following gestational and lactational exposure to environmenta...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The immune responses and expression of metallothionein (MT) gene and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) in juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii, exposed to waterborne arsenic (As3+)
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang Juvenile rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii (mean length 16.4±1.9cm, and mean weight 71.6±6.4g) were exposed for 20days with the different levels of waterborne arsenic concentration (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400μg/L). The plasma cortisol of S. schlegelii was significantly increased by the waterborne arsenit exposure. In the immune responses, the immunoglobulin M (IgM) and lysozyme activity of S. schlegelii were significantly increased by the waterborne arsenic exposure. The ace...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Heavy metals (Pb, Cd, MeHg, As) as risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: A general review of metal mixture mechanism in Brain
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Venkatanaidu Karri, Marta Schuhmacher, Vikas Kumar Human exposure to toxic heavy metals is a global challenge. Concurrent exposure of heavy metals, such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), methylmercury (MeHg) and arsenic (As) are particularly important due to their long lasting effects on the brain. Although, the exact mechanism of neurotoxicity of metal mixture (Pb, Cd, As and MeHg) is unclear, but their main target region is hippocampus and they share many common pathways for causing cognitive dysfunction. The combi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The biological activity of cationic liposomes in drug delivery and toxicity test in animal models
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Panpan Qi, Mei Cao, Liju Song, Chong Chen, Mingdong Liu, Ningzhe Li, Daoyan Wu, Jingshan Peng, Guoku Hu, Jian Zhao In the study we made use of DOTAP (1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium), DOPE (1,2-dioleoyl-snglycero-3-phosphoethanolamine) and PEG-PE (polyethylene glycol- polyethylene) to make cationic PEG-liposomes by ultrasonic dispersion method. The plasmid pGPU6 combined with cationic PEG-liposomes or Liopofectamin 2000 was used to transfect PC3 cells to judge the transfection efficiency. HE staining showed th...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Comparative assessment of cardiac activity and DNA damage in haemocytes of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis in exposure to tributyltin chloride
This study gives an insight in sensitivity of heart rate (Hr) of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a physiological biomarker. Impact of tributyltin chloride (TBT-Cl) on Hr was studied in parallel with evaluation of mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of TBT-Cl (10, 100 and 1000μg/L) within 96h treatment in static conditions. Mutagenic potential was assessed by SOS/umuC assay while genotoxicity was assessed in haemocytes of M. galloprovincialis by using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was used as a positive control. Hr variations detected in TBT-Cl treatments can be linked to data ob...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 27, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Bisphenol A and its analogs: Do their metabolites have endocrine activity?
Publication date: Available online 22 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Darja GramecSkledar, Lucija Peterlin Mašič Structural analogs of bisphenol A are commonly used as its alternatives in industrial and commercial applications. Nevertheless, the question arises whether the use of other bisphenols is justified as replacements for bisphenol A in mass production of plastic materials. To evaluate the influence of metabolic reactions on endocrine activities of bisphenols, we conducted a systematic review of the literature. Knowledge about the metabolic pathways and enzymes inv...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

NSCA-1; A Novel N-substituted Coumalamide Derivative; Increases Adriamycin Sensitivity in HepG2/adriamycin Cells through Modulating Akt/GSK-3 β Signaling and p53-dependant Apoptotic Pathway
In this study, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel N-substituted coumalamide derivative (NSCA-1). The results indicated that NSCA-1 exerts synergistic cytotoxicity with Adriamycin in HepG2/ADR (HepG2/adriamycin) cells. Furthermore, both of the Akt kinase activity and phosphorylated Akt (Ser473) were found to be inhibited by NSCA-1 and subsequently resulting in decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β. The intracellular accumulation of Adriamycin was also boosted by NSCA-1 via reducing the expression of p-gp. In addition, we found that combined treatment with NSCA-1 enhance cell apoptosis induced by...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hydroxylation of multi-walled carbon nanotubes: enhanced biocompatibility through reduction of oxidative stress initiated cell membrane damage, cell cycle arrestment and extrinsic apoptotic pathway
In this study, we carried out a comprehensive evaluation of hydroxylated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-OH) on the human normal liver L02 cell line, and compared it with that of pristine multi-walled carbon nanotubes (p-MWCNTs). Results demonstrated that compared with p-MWCNTs, MWCNTs-OH induced significantly lower oxidative stress as indicated by the level of intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH), subsequently lead to less cell membrane damage as demonstrated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay, and showed slightly decreased arrestment of cell cycle distribution at G0/G1. More interestingly, MWCNTs-O...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Avoidance behavior of Eisenia fetida in oxytetracycline- and heavy metal-contaminated soils
Publication date: Available online 19 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Minling Gao, Mengting Lv, Meng Han, Wenhua Song, Dong Wang To determine the behavior of oxytetracycline (OTC) and heavy metals in soil, this study assessed the pollutant-induced avoidance behavior of earthworms (E. fetida) exposed to zinc (Zn2+), lead (Pb2+), and OTC in soil. The results showed a clear avoidance response within 48h of exposure to the highest concentrations of pollutants. Moreover, E. fetida was shown to be more sensitive to Zn2+ than to Pb2+ and OTC. Compared with OTC alone, the net response of...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 20, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

An improved in vitro method for screening toxin and medicine targeting CYP2E1
Publication date: October 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 47 Author(s): Meng Wang, Zhaoxiang Zhou, Jian Wang, Xiaoying Zhang The cytochrome P450 enzyme 2E1 (CYP2E1) presents in both microsome and mitochondrion, which influences the metabolism of many xenobiotics. The mice active liver homogenate was prepared for the medicinal incubation and mitochondrion was extracted for chemical screening targeting CYP2E1 enzyme. Representative CYP2E1 inducers (ethanol and pyrazole) and inhibitors (diallyldisulfide and kaempferol) were applied to evaluate the effectiveness of homogenate-mitochondrial system...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Influence of silver and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on in vitro blood-brain barrier permeability
This study provided the new insight of toxic potency of AgNPs and TiO2NPs in BBB. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effect of Dibutyl Phthalate on Expression of Connexin 43 and Testosterone Production of Leydig Cells in Adult Rats
Publication date: Available online 15 September 2016 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Jing Zhang, Shuguang Jin, Jinchang Zhao, Huan Li To investigate the adverse effect of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) on Leydig cells and its mechanism related to gap junction, Leydig cells isolated from adult rats were treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 50mg/L DBP, 50mg/L DBP+10μM prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 40μM flutamide respectively. Radioimmunoassay, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot were applied to determine the expression of testosterone and Connexin 43 (Cx43) in Leydig...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The influence of maternal smoking on transferrin sialylation and fetal biometric parameters
Conclusion It has been shown the relationship between Cd from tobacco smoking and fetal biometric parameters observed only in the irondeficient group suggesting an additive effect of these two factors, and indicate that mothers with anemia may be more susceptible to Cd toxicity and disturbed fetal development. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - September 16, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research