Sperm DNA fragmentation: An early and reliable marker of air pollution
This study compared the seminal parameters and sperm DFI in men living in areas with different levels of air pollution. Results demonstrate that both steel plants workers and patients living in a high polluted area show a mean percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation above 30%, highlighting a clear sperm damage. In this work, two different techniques were used to measure sperm DNA damage in patients’ groups, finding in both cases a high sperm DFI in patients living in polluted areas. We candidate sperm DNA fragmentation as a valuable early marker of the presence and harmful effects of pollution. We suggest that sperm DN...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The toxicology of indium oxide
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 58 Author(s): Ernst M. Bomhard Indium oxide (In2O3) is a technologically important semiconductor essentially used, doped with tin oxide, to form indium tin oxide (ITO). It is poorly soluble in all so far tested physiologic media. After repeated inhalation, In2O3 particles accumulate in the lungs. Their mobilization can cause significant systemic exposure over long periods of time. An increasing number of cases of severe lung effects (characterized by pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, emphysema and/or interstitial fibrosis) in workers of th...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 13, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Effects of DDT and permethrin on rat hepatocytes cultivated in microfluidic biochips: metabolomics and gene expression study
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Rachid Jellali, Perrine Zeller, Françoise Gilard, Audrey Legendre, Marie José Fleury, Sébastien Jacques, Guillaume Tcherkez, Eric Leclerc Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and permethrin (PMT) are amongst most prevalent pesticides in the environment. Although their toxicity has been extensively studied, molecular mechanisms and metabolic effects remain unclear, including in liver where their detoxification occurs. Here, we used metabolomics, coupled to RT-qPCR analysis, to examine effec...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 11, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evaluation of caffeine effects on biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the neotropical freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 58 Author(s): Thais G. Santos-Silva, Cassiana C. Montagner, Claudia B.R. Martinez Caffeine is often found in aquatic environments, leading to concerns regarding its adverse consequences for aquatic biota. Biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers were analysed in juveniles of Prochilodus lineatus to evaluate the effects of caffeine. Fish were exposed to caffeine (0.3, 3 and 30 μg L−1) for either 24 h or 168 h. Longer exposure to caffeine resulted in a significant reduction in the activity of the phase I biotransformation enzy...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 11, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Multiple pharmacological activities of Caesalpinia crista against aluminium-induced neurodegeneration in rats: Relevance for Alzheimer ’s disease
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 58 Author(s): Sunil K. Ravi, Balenahalli Narasingappa Ramesh, Ravi Mundugaru, Bruno Vincent Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and mainly affects cognitive function of the aged populations. Aluminium, a neurotoxic metal, has been suggested as a contributing factor of AD. Caesalpinia crista is a medicinal plant known for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of methanolic extracts of C. crista (MECC...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 4, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hydroxylated and sulfated metabolites of commonly occurring airborne polychlorinated biphenyls inhibit human steroid sulfotransferases SULT1E1 and SULT2A1
Publication date: March 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 58 Author(s): Victoria S. Parker, Edwin J. Squirewell, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Larry W. Robertson, Michael W. Duffel Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that are associated with varied adverse health effects. Lower chlorinated PCBs are prevalent in indoor and outdoor air and can be metabolized to their hydroxylated derivatives (OH-PCBs) followed by sulfation to form PCB sulfates. Sulfation is also a means of signal termination for steroid hormones. The human estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1) and alc...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 4, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

DNA repair mechanisms in response to genotoxicity of warfare agent sulfur mustard
Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Yunes Panahi, Amir Fattahi, Hamid Reza Nejabati, Sina Abroon, Zeinab Latifi, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Tohid Ghasemnejad Sulfur mustard (SM) is an alkylating agent that causes severe damages to the skin, eyes, and the respiratory system. DNA alkylation is one of the most critical lesions that could lead to monoadducts and cross-links, as well as DNA strand breaks. In response to these adducts, cells initiate a series of reactions to recruit specific DNA repair pathways. The main DNA repair pathways in human cells, whi...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Methodology for Exposing Avian Embryos to Quantified Levels of Airborne Aromatic Compounds Associated with Crude Oil Spills
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Benjamin Dubansky, Guido Verbeck, Phillip Mach, Warren Burggren Oil spills on birds and other organisms have focused primarily on direct effects of oil exposure through ingestion or direct body fouling. Little is known of indirect effects of airborne volatiles from spilled oil, especially on vulnerable developing embryos within the bird egg. Here a technique is described for exposing bird embryos in the egg to quantifiable amounts of airborne volatile toxicants from Deepwater Horizon crude oil. A novel membrane i...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effect of Zataria multiflora on pulmonary function tests, hematological and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in sulfur mustard exposed veterans, a randomized doubled-blind clinical trial
Conclusion Z. multiflora reduces inflammatory cells and oxidant biomarkers, while increase antioxidant biomarkers and improved PFT tests in SM exposed patients in a two moth treatment period. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation exposure effects on amygdala morphology, place preference behavior and brain caspase-3 activity in rats
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan, Nirupam Mohapatra, Pamala John, Nalini K., Raju Suresh Kumar, Satheesha B. Nayak, P. Gopalakrishna Bhat The purpose of the study was to evaluate the changes in amygdala morphology and emotional behaviors, upon exposure to chronic RFEMR in adolescent rats. Four weeks old male albino Wistar rats were exposed to 900 MHz (power density:146.60 μW/cm2) from a mobile phone in silent-mode for 28 days. Amygdala morphology was studied using cresyl violet, TUNEL and Golgi-Cox staining. Plac...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Multiple pharmacological activities of Caesalpinia crista against aluminium- induced neurodegeneration in rats: Relevance for Alzheimer ’s disease
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Sunil K. Ravi, Ramesh B. Narasingappa, Ravi Mundugaru, Bruno Vincent Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and mainly affects cognitive function of the aged populations. Aluminium, a neurotoxic metal, has been suggested as a contributing factor of AD. Caesalpinia crista is a medicinal plant known for its anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of methanolic extracts of C. crista (ME...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effects of capping protein gelsolin against hyperoxia-induced hepatotoxicity, oxidative stress and DNA damage in neonatal rats
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Sedat Per, Mehmet Kose, Ahmet Ozdemir, Dilek Pandir Tissues and organs get exposed to high oxygen (O2) supply in hyperoxia conditions. The goal of this research was to investigate the protective effect of actin binding protein gelsolin on hyperoxia-induced hepatotoxicity through histopathology and measurement of oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage in a neonatal Wistar albino rats. The pups were randomly separated to four equal groups such as: normoxia control group (NC), normoxia plus gelsolin group (NG, 1...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Protective role of nebivolol in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity via downregulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammatory pathways
Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Marwa M.M. Refaie, Maram El-Hussieny, Nagwa M. Zenhom Cadmium (Cd) intoxication in human occurs through inhalation of cigarette smoke and ingestion of contaminated water and food. We investigated the role of nebivolol (NEB) in Cd induced hepatotoxicity. In our study; NEB was given as (10mg/kg/d) orally to rats for 6 weeks, in the presence or absence of hepatotoxicity induced by oral administration of Cd (7mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks. Levels of serum liver enzyme biomarkers; alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transami...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - February 2, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Changes in intermediate metabolism and oxidative balance parameters in sexually matured three-barbeled catfishes exposed to herbicides from rice crops (Roundup ®, Primoleo® and Facet®)
This study analyzed the effect of different concentrations of herbicides (Facet®, Primoleo®, and Roundup®) on metabolism and oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, lipid peroxidation) in the gills, liver, kidneys, and tail muscle of adult catfish. All herbicides caused protein depletion in gills, increased glycogen and triacylglycerol consumption in the liver, and changes in muscle glycogen. Roundup® and Primoleo® stimulated lipid deposition in the liver, while Roundup® and Facet® stimulated lipid consumption in gills. In kidneys, protein content increased after Roundup&r...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 9, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genotoxicity analysis of five particle matter toxicants from cigarette smoke based on γH2AX assay combined with Hill/Two-component model
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Sen Zhang, Huan Chen, An Wang, Yong Liu, Hongwei Hou, Qingyuan Hu To investigate the genotoxic characteristics of typical toxicants in particle phase of cigarette smoke, including B[a]P, nicotine, tar, NNN and NNK. The in vitro γH2AX assay was used to detect the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in A549 cells using high content screening (HCS). The results showed all toxicants had a dose/time-dependent effects on induction of γH2AX except for NNN and NNK. Based on dose-response of γH2AX and Hill mo...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Salidroside influences the cellular cross-talk of human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts: A proteomic approach
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Wenmin Xing, Wenyan Gao, Huili Su, Sanying Wang, Jing Zhang, Genxiang Mao, Jing Yan Senescence is a complex multiple factor proces, which is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to find the proteome of cultured human fetal lung diploid fibroblasts (2BS) of different population doubling (PD), as well as the altered proteome induced by salidroside (SAL) in 2BS cells. Proteins were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combining matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time and fli...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Long-term high air pollution exposure induced metabolic adaptations in traffic policemen
Conclusion Long-term high air pollution exposure may lead to metabolism adaptation and it is likely involved in the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - January 6, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Celecoxib, a Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, offers Chemoprevention against Reproductive and Neurobehavioural Abnormalities Induced by Atrazine in Male Wistar Rats
Publication date: Available online 30 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): O.E. Kale, T.O. Oyesola, F.S. Raji The cyclooxygenase-2/prostanoid pathway (COX-2) serves as a potential therapeutic target in various pathological conditions. Thus, the modulatory effect of celecoxib (CXB), a COX-2 inhibitor, in atrazine-induced toxicity was investigated. Five groups (n = 6 rats per group) of adult male Wistar rats received corn oil, (10 ml/kg), atrazine (ATZ, 300 mg/kg) and CXB (5.7 mg/kg) respectively and their combinations via the oral route. Results obtained showed reduced (p &a...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 30, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Inhibition of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity by selected environmental xenobiotics
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Łukasz Lewandowski, Marta Kepinska, Halina Milnerowicz The function of Cu,Zn-SOD is to dismutate superoxide into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. This task is fulfilled due to structural nuances of the enzyme. Many environmental xenobiotics have been proved to inhibit Cu,Zn-SOD. Those compounds could be found not only in industrial sewage, cigarettes and various chemical agents − some of them are used as drugs, drug production substrates, or are the product of drug biotransformation. Cu,Zn-SOD exposition to ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 29, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A novel mouse model of atopic dermatitis that is T helper 2 (Th2)-polarized by an epicutaneous allergen
Publication date: Available online 29 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Hyun Jung Park, Wahn Soo Choi, Won Young Lee, Youngsok Choi, Chankyu Park, Jin Hoi Kim, Kwon Ho Hong, Hyuk Song The pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves T helper 2 (Th2) cells, and effective therapies remain elusive due to the paucity of animal models. We aimed to develop a mouse model of an immune system aberration caused by allergen. Experiments were conducted in two phases. In experiment 1, BALB/c mice were sensitized with one of four chemical allergens – toluene diisocyanate (TDI), hexamethy...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 29, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Impact of co-exposure of aldrin and titanium dioxide nanoparticles at biochemical and molecular levels in zebrafish
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Reena C. Jhamtani, Saurabh Shukla, P. Sivaperumal, M.S. Dahiya, Rakhi Agarwal Aldrin (ALD), a persistent-organic-pollutant (POP), an organochlorine-cyclodiene-pesticide is highly toxic in nature. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNP) are widely used for various industrial applications. Despite the remarkable research on pesticide toxicity, the work with impact of nanoparticles on POP has been dealt with marginally. Chemicals co-exist in the environment and exhibit interactive effects. An investigation was carried...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 28, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In situ assessment of Karaj River genotoxic impact with the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus test, on feral brown trout (Salmo trutta fario)
Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Mehran Hariri, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Hamid Farahmand, Lobat Taghavi, Amir-Reza Shahabinia The in situ evaluation of the genotoxic impact of the Karaj River was performed using the comet and micronucleus (MN) assays in erythrocytes, liver, gill and kidney of indigenous brown trout, Salmo trutta fario from three different stations, including Varangerud, Asara and Purkan. The results showed that DNA damage significantly increased in sampled fish erythrocytes, liver and gill from low levels in the upstream river (Vara...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 28, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Role of venlafaxine in prevention of cyclophosphamide-induced lung toxicity and airway hyperactivity in rats
This study aimed to investigate the prophylactic impacts of venlafaxine against CP-induced lung toxicity in rats. Rats were assigned randomly into 3 groups; control, CP (150 mg/kg) and CP/venlafaxine (50 mg/kg). On the end day, rats were sacrificed then bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) and lungs were harvested. CP produced significant decrease in animal body weights and significant increase in lung/body weight ratio; levels of LDH, total protein, total and differential cell counts in BALF in comparison with control group. Moreover, significant elevation in contents of MDA, NOx, TNF-α and IL-1β and significant de...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The effect of divalent metal chelators and cadmium on serum phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase activities of paraoxonase 1
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Anna Bizoń, Halina Milnerowicz Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is calcium depend enzyme involved in many functions in human body. PON1 is synthesized in the liver and secreted to the bloodstream where bounds high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Association of PON1 with HDL increases the enzyme stability and biological activities. PON1 have three different activities: phosphotriesterase, lactonase and arylesterase. Until now there is now commercial available kits to determine these three PON1 activities. Also there is no date ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Myricetin enhances on apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC12 cells mediated by mitochondrial signaling pathway
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 57 Author(s): Gongxun Tan, Rachael A. Uson-Lopez, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito, Masaaki Kurasaki Polyphenols have many beneficial effects and an effective disease therapeutic auxiliary drug. Previously, myricetin, a polyphenol, had been reported to possess various biological effects on human physiology. However, mechanism of myricetin on apoptosis induced in PC12 cells is still unclear. PC12 cells were treated with myricetin in two concentration levels comprising 0.1 and 1 μM under serum-free condition....
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Cancelling pesticide registrations and revoking tolerances: The case of chlorpyrifos
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 57 Author(s): Terence J. Centner Petitions submitted to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have sought to cancel registrations of chlorpyrifos and to revoke chlorpyrifos tolerances in or on food due to adverse health effects on people. Under federal law, tolerances for pesticide chemical residues in or on food must provide with reasonable certainty that no harm will result from a person's aggregate exposure. Petitioners’ claims are analyzed under the legal requirements to discern whether the EPA had a rationa...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Chronic exposure to a glyphosate-containing pesticide leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and increased reactive oxygen species production in Caenorhabditis elegans
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 57 Author(s): Denise C. Bailey, Callie E. Todt, Shelbie L. Burchfield, Aireal S. Pressley, Rachel D. Denney, Isaac B. Snapp, Rekek Negga, Wendy L. Traynor, Vanessa A. Fitsanakis Glyphosate-containing herbicides are among the most widely-used in the world. Although glyphosate itself is relatively non-toxic, growing evidence suggests that commercial herbicide formulations may lead to increased oxidative stress and mitochondrial inhibition. In order to assess these mechanisms in vivo, we chronically (24h) exposed Caenorhabditis elegans to...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Changes in first trimester fetal CYP1A1 and AHRR DNA methylation and mRNA expression in response to exposure to maternal cigarette smoking
This study assessed the impact of exposure to maternal smoking on first trimester fetal CYP1A1 and AHRR mRNA expression and DNA methylation for CpG-sites displaying maternal smoking during pregnancy-mediated methylation changes at birth. The analyses included first trimester (6–12 weeks) placentas (N=39) and livers (N=43). For AHRR, exposure to maternal smoking was associated with increased DNA methylation in the placentas of female fetuses; mRNA expression, however, was unchanged. While exposure to maternal smoking was not associated with AHRR DNA methylation changes in fetal livers; mRNA expression was increased. F...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Combined toxicity of triclosan, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol to zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 57 Author(s): Yuhuan Zhang, Mi Liu, Jinfeng Liu, Xuedong Wang, Caihong Wang, Weiming Ai, Shaobo Chen, Huili Wang Triclosan (TCS), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) are the most prevalent chlorinated phenolic pollutants in aquatic environments. Our results showed LC50 and EC50 values of 0.51, 1.11, 2.45mg/L, and 0.36, 0.74, 1.53mg/L for TCS, 2,4,6-TCP and 2,4-DCP, respectively, to 120hpf zebrafish. The highest TCSD (the mixture of TCS, 2,4,6-TCP and 2,4-DCP) toxicity was observed at a TCS:2,4,6-TCP:2,4-D...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 27, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Sensitivity of medaka (Oryzias latipes) to 4-nonylphenol subacute exposure; erythrocyte alterations and apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Alaa El-Din H. Sayed, Chisato Kataoka, Shoji Oda, Shosaku Kashiwada, Hiroshi Mitani The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of the endocrine-disrupting compound; 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) in medaka (Oryzias latipes). The frequencies of erythrocyte alterations, apoptosis, and micronuclei were used as biological indicators of damage. Medaka were exposed 15 days to 4-NP at three sublethal concentrations (50, 80, and 100 100 μg/l 4-NP) and results compared with those of a previous study using catfis...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 26, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Paraquat treatment modulates integrin associated protein (CD47) and basigin (CD147) expression and mitochondrial potential on erythroid cells in mice
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Nitin Bhardwaj, Ashutosh Singh The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the erythroid system in bone marrow and spleen of mice. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg of body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced the level of reactive oxygen species in bone marrow (BM) on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but it was unchanged in spleen erythroid cell. A marked induction of CD147 expression in BM and spleen erythroid cells was observed in the paraquat treated mice. Paraquat ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 24, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Acute toxicity, uptake, and elimination of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) using saltwater microcrustacean, Artemia franciscana
This study aims to evaluate the potential toxic effects of ZnO nanoparticles on Artemia franciscana nauplii. The ZnO NPs suspension was characterized by TEM, EDS and DLS techniques. Acute toxicity was investigated by exposure of nauplii to concentrations of 1, 5, 7.5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/L of ZnO NPs for 48 h and 96 h. The 96-h EC10 and EC50 values of ZnO NPs were found to be 1.39 mg/L and 4.86 mg/L respectively. The ZnO NPs suspensions did not cause any significant acute toxicity after 48 h of exposure, but the immobilization rate increase significantly compare to control group after 96 h (P < ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 21, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Enhancement of myricetin on apoptosis induced by serum deprivation in PC-12 cells mediated by mitochondrial signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Gongxun Tan, Rachael Uson Lopez, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Takeshi Saito, Masaaki Kurasaki Polyphenols have many beneficial effects and an effective disease therapeutic auxiliary drug. Previously, myricetin, a polyphenol, had been reported to possess various biological effects on human physiology. However, mechanism of myricetin on apoptosis induced in PC12 cells is still unclear. PC12 cells were treated with myricetin in two concentration levels comprising 0.1 and 1 μM under serum-free con...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 18, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide protects neonatal rat medulla oblongata against prenatal cigarette smoke exposure via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Xiang Yan, Fang Lei, Yajie Hu, Lihong Nie, Qingyi Jia, Hua Zhou, Fusheng Zhao, Yu Zheng We previously demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protected neonatal rat medulla oblongata from prenatal cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) via anti-apoptotic effect. The present work further investigated the involvement of anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of H2S in the protection. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into NaCl, CSE, CSE + NaHS (a donor of H2S) and NaHS groups. All the tests wer...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

High Resolution Metabolomics to Determines the Risk Associated with bisphenol A Exposure in Humans
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Seongha Cho, Adnan Khan, Sun Ha Jee, Hee-Seok Lee, Myung-Sil Hwang, Yong Eui Koo, Youngja H. Park Although high BPA exposure has been correlated with several metabolic diseases, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the present study, a metabolomics approach was used to explore the metabolic variations caused by low or high BPA exposure in female (n = 96) and male (n = 98) urine. Fatty acid elongation and sphingolipid metabolism were affected by high BPA exposure in males and females. Fatty acid elon...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

S-Allyl-glutathione, a synthetic analogue of glutathione protected liver against carbon tetrachloride toxicity: focus towards anti-oxidative efficiency
Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Palvannan Thayumanavan, Chitra Loganathan, Ancy Iruthayaraj, Kumaradhas Poomani, Selvan Nallaiyan A simple analogue of well known natural antioxidant glutathione (GSH) called S-Allyl-glutathione (SAG) was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress liver injury in rat. Pretreatment of SAG attenuated the CCl4-toxicity induced elevation of liver injury markers such as enzymes (AST, ALT, GGT, ALP and LDH) and bilirubin in the blood circulation. Such protective effect of SAG resulted in pr...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Regulation of ABCG2 by nuclear factor kappa B affects the sensitivity of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells to arsenic trioxide
In this study, using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as a cell culture model, we demonstrated that an adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter, ABCG2, was significantly increased by As2O3 treatment, while other ABC transporters, ABCB1 and ABCC1 showed no remarkable change in the response to As2O3. After inhibition of ABCG2 by its specific inhibitor, the drug sensitivity of As2O3 to A549 cells was significantly enhanced, manifested by decreased cell viability and colony formation as well as the increased ROS production and cell apoptosis. To further understand the molecular mechanism underlying the ele...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Eugenol enhances proliferation and migration of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro
In conclusion, this study revealed that Eugenol enhances the proliferation and migration of MSCs, and thus this will be beneficial to the field of regenerative medicine. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hepatoprotective effect of thymol against subchronic toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: Biochemical and histological evidences
In conclusion, thymol effectively protects against nano-TiO2-induced hepatotoxicity in rats by its antioxidant properties. (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In-silico and in-vitro evaluation of Human Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition by Organophosphates
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Anuj Ranjan, Abhishek Chauhan, Tanu Jindal Organophosphates (OP) inhibit the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and devastate the nervous system of pest however its mode of action is ubiquitous and acts similarly on human AChE (hAChE). Screening of OP was carried out by molecular docking with hAChE using Glide docking module of Schrodinger suite as the structural information of hAChE and OP together as co-crystal structure is rarely available. The docking was done at three different precision levels, high thro...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Role of fluoride induced histone trimethylation in development of skeletal fluorosis
In conclusion, present investigation is a first attempt to link fluoride induced hyper H3K9 tri-methylation mediated repression of TGFBR2 and SMAD3 with the development of skeletal fluorosis. Graphical abstract (Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology)
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Enhanced visible light photodegradation of pharmaceutical pollutant, warfarin by nano-sized SnTe, effect of supporting, catalyst dose, and scavengers
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): S. Vadaei, H. Faghihian Improvement of new nanophotocatalysts enable to decompose the pharmaceutical pollutants with the aid of solar energy is of particular importance. In this research, the ability of SnTe photocatalyst for degradation of warfarin was enhanced and the separation difficulties of the used photocatalyst, from solutions was removed by immobilization of the photocatalyst on a suitable porous support. A novel nano-sized photocatalyst was prepared by coupling of SnTe on the surface of SBA-15 support....
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In vitro activity of Nigella sativa against antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica
Publication date: Available online 17 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Sadia Ashraf, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Ali Ahmad, Sehrish Firyal, Saba Sana, Asma Abdul Latif Salmonellosis is a major food-borne disease worldwide and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella is a public health problem. Phytochemicals are alternative therapeutics to treat antibiotic resistant Salmonella. Biochemically identified Salmonella enterica of human and poultry origin (n = 10) were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibiotics was determined by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. In-v...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Acetyl-l-carnitine attenuates arsenic-induced liver injury by abrogation of mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and apoptosis in rats
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Vida Bodaghi-Namileh, Mohammad Reza Sepand, Ameneh Omidi, Mehdi Aghsami, Seyed Afshin Seyednejad, Sara Kasirzadeh, Omid Sabzevari Industrial and agricultural developments in recent years have resulted in the excessive discharge of arsenic into the environment, making arsenic toxicity a major worldwide concern. Oxidative stress is considered the primary mechanism for arsenic toxicity. The main objective of this study was to evaluate acetyl-l-carnitine’s (ALC) protective ability against the arsenic-induced h...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 13, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Activation of human eosinophils with palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs): importance of the actin cytoskeleton in Pd NPs-induced cellular adhesion
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): P. Chhay, M. Murphy-Marion, Y. Samson, D. Girard Palladium (Pd) is known to be released into the environment in the fine and ultrafine (at the nanoscale) airborne particle fractions mainly from automobile catalytic converters leading to an increase human exposure to this noble metal. It was reported that Pd can induce allergic reactions in individuals exposed to it via different ways. Some studies reported an increased number of eosinophils into airways following NP exposure in vivo in rodent models of allergies...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 12, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antifouling processes and toxicity effects of antifouling paints on marine environment. A review
Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Intissar Amara, Wafa Miled, Rihab Ben Slama, Neji Ladhari The production infrastructure in aquaculture invariably is a complex assortment of submerged components with cages, nets, floats and ropes. Cages are generally made from polyamide or high density polyethylene (PEHD). All of these structures serve as surfaces for biofouling. However, cage nets and supporting infrastructure offer fouling organisms thousands of square meters of multifilament netting. That's why, before immersing them in seawater, they should ...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 9, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

The Selectivity of Artemisinin-Based Drugs on Human Lung Normal and Cancer Cells
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Xinyang Li, Shiyan Gu, Donglei Sun, Huangmei Dai, Hongyu Chen, Zunzhen Zhang Artemisinin-based drugs are documented to possess anticancer potential that is selectively effective to cancer cells. However, this selectivity is disputable in different studies and the mechanism is still unclear. To clarify this discrepancy, this study employed five assays to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of artemisinin and artesunate on normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. The results of f...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 8, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic models for estimating human exposure to five toxic elements through oral ingestion
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology Author(s): Eric Dede, Marcus J. Tindall, John W. Cherrie, Steve Hankin, Chris Collins Biological monitoring and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling are useful complementary tools in quantifying human exposure to elements in the environment. In this work, we used PBPK models to determine the optimal time for collecting biological samples in a longitudinal study to determine if participants who consumed allotment produce had been exposed to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, nickel or lead. There are a number of P...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 8, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

N-acetyl-l-cysteine ameliorates the PM2.5-induced oxidative stress by regulating SIRT-1 in rats
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 57 Author(s): Lu Yang, Zheng Duan, Xin Liu, Yadong Yuan Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a class III histone deacetylase, plays a major role in combating cellular oxidative stress injury. However, the role of SIRT1 in oxidative stress induced by particulate matter remains unclear. A total of 32 healthy male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into PM2.5, PM2.5 +NAC, filtered air (control), and filtered air+NAC (NAC control) groups. The expressions of MnSOD, SIRT1, and FOXO3a were examined at both transcriptional and protein l...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 7, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In vitro study on the joint hepatoxicity upon combined exposure of cadmium and BDE-209
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 57 Author(s): Lixin Wang, Miaomiao Zheng, Yu Gao, Jiansheng Cui Joint toxicity is an important issue during the risk assessment of environmental pollutants. Contamination of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the environmental and biological settings poses substantial health risk to humans. Although previous studies demonstrated the co-occurrence of cadmium and decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) in environmental mediums, food chains and even human body, their potentially joint toxicities remain elusive thu...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - December 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research