A Pilot Survey of Potentially Hazardous Trace Elements in the Aquatic Environment Near a Coastal Coal-Fired Power Plant in Taiwan.
Conclusions: The EPA must set an explicit regulation limit for aluminum, boron, iron, and strontium in the aquatic environment. This exploratory research will inform policymaking regarding certain trace elements that could potentially have an adverse impact on public health and wildlife. PMID: 31367176 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kok VC, Winn PR, Hsieh YJ, Chien JW, Yang JM, Yeh GP Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Lessons Learned From the Creating Active Communities and Healthy Environments Toolkit Pilot: A Qualitative Study.
This study sought to improve its implementation process and assess subsequent Action Plan Guides' utility at 5 military installations. Baseline data included a knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs survey (N = 34); post-Toolkit implementation data included focus groups (N = 2) and interviews (N = 10). Although>80% of participants agreed the built environment affects healthy living, only 44%, 53%, and 35% agreed their installations' built environments promoted healthy eating, physical activity, and tobacco-free living, respectively. Emerging themes comprised "Opportunities to Im...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - July 21, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Shams-White MM, Cuccia A, Ona F, Bullock S, Chui K, McKeown N, Must A Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Disarmament is the New War, Gold is the New Opium, and Ecohealth is the Historic Victim.
Abstract In Colombia, the convergence of drug trafficking, illegal armed groups, and gold production and trade threatens peace and stability in the post-FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia) era, as had the narcotics trade previously. Armed groups and criminal organizations have increased and consolidated their influence over illegal mining and may be diverting US$5 billion from Colombia's annual economy. As of 2014, 46% of the total area (78 939 ha) exploited for alluvial gold was in the Afro-Colombian Pacific States, in which unregulated mining was the main driver of deforestation. The info...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - July 21, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Villar D, Schaeffer DJ Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Salmonella and Shigella Among Asymptomatic Street Food Vendors in the Dire Dawa city, Eastern Ethiopia: Prevalence, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern, and Associated Factors.
Conclusions: The carrier rate of Salmonella and Shigella was relatively low. Most isolates have developed resistance to amoxicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline. The odds of Salmonella and Shigella was high among those who lack a habit of hand washing with soap after the use of the toilet and with untrimmed fingernails. Regular screening and appropriate hygienic control measures are needed in place to reduce the risk of infections. PMID: 31263372 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - July 4, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tadesse G, Mitiku H, Teklemariam Z, Marami D Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

A Review of Studies Evaluating Insecticide Barrier Treatments for Mosquito Control From 1944 to 2018.
Conclusions: Many of the basic questions on the effectiveness of barrier insecticide applications have been answered, but several important details still must be investigated to improve precision and impact on vector-borne pathogen transmission. Recommendations are made to assist future evaluations of barrier treatments for mosquito control and to limit the potential development of insecticide resistance. PMID: 31263373 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - July 4, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Stoops CA, Qualls WA, Nguyen TT, Richards SL Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Modelling the Mediating Effect of Health Care Healing Environment on Core Health Care Delivery and Patient Satisfaction in Ghana.
Conclusion: Stakeholders of the Ghanaian health care sector should take initiatives to constantly improve the quality of health care healing environment as it has an influence on patient satisfaction of the overall core health care delivery. PMID: 31217690 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - June 22, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Amankwah O, Weng-Wai C, Mohammed AH Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Impairment of Mitochondrial-Nuclear Cross Talk in Lymphocytes Exposed to Landfill Leachate.
Abstract Landfill leachate, a complex mixture of different solid waste compounds, is widely known to possess toxic properties. However, the fundamental molecular mechanisms engaged with landfill leachate exposure inducing cellular and sub-cellular ramifications are not well explicated. Therefore, we aim to examine the potential of leachate to impair mitochondrial machinery and its associated mechanisms in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. On assessment, the significant increase in the dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence, accumulation of 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), and levels of nuclear factor erythroi...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - June 8, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Gupta P, Bhargava A, Kumari R, Lodhi L, Tiwari R, Gupta PK, Bunkar N, Samarth R, Mishra PK Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

A Qualitative Exploration of a Worksite Wellness Mini-Grant Program.
Abstract Mini-grant programs are an increasingly popular method for outside organizations (eg, non-profits, state agencies) to support wellness initiatives. However, little is known about mini-grant programs in worksites. The present study explored the implementation and outcomes of a worksite wellness mini-grant program. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 wellness champions representing 12 worksites that were involved in a mini-grant program over a 4-year span. Interviews focused on general use, barriers and facilitators, and outcomes of the mini-grant initiatives. Mini-grants were generally used t...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - June 8, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Warehime S, Coyle B, Abel K, Sedani A, Holes J, Dinkel D Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Nutrition and Environmental Pollution Extension Curriculum Improved Diet-Related Behaviors and Environmental Health Literacy.
Abstract Kentucky experiences some of the nation's worst health outcomes related to obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure, and other age-related chronic diseases linked with oxidative stress and inflammation, which in turn are associated with poor diet, lack of physical activity, and exposure to certain environmental pollutants. In the Commonwealth, deteriorating infrastructure, inappropriate waste disposal, and potential occupational injury related to mining, agriculture, and other regionally important industries exacerbate the need for residents to have basic knowledge of potential environmental health threats....
Source: Environmental Health Insights - April 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Brewer D, Bellamy H, Hoover A, Koempel A, Gaetke L Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Exploring Association Between Individuals' Stature and Type 2 Diabetes Status: Propensity Score Analysis.
This study uses Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 data collected from an observational study. Considering height (tall/normal/short) based on percentiles separately for men and women, logistic regression model was fitted to the propensity score (PS)-adjusted weighted data. No significant relationship between respondents' height and diabetes was observed. We also found that the occurrence of diabetes significantly varies with respect to sex, education level, wealth index, body mass index (BMI), and region/division. As, in general, women are shorter than men by nature, we strongly argue that height categor...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - March 27, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Talukder A, Akter N, Sazzad Mallick T Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Access to Soft-Surface, Green Exercise Trails in Mountainous, Urban Municipalities.
This study characterizes trail access and predictors among urban, mountainous municipalities in the Utah Wasatch Front region. Access was determined using two-standard deviation ellipses (2SDE) activity space analysis, and predictors were identified using multiple linear regression. About 42% municipalities had no trailhead access (ie no trailhead within its corresponding activity space). Trail density and trailheads were significantly correlated (r = 0.49, P = .004). There was a significant trail density cluster in the southern area of the study region, centered all over the city of Alpine. Red...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - March 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Chaney RA, Stones EJ Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Microbial Quality of Drinking Water and Prevalence of Water-Related Diseases in Marigat Urban Centre, Kenya.
Abstract Background: Accessibility to potable water is a fundamental right for dignity and well-being. Despite this observation, more than 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water. This is particularly true in the Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia regions. Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess microbial quality of drinking water and prevalence of water-related diseases in Marigat town, Baringo County, Kenya. Methods: Samples of drinking water were collected from water sources (boreholes, rivers, and wells) and at the point of use (households) and analyzed for Escher...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - March 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Osiemo MM, Ogendi GM, M'Erimba C Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Open Defecation Practices in Lodwar, Kenya: A Mixed-Methods Research.
This article reports on both qualitative and quantitative aspects of a cross-sectional study. A partially mixed sequential dominant (quantitative) status was used to understand various socioeconomic factors associated with OD practice in Lodwar's human settlements, Turkana County. Simple random sampling technique was chosen to select participants for this study with the sample drawn from various administrative units of Lodwar. Standardized questionnaires, focus group discussions, and key informant interviews were used to collect data. Results: The quantitative findings revealed that culture was the leading factor as t...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - March 4, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Busienei PJ, Ogendi GM, Mokua MA Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Pesticide poisoning: A response to Eddleston.
ane D PMID: 30728720 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - February 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Authors: London L, Jørs E, Neupane D Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Health Dynamics in the Built Environment: An Urban Intensity Perspective - An Exploratory Study in Trinidad and Tobago.
In this study, health dynamics in the built environment are explored along the urban-rural gradient in Trinidad and Tobago. The gradient is measured by a statistically validated Urban Intensity Index developed previously, using physical data from the built environment. Published physical health data from National Surveys as well as data collected on perceptions of health care access and environmental quality are utilised in conjunction with the Urban Intensity Index values to model chronic illness. Multivariate statistical analysis and maps are used to explore and illustrate these dynamics. Ultimately, the outputs of this ...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - December 15, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Chadee S, Stoute V Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

The Effects of Natural Daylight on Length of Hospital Stay.
Conclusions: Clinical trials that test evidence-based designs of physical environments in wards or hospital rooms are usually difficult to perform. As an alternative strategy, using accumulated electronic medical data, we assessed this key element of hospital design. PMID: 30546262 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - December 15, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Park MY, Chai CG, Lee HK, Moon H, Noh JS Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

The Restorative Value of the Urban Environment: A Systematic Review of the Existing Literature.
Discussion: Certain urban environments hold a restorative potential. However, the literature on restoration in urban environments is still quite scarce and therefore has been of little practical use. Even though applying the findings to real-life environments is desirable, it might prove difficult, considering the overall sparse evidence. More research on the predictors of restoration likelihood (eg, social factors), generational and cultural differences, and comparisons between natural and urban environments is recommended. PMID: 30505146 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - December 8, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Weber AM, Trojan J Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Adverse Human Health Impacts in the Anthropocene.
This study quantified the influence of environmental contaminants, relative to human exposures and the consequence of developing nephroblastomatosis in the human population. PMID: 30479484 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - November 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Olawoyin R Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Contamination of Household Open Wells in an Urban Area of Trivandrum, Kerala State, India: A Spatial Analysis of Health Risk Using Geographic Information System.
Conclusion: Despite the presence of wells with high risk of contamination and inadequate chlorination practices, the apparent rarity of Water-borne diseases in the area may be attributed to the widespread boiling and water purification practices at the consumption level by the households. GIS technology proves useful in picking environmental determinants like polluting sources near the well and to plan control activities. PMID: 30369786 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - October 30, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ananth M, Rajesh R, Amjith R, A L A, Valamparampil MJ, Harikrishnan M, Resmi MS, Sreekanth KB, Sara V, Sethulekshmi S, Prasannakumar V, Deepthi SK, Jemin AJ, Krishna DS, Anish TS, Insija IS, Nujum ZT Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Heat-Related Training and Educational Material Needs among Oil Spill Cleanup Responders.
This study assessed heat-related training and educational materials currently used and desired by oil spill cleanup responders. A needs assessment was completed by 65 oil spill cleanup responders regarding their occupational heat-related experiences and training needs. Oil spill cleanup responders reported participating on average in 37 oil spill cleanup activities per year. Most reported experiencing additional HRI risk factors, such as high temperatures and humidity and wearing personal protective equipment and clothing ensembles, respirators, and personal flotation devices. Many reported experiencing symptoms of HRI (pr...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - September 30, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jacklitsch BL, King KA, Vidourek RA, Merianos AL Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Fate, Transformation, and Toxicological Impacts of Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Surface Waters.
Abstract With the growth of the human population, a greater quantity of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) have been released into the environment. Although research has addressed the levels and the impact of PPCPs in the environment, the fate of these compounds in surface waters is neither well known nor characterized. In the environment, PPCPs can undergo various transformations that are critically dependent on environmental factors such as solar radiation and the presence of soil particles. Given that the degradation products of PPCPs are poorly characterized, these "secondary residues"...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - September 8, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Maldonado-Torres S, Gurung R, Rijal H, Chan A, Acharya S, Rogelj S, Piyasena M, Rubasinghege G Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Spatio-Temporal Variation of Particulate Matter(PM2.5) Concentrations and Its Health Impacts in a Mega City, Delhi in India.
This study was designed to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in a mega city, Delhi. The daily PM2.5 concentrations monitored by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), New Delhi during November 2016 to October 2017 in different locations distributed in the region of the study were used for the analysis. The descriptive statistics indicate that the spatial mean of monthly average PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 45.92 μg m-3 to 278.77 μg m-3. The maximum and minimum spatial variance observed in the months of March and September, res...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - August 29, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Gorai AK, Tchounwou PB, Biswal SS, Tuluri F Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Response to Jors et al, Environmental Health Insights.
PMID: 30046242 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - July 28, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Eddleston M Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Insights Into the Environmental Health Burden of Childhood Asthma.
PMID: 29497308 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - March 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Kelley T, Kearney GD Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

An Operational Evaluation of 3 Methoprene Larvicide Formulations for Use Against Mosquitoes in Catch Basins.
Abstract Effectiveness in controlling mosquitoes in storm water catch basins in the North Shore Mosquito Abatement District (northeastern Cook County, Illinois) was determined for 3 formulations of methoprene-based larvicides (Altosid XR 150-day Briquets, Altosid 30-day Pellets, Altosid 30-day Granules) in 2017 using a pass/fail evaluation criterion, in which emergence of a single adult from pupae collected from the basin constituted a control failure. Over the course of the 16-week study, basins receiving the 150-day briquets were treated once and basins receiving the pellet and granular formulations were treated...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - March 3, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Harbison JE, Runde AB, Henry M, Hulsebosch B, Meresh A, Johnson H, Nasci RS Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Using Watershed Boundaries to Map Adverse Health Outcomes: Examples From Nebraska, USA.
This article is a follow-up to that original article. From an environmental perspective, watersheds segregate landscapes into geospatial units that may be relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiologic perspective, the watershed concept places anthropogenic health data into a geospatial framework that has environmental relevance. Research discussed in this article includes information gathered from the literature, as well as recent data collected and analyzed by this research group. It is our contention that the use of watersheds to stratify geospatial information may be both environmentally and epidemiologically...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - February 7, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Corley B, Bartelt-Hunt S, Rogan E, Coulter D, Sparks J, Baccaglini L, Howell M, Liaquat S, Commack R, Kolok AS Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Pesticide Poisonings in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.
don L Abstract Aims and scope This editorial is an introduction to the papers making up the special issue on 'pesticide poisonings in low- and middle income countries'. PMID: 29326530 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - January 14, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jørs E, Neupane D, London L Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Potential Effectiveness of Point-of-Use Filtration to Address Risks to Drinking Water in the United States.
Abstract Numerous contemporary incidents demonstrate that conventional control strategies for municipal tap water have limited ability to mitigate exposures to chemicals whose sources are within distribution systems, such as lead, and chemicals that are not removed by standard treatment technologies, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)/perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In these situations, point-of-use (POU) controls may be effective in mitigating exposures and managing health risks of chemicals in drinking water, but their potential utility has not been extensively examined. As an initial effort to fill this...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - December 23, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Brown KW, Gessesse B, Butler LJ, MacIntosh DL Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Plasma Cholinesterase Levels of Nepalese Farmers Following Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides.
Conclusions: Increase in acute intoxication signs/symptoms and decrease in PChE indicate a serious public health problem among farmers who use organophosphate pesticides. Appropriate training to the farmers is needed to reduce exposure to organophosphate pesticide. PMID: 29225470 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - December 13, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Neupane D, Jørs E, Brandt LPA Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Linking Air Quality and Human Health Effects Models: An Application to the Los Angeles Air Basin.
Abstract Proposed emission control strategies for reducing ozone and particulate matter are evaluated better when air quality and health effects models are used together. The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is the US Environmental Protection Agency's model for determining public policy and forecasting air quality. CMAQ was used to forecast air quality changes due to several emission control strategies that could be implemented between 2008 and 2030 for the South Coast Air Basin that includes Los Angeles. The Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program-Community Edition (BenMAP-CE) was used to...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - November 23, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Stewart DR, Saunders E, Perea RA, Fitzgerald R, Campbell DE, Stockwell WR Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Open Defaecation and Its Effects on the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Isiolo County, Kenya.
CONCLUSIONS: The water sources exhibited high levels of contamination with microbial pathogens attributed to poor sanitation. Practising safe faecal disposal in particular is recommended as this will considerably reverse the situation and thus lead to improved human health. PMID: 29051705 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - October 22, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Okullo JO, Moturi WN, Ogendi GM Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Prevalence, Circumstances, and Management of Acute Pesticide Poisoning in Hospitals in Kampala City, Uganda.
This study was aimed at assessing prevalence, circumstance, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study that involved reviewing of 739 poisoning patient records from 5 hospitals in Kampala. Of the 739 patients, 212 were due to pesticide poisoning resulting in a prevalence of 28.8%. About 91.4% (191/210) of the cases were due to organophosphate poisoning, 63.3% (133/210) were intentional, and 98.1% (206/210) were exposed through ingestion. Diagnosis was majorly based on poisoning history 91.2% (187/205), and clinical features such as airways, breathing, a...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - September 16, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ssemugabo C, Halage AA, Neebye RM, Nabankema V, Kasule MM, Ssekimpi D, Jørs E Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Effects of Teaching Health Care Workers on Diagnosis and Treatment of Pesticide Poisonings in Uganda.
CONCLUSIONS: Training health care workers can improve their knowledge and treatment of pesticide poisonings. Knowledge of the subject is still insufficient among health care workers and further training is needed. PMID: 28890656 [PubMed] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - September 13, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sibani C, Jessen KK, Tekin B, Nabankema V, Jørs E Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania.
Abstract Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - July 12, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Mrema EJ, Ngowi AV, Kishinhi SS, Mamuya SH Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study Auxiliary Findings on 2007-Compliant Diesel Engines: A Comparison With Diesel Exhaust Genotoxicity Effects Prior to 2007.
Abstract Since its beginning, more than 117 years ago, the compression-ignition engine, or diesel engine, has grown to become a critically important part of industry and transportation. Public concerns over the health effects from diesel emissions have driven the growth of regulatory development, implementation, and technological advances in emission controls. In 2001, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board issued new diesel fuel and emission standards for heavy-duty engines. To meet these stringent standards, manufacturers used new emission after-treatment technology,...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - July 1, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hallberg LM, Ward JB, Wickliffe JK, Ameredes BT Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Assessment of Dithiocarbamate Residues on Tomatoes Conventionally Grown in Uganda and the Effect of Simple Washing to Reduce Exposure Risk to Consumers.
This study assessed the level of dithiocarbamate residues in tomatoes acquired from 20 farmers and 25 market vendors in Wakiso District, how simple washing affects these residues, and the potential chronic health risk for Ugandans eating such tomatoes. Results revealed that mancozeb was the only reported dithiocarbamate, and 47.4% and 14% of farm and market samples, respectively, had dithiocarbamate residues exceeding the Codex alimentarius maximum residue limit of 2 mgCS2/kg. Mixing concentration had a positive significant effect on dithiocarbamate residue levels (P = 0.004). Washing reduced dithiocarbamate residues by a ...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - June 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Atuhaire A, Kaye E, Mutambuze IL, Matthews G, Friedrich T, Jørs E Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Characteristics of Pesticide Poisoning in Rural and Urban Settings in Uganda.
This study evaluates cases of registered pesticide poisonings treated in selected rural (N = 101) and urban (N = 212) health facilities in Uganda from January 2010 to August 2016. In the urban setting, pesticides were the most prevalent single poison responsible for intoxications (N = 212 [28.8%]). Self-harm constituted a significantly higher proportion of the total number of poisonings in urban (63.3%) compared with rural areas (25.6%) where unintentional poisonings prevailed. Men were older than women and represented a majority of around 60% of the cases in both the urban and rural settings. Unintentional cases were almo...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - June 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Pedersen B, Ssemugabo C, Nabankema V, Jørs E Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Self-reported Effects of Water on Health in First Nations Communities in Saskatchewan, Canada: Results From Community-Based Participatory Research.
Abstract Water-related health challenges on First Nations reserves in Canada have been previously documented. Our objective was to describe factors associated with self-reported health effects from tap water in 8 First Nations reserve communities in Saskatchewan, Canada. Community-based participatory approaches were used in designing and implementing cross-sectional household surveys. Individual, household, community, and contextual effects were considered in multilevel analysis. Negative health effects from tap water were reported by 28% of households (n = 579). Concerns about environmental factors affecting wate...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Waldner CL, Alimezelli HT, McLeod L, Zagozewski R, Bradford LE, Bharadwaj LA Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Knowledge and Practices Relating to Acute Pesticide Poisoning Among Health Care Providers in Selected Regions of Tanzania.
This study aimed at characterizing experience and skills of Tanzanian HCPs regarding APP diagnosis and management. METHODOLOGY: The population included HCPs responsible for managing APP in Kilimanjaro and Arusha regions (n = 91). The resulting sample included 66 respondents (response rate: 73%). The data were collected in 2005 using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Half of all respondents (50%) reported handling at least 1 APP case with 15% reporting handling more than 5 cases in the past. Reported experience of handling an APP case was marginally higher in respondents who reported ⩾4 years of work experi...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Lekei E, Ngowi AV, Mkalanga H, London L Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Epidemiology of Organophosphate Poisoning in the Tshwane District of South Africa.
CONCLUSIONS: Improvement in data collection on organophosphate poisoning is essential to properly measure the burden of the problem. More effective regulatory controls for pesticide use are needed in South Africa. PMID: 28469445 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Razwiedani LL, Rautenbach P Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Using machine learning to estimate atmospheric Ambrosia pollen concentrations in Tulsa, OK.
This article describes an example of using machine learning to estimate the abundance of airborne Ambrosia pollen for Tulsa, OK. Twenty-seven years of historical pollen observations were used. These pollen observations were combined with machine learning and a very complete meteorological and land surface context of 85 variables to estimate the daily Ambrosia abundance. The machine learning algorithms employed were Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO), neural networks, and random forests. The best performance was obtained using random forests. The physical insights provided by the random forest are also ...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Liu X, Wu D, Zewdie GK, Wijerante L, Timms CI, Riley A, Levetin E, Lary DJ Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Insights Into the Morphology of the East Asia PM2.5 Annual Cycle Provided by Machine Learning.
In this study, we use machine learning to classify the morphology of PM2.5 seasonal cycles in East Asia. Machine learning is able to objectively classify the seasonal cycles and, without a priori assumption, is able to clearly distinguish between urban and rural areas. We show an example of this in the Sichuan Basin of China. Furthermore, machine learning is also able to provide physical insights by identifying the key factors associated with each distinct shape of the seasonal cycle, such as highlighting the key role played by the topography and the built environment. PMID: 28469447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Env...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Wu D, Zewdie GK, Liu X, Kneen MA, Lary DJ Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Neurological Deficits After Long-term Pyrethroid Exposure.
l;nssen V Abstract Pyrethroid pesticides have been suggested to be a cause of Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. To investigate this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 Bolivian public health vector program spray men, primarily exposed to pyrethroids. Pesticide exposure and central nervous system (CNS) symptoms were determined by a structured interview, whereas neuromotor and neurocognitive performance was assessed using the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System and CATSYS system. Individuals exposed to higher levels reported significantly more CNS symptoms (adjus...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Hansen MRH, Jørs E, Lander F, Condarco G, Debes F, Bustillos NT, Schlünssen V Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Obstacles and Opportunities for Diffusion of Integrated Pest Management Strategies Reported by Bolivian Small-Scale Farmers and Agronomists.
This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices for products grown with IPM compared with traditional agriculture being hindrances for a spread of IPM. Moreover, IPM requires some new practices not that easy to learn by farmers. In favor of IPM was an increasing awareness of the importance of a healthy and sustainable food production, easiness to try out without expensive investments needed, and a higher quality of the products. A ...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Jørs E, Aramayo A, Huici O, Konradsen F, Gulis G Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Effect of Integrated Pest Management Training on Ugandan Small-Scale Farmers.
en JF Abstract Small-scale farmers in developing countries use hazardous pesticides taking few or no safety measures. Farmer field schools (FFSs) teaching integrated pest management (IPM) have been shown to reduce pesticide use among trained farmers. This cross-sectional study compares pesticide-related knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP), potential exposure, and self-reported poisoning symptoms among 35 FFS farmers, 44 neighboring farmers, and 35 control farmers after an IPM intervention in Uganda (2011-2012). The FFS farmers were encouraged to teach their neighboring farmers. Data were based on standardized inte...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Clausen AS, Jørs E, Atuhaire A, Thomsen JF Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Pesticide Residues in Commercial Lettuce, Onion, and Potato Samples From Bolivia-A Threat to Public Health?
In this study 10 potato, 10 onion, and 10 lettuce samples from La Paz were sampled on August 15, 2015 at a local market and screened for 283 pesticides. Residues of cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, difenoconazol, or/and λ-cyhalothrin were detected in 50% of the lettuce samples, whereas no pesticides were found in potatoes and onions. In 20% of the lettuce samples, the measurements were above the maximum residue limits, and 2 or 3 pesticides were identified simultaneously. Washing almost halved the pesticide levels, but still 20% of the samples showed measurements above the limits. No samples contained concentrations of p...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Skovgaard M, Encinas SR, Jensen OC, Andersen JH, Condarco G, Jørs E Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users' Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazou é and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin.
CONCLUSIONS: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance. PMID: 28469452 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Environmental Health Insights)
Source: Environmental Health Insights - May 6, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Vikkey HA, Fidel D, Elisabeth YP, Hilaire H, Hervé L, Badirou A, Alain K, Parfait H, Fabien G, Benjamin F Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Patterns of Pesticide Use and Associated Factors Among the Commercial Farmers of Chitwan, Nepal.
This study was conducted to identify the prevailing practices of pesticide use and factors affecting the handling of pesticides among the farmers of Chitwan, Nepal. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 125 farmers. None of the farmers completely followed all the protective measures. About 59% disposed the empty pesticide containers to a nearby water source and 62% preferred house ceilings as a storage place. Males (aOR = 3.99, CI = 1.63-9.78) and older farmers (aOR = 6.18, CI = 2.59-14.72) were more likely to smoke or chew tobacco during the process of spray. Males (aOR = 2.42, CI = 1.03-5.67), literate farmers (aOR...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - December 18, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Khanal G, Singh A Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Quantifying the Seafood Consumption Patterns of Recreational Anglers in Charleston and Berkeley Counties, South Carolina.
This study was designed to provide self-reported data on the frequency of fish consumption and shellfish consumption in Charleston and Berkeley (CB) counties, South Carolina. While commercial fishing and recreational fishing have played an important role in the culture and history of the area, information on the specific patterns of consumption by recreational anglers has been previously unavailable. The pilot data presented here will help determine the feasibility of a large-scale survey of seafood consumption in coastal South Carolina. The study's sampling frame consisted of CB county anglers who had purchased a recreati...
Source: Environmental Health Insights - November 29, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Perkinson MT, Faith TD, Vahey GM, Vena JE, Williams EM Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research

Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels Among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder.
The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OH)D3), active vitamin D (1, 25(OH)2D3), cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced (P
Source: Environmental Health Insights - November 2, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Ogunsakin O, Hottor T, Mehta A, Lichtveld M, McCaskill M Tags: Environ Health Insights Source Type: research