Advances in the Medical Treatment of Cushing Disease
Medical therapy has an adjunctive role in management of Cushing disease. Medical therapy is recommended for patients who received pituitary radiotherapy and are awaiting its salutary effects. Medications are used preoperatively to stabilize the condition of seriously ill patients before surgery. Medical therapy is used to control hypercortisolism in patients with uncertain tumor location. Medical therapies available for management of patients with Cushing disease include steroidogenesis inhibitors, centrally acting agents, and glucocorticoid receptor antagonists. All agents require careful monitoring to optimize clinical e...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - July 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nicholas A. Tritos, Beverly M.K. Biller Source Type: research

Pituitary Endocrinology in 2020: An Update
The “Pituitary Disorders” issue of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America features current best standards of practice and the important advances in recent years. The guest editor is Dr Niki Karavitaki, Senior Lecturer of Endocrinology at University of Birmingham, United Kingdom an d Honorary Consultant Endocrinologist at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham, where she codirects the pituitary multidisciplinary team. Dr Karavitaki, a distinguished pituitary clinician and researcher, gathered an international group of authors to deliver a clinically meaningful pituitary updat e. (Source: Endo...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - June 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Adriana G. Ioachimescu Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

The Epidemiology of Pituitary Adenomas
Pituitary adenomas are usually nonmalignant, but have a heavy burden on patients and health care systems. Increased availability of MRI has led to an increase in incidentally found pituitary lesions and clinically relevant pituitary adenomas. Epidemiologic studies show that pituitary adenomas are increasing in incidence (between 3.9 and 7.4 cases per 100,000 per year) and prevalence (76 to 116 cases per 100,000 population) in the general population (approximately 1 case per 1000 of the general population). Most new cases diagnosed are prolactinomas and nonsecreting pituitary adenomas. Most clinically relevant pituitary ade...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - June 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Adrian F. Daly, Albert Beckers Source Type: research

Barriers and Solutions for Prescribing Obesity Pharmacotherapy
This article examines the barriers and changes that are increasing the use of anti-obesity medications. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ken Fujioka, Samantha R. Harris Source Type: research

Iatrogenic Obesity
This article highlights medications known to cause weight gain. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rekha B. Kumar, Louis J. Aronne Source Type: research

Obesity
ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Michael D. Jensen Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contributors
Adriana G. Ioachimescu, MD, PhD, FACE (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contents
Adriana G. Ioachimescu (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Pituitary Disorders (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Common and Rare Complications of Bariatric Surgery
This article highlights some common and rare complications of bariatric surgery. Specifically, it discusses the risk of nutrient deficiencies (which is influenced by surgery type) and their downstream effects, including ill-effects on bone health. Rarer complications, such as postbypass hypoglycemia and alcohol use disorder, are also discussed. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Maria L. Collazo-Clavell, Meera Shah Source Type: research

Effects of Overweight and Obesity in Pregnancy on Health of the Offspring
Overweight and obesity in pregnancy confer a wide range of risks on mother, fetus, and offspring throughout their lives. In addition to compounding many common pregnancy complications, including both iatrogenic preterm delivery and cesarean delivery, obesity is associated with multiple fetal anomalies, metabolic sequelae including diabetes and obesity, allergy and asthma, attention-deficit disorder, and likely many other challenges for the offspring. As targeted interventions are being developed, encouraging solid nutrition and exercise in women of childbearing age may stave off risks and mitigate obesity in the next gener...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Margaret L. Dow, Linda M. Szymanski Source Type: research

Sex Differences in Adipose Tissue Function
Regional adipose tissue distribution differs between men and women. Differences in the accumulation of adipose tissue as well as the regulation of secretion of a number of products from adipose tissue are under the control of sex steroids, which act through a wide variety of mechanisms, both direct and indirect, to tailor metabolism to the unique needs of each sex. A fuller understanding of sex-based differences in adipose tissue function may help with tailored strategies for disease prevention and treatment and provide insights into fundamental differences in the processes that regulate nutrient homeostasis and body weigh...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kathleen M. Gavin, Daniel H. Bessesen Source Type: research

Growth Hormone and Obesity
Growth hormone (GH) exerts IGF-I dependent protein anabolic and direct lipolytic effects. Obesity reversibly suppresses GH secretion driven by elevated FFA levels, whereas serum IGF-I levels remain normal or elevated due to elevated portal insulin levels. Fasting in lean individuals suppresses hepatic IGF-I production and increases pituitary GH release, but this pattern is less pronounced in obesity. Fasting in obesity is associated with increased sensitivity to the insulin-antagonistic effects of GH. GH treatment in obesity induces a moderate reduction in fat mass and an increase in lean body mass but the therapeutic pote...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Astrid Hjelholt, Morten H øgild, Ann Mosegaard Bak, Mai Christiansen Arlien-Søborg, Amanda Bæk, Niels Jessen, Bjørn Richelsen, Steen Bønløkke Pedersen, Niels Møller, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen Source Type: research

Obesity 2020: From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Pearls
Although there have not been a large number of therapeutic advances in the field of obesity since this topic was last addressed in Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, there have been some important gains in our understanding of the regulation of adipose tissue metabolism and the nuances of the various treatment options. The first 3 articles of this issue focus on what has been learned about adipose tissue relevant to the function of various depots and the effects of endocrine factors on its function. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Michael D. Jensen Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Strategies for Physical Activity Interventions in the Treatment of Obesity
Physical activity contributes to body weight regulation. At least 150 minutes per week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity may be needed. When not coupled with dietary restriction, physical activity contributes to an average weight loss of approximately 2 to 3 kg in interventions up to 6 months in duration; when added to modest dietary restriction it adds 20% additional weight loss compared with modest dietary restriction alone. Physical activity is associated with enhanced long-term weight loss and attenuation of weight regain and should be included within clinical and public health approaches to prevent w...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: John M. Jakicic, Renee J. Rogers, Audrey M. Collins, Ronald Jackson Source Type: research

Obesity: A Closer Look
It is my great pleasure to introduce the Obesity issue of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America. The guest editor is Dr Michael D. Jensen, Professor of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Adriana G. Ioachimescu Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Endoscopic Treatments for Obesity
In the current setting of an obesity pandemic, there is an urgent need for minimally invasive, safe, and effective interventions for weight loss. Endoscopic bariatric procedures have been developed as an alternative to more traditional medical and surgical therapies. Multiple options are undergoing evaluation or are already available for clinical use. This review aims to describe these treatments, including their mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety and the knowledge gaps regarding their use. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Aoife M. Egan, Adrian Vella Source Type: research

Visceral Fat
Although visceral fat is strongly correlated with the metabolic complications of obesity, the existing data indicate it is not the cause of these complications. Excess release of free fatty acids (FFA) from adipose tissue lipolysis can account for a sizable portion of the metabolic complications of obesity. In humans, upper-body subcutaneous adipose tissue accounts for most systemic FFA, whereas visceral fat contributes a modest portion of the excess amount to which the liver is exposed. This pattern is maintained in upper-body/visceral obesity, except that greater amounts of visceral fat expose the liver to more FFA from ...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Michael D. Jensen Source Type: research

Role of Commercial Weight-Loss Programs in Medical Management of Obesity
Rates of obesity counseling are low among physicians because of the lack of time and training in this area. In recognition of this challenge, recent national guidelines encourage physicians to refer patients with obesity to intensive, comprehensive lifestyle programs to lose weight. Some commercial weight-loss programs meet these criteria, and this article reviews the evidence from randomized controlled trials regarding such programs ’ weight-loss efficacy and safety as well as glycemic outcomes among patients with and without diabetes mellitus. A discussion of how physicians might approach the referral process and c...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - April 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kimberly A. Gudzune, Jeanne M. Clark Source Type: research

Automated Insulin Delivery in Children with Type 1 Diabetes
The advent of insulin pump therapy marked an important milestone in diabetes treatment in the past few decades and has become the tipping point for the development of automated insulin delivery systems (AID). Standalone insulin pump systems have evolved over the course of years and have been replaced by modern high-technology insulin pumps with continuous glucose monitor interface allowing real-time insulin dose adjustment to optimize treatment. This review summarizes evidence from AID studies conducted in children with type 1 diabetes and discusses the outlook for future generation AID systems from a pediatric treatment p...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Eda Cengiz Source Type: research

Use of Diabetes Technology in Children
The current era has witnessed an explosion of advanced diabetes technologies. Young people with diabetes and their families require detailed, structured diabetes education in order to optimize use of such devices. There is need for youth and their families to participate in the selection of particular devices for personal use and comprehensive education regarding the safe and effective use of such technologies. The education process should ensure that youth and their families receive realistic expectations of what the advanced technologies can and cannot do to avoid disappointment and the premature discontinuation of such ...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hannah R. Desrochers, Alan T. Schultz, Lori M. Laffel Source Type: research

Diabetes Technology in the Inpatient Setting for Management of Hyperglycemia
In past decades, a rapid evolution of diabetes technology led to increased popularity and use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in the ambulatory setting for diabetes management, and recently, the artificial pancreas became available. Efforts to translate this technology to the hospital setting have shown accuracy and reliability of CGM, safety of CSII in appropriate populations, improvement of inpatient glycemic control with computerized glycemic management systems, and feasibility of inpatient CGM-CSII closed-loop systems. Several ongoing studies are focusing on co...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Georgia M. Davis, Rodolfo J. Galindo, Alexandra L. Migdal, Guillermo E. Umpierrez Source Type: research

Technology in Diabetes
ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Grazia Aleppo Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contributors
ADRIANA G. IOACHIMESCU, MD, PhD, FACE (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contents
Adriana G. Ioachimescu (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Forthcoming Issues
Obesity (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

HbA1c
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) use is growing rapidly among people with diabetes and beginning to be standard of care for managing glucose levels in insulin therapy. With this increased use, there is a need to standardize CGM data. CGM standardization has been set forth by expert panels. The Glucose Management Indicator is a concept using the CGM-derived mean glucose to provide a value that can be understood similarly to hemoglobin A1c. The times an individual spends in various glucose ranges is emerging as an important set of metrics. Metrics derived from patient CGM data are changing the way diabetes is managed. (So...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Anders L. Carlson, Amy B. Criego, Thomas W. Martens, Richard M. Bergenstal Source Type: research

Automated Insulin Delivery in Adults
Hybrid closed-loop (artificial pancreas) systems have recently been introduced into clinical practice for adults with type 1 diabetes. This reflects successful translation from research studies in highly supervised settings to evaluation of the technology in free-living home settings. We review the different closed-loop approaches and the key clinical evidence supporting adoption of hybrid closed-loop systems for adults with type 1 diabetes. We also discuss the growing evidence for automated insulin delivery in pregnant women and in hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia. We consider the psychosocial impact of closed-loo...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Charlotte K. Boughton, Roman Hovorka Source Type: research

Diabetes Technology Use in Adults with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes
This article discusses the available CGM and insulin pump systems and the clinical benefits of their use in adults with type 1 diabetes, intensively insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, and pregnant patients with preexisting diabetes. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jelena Kravarusic, Grazia Aleppo Source Type: research

Role of Glucagon in Automated Insulin Delivery
This article explores the advantages and disadvantages of incorporating glucagon into dual-hormone automated hormone delivery systems. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 10, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Leah M. Wilson, Peter G. Jacobs, Jessica R. Castle Source Type: research

Integration of Diabetes Technology in Clinical Practice
This article attempts to aid clinicians in using diabetes devices in their clinical practice. It reviews device selection, initiation, and follow-up. It discusses work flow in an office and provides tips on billing. It stresses the need for patient choice, education, and on-going support through downloading and interpretation of data to optimize care. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Anne L. Peters Source Type: research

Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes Technology
The success of diabetes technologies depends on the attitudes and behavior of the individuals who choose to adopt them. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and sensor-augmented pump systems may positively affect diabetes-related quality of life (QOL), although the influence on QOL outcomes seems to be modest and the results from randomized controlled trials are limited and controversial. In contrast, more consistently positive QOL-related responses are apparent from observational data. The newer generations of devices hold the promise for more strongly enhancing diabetes-relat...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: William H. Polonsky Source Type: research

Do-It-Yourself Artificial Pancreas System and the OpenAPS Movement
People with diabetes have been experimenting with and modifying their own diabetes devices and technologies for many decades in order to achieve the best possible quality of life and improving their long-term outcomes, including do-it-yourself (DIY) closed loop systems. Thousands of individuals use DIY closed loop systems globally, which work similarly to commercial systems by automatically adjusting and controlling insulin dosing, but are different in terms of transparency, access, customization, and usability. Initial outcomes seen by the DIY artificial pancreas system community are positive, and randomized controlled tr...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Dana M. Lewis Source Type: research

Diabetes Technology and Exercise
This article discusses recent technologies designed to help patients with diabetes to be more physically active, while also trying to improve glucose control around exercise. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Michael C. Riddell, Rubin Pooni, Federico Y. Fontana, Sam N. Scott Source Type: research

Technological Advances in Management of Diabetes Mellitus
The “Technology in Diabetes” issue of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America offers updated information on a topic that has progressed significantly in the last decade. The guest editor is Dr Grazia Aleppo, Professor of Medicine at Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern Univers ity, Chicago, Illinois. Dr Aleppo’s primary clinical and research interests consist of applications of the insulin pump therapy and real-time continuous glucose (CGM) sensor therapy in diabetes. Dr Aleppo was involved in the Endocrine Society working panel of experts that released recommendations on optimizing...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 9, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Adriana G. Ioachimescu Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Evolution of Diabetes Technology
Technological innovations have fundamentally changed diabetes care. Insulin pump use and continuous glucose monitoring are associated with improved glycemic control along with a better quality of life; automated insulin-dosing advisors facilitate and improve decision making. Glucose-responsive automated insulin delivery enables the highest targets for time in range, lowest rate and duration of hypoglycemia, and favorable quality of life. Clear targets for time in ranges and a standard visualization of the data will help the diabetes technology to be used more efficiently. Decision support systems within and integrated clou...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Klemen Dovc, Tadej Battelino Source Type: research

Technology in Diabetes: The Future Is Today
Knowledge in the field of diabetes is expanding at a rapid rate. This is especially true for the field of diabetes technology. More accurate, easier-to-use factory-calibrated continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems, sophisticated insulin pumps systems, and their combination for automated insulin delivery models are developing at an increasingly faster pace. Therefore, having another issue of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America dedicated to the use of technology in diabetes is most appropriate at this time. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - December 4, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Grazia Aleppo Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Psychosocial Aspects of Diabetes Technology Use
This article offers a systematic review of the literature on psychosocial aspects of technology use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their families, searching for relevant articles published the past 5  years. Topics included continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, continuous glucose monitoring, predictive low-glucose suspend, and artificial pancreas systems. The review indicates there are positive and negative psychosocial aspects to diabetes technology use among youth and their families. Alth ough consistent findings were revealed, contradictions exist. Discussed are recommendations for future ...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - November 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jaclyn Lennon Papadakis, Lindsay M. Anderson, Kimberly Garza, Marissa A. Feldman, Jenna B. Shapiro, Meredyth Evans, Laurie Gayes Thompson, Jill Weissberg-Benchell Source Type: research

Benefits and Challenges of Diabetes Technology Use in Older Adults
With successful aging of adults with type 1 diabetes, there is an increased opportunity to use technology for diabetes management. Technology can ease the burden of self-care and provide a sense of security. However, age-related cognitive and physical decline can make technology use difficult. Guidelines using technology in the aging population are urgently needed, along with educational material for the clinicians and caregivers. In this article, we review the evidence supporting the use of diabetes-related technologies in the older population and discuss recommendations based on current data and the authors ’ clini...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - November 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Elena Toschi, Medha N. Munshi Source Type: research

Primary Aldosteronism Diagnosis and Management
This article focuses on clinical approaches for diagnosing primary aldosteronism more frequently and earlier in its course, as well as practical treatment objectives to reduce the risk for incident cardiovascular disease. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gregory L. Hundemer, Anand Vaidya Source Type: research

Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas
This article summarizes current clinical approaches in patients with pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sergei G. Tevosian, Hans K. Ghayee Source Type: research

Resistant Hypertension
Resistant hypertension is a common clinical entity, defined as suboptimal blood pressure response to multiple therapies after excluding medication nonadherence and secondary forms of hypertension. Patients with resistant hypertension generally share several comorbidities. Resistant hypertension is more common in individuals of African descent. Blood pressure should be optimized using multiple strategies, including lifestyle changes and single-pill combination therapies, with the aim of reducing cardiovascular events while reducing side effects from using antihypertensive therapy. A renin/aldosterone –based diagnostic...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fady Hannah-Shmouni, Sriram Gubbi, J. David Spence, Constantine A. Stratakis, Christian A. Koch Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Risks and Organ Damage in Secondary Hypertension
Secondary hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and exaggerated target organ damage, not only due to the higher and more sustained blood pressure values often observed in these patients but also because certain forms of hypertension can increase cardiovascular risk and organ damage by the neurohormonal and/or molecular pathways activation they exert. Early identification of secondary forms of hypertension can help mitigate organ damage and prevent cardiovascular complications. Signs and symptoms distinction among types of secondary hypertension is essential in order to prevent complications. (Source...
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Oscar H. Cingolani Source Type: research

More Needs to Be Done for Patients with Endocrine Hypertension
Hypertension is one of the most common health disorders contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. By a conservative estimate, about 5% to 10% of patients with hypertension have a secondary identifiable endocrine cause in the general primary care office setting. This number increases up to 20% in patients with a more severe hypertension. The ability to come up with an identifiable cause is of great importance since in many instances effective medical and surgical treatment is available, with the potential for a cure. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Amir H. Hamrahian Tags: Preface Source Type: research

Updates in Endocrine Hypertension
The “Endocrine Hypertension” issue of the Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America is a collection of articles that provides an update on secondary causes of hypertension, with emphasis on hormonal factors. The guest editor is Dr Amir H. Hamrahian, Associate Professor of Medicine at Joh ns Hopkins University, a well-known expert in the field of adrenal and pituitary diseases who authored several American Association of Endocrinologists disease state reviews on adrenal nodules, Cushing disease, and acromegaly. (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Adriana G. Ioachimescu Tags: Foreword Source Type: research

Endocrine Hypertension
ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Amir H. Hamrahian Source Type: research

Copyright
Elsevier (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Contributors
ADRIANA G. IOACHIMESCU, MD, PhD, FACE (Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America)
Source: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America - October 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research