From an out-of-date experience
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GLP-1 receptor agonists and pancreatic safety concerns in type 2 diabetic patients: data from cardiovascular outcome trials
ConclusionPooled analysis of CVOTs did not suggest any increased risk of either acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer with GLP-1RA treatment in T2DM patients. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

100-Year evolution of precision medicine and surgery for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A
AbstractPurposeTo determine whether published disease penetrance estimates of 50% for pheochromocytoma and 20 –30% for primary hyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN 2A), conceivably reflecting overrepresentation of index patients with completely developed MEN 2A, may be too high.MethodsCross-sectional study of carriers at high risk of MEN 2A from a tertiary referral center.ResultsThere were 213 carriers ofRET mutations in codon 634, born between 1922 and 2014. Median age of thyroidectomy was 17 years, with MTC being present in 76.5%; pheochromocytoma in 31.0% at a median of 34 years in the first, a...
Source: Endocrine - February 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Screening and functional studies of long noncoding RNA in subjects with prediabetes
ConclusionsWe found aberrantly expressed LncRNAs and mRNAs in prediabetes subjects, and demonstrated that these LncRNAs are involved in the entire prediabetes biological process. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Small adrenal incidentaloma becoming an aggressive adrenocortical carcinoma in a patient carrying a germline APC variant
ConclusionsThis case illustrates that (1) small adrenal incidentaloma stable in size may evolve to ACC and (2) better genetic characterization of these patients may eventually give clues on this unusual evolution. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Random Gh and Igf-I levels after transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly: relation with long-term remission
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate the role of IGF-I and random GH measurements 3 months after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in predicting long-term remission in acromegaly patients.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 54 acromegaly patients who underwent TSS with the same neurosurgery team. Random GH and IGF-I values evaluated 3 months after TSS were related to long-term outcomes. The initiation of adjuvant therapy at any time defined surgical failure.ResultsAt 3 months, 14 (25.9%) patients had controlled disease (CD; normal IGF-I and GH  
Source: Endocrine - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pemberton sign
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Mild TPO deficiency characterized by progressive goiter and normal serum TSH level
ConclusionPatients with mild TPO deficiency can present with progressive goiter, normal TSH level, and largely reserved TPO activities. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of hormones and hormone therapy on breast tissue in transgender patients: a concise review
ConclusionsWe conclude that the long-term effects of off-label pharmaceutical use for modulation of hormone levels and sexual characteristics in transgender patients have not been well studied. The tendency of steroid hormones to promote the growth of certain cancers also raises questions about the safety of differing doses and drug combinations. Further clinical and laboratory study is needed to better establish safety and dosing guidelines in transgender patients. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acromegaly in the elderly patients
ConclusionsAvailable data on acromegaly in the elderly patient are sparse, but point to important differences. Further studies are needed comparing elderly with younger patients with acromegaly to better define a tailored diagnostic and therapeutic management. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with albuminuria in Japanese nondiabetic subjects
ConclusionOur data indicated that subclinical hypothyroidism was significantly and independently associated with the high prevalence of albuminuria. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism: a population-based study in the Piedmont Region, Italy
ConclusionThis is the first Italian study based on health databases to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hyperthyroidism in the general population. This approach can represent an inexpensive and simple method to monitor patterns of hyperthyroidism in iodine-deficient areas. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Androgenetic alopecia: effects of oral finasteride on hormone profile, reproduction and sexual function
AbstractPurposeAndrogenetic Alopecia (AGA) is a common non-cicatricial alopecia. AGA treatment with finasteride was reported to have sexological side effects and its induced hormonal alterations could damage spermatogenesis. Thus, in patients affected by AGA undergoing oral therapy with Finasteride 1  mg/die, we aimed to evaluate the presence of modification in sperm parameters, hormone profile and sexual function.MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 55 male subjects aged 18 –45 years with AGA who underwent systemic therapy with Finasteride 1 mg/die. Each subject underwent semen and blood hormone analysi...
Source: Endocrine - February 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Exploring the molecular insights of concurrent composite mucoepidermoid carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The association of thyroid stimulation hormone levels with incident ischemic heart disease, incident stroke, and all-cause mortality
ConclusionThe results do not provide evidence of a harmful effect of decreased or increased TSH on IHD or stroke in the general population. However, there is some indication of an elevated risk for all-cause mortality with TSH 2.5 –5 mU/l compared with 0.4–2.5 mU/l. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Microinvasion of lymph nodes from papillary thyroid cancer in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus under immunosuppression
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-term outcomes in MEN-1 patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: an Israeli specialist center experience
ConclusionsIn our MEN-1 cohort, non-functioning pNETs were the most frequent type of pancreaticoduodenal tumor, and the tumor size correlated with the risks of metastasis and death. Increased awareness, early diagnosis, and a multidisciplinary approach may improve the associated morbidity and mortality in these patients. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Association of the genetic variants of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a Saudi population
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical characterization of the anti-M üllerian hormone receptor type 2 (AMHR-2) in human testes
ConclusionsIn specimens from both healthy and affected testes, AMHR-2 expression appears weaker in adult than in prepubertal tissue sections. The persistence of AMHR-2 expression seemingly hints at a possible effect of intratesticular AMH on the tubular walls. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - February 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Suspicious ultrasound and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma predict the status of TERT promoter
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the value of ultrasound (US) and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in predicting Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations.MethodsPreoperative US images of 351 surgically confirmed PTCs were evaluated in terms of PTCs size and US features. The basic clinicopathological features were also retrieved. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for TERT promoter mutations. A scoring system was developed based on the cumulative number of risk factors. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) ...
Source: Endocrine - February 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Impact of acute-phase insulin secretion on glycemic variability in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes
ConclusionsACPR evaluated by the arginine stimulation test may be superior to other commonly used β-cell function parameters to reflect glycemic fluctuation in insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid cancer: incidence and mortality trends in China, 2005 –2015
ConclusionA rapid increase in incidence and a moderate increase in mortality of thyroid cancer were observed from 2005 to 2015 in our study. Effective measures and tailored programs should be taken to curb the growth trend and reduce the disease burden. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The insulin resistance is reversed by exogenous 3,5,3 ′triiodothyronine in type 2 diabetic Goto–Kakizaki rats by an inflammatory-independent pathway
ConclusionsThese results indicate that T3 improves insulin sensitivity in diabetic rats by a novel inflammatory-independent mechanism. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Blood pressure evaluated by 24  h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in Ramadan-fasting patients with corticotrope deficiency
ConclusionsFasting was not associated with an increased risk for hypotension in patients with known and treated corticotrope deficiency. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Generic levothyroxine initiation and substitution among Medicare and Medicaid populations: a new user cohort study
ConclusionPatient demographic factors and health service utilizations are associated with generic levothyroxine initiation and substitution. Educational outreach programs targeted to increase generic levothyroxine use and prescription savings should be tailored based on different patient populations. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prediction of hypertension, diabetes and fractures in eucortisolemic women by measuring parameters of cortisol milieu
ConclusionsF-1mgDST  >  0.9 μg/dL and R-UFF/UFE >  0.17 may be used for predicting the presence of ≥1 among HY, T2D, and fragility FX. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 27, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Rapid changes in neuroendocrine regulation may contribute to reversal of type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery
ConclusionsThere were rapid changes within 4 weeks after RYGB: signs of enhanced parasympathetic nerve activity, reduced morning cortisol, and enhanced incretin and glucagon responses to glucose. The findings suggest that neurohormonal mechanisms can contribute to the rapid improvement of insulin resistance and glycemia following RYGB in type 2 diabetes. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Use of the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) in clinical practice: an Italian survey
AbstractPurposeTo perform an online survey about the use of Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) classification in Italy.MethodsAn online questionnaire was administered to all members of the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (Societ à Italiana di Radiologia Medica ed Interventistica, SIRM) and Italian Society of Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (Società Italiana di Ultrasonologia in Medicina e Biologia, SIUMB). The survey consisted of 14 questions about demographics, knowledge, and the use of TIRADS classification, current job, expertize in thyroid ultrasound and fine nee...
Source: Endocrine - January 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Risk stratification for lateral involvement in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients with central lymph node metastasis
ConclusionsOur newly established model can effectively predict possible LLN metastasis in PTC patients, and a new strategy selection flow chart was created for patients with positive CLN invasion. For patients in high-risk group, prophylactic LLN dissection is recommended, if not, adjuvant radioactive iodine or a closer follow-up scheme should at least be conducted. For those in low-risk group, surgical intervention is unnecessary and regular follow-up is recommended. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Incidental versus clinically diagnosed differentiated thyroid cancer in both adult and elderly subjects: histological characteristics and follow-up in a retrospective analysis from a single institution
AbstractPurposeMost thyroid cancer are incidentally diagnosed. However, little is known on the different modalities of incidental diagnosis in adult versus older patients.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed data from 440 patients consecutively diagnosed with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in a single institution. Modalities of diagnosis were categorized as follows: (A) clinically diagnosed, nonincidental cases; (B) incidental during carotid power-duplex (CPD); (C) incidental during neck imaging other than carotid power-duplex; (D) incidental during imaging workup of thyroid dysfunction or at histological examination af...
Source: Endocrine - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cervix neuroendocrine carcinoma presenting with severe hypokalemia and Cushing ’s syndrome
AbstractNeuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix are very rare, accounting for only 1 –2% of all cervical cancers and
Source: Endocrine - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Marian Ludgate —the scientist and her festschrift
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Growth hormone releasing hormone in the unfolded protein response context
AbstractThe effects of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in human pathophysiology are not limited to those mediated by the Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone –Growth Hormone–Insulin-like Growth Factor-I axis. Receptors specific for this neuropeptide are expressed in a diverse variety of human tissues, to initiate multifarious signaling cascades, regulators of cellular homeostasis and survival. The Unfolded Protein Response is in charge of adaptive re sponses towards a plethora of challenges, able to trigger cellular repair or death. The possible involvement of Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone and its agonistic and...
Source: Endocrine - January 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A prolapsing pituitary adenoma
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sorafenib and radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RR-DTC): a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsSorafenib could improve PFS in patients with progressive RR-DTC, comparing with placebo. Due to the resistance to conventional treatments, sorafenib is considered as a promising treatment for RR-DTC by most physicians specialised in this field. However, the use of sorafenib should be cautious due to a high incidence of AEs caused by the agent. More effective agents with less toxicities are warranted. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 18, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders having an impact on tablet levothyroxine absorption: should this formulation still be considered as the first-line therapy?
ConclusionsThe worldwide prevalence of gastrointestinal disorders associated with tablet LT4 malabsorption, including lactose malabsorption andHelicobacter pylori infection, is high. Interactions with drugs or food can further increase this risk. Considering that all studies investigating the impact of switching patients from tablet to LS or SG found an improved thyroid balance, the latter formulations should be considered as first-line therapy for managing hypothyroidism. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of metformin on blood lipid profiles in nondiabetic adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
ConclusionThis meta-analysis revealed that metformin could reduce total cholesterol and LDL-c in nondiabetic adults. In addition, metformin might exert a triglyceride-lowering effect in nondiabetics with PCOS status. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Elevated triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio increased risk of hyperuricemia: a 4-year cohort study in China
ConclusionsTG/HDL-C ratio was positively related to the risk of hyperuricemia in Chinese population, particularly in women and normal-weight individuals. These findings suggested the potential of TG/HDL-C ratio to serve as an independent risk indicator in the prevention of hyperuricemia. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Inhibition of thioredoxin 2 by intracellular methylglyoxal accumulation leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in INS-1 cells
ConclusionsOur results reveal a possible mechanism for beta-cell oxidative damage upon intracellular MGO-induced Trx2 inactivation and mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A severe inactivating PTH/PTHrP signaling disorder type 2 in a patient carrying a novel large deletion of the GNAS gene: a case report and review of the literature
ConclusionsWe report a kindred harboring a largeGNAS deletion. A genotype –phenotype correlation was observed in term of severity of tissue ossifications in the siblings but not in the mother. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: miR-762 modulates thyroxine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibiting Beclin-1
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Ultrasound risk stratification systems for thyroid nodule: between lights and shadows, we are moving towards a new era
AbstractUltrasound (US) has long played a major role in the assessment of thyroid nodules and their risk of malignancy, and its importance has been further enhanced over the past decade by the development of a number of US-based risk stratification systems (US-RSSs), referred to in some cases as TIRADS (Thyroid Imaging Reporting And Data Systems). The high-risk categories of all currently available US-RSSs display strong associations to cytological diagnostic classes of “malignant/suspicious-for-malignancy” and the low-risk classes are clearly associated to “not neoplastic/benign” cytology. The intr...
Source: Endocrine - January 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sex-related differences in self-care behaviors of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus
AbstractPurposeTo describe sex-related differences in self-care; to identify determinants of self-care according to sex, and to investigate how sex interacts with the effect of clinical and socio-demographic variables on self-care in adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).MethodsCross-sectional multicentre study with a consecutive sampling recruitment strategy, enrolling 540 adults with T2DM at six outpatient diabetes services. Clinical and socio-demographic variables were collected by medical records. Self-care maintenance, monitoring, management, and confidence were measured by the self-care of diabetes inventory.Re...
Source: Endocrine - January 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist dulaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled trials
AbstractObjectivesTo assess the efficacy and safety of once weekly glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) dulaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).Materials and methodsWe searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to August 18, 2019. Revman5.3 and Stata13.0 software were used for meta-analysis.ResultsTwenty-one trials including 20,367 patients were analyzed. Compared with control group, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in 0.75  mg dulaglutide group and 1.5 mg dulaglutide group were reduced by 0.29% and 0.55%, respectively. More patients treated with 0.75 mg ...
Source: Endocrine - January 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Associations of apnea hypopnea index and educational attainments with microvascular complications in patients with T2DM
AbstractPurposeThe relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and diabetic microvascular complications (DMC) are controversial. Whether low education is associated with increased risk of DMC independently of poor lifestyles are currently unknown. The aim of this study is to explore the independent associations of different PSG index and educational attainment with risks of DR, DKD, and DPN.MethodsA cross-sectional study of 330 patients with T2DM who underwent overnight polysomnography (PSG) tests. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associations of PSG index and educational att...
Source: Endocrine - January 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Dual-release hydrocortisone for treatment of adrenal insufficiency: a systematic review
AbstractDual-release hydrocortisone is a new hydrocortisone formulation developed to improve the pharmacokinetic and the pharmacodynamic profiles and patient compliance. The aim of this review is to summarize the main knowledge on dual-release hydrocortisone, with particular attention to pharmacokinetics, metabolic and health-related quality-of-life aspects, bone health and drug safety. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Relation of adipose tissue insulin resistance to prediabetes
ConclusionsAdipose tissue insulin resistance is associated with prediabetes and should be considered for use in population studies. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Calcitonin as a biomarker of C cell disease: recent achievements and current challenges
AbstractThe neoplastic proliferation of parafollicular thyroid cells (C cells) may occur as either medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) or C cell hyperplasia (CCH) and is generically defined C cell disease. Since Calcitonin (CT) expression is fully maintained in neoplastic C cells, this hormone represents a sensitive marker for neoplasia of C cell derivation such as CCH and MTC. Serum CT levels display a high prognostic value and accurate estimation of tumor burden, allowing early detection of persistence/relapse and representing a reliable marker of response to treatment. Indeed, elevated CT levels can occur in other non-C c...
Source: Endocrine - January 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Sonographic features of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FV-PTC) and diagnostic performance of the 2017 ACR TI-RADS in FV-PTC
ConclusionsFV-PTC features isoechoic appearance, macrocalcifications, uneven hypoechoic halo, and peripheral vascularity on US, with lower incidences of microcalcifications and taller-than-wide shape, and tends to have lower TI-RADS scores and levels. For the nodules categorized as TI-RADS 3 or 4, the FNAB criteria should be broaden when these nodules have FV-PTC US features. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

NPWT in diabetic foot wounds —a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
ConclusionsThis systematic review of observational studies provided supportive evidence that NWPT is an efficient and safe adjunct treatment in the management of DFUs. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - January 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research