Association of triglyceride –glucose index with intra- and extra-cranial arterial stenosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis
ConclusionsElevated TyG index was significantly associated with a higher risk of ECAS, but not with ICAS in Chinese adults. This conclusion lends support to the clinical significance of the TyG index for the assessment of artery stenosis, especially for ECAS. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Identification of maternal continuous glucose monitoring metrics related to newborn birth weight in pregnant women with gestational diabetes
ConclusionNighttime mean glucose level has a comparable effect size to HSSV in association with fetal growth, suggesting that endogenous hyperglycemia might drive the association between maternal hyperglycemia and birth weight. Further studies need to examine the effect of lowering nighttime glucose level and/or HSSV on preventing fetal overgrowth in GDM women. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Cytology versus calcitonin assay in fine-needle aspiration biopsy wash-out fluid (FNAB-CT) in diagnosis of medullary thyroid microcarcinoma
ConclusionsFNAB-CT demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing micro-MTC. Patients with microscopic thyroid nodules and elevated sCT level should perform FNAB-CT to exclude the diagnosis of MTC lesions. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Long-term safety and efficacy of long-acting pasireotide in acromegaly
ConclusionsThe results support the long-term efficacy and safety of pasireotide LAR for acromegaly and support the potential delayed effect of treatment on IGF-1 normalization. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Is local excision sufficient in selected grade 1 or 2 type III gastric neuroendocrine neoplasms?
ConclusionsLocalised grade 1 or 2 type III g-NENs had a good prognosis in this series. Tumour size>10  mm was the most significant prognostic factor affecting patient outcome. Endoscopic resection or limited surgical resection is feasible and safe in small type III g-NENs which demonstrate favourable grade 1/2, well differentiated histology. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Characteristics and outcomes of the Finnish ectopic ACTH syndrome cohort
AbstractPurposeEctopic ACTH syndrome (EAS) is rare. We established a national cohort to increase awareness and address unmet needs.MethodsThe Finnish national EAS cohort includes 60 patients diagnosed in 1997 –2016. We assessed clinical features, diagnostic work-ups, treatments, incidence, and outcomes of subgroups occult tumor (OT), well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor G1/G2 (NETG1/G2) and NET G3/neuroendocrine carcinoma (NETG3/NEC).ResultsThe distribution of OT, NETG1/G2, and NETG3/NEC was 10 (17%), 20 (33%), and 30 (50%), respectively; and median follow-up 22 months (0 –249). Annual incidence (0.20&ndash...
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Real world evidence in effectiveness, safety, and cost savings of generic levothyroxine: a systematic review
ConclusionFindings from this systematic review highlighted the limited and mixed evidence in real-world clinical and economic outcomes for generic levothyroxine. Continuous post-marketing monitoring and assessment of generic drugs are warranted to ensure treatment effectiveness, patient safety, and achieve financial savings in prescription costs. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Head-to-head comparison among 18F-choline PET/CT, 4D contrast-enhanced CT, and 18F-choline PET/4D contrast-enhanced CT in the detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThis meta-analysis suggests that the sensitivity of18F-choline PET/CT and18F-choline PET/4DCeCT is higher than that of 4DCeCT, while only a slight difference was observed between18F-choline PET/CT and18F-choline PET/4DCeCT. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Predictive factors of malignancy in pediatric patients with thyroid nodules and performance of the Italian classification (SIAPEC 2014) in the outcome of the cytological FNA categories
ConclusionsThe reported data seem to confirm a greater sensitivity of SIAPEC classification to identify malignancy within the indeterminate category also in pediatric age and not only in adulthood. This finding may orient clinicians toward clinical follow-up for the indeterminate TIR3a group and toward surgical approach with total thyroidectomy in the indeterminate TIR3b group, although this indication should be confirmed in further national multicenter studies including larger cohorts. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Serum secreted frizzled-related protein 5 in relation to insulin sensitivity and its regulation by insulin and free fatty acids
We examined 150 healthy subjects (83 normal-weight and 67 overweight/obese). Insulin sensitivity (M) was measured with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. In 20 male subjects, clamp was prolonged to 6  h and after 1 week another clamp with the concurrent Intralipid/heparin infusion was performed. Independent group of 10 male subjects received infusions of Intralipid/heparin or saline in 1-week interval.ResultsBaseline SFRP5 was lower in the overweight/obese group (p = 0.01) and was positively associated with M (r = 0.23,p = 0.006) and serum adiponectin (r = 0.55,p 
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A practical approach to normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism
AbstractNormocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism is an entity on which several issues about its clinical management remains unclear. This is reflected in the main current guidelines, where there are no evidence-based specific recommendations. Through an exhaustive review of current literature, a clinical management algorithm for these patients is proposed. We consider the diagnosis criteria, the differential diagnosis, the clinical manifestations, and the treatment indications. When indicated, we also review the preoperative locations techniques and the surgical approach. Finally, when surgical treatment is not indicated,...
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Extending the endocrine hypertension spectrum: novel nonclassic apparent mineralocorticoid excess
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Rare complication of cushing ’s syndrome in the elderly: a case report
ConclusionSevere subcutaneous hemorrhage due to PF could occur in the patients of CS, especially in the elderly. Clinicians should be alert to the diagnosis of CS in older adults with cognitive decline and personality change. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A diffuse pruriginous erythemato-squamous rash
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Aggravation of hyperthyroidism after heterologous prime-boost immunization with inactivated and adenovirus-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a patient with Graves ’ disease
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Osteogenesis imperfecta-related skin features mimicking Cushing ’s syndrome
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A rare metanephrine –predominant secretion phenotype of paraganglioma challenged an interpretation of imaging localization
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction: Tumor volume improves preoperative differentiation of prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Correction to: Tumor volume improves preoperative differentiation of prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 13, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Association of triglyceride –glucose index with intra- and extra-cranial arterial stenosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis
ConclusionsElevated TyG index was significantly associated with a higher risk of ECAS, but not with ICAS in Chinese adults. This conclusion lends support to the clinical significance of the TyG index for the assessment of artery stenosis, especially for ECAS. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Real world evidence in effectiveness, safety, and cost savings of generic levothyroxine: a systematic review
ConclusionFindings from this systematic review highlighted the limited and mixed evidence in real-world clinical and economic outcomes for generic levothyroxine. Continuous post-marketing monitoring and assessment of generic drugs are warranted to ensure treatment effectiveness, patient safety, and achieve financial savings in prescription costs. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Head-to-head comparison among 18F-choline PET/CT, 4D contrast-enhanced CT, and 18F-choline PET/4D contrast-enhanced CT in the detection of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsThis meta-analysis suggests that the sensitivity of18F-choline PET/CT and18F-choline PET/4DCeCT is higher than that of 4DCeCT, while only a slight difference was observed between18F-choline PET/CT and18F-choline PET/4DCeCT. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Serum secreted frizzled-related protein 5 in relation to insulin sensitivity and its regulation by insulin and free fatty acids
We examined 150 healthy subjects (83 normal-weight and 67 overweight/obese). Insulin sensitivity (M) was measured with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. In 20 male subjects, clamp was prolonged to 6  h and after 1 week another clamp with the concurrent Intralipid/heparin infusion was performed. Independent group of 10 male subjects received infusions of Intralipid/heparin or saline in 1-week interval.ResultsBaseline SFRP5 was lower in the overweight/obese group (p = 0.01) and was positively associated with M (r = 0.23,p = 0.006) and serum adiponectin (r = 0.55,p 
Source: Endocrine - October 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A practical approach to normocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism
AbstractNormocalcemic primary hyperparathyroidism is an entity on which several issues about its clinical management remains unclear. This is reflected in the main current guidelines, where there are no evidence-based specific recommendations. Through an exhaustive review of current literature, a clinical management algorithm for these patients is proposed. We consider the diagnosis criteria, the differential diagnosis, the clinical manifestations, and the treatment indications. When indicated, we also review the preoperative locations techniques and the surgical approach. Finally, when surgical treatment is not indicated,...
Source: Endocrine - October 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Rare complication of cushing ’s syndrome in the elderly: a case report
ConclusionSevere subcutaneous hemorrhage due to PF could occur in the patients of CS, especially in the elderly. Clinicians should be alert to the diagnosis of CS in older adults with cognitive decline and personality change. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Aggravation of hyperthyroidism after heterologous prime-boost immunization with inactivated and adenovirus-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a patient with Graves ’ disease
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 8, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in elderly patients ( ≥75 years old)
AbstractPurposeAlthough increased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is one of the major risk factors for the cardiovascular disease (CVD), the associations of LDL-C with CVD and all-cause mortality are unclear in elderly ( ≥75 years) individuals.MethodsA total of 3674 individuals aged 75 or older underwent medical examinations at the Kailuan Group from 2006 to 2007, including 3478 males (94.67%) and 196 females (5.33%). Participants were divided into three groups based on the LDL-C level: the ideal level (LDL-C  
Source: Endocrine - October 7, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pubertal development in 46,XY patients with NR5A1 mutations
ConclusionPatients withNR5A1 mutations regardless of phenotype at birth may demonstrate considerable virilization at puberty. Therefore, it is important to consider sex assignment carefully and avoid irreversible procedures during infancy. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Androgen receptor coregulator long noncoding RNA CTBP1-AS is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome in Kashmiri women
AbstractObjectivePolycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic disorder in premenopausal women. Even though the pathophysiology of PCOS is complex and obscure, the disorder is prominently considered as the syndrome of hyperandrogenism. C-Terminal binding protein 1 antisense (CTBP1-AS) acts as a novel androgen receptor regulating long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Therefore, the present study was aimed to establish the possible association of androgen receptor regulating long noncoding RNA CTBP1-AS with PCOS.MethodsA total of 178 subjects including 105 PCOS cases and 73 age-matc...
Source: Endocrine - October 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

High-dose dexamethasone suppression test is inferior to pituitary dynamic enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing ’s syndrome
ConclusionsPituitary dMRI was superior to HDDST in the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing ’s syndrome. HDDST is recommended in combination with pituitary dMRI to establish a diagnosis process because of the significantly increased specificity with the combination. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Head-to-head comparison of FNA cytology vs. calcitonin measurement in FNA washout fluids (FNA-CT) to diagnose medullary thyroid carcinoma. A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsFNA-CT is significantly more sensitive than FNA-cytology in detecting MTC. Accordingly, FNA-CT represents the standard method to use in patients with suspicious MTC lesions, combined with cytology. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 4, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of different basal and prandial insulin analogues for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
ConclusionsThis paper supports the use of long-acting analogues, rather than NPH insulin, as basal insulin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, without any preferences for any individual long-acting analogue over the others. The evidence on short acting analogues is limited. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Acute effects of whole body vibration exercise on post-load glucose metabolism in healthy men: a pilot randomized crossover trial
ConclusionsWBVE did not decrease post-load plasma glucose levels at the acute phase. Acute effects of WBVE on post-load glucose metabolism would not be identical to those of conventional exercise.The unique trial number and the name of the registry: UMIN000036520,www.umin.ac.jp, date of registration, June 12, 2019. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The AP-1 family of transcription factors are important regulators of gene expression within Leydig cells
ConclusionsWe conclude that members of the AP-1 family of transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of Leydig cell proliferation, steroidogenesis, and cell-to-cell communication. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pediatric multidisciplinary weight management —how can we improve further?
(Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - October 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone deiodinases response in brain of spontaneausly hypertensive rats after hypotensive effects induced by mandibular extension
AbstractPurposeThe deiodinases activate or inactivate the thyroid hormones (TH) in virtually all tissues in both physiological and pathological conditions. The three deiodinases, DIO1, DIO2, and DIO3, have different catalytic functions and regulate TH tissue distribution. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the modulation of gene expression of the deiodinases and TH transporters and protein levels of DIO1 in parietal and frontal areas of cerebral cortex of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), after two successive mandibular extensions (ME).MethodsME was performed on anesthetized rats by a dilatator appropriatel...
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Establishment and validation of a nomogram model for predicting the survival probability of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients: a comparison with the eighth edition AJCC cancer staging system
ConclusionsModel 1 provided with both better predictive accuracy and clinical usage compared with those of model 2 and might be able to predict the survival probability of differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients visually and accurately with a higher net benefit. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Pituitary adenoma …nomen omen?
ConclusionsIdeally, only the combination of pathological, neuroradiological, and clinical data can define the degree of agressiveness/invasion of a pituitary adenoma and effectively guide treament. This may be classically obtained only with a close multisciplinary collaboration into a PTCOE. It is proposed that improved definition of “invasive” and “aggressive” neoplasms may represent the most clinically effective development in the clinico-neuroradiological-pathological denomination and classification of pituitary adenomas. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Is the link between elevated TSH and gestational diabetes mellitus dependant on diagnostic criteria and thyroid antibody status: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsWomen with TSH levels>4.0  mIU/L have an increased odds of GDM regardless of TA status but at TSH levels
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Increased testosterone and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome correlate with elevated GnRH receptor autoantibody activity assessed by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based bioassay
In this study, we used a new cell-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) bioassay to analyze serum GnRHR-AAb activity and examine its relationship with testosterone and proinflammatory cytokines in patients with PCOS.MethodsSerum samples from 33 PCOS patients, 39 non-PCOS ovulatory infertile controls and 30 normal controls were tested for GnRHR-AAb activity and proinflammatory cytokines in a FRET-based bioassay and multiplex bead-based immunoassay, respectively. Correlation was analyzed using the Spearman ’s correlation test.ResultsSerum GnRHR-AAb activity was significantly higher in the PCOS patients th...
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The association between vitamin D3 and diabetes in both hyperuricemia and non-hyperuricemia populations
ConclusionsThis study shows that vitamin D3 content is associated with the incidence of diabetes in people with high level of uric acid. This study offers a fresh perspective on the elements that influence the etiology of diabetes in hyperuricemia patients. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

DXA parameters, Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) and Bone Mineral Density (BMD), in fracture risk prediction in endocrine-mediated secondary osteoporosis
AbstractOsteoporosis, a disease characterized by low bone mass and alterations of bone microarchitecture, leading to an increased risk for fragility fractures and, eventually, to fracture; is associated with an excess of mortality, a decrease in quality of life, and co-morbidities. Bone mineral density (BMD), measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), has been the gold standard for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Trabecular bone score (TBS), a textural analysis of the lumbar spine DXA images, is an index of bone microarchitecture. TBS has been robustly shown to predict fractures independently of BMD. In this review, while...
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Insulinoma-associated protein 1(INSM1) is a superior marker for the diagnosis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendoerine neoplasms: a meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe results show that INSM1 is an effective marker for the diagnosis of GEP-NEN with high sensitivity and specificity. INSM1 is recommended for clinical application to improve the diagnostic accuracy of GEP-NEN. However, more high-quality studies are needed to confirm these findings. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

GH and IGF-I levels and tumor shrinkage in response to first generation somatostatin receptor ligands in acromegaly: a comparative study between two reference centers for pituitary diseases in Brazil
AbstractPurposeTo compare biochemical and tumor response rates between two reference centers for pituitary diseases in Brazil after primary and adjuvant therapy with somatostatin receptor ligands (SRL) in acromegaly.MethodsPatients were classified as non-responders (NR), partial responders (PR), and full responders (FR) to 12-month SRL therapy according to: [criteria A] normal IGF-I and random GH (rGH)  
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Hypothyroidism is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction: subgroup analysis of China PEACE study
ConclusionCompared with euthyroid status, hypothyroid status has an independent predicting value for adverse cardiovascular events in AMI patients. Further investigations are required to illustrate whether treatment of thyroid dysfunction could improve the prognosis of AMI patients. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Rate of fracture in patients with glucocorticoid replacement therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
This study aims to determine if patients on glucocorticoid replacement therapy for AI have an increased rate of fractures compared to the general population.MethodsWe included all studies with adult patients receiving glucocorticoid replacement therapy for either congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI), or secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI). Studies without fracture data were excluded, as well as meeting abstracts. Studies with fractures but without a control group were eligible to be included in the systematic review but not in the meta-analysis. The primary outcome was the number of f...
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

A systematic review of pathophysiology and management of familial hyperaldosteronism type 1 in pregnancy
ConclusionBased on available information on pathophysiology and treatment of FH-1 in pregnancy, recommendations for the rational management of FH-1 in pregnancy are provided. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Tumor volume improves preoperative differentiation of prolactinomas and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas
The objective of this study is to investigate the diagnostic utility of PRL, tumor volume, and imaging features in differentiating prolactinoma and NFA.MethodsAdult patients with pathologically confirmed prolactinoma (n = 21) or NFA with hyperprolactinemia (n = 58) between 2013 and 2020 were retrospectively identified. Diagnostic performance of clinical and imaging variables was analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic curves to calculate area under the curve (AUC).ResultsTumor volume and PRL positively correlated for prolactinoma (r = 0.4839,p = 0.0263) but n...
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The longer the antithyroid drug is used, the lower the relapse rate in Graves ’ disease: a retrospective multicenter cohort study in Korea
ConclusionsThe longer that ATD therapy is used, the lower the relapse rate is in patients with Graves ’ disease. Long-term ATD treatment may be considered in Graves’ patients who do not show complications or an economic burden from hyperthyroidism. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Nonfunctional adrenal adenomas and impaired glucose metabolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsPatients with NFAI and 1-mg ODST  ≤ 1.8 μg/dl presented higher odds of T2DM and higher levels of FBG and HOMA index than healthy controls. (Source: Endocrine)
Source: Endocrine - September 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research