Microvascular Dysfunction in Diabetes Mellitus and Cardiometabolic Disease.
Authors: Horton WB, Barrett EJ Abstract This review takes an inclusive approach to microvascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus and cardiometabolic disease. In virtually every organ, dynamic interactions between the microvasculature and resident tissue elements normally modulate vascular and tissue function in a homeostatic fashion. This regulation is disordered by diabetes mellitus, by hypertension, by obesity, and by dyslipidemia individually (or combined in cardiometabolic disease), with dysfunction serving as an early marker of change. In particular, we suggest that the familiar retinal, renal, and neural com...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - November 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Amino Acid Sensing in Metabolic Homeostasis and Health.
Authors: Hu X, Guo F Abstract Sensing and responding to changes in nutrient levels, including those of glucose, lipids and amino acids, by the body is necessary for survival. Accordingly, perturbations in nutrient sensing are tightly linked with human pathologies, particularly metabolic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other complications of metabolic syndromes. The conventional view is that amino acids are fundamental elements for protein and peptide synthesis, while recent studies have revealed that amino acids are also important bioactive molecules that play key roles in signaling pathway a...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - October 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

CORRIGENDUM FOR "Muscle-Organ Crosstalk: The Emerging Roles of Myokines".
CORRIGENDUM FOR "Muscle-Organ Crosstalk: The Emerging Roles of Myokines". Endocr Rev. 2020 Oct 12;: Authors: PMID: 33045039 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - October 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Metformin Action.
Authors: LaMoia TE, Shulman GI Abstract Metformin is a first-line therapy for the treatment for type 2 diabetes due to its robust glucose-lowering effects, well-established safety profile and relatively low cost. While metformin has been shown to have pleotropic effects on glucose metabolism, there is a general consensus that the major glucose lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes is mostly mediated through inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis. However, despite decades of research, the mechanism by which metformin inhibits this process is still highly debated. A key reason for these discrepant effects i...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - September 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

New therapeutic horizons for Graves' hyperthyroidism.
Authors: Lane LC, Cheetham TD, Perros P, Pearce SHS Abstract Graves' hyperthyroidism is characterised by the presence of autoantibodies that stimulate the thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), resulting in uncontrolled secretion of excessive thyroid hormone. Conventional treatments including antithyroid medication, radioiodine or surgery have remained largely unchanged for the past 70 years and either lack efficacy for many patients, or result in lifelong thyroid hormone replacement therapy in the case of the latter two options. The demand for new therapeutic options combined with greater insight into basic ...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - August 29, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Erratum Notice for Duplicate Publications.
Authors: PMID: 32805736 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - August 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Implications of non-physiological ovarian primordial follicle activation for fertility preservation.
Authors: Grosbois J, Devos M, Demeestere I Abstract In recent years, ovarian tissue cryopreservation has rapidly developed as a successful method for preserving the fertility of girls and young women with cancer or benign conditions requiring gonadotoxic therapy, and is now becoming widely recognized as an effective alternative to oocyte and embryo freezing when not feasible. Primordial follicles are the most abundant population of follicles in the ovary, and their relatively quiescent metabolism makes them more resistant to cryoinjury. This dormant pool represents a key target for fertility preservation strategies...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - August 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Glycemic Monitoring and Management in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease.
Authors: Galindo RJ, Beck RW, Scioscia MF, Umpierrez GE, Tuttle KR Abstract Glucose and insulin metabolism in patients with diabetes are profoundly altered by advanced chronic kidney disease. Risk of hypoglycemia is increased by failure of kidney gluconeogenesis, impaired insulin clearance by the kidney, defective insulin degradation due to uremia, increased erythrocyte glucose uptake during hemodialysis, impaired counter-regulatory hormone responses (cortisol, growth hormone), nutritional deprivation and variability of exposure to oral anti-hyperglycemic agents and exogenous insulin. Patients with end stage kidney...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 28, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Muscle-organ crosstalk: the emerging roles of myokines.
Authors: Severinsen MCK, Pedersen BK Abstract Physical activity decreases the risk of a network of diseases and exercise may be prescribed as medicine for lifestyle-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, dementia, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. During the past couple of decades, it has been apparent that skeletal muscle works as an endocrine organ, which can produce and secrete hundreds of myokines that exert their effects in either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine manners. Recent advances show that skeletal muscle produces myokines in response to exercise, which allow for crosstalk between the muscle and...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The Evolution of Insulin and How it Informs Therapy and Treatment Choices.
Authors: Hirsch IB, Juneja R, Beals JM, Antalis CJ, Wright EE Abstract Insulin has been available for the treatment of diabetes for almost a century, and the variety of insulin choices today represents many years of discovery and innovation. Insulin has gone from poorly defined extracts of animal pancreata to pure and precisely controlled formulations that can be prescribed and administered with high accuracy and predictability of action. Modifications of the insulin formulation and of the insulin molecule itself have made it possible to approximate the natural endogenous insulin response. Insulin and insulin formu...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Transcriptional Control of Circadian Rhythms and Metabolism: A Matter of Time and Space.
Authors: Hoon Kim Y, Lazar MA Abstract All biological processes, living organisms, and ecosystems have evolved with the Sun that confers a 24-hr periodicity to life on Earth. Circadian rhythms arose from evolutionary needs to maximize daily organismal fitness by enabling organisms to mount anticipatory and adaptive responses to recurrent light-dark cycles and associated environmental changes. The clock is a conserved feature in nearly all forms of life, ranging from prokaryotes to virtually every cell of multicellular eukaryotes. The mammalian clock is comprised of transcription factors interlocked in negative feed...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The Changing Face of Adrenoleukodystrophy.
Authors: Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA Abstract Adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD) is a rare X-linked disorder of peroxisomal oxidation due to mutations in ABCD1. It is a progressive condition with a variable clinical spectrum that includes primary adrenal insufficiency, myelopathy, and cerebral ALD. Adrenal insufficiency affects over 80% of ALD patients. Cerebral ALD affects one-third of boys under the age of 12 years and progresses to total disability and death without treatment. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only disease-modifying therapy if completed in the e...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Selective progesterone receptor modulators-mechanisms and therapeutic utility.
Authors: Islam S, Afrin S, Jones SI, Segars J Abstract Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) are new class of compounds developed to target the progesterone receptor with a mix of agonist and antagonist properties. These compounds have been introduced for treatment of several gynecological conditions based on the critical role of progesterone in reproduction and reproductive tissues. In patients with uterine fibroids, mifepristone and ulipristal acetate have consistently demonstrated efficacy, and vilaprisan is currently under investigation, while studies of asoprisnil and telapristone were halted for ...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

GDF15: A hormone conveying somatic distress to the brain.
Authors: Lockhart SM, Saudek V, O'Rahilly S Abstract GDF15 has recently gained scientific and translational prominence with the discovery that its receptor is a GFRAL-RET heterodimer of which GFRAL is expressed solely in the hindbrain. Activation of this receptor results in reduced food intake and loss of body weight and is perceived and recalled by animals as aversive. This information encourages a revised interpretation of the large body of previous research on the protein. GDF15 can be secreted by a wide variety of cell types in response to a broad range of stressors. We propose that central sensing of GDF15 via...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Animal models to understand the etiology and pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Authors: Stener-Victorin E, Padmanabhan V, Walters KA, Campbell RE, Benrick A, Giacobini P, Dumesic DA, Abbott DH Abstract More than one out of ten women worldwide are diagnosed with the leading cause of female reproductive and metabolic dysfunction, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Despite its high prevalence, PCOS and its accompanying morbidities are likely under-diagnosed, averaging>2 years and 3 physicians before women are diagnosed. Although it has been intensively researched, the underlying cause(s) of PCOS have yet to be defined. In order to understand PCOS pathophysiology, its developmental origins, and...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 21, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Coronavirus infections and type 2 diabetes-shared pathways with therapeutic implications.
Authors: Drucker DJ Abstract Individuals with diabetes are at increased risk for bacterial, mycotic, parasitic and viral infections. The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV2 (also referred to as COVID-19) coronavirus pandemic highlights the importance of understanding shared disease pathophysiology potentially informing therapeutic choices in individuals with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Two coronavirus receptor proteins, Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) and Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP4) are also established transducers of metabolic signals and pathways regulating inflammation, renal and cardiovascular phy...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Peptide Hormone Regulation of DNA Damage Responses.
Authors: Chesnokova V, Melmed S Abstract DNA damage response (DDR) and repair pathways determine neoplastic cell transformation and therapeutic responses, as well as the aging process. Altered DDR functioning results in accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage, increased frequency of tumorigenic mutations, and premature aging. Recent evidence suggests that polypeptide hormones play a role in modulating DDR and DNA damage repair, while DNA damage accumulation may also affect hormonal status. We review the available reports elucidating involvement of IGF1, GH, αMSH, and GnRH/gonadotrophins in DDR and DNA repair as...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Adrenal Incidentaloma.
Authors: Sherlock M, Scarsbrook A, Abbas A, Fraser S, Limumpornpetch P, Dineen R, Stewart PM Abstract An adrenal incidentaloma is now established as a common endocrine diagnosis that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. The majority of patients can be reassured and discharged, but a personalized approach based upon image analysis, endocrine workup and clinical symptoms and signs are required in every case. ACC remains a real concern but is restricted to
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Novel insights into Pituitary Tumorigenesis: Genetic and Epigenetic Mechanisms.
Authors: Srirangam Nadhamuni V, Korbonits M Abstract Substantial advances have been made recently in the pathobiology of pituitary tumors. Similar to many other endocrine tumors, over the last few years we have recognized the role of germline and somatic mutations in a number of syndromic or non-syndromic conditions with pituitary tumor predisposition. These include the identification of novel germline variants in patients with familial or simplex pituitary tumors and establishment of novel somatic variants identified through next generation sequencing. Advanced techniques have allowed the exploration of epigenetic...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - March 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Androgens during Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence: Physiology and use in clinical practice.
Authors: Mason KA, Schoelwer MJ, Rogol AD Abstract We provide an in-depth review of the role of androgens in male maturation and development from the fetal stage through adolescence into emerging adulthood and discuss the treatment of disorders of androgen production throughout these time periods. Testosterone, the primary androgen produced by males, has both anabolic and androgenic effects. Androgen exposure induces virilization and anabolic body composition changes during fetal development, influences growth and virilization during infancy and stimulates development of secondary sexual characteristics, growth acc...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - March 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Dynamics of ACTH and cortisol secretion and implications for disease.
Authors: Lightman SL, Birnie MT, Conway-Campbell BL Abstract The past decade has seen several critical advances in our understanding of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Homeostatic physiological circuits need to integrate multiple internal and external stimuli and provide a dynamic output appropriate for the response parameters of their target tissues. The HPA axis is an example of such a homeostatic system. Recent studies have shown that circadian rhythmicity of the major output of this system - the adrenal glucocorticoid hormones corticosterone in rodent and predominately cortisol in man - is...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - February 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

ERRATUM FOR "Delayed Puberty-Phenotypic Diversity, Molecular Genetic Mechanisms, and Recent Discoveries".
ERRATUM FOR "Delayed Puberty-Phenotypic Diversity, Molecular Genetic Mechanisms, and Recent Discoveries". Endocr Rev. 2020 Jan 11;: Authors: PMID: 31926007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - January 12, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Metabolic Effects of Oxytocin.
Authors: McCormack SE, Blevins JE, Lawson EA Abstract There is growing evidence that oxytocin (OXT), a hypothalamic hormone well recognized for its effects in inducing parturition and lactation, has important metabolic effects in both sexes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the physiologic effects of OXT on metabolism and to explore its therapeutic potential for metabolic disorders. In model systems, OXT promotes weight loss by decreasing energy intake. Pair-feeding studies suggest that OXT-induced weight loss may also be partly due to increased energy expenditure and/or lipolysis. In humans, OXT appears ...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - December 6, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Leptin - is it thermogenic?
Authors: Fischer AW, Cannon B, Nedergaard J Abstract Animals that lack the hormone leptin become grossly obese, purportedly for two reasons: increased food intake and decreased energy expenditure (thermogenesis). This review examines the experimental evidence for the thermogenesis component. Analysis of the data available lead us to conclude that the reports indicating hypometabolism in the leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (as well as in the leptin-receptor-deficient db/db mice and fa/fa rats) derive from a misleading calculation artefact resulting from expression of energy expenditure per g body weight and not per inta...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - November 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Thyroid hormone transporters.
Authors: Groeneweg S, van Geest FS, Peeters RP, Heuer H, Visser WE Abstract Thyroid hormone transporters at the plasma membrane govern intracellular bioavailability of thyroid hormone. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 8 and MCT10, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1C1 and SLC17A4 are currently known as transporters displaying highest specificity towards thyroid hormones. Structure-function studies using homology modelling and mutational screens have led to better understanding of the molecular basis of thyroid hormone transport. Mutations in MCT8 and in OATP1C1 have been associated with clinical disor...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - November 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Review: Diabetes, Obesity and Cancer - Pathophysiology and Clinical Implications.
Authors: Lega IC, Lipscombe LL Abstract Obesity and diabetes have both been associated with an increased risk of cancer. In the face of increasing obesity and diabetes rates worldwide, this is a worrying trend for cancer rates. Factors such as hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, anti-hyperglycemic medications and shared risk factors have all been identified as potential mechanisms underlying the relationship. The most common obesity- and diabetes-related cancers are endometrial, colorectal and post menopausal breast cancers. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence that describes the complex relations...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - November 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The new biology of diabetic kidney disease - mechanisms and therapeutic implications.
Authors: Lytvyn Y, Bjornstad P, van Raalte DH, Heerspink HL, Cherney DZI Abstract Diabetic kidney disease remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease in the world. Despite reductions in incidence rates of myocardial infarction and stroke in people with diabetes over the past 3 decades, the risk of diabetic kidney disease has remained unchanged, and may even be increasing in younger individuals afflicted with this disease. Accordingly, changes in public health policy have to be implemented to address the root causes of diabetic kidney disease, including the rise of obesity and diabetes, in addition to ...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - October 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Brown adipose cross talk in tissue plasticity and human metabolism.
Authors: Scheele C, Wolfrum C Abstract Infants rely on brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a primary source of thermogenesis. In some adult humans, residuals of brown adipose tissue are adjacent to the central nervous system and acute activation increase metabolic rate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment occurs during cold acclimation and include secretion of factors, known as batokines, which target several different cell types within the BAT, and promote adipogenesis, angiogenesis, immune cell interactions and neurite outgrowth. All these processes seem to act in concert to promote an adapted BAT. Recent studies ha...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - October 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adults: Current concepts in etiology, outcomes and management.
Authors: Marjot T, Moolla A, Cobbold JF, Hodson L, Tomlinson JW Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a spectrum of disease, extending from simple steatosis, through to inflammation and fibrosis with a significant risk for the development of cirrhosis. It is highly prevalent and is associated with significant adverse outcomes both through liver-specific morbidity and mortality, but perhaps more importantly, through adverse cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes. It is tightly associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity and both of these conditions drive progressive disease towards the more advanced s...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - October 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Advances in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated neuroendocrine neoplasms.
Authors: Hofland J, Kaltsas G, de Herder WW Abstract Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) constitute a diverse group of tumors that derive from the sensory and secretory neuroendocrine cells and predominantly arise within the pulmonary and gastrointestinal tracts. The majority of these neoplasms have a well-differentiated grade and are termed neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). This subgroup is characterized by limited proliferation and patients affected by these tumors carry a good to moderate prognosis. A substantial subset of patients presenting with a NET suffer from the consequences of endocrine syndromes due to the exce...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - September 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The role of sex and sex Hormones in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Authors: Vegeto E, Villa A, Della Torre S, Crippa V, Rusmini P, Cristofani R, Galbiati M, Maggi A, Poletti A Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are a wide class of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) with still unknown etiology. Several factors were hypothesized to be involved in the pathogenesis of these diseases including genetic and environmental factors. Many of these diseases show a sex prevalence and sex steroids where shown to have a role in the progression of specific forms of neurodegeneration. Estrogens were reported to be neuroprotective though their action on cognate nuclear and membran...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - September 24, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Therapies For The Treatment Of Obesity, Do Agonists = Antagonists?
Authors: Killion EA, Lu SC, Fort M, Yamada Y, Véniant MM, Lloyd DJ Abstract Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) is associated with obesity in human genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Similarly, mouse genetic studies indicate that loss of function alleles and GIP overexpression both protect from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. Together, these data provide compelling evidence to develop therapies targeting GIPR for the treatment of obesity. Further, both antagonists and agonists alone prevent weight gain, but result in remarkable weight loss when co-dosed or molecul...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - September 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide Receptor Therapies For The Treatment Of Obesity, Do Agonists = Antagonists?
Authors: Killion EA, Lu SC, Fort M, Yamada Y, Véniant MM, Lloyd DJ Abstract Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) is associated with obesity in human genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Similarly, mouse genetic studies indicate that loss of function alleles and GIP overexpression both protect from high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. Together, these data provide compelling evidence to develop therapies targeting GIPR for the treatment of obesity. Further, both antagonists and agonists alone prevent weight gain, but result in remarkable weight loss when co-dosed or molecul...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - September 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Progesterone and breast cancer.
Authors: Trabert B, Sherman ME, Kannan N, Stanczyk FZ Abstract Synthetic progestogens (progestins) have been linked to increased breast cancer risk; however, the role of endogenous progesterone in breast physiology and carcinogenesis is less clearly defined. Mechanistic studies using cell culture, tissue culture, and preclinical models implicate progesterone in breast carcinogenesis. In contrast, limited epidemiologic data generally do not show an association of circulating progesterone levels with risk, and it is unclear whether this reflects methodologic limitations or a truly null relationship. Challenges relate...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - September 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Autoimmune pituitary disease: New concepts with clinical implications.
Authors: Yamamoto M, Iguchi G, Bando H, Kanie K, Hidaka-Takeno R, Fukuoka H, Takahashi Y Abstract Some endocrine disorders, including hypophysitis and isolated ACTH deficiency, are caused by an autoimmune response to endocrine organs. Although the pathogenesis of some autoimmune endocrine diseases has been elucidated, it remains obscure for most. Anti-PIT-1 hypophysitis (anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome) is a newly described pituitary autoimmune disease characterized by acquired and specific growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiencies. This disorder is associated with a thym...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - September 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Management of 46,XY Differences/Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) Throughout Life.
Authors: Wisniewski AB, Batista RL, Costa EMF, Finlayson C, Sircili MHP, Dénes FT, Domenice S, Mendonca BB Abstract Differences/Disorders of sex development (DSD) are a heterogeneous group of congenital conditions that result in discordance between an individual's sex chromosomes, gonads, and/or anatomic sex. Advances in the clinical care of patients and families affected by 46,XY DSD have been achieved since publication of the original Consensus meeting in 2006. The aims of this paper are to review what is known about morbidity and mortality, diagnostic tools and timing, sex of rearing, endocrine and surgic...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - August 1, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Targeted Therapy for Advanced Thyroid Cancer: Kinase Inhibitors and Beyond.
Authors: Cabanillas ME, Ryder M, Jimenez C Abstract The treatment of advanced thyroid cancer has undergone rapid evolution in the past decade, with multiple kinase inhibitor drug approvals for each subtype of thyroid cancer and a number of other commercially available drugs that have been studied for this indication. While most of the FDA approved drugs are anti-angiogenic multikinase inhibitors-vandetanib, cabozantinib, sorafenib, lenvatinib-there are two FDA indications that are mutation specific-dabrafenib/trametinib for BRAF mutated anaplastic thyroid cancer and larotrectinib for NTRK fusion thyroid cancer. Fur...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - July 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Genetic risk scores for diabetes diagnosis and precision medicine.
Authors: Udler MS, McCarthy MI, Florez JC, Mahajan A Abstract Over the last decade, there have been substantial advances in the identification and characterization of DNA sequence variants associated with individual predisposition to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. As well as providing insights into the molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms involved in disease pathogenesis, these risk variants, when combined into a polygenic score, capture information on individual patterns of disease predisposition that have the potential to influence clinical management. In this review, we describe the various opportunitie...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - July 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Contemporary debates in adult papillary thyroid cancer management.
Authors: McLeod DSA, Zhang L, Durante C, Cooper DS Abstract An ever-increasing population of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is engaging with healthcare systems around the world. Numerous questions about optimal management have arisen that challenge conventional paradigms. This is particularly the case for patients with low-risk disease, which comprise the majority of new patients. At the same time, new therapies for patients with advanced disease all are also being introduced, which may have the potential to prolong life. This review discusses selected controversial issues in adult papillary thyroid ca...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - July 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Steroid metabolome analysis in disorders of adrenal steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
Authors: Storbeck KH, Schiffer L, Baranowski ES, Chortis V, Prete A, Barnard L, Gilligan LC, Taylor AE, Idkowiak J, Arlt W, Shackleton CHL Abstract Steroid biosynthesis and metabolism is reflected by the serum steroid metabolome and, in even more detail, by the 24-hour urine steroid metabolome, which can provide unique insights into alterations of steroid flow and output indicative of underlying conditions. Mass spectrometry-based steroid metabolome profiling has allowed for the identification of unique multi-steroid signatures associated with disorders of steroid biosynthesis and metabolism that can be used for pe...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - July 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Realizing a Closed-Loop (Artificial Pancreas) System for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.
Authors: Lal RA, Ekhlaspour L, Hood K, Buckingham B Abstract Recent, rapid changes in the treatment of type 1 diabetes have allowed for commercialization of an "artificial pancreas" which is better described as a closed-loop controller of insulin delivery. This review presents the current state of closed-loop control systems and expected future developments with a discussion of the human factor issues in allowing automation of glucose control. The goal of these systems is to minimize or prevent both short and long-term complications from diabetes and to decrease the daily burden of managing diabetes. The ...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - July 7, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The effects of bariatric surgery on islet function, insulin secretion, & glucose control.
This article is based on literature related to factors governing glucose metabolism and insulin secretion after the commonly used RYGB and VSG, and the less frequently used BPD and adjustable gastric banding. PMID: 31241742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - June 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Delayed Puberty - Phenotypic Diversity, Molecular Genetic Mechanisms and Recent Discoveries.
Authors: Howard SR, Dunkel L Abstract This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the clinical condition of delayed puberty, a common presentation to the paediatric endocrinologist, which may present both diagnostic and prognostic challenges. Our understanding of the genetic control of pubertal timing has advanced thanks to active investigation in this field over the last two decades, but remains in large part a fascinating and mysterious conundrum. The phenotype of delayed puberty is associated with adult health risks and common etiologies, and there is evidence for polygenic control of pubertal timing in t...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - June 22, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

CORRIGENDUM FOR "Growth Hormone's Links to Cancer".
CORRIGENDUM FOR "Growth Hormone's Links to Cancer". Endocr Rev. 2019 Jun 07;: Authors: PMID: 31173080 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - June 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Inflammation in the pathophysiology and therapy of cardiometabolic disease.
Authors: Donath MY, Meier DT, Böni-Schnetzler M Abstract The role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated complications is now well established. Therapeutic interventions counteracting metabolic inflammation improve insulin secretion and action, glucose control, and may prevent long-term complications. Thus, a number of anti-inflammatory drugs approved for the treatment of other inflammatory conditions are evaluated in patients with metabolic syndrome. Most advanced are clinical studies with interleukin-1 antagonists showing improved β-cell function and glyca...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Bone Marrow Adiposity: Basic and Clinical Implications.
Authors: Sebo ZL, Rendina-Ruedy E, Ables GP, Lindskog DM, Rodeheffer MS, Fazeli PK, Horowitz MC Abstract The presence of adipocytes in mammalian bone marrow (BM) has been recognized histologically for decades, yet, until recently, these cells have received little attention from the research community. Advancements in mouse transgenics and imaging methods, particularly in the last ten years, have permitted more detailed examinations of marrow adipocytes than ever before and yielded data that show these cells are critical regulators of the BM microenvironment and whole body metabolism. Indeed, marrow adipocytes are a...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 29, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The liver as an endocrine organ - linking NAFLD and insulin resistance.
We describe the NAFLD-induced changes in secretion of liver proteins, lipids, other metabolites, and miRNAs, and how these molecules alter metabolism in liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas to induce insulin resistance. We also synthesise the limited information which indicates that extracellular vesicles, and in particular exosomes, may be an important mechanism for inter-tissue communication in normal physiology and in promoting metabolic dysregulation in NAFLD. PMID: 31098621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Diabetic gastroparesis.
DIABETIC GASTROPARESIS. Endocr Rev. 2019 May 13;: Authors: Bharucha AE, Kudva YC, Prichard DO Abstract This review covers the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of diabetic gastroparesis, and more broadly diabetic gastroenteropathy, which encompasses all the gastrointestinal manifestations of diabetes mellitus (DM). Up to 50% of patients with type 1 and 2 DM and suboptimal glycemic control have delayed gastric emptying (GE), which can be documented with scintigraphy, 13 C-breath tests, or a wireless motility capsule; the remainder have normal or rapid GE. Many p...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The gut microbiome influences host endocrine functions.
In conclusion, this review summarizes recent state-of-the art aiming at providing evidence that the gut microbiome influences host endocrine functions via several bacterial-derived metabolites. PMID: 31081896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Clinical guidelines and PTH measurement: does assay generation matter?
Authors: Smit MA, van Kinschot CMJ, van der Linden J, van Noord C, Kos S Abstract Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an important regulator of calcium and phosphate homeostasis and bone remodeling. PTH is metabolized into PTH fragments which are measured to a different extent by PTH assays of different generations. This is due to differences in fragments recognized and lack of assay standardization. PTH is measured in the workup of several conditions and clinical guidelines provide recommendations concerning these measurements. This review provides an overview of the impact of differences between PTH assays, when applyin...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 15, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research