How protein methylation regulates steroid receptor function
This article provides an overview of SR methylation/demethylation events, along with their functional effects and biological consequences. An in depth understanding of the landscape of these methylation events could provide new information on SR regulation in physiology, as well as promising perspectives for the development of new therapeutic strategies, illustrated by the specific inhibitors of protein methyltransferases that are currently available.PMID:33955470 | DOI:10.1210/endrev/bnab014 (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - May 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lucie Malbeteau Ha Thuy Pham Louisane Eve Michael R Stallcup Coralie Poulard Muriel Le Romancer Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Bone and Reproductive Hormones Beyond Estrogens and Androgens
Endocr Rev. 2021 Apr 26:bnab015. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab015. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTReproductive hormones play a crucial role in the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton. Indeed, the biological significance for this hormonal regulation of skeletal homeostasis is best illustrated by common clinical reproductive disorders, such as Primary Ovarian Insufficiency, Hypothalamic Amenorrhea, Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Early Menopause, which contribute to the clinical burden of low bone mineral density and increased risk for fragility fracture. Emerging evidence relating to traditional reproduc...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 26, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Edouard G Mills Lisa Yang Morten F Nielsen Moustapha Kassem Waljit S Dhillo Alexander N Comninos Source Type: research

Advances in Type 1 Diabetes Prediction using Islet Autoantibodies: Beyond a Simple Count
Endocr Rev. 2021 Apr 21:bnab013. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab013. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIslet autoantibodies are key markers for the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Since their discovery, they have also been recognized for their potential to identify at-risk individuals prior to symptoms. To date, risk prediction using autoantibodies has been based on autoantibody number; it has been robustly shown that nearly all multiple-autoantibody-positive individuals will progress to clinical disease. However, longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the rate of progression amongst multiple-autoantibody-positive individuals is h...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 21, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Michelle So Cate Speake Andrea K Steck Markus Lundgren Peter G Colman Jerry P Palmer Kevan C Herold Carla J Greenbaum Source Type: research

Recommended Hormone Therapy in Menopause: Concepts, Controversies and Approach to Treatment
Endocr Rev. 2021 Apr 15:bnab011. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab011. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHormone therapy (HT) is an effective treatment for menopausal symptoms, including vasomotor symptoms and genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Randomized trials also demonstrate positive effects on bone health, and age-stratified analyses indicate more favorable effects on coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in younger women (close proximity to menopause) than in women more than a decade past menopause. In the absence of contraindications or other major comorbidities, recently menopausal women with moderate or severe sympt...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 15, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Valerie A Flores Lubna Pal JoAnn E Manson Source Type: research

Anti-M üllerian hormone in female reproduction
This article reviews the main findings of the past 20 years on the regulation of the expression of AMH and its specific receptor AMHR2 by granulosa cells, the mechanism of action of AMH, the different roles it plays in the reproductive organs, its clinical utility and its involvement in the principal pathological conditions affecting women. The findings in respect of regulation tell us that AMH and AMHR2 expression is mainly regulated by Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, gonadotropins and estrogens. It has now been established that AMH regulates the different steps of folliculogenesis and that it has neuroendocrine effects. On ...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nathalie di Clemente Chryst èle Racine Alice Pierre Jo ëlle Taieb Source Type: research

The Human Islet: Mini-organ with Mega-impact
Endocr Rev. 2021 Apr 12:bnab010. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab010. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThis review focuses on the human pancreatic islet - including its structure, cell composition, development, function, and dysfunction. After providing a historical timeline of key discoveries about human islets over the past century, we describe new research approaches and technologies that are being used to study human islets and how these are providing insight into human islet physiology and pathophysiology. We also describe changes or adaptations in human islets in response to physiologic challenges such as pregnancy, aging, and ...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - April 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: John T Walker Diane C Saunders Marcela Brissova Alvin C Powers Source Type: research

Normal and Premature Adrenarche
Endocr Rev. 2021 Mar 31:bnab009. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab009. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTAdrenarche is the maturational increase in adrenal androgen production that normally begins in early childhood. It results from changes in the secretory response to ACTH that are best indexed by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) rise. These changes are related to the development of the zona reticularis (ZR) and its unique gene/enzyme expression pattern of low 3ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 with high cytochrome b5A, sulfotransferase 2A1, and 17ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5. Recently 11-ketotestosteron...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - March 31, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Robert L Rosenfield Source Type: research

Multi-organ coordination of lipoprotein secretion by hormones, nutrients and neural networks
Endocr Rev. 2021 Mar 20:bnab008. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab008. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPlasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), particularly atherogenic remnant lipoproteins, contribute to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Hypertriglyceridemia may arise in part from hypersecretion of TRLs by the liver and intestine. Here we focus on the complex network of hormonal, nutritional, and neuronal interorgan communication that regulates secretion of TRLs, and provide our perspective on the relative importance of these factors. Hormones and peptides originating from the pancreas (insulin, glucagon), gut (GLP...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - March 20, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Priska Stahel Changing Xiao Avital Nahmias Lili Tian Gary Franklin Lewis Source Type: research

Conducting real-world evidence studies on the clinical outcomes of diabetes treatments
This article integrates state-of-the-art knowledge on how to conduct and review RWE studies on diabetes treatments to maximize study validity and ultimately increased confidence in RWE-based decision making.PMID:33710268 | DOI:10.1210/endrev/bnab007 (Source: Endocrine Reviews)
Source: Endocrine Reviews - March 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sebastian Schneeweiss Elisabetta Patorno Source Type: research

ER stress in Cardiometabolic Diseases: from Molecular Mechanisms to Therapeutics
Endocr Rev. 2021 Mar 8:bnab006. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab006. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) hosts linear polypeptides and fosters natural folding of proteins through ER-residing chaperones and enzymes. Failure of the ER to align and compose proper protein architecture leads to accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins in the ER lumen, which disturbs ER homeostasis to provoke ER stress. Presence of ER stress initiates the cytoprotective unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis or instigates a rather maladaptive UPR to promote cell death. Although a wide array of cellular proc...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - March 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Amir Ajoolabady Shuyi Wang Guido Kroemer Daniel J Klionsky Vladimir N Uversky James R Sowers Hamid Aslkhodapasandhokmabad Yaguang Bi Junbo Ge Jun Ren Source Type: research

Considering Sex as a Biological Variable in Basic and Clinical Studies: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement
Endocr Rev. 2021 Mar 11:bnaa034. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa034. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn May 2014, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) stated its intent to "require applicants to consider sex as a biological variable (SABV) in the design and analysis of NIH-funded research involving animals and cells." Since then, proposed research plans that include animals routinely state that both sexes/genders will be used; however, in many instances, researchers and reviewers are at a loss about the issue of sex differences. Moreover, the terms sex and gender are used interchangeably by many researchers, further co...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - March 11, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Aditi Bhargava Arthur P Arnold Debra A Bangasser Kate M Denton Arpana Gupta Lucinda M Hilliard Krause Emeran A Mayer Margaret McCarthy Walter L Miller Armin Raznahan Ragini Verma Source Type: research

Physiological and Pharmacological Roles of PTH and PTHrP in Bone using their Shared Receptor, PTH1R.
Authors: Martin TJ, Sims NA, Seeman E Abstract The hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the paracrine factor, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) have preserved in evolution sufficient identities in their amino-terminal domains to share equivalent actions upon a common G protein coupled receptor, PTH1R, that predominantly uses the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-protein kinase A signaling pathway. Such a relationship between a hormone and local factor poses questions about how their common receptor mediates pharmacological and physiological actions of the two. Mouse genetic studies shown that PTHrP is essential for end...
Source: Endocrine Reviews - February 12, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research