Correction to: Diet approach before and after bariatric surgery.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately, has the incorrect title reported in the published paper. PMID: 32803692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bettini S, Belligoli A, Fabris R, Busetto L Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Ketogenic diets as treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Abstract During the last decades, several interventions for the management of overweight and obesity have been proposed. Among diets, the first studies focused on the effect of water only and total fasting diets with or without proteins. Unfortunately, they were found to be associated with adverse events which lead to the abandon of these strategies. Interestingly, despite the radical approach, total fasting was effective and generally well tolerated. A strict connection between protein-calorie malnutrition and increased in morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients was found at that time. Then, the seminal ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Casanueva FF, Castellana M, Bellido D, Trimboli P, Castro AI, Sajoux I, Rodriguez-Carnero G, Gomez-Arbelaez D, Crujeiras AB, Martinez-Olmos MA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The right nutrition for the nutrition related disease.
PMID: 32779061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vettor R Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Double burden of malnutrition in persons with obesity.
Abstract A paradoxical double challenge has emerged in the last decades with respect to nutrition and nutrition-related clinical conditions. Hunger-related undernutrition continues to represent an unacceptable burden, although its prevalence has been encouragingly reduced worldwide. On the other hand, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, defined as fat excess accumulation with negative impact on individual health, has dramatically increased due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Undernutrition and obesity may coexist in world regions, Countries and even smaller communities and households,...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Barazzoni R, Gortan Cappellari G Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: how one pandemic worsens the other.
Abstract In light of the most challenging public health crisis of modern history, COVID-19 mortality continues to rise at an alarming rate. Patients with co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus (DM) seem to be more prone to severe symptoms and appear to have a higher mortality rate. In this review, we elucidate suggested mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of patients with diabetes to infection with SARS-CoV-2 with a more severe COVID-19 disease. The worsened prognosis of COVID-19 patients with DM can be attributed to a facilitated viral uptake assisted by ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Azar WS, Njeim R, Fares AH, Azar NS, Azar ST, El Sayed M, Eid AA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The role of dietary protein in obesity.
Abstract Protein-rich diets are surging in popularity for weight loss. An increase in diet-induced thermogenesis, better preservation of fat-free mass, and enhanced satiety with greater dietary protein intakes may lead to increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake; and thus promote a more negative energy balance that facilitates weight loss. Results from large randomized trials and meta-analyses of many smaller trials indicate that high-protein diets typically induce significantly greater amounts of weight loss than conventional low-fat or high-carbohydrate diets during the early, rapid weight loss p...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Magkos F Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders.
In conclusion, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills and the intervention of experienced nutritionists and dieticians. PMID: 32734395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bettini S, Belligoli A, Fabris R, Busetto L Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Melatonin, an ubiquitous metabolic regulator: functions, mechanisms and effects on circadian disruption and degenerative diseases.
oveanu AG Abstract The last four decades, we assist to an increasing scientific interest on melatonin, a circadian hormone, a metabolic regulator which influences not only plants' metabolism and their defense against pathogens but mostly the animals and humans' metabolic pathways, their response to circadian disruption, stress and burnout syndrome. In humans, as a hormonal regulator, produced in the pineal grand as well in mitochondria, melatonin is involved in different, complex intracellular signaling pathways, with antioxidant and immune stimulating effects, proving to act as a circadian synchronizer, as a prev...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Socaciu AI, Ionuţ R, Socaciu MA, Ungur AP, Bârsan M, Chiorean A, Socaciu C, Râjnoveanu AG Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Microbiome response to diet: focus on obesity and related diseases.
Abstract Numerous studies in humans and animal models describe disturbances of the gut microbial ecosystem associated with adiposity and hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, including hepatic and cardiovascular diseases. The manipulation of the microbiome, which is largely influenced by the diet, appears as an innovative therapeutic tool to prevent or control obesity and related diseases. This review describes the impact of nutrients on the gut microbiota composition and/or function and when available, the consequences on host physiology. A special emphasis is made on the contribution of bacterial-derived metaboli...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Delzenne NM, Rodriguez J, Olivares M, Neyrinck AM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Clinical manifestations and management of fatty acid oxidation disorders.
Abstract Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD) are a group of rare, autosomal recessive, metabolic disorders caused by variants of the genes for the enzymes and proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids in the mitochondria. Those affected by FAOD are unable to convert fatty acids into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates such as acetyl-coenzyme A, resulting in decreased adenosine triphosphate and glucose for use as energy in a variety of high-energy-requiring organ systems. Signs and symptoms may manifest in infants but often also appear in adolescents or adults during times of increased m...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Merritt JL, MacLeod E, Jurecka A, Hainline B Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract COVID-19 infection has tremendously impacted our daily clinical practice as well as our social living organization. Virtually all organs and biological systems suffer from this new coronavirus infection, either because the virus targets directly specific tissues or because of indirect effects. Endocrine diseases are not an exception and some of endocrine organs are at risk of direct or indirect lesion by COVID-19. Although there is still no evidence of higher predisposition to contract the infection in patients with diabetes and/or obesity, the coexistence of these conditions contributes to a worse progno...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marazuela M, Giustina A, Puig-Domingo M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Enteroendocrine dynamics - New tools reveal hormonal plasticity in the gut.
Abstract The recent intersection of enteroendocrine cell biology with single-cell technologies and novel in vitro model systems has generated a tremendous amount of new data. Here we highlight these recent developments and explore how these findings contribute to the understanding of endocrine lineages in the gut. In particular, the concept of hormonal plasticity, the ability of endocrine cells to produce different hormones in the course of their lifetime, challenges the classic notion of cell types. Enteroendocrine cells travel in the course of their life through different signaling environments that directly inf...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Beumer J, Gehart H, Clevers H Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Ketotherapy as an epigenetic modifier in cancer.
Abstract Epigenetic alterations in cancer play a variety of roles. Aberrant DNA methylation, as one of the epigenetic mechanisms, has been widely studied in both tumor and liquid biopsies and provide a useful bench mark for treatment response in cancer. Recently, several studies have reported an association between the type of diet and epigenetic modifications. Whereby there is a growing interest in finding the "anti-cancer diet formula", if such a thing exists. In this sense, ketogenic diets (KD) have reported potentially beneficial effects, which were able to prevent malignancies and decrease tumor gro...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bandera-Merchan B, Boughanem H, Crujeiras AB, Macias-Gonzalez M, Tinahones FJ Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Are aggressive pituitary tumors and carcinomas two sides of the same coin? Pathologists reply to clinician's questions.
Abstract Pituitary adenohypophyseal tumors are considered as benign and termed "adenomas". However, many tumors are invasive and a proportion of these exhibit an "aggressive behavior" with premature death due to progressive growth. Only very rare (0.2%) tumors with metastases are considered malignant and termed "carcinomas". Taking into account this variability in behavior and the oncological definition, pathologists have proposed changing the term adenoma to tumor. Here we explain why use the term tumor instead of adenoma and identify tumor characteristics, associated with a high ris...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Trouillas J, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Vasiljevic A, Dekkers O, Popovic V, Wierinckx A, McCormack A, Petersenn S, Burman P, Raverot G, Villa C Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Surgical treatment of aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas.
Abstract Surgery of aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas is part of the interdisciplinary management of these difficult to treat tumors. Invasion, giant size and unusual, asymmetric extent of these tumors frequently require modifications or extensions of the standard approaches for transsphenoidal and transcranial surgery. Frequently, only debulking procedures can be performed. In aggressive and hormone secreting adenomas, the remission rates achieved by surgery alone are relatively poor and adjuvant medical treatments or irradiation are needed. Safe resection of as much tumor as possible and sym...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Buchfelder M, Schlaffer SM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Theranostics in neuroendocrine tumors: an overview of current approaches and future challenges.
Abstract Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors, mainly localized in the gastrointestinal system. What characterizes NENs is the expression of hormone receptors on the tumor cell surface, making them accessible for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches (theranostics) using radiolabelled peptides. Somatostatin receptors subtype-two (SST2) play an important role in NENs since they are overexpressed and homogeneously distributed at the surface of the majority of NENs. Accordingly, targeting SST2 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes has been established. Current research aims at up...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Refardt J, Hofland J, Kwadwo A, Nicolas GP, Rottenburger C, Fani M, Wild D, Christ E Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The use of Broca index to assess cut- off points for overweight in adults: A short review.
iao X Abstract The Broca formula was developed in 1871 by Pierre Paul Broca (a French Army Doctor) to help establish ideal body weight or normal body weight. Initially, the Broca Index (BI) was used to work out the normal weight but was later expanded to ideal Body Weight. Ideal Body weight (kg) = [Height (cm)-100]. The common methods used to explore the levels of adiposity include body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Even though there have be...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Laurent I, Astère M, Paul B, Liliane N, Li Y, Cheng Q, Li Q, Xiao X Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The optimal numerosity of the referral population of pituitary tumors centers of excellence (PTCOE): A surgical perspective.
Abstract Surgical experience is of paramount importance to reach therapeutic success and minimize operative complications. In the field of pituitary surgery, this led to the concept of Pituitary Center of Excellence (PTCOE) defined as a center where an interdisciplinary team works in collaboration and where surgeons can be trained appropriately to reach and keep excellence in daily practice. To review the literature to define the optimal referral population size to establish a PTCOE to optimize both training and specific field research. A review of the literature was performed about epidemiology. The time needed t...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mortini P, Nocera G, Roncelli F, Losa M, Formenti AM, Giustina A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The journey in diagnosis and treatment, from pituitary adenoma to aggressive pituitary tumors.
PMID: 32488740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fleseriu M, Popovic V Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Regulation of energy intake and mechanisms of metabolic adaptation or maladaptation after caloric restriction.
Abstract Despite their critical role in susceptibility to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, mechanisms regulating energy balance are extremely complex and far from being fully understood. Both central and peripheral feedback circuits are involved and, despite it was traditionally thought that the energy balance of an organism depends on the equality between calorie intake within the system and energy expenditure, the regulation of energy content in biological systems oversteps the classical physical laws of thermodynamics. The fine-tuned mechanism for body weight and energy storage regulation...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vettor R, Di Vincenzo A, Maffei P, Rossato M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Review of the veteran affairs diabetes trial: Lessons learned.
Abstract Despite robust evidence linking long-term hyperglycemia with cardiovascular complications, several large randomized trials found only modest benefits from intensive compared to standard glucose control. Of these trials, the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), offers a unique long-term perspective in that there were analyses of outcomes at the end of the intervention trial, 5-years post-trial, and after 10-years post-trial. From the VADT and other large trials, we draw several valuable lessons that are relevant to the care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive glucose control reduces development o...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tran K, Reaven P Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Acromegaly, inflammation and cardiovascular disease: a review.
Abstract Acromegaly is characterized by Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) excess. Uncontrolled acromegaly is associated with a strongly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and numerous cardiovascular risk factors remain present after remission. GH and IGF-1 have numerous effects on the immune and cardiovascular system. Since endothelial damage and systemic inflammation are strongly linked to the development of CVD, and have been suggested to be present in both controlled as uncontrolled acromegaly, they may explain the presence of both micro- and macrovascular dysfunction in ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wolters TLC, Netea MG, Riksen NP, Hermus ARMM, Netea-Maier RT Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Neuroimaging of aggressive pituitary tumors.
Abstract Aggresssive pituitary tumors are defined as radiologically invasive, exhibiting a rapid growth and a poor response to the medical and surgical treatment options. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is fundamental to assess tumor aggressiveness before surgical exploration. Distinction between cavernous sinus invasion and cavernous sinus compression is often challenging and cannot be solved always by using the Knosp criteria. Ideally, T2W images demonstrating the ruptured internal dural wall of cavernous sinus is the ultimate proof of cavernous sinus invasion. Subtle tumor volume increase in a shor...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 24, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bonneville JF, Potorac J, Beckers A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Acute assessment of subjective appetite and implicated hormones after a hypnosis-induced hallucinated meal: a randomized cross-over pilot trial.
Abstract The use of hypnosis can generate hallucinatory phenomena, which ranged from vivid/auditory imagery to fully developed "hallucinations" in selected people. The aim of this pilot trial was investigating the acute effects of a hypnosis-induced hallucinated breakfast (HB) compared to those of a real breakfast (RB) on subjective appetite and appetite-regulating hormones in highly hypnotizable individuals. Eight healthy post-menopausal women were recruited to consume two meals: the HB and the RB in a randomized crossover design. Participants underwent appetite sensations measurements (before meal and ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Cioffi I, Gambino R, Rosato R, Properzi B, Regaldo G, Ponzo V, Pellegrini M, Contaldo F, Pasanisi F, Ghigo E, Bo S Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Targeted systemic and peptide radio-ligand therapy for aggressive pituitary tumors and carcinomas.
Abstract Aggressive pituitary tumors comprise a rare but challenging subset of pituitary tumors. A major issue currently is the absence of a holistic definition that reliably identifies these tumors in a prospective manner. Although comprehensive evaluation of patient gender, age, local invasiveness, treatment responses, radiological and histopathological features may be informative to assess the potential for aggressiveness, a definitive diagnosis of this entity cannot be confidently made until disease progression is actually observed despite standard medical and surgical therapy. Failure to diagnose these aggres...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Petersenn S, Heaney AP Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein, dysglycaemia and insulin resistance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract To systematically review the current literature investigating associations between zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) and dysglycaemia (including type 2 diabetes (T2DM), poly-cystic-ovary syndrome (PCOS), pre-diabetes or insulin resistance). This included relationships between ZAG and continuous measures of insulin and glucose. Additionally, we performed a meta-analysis to estimate the extent that ZAG differs between individuals with or without dysglycaemia; whilst examining the potential influence of adiposity. A systematic search was performed on four databases for studies on circulating ZAG concentrations ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 6, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pearsey HM, Henson J, Sargeant JA, Davies MJ, Khunti K, Suzuki T, Bowden-Davies KA, Cuthbertson DJ, Yates TE Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The epidemiology of aggressive pituitary tumors (and its challenges).
Abstract Pituitary tumors are not rare if prevalence rates from autopsy or radiological series are considered; approximately 0.5% of all pituitary adenomas will come to medical attention. Less than 0.1% of these pituitary adenomas will become malignant, and probably around 0.5% of all detected adenomas will display an aggressive course. However, the exact incidence of both aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas is unknown, as most data come from series with selected patients, such as surgically treated patients, which is likely not a reflection of all patients with a pituitary adenoma. An aggressiv...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Dekkers OM, Karavitaki N, Pereira AM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia in children and adolescents: Recent advances in understanding of pathophysiology and management.
Abstract Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HH) is characterized by unregulated insulin release, leading to persistently low blood glucose concentrations with lack of alternative fuels, which increases the risk of neurological damage in these patients. It is the most common cause of persistent and recurrent hypoglycemia in the neonatal period. HH may be primary, Congenital HH (CHH), when it is associated with variants in a number of genes implicated in pancreatic development and function. Alterations in fifteen genes have been recognized to date, being some of the most recently identified mutations in genes HK1, PGM1,...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gϋemes M, Rahman SA, Kapoor RR, Flanagan S, Houghton JAL, Misra S, Oliver N, Dattani MT, Shah P Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Consensus statement from 2nd International Conference on Controversies in Vitamin D.
In this report, we present a summary of our findings. PMID: 32180081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giustina A, Adler RA, Binkley N, Bollerslev J, Bouillon R, Dawson-Hughes B, Ebeling PR, Feldman D, Formenti AM, Lazaretti-Castro M, Marcocci C, Rizzoli R, Sempos CT, Bilezikian JP Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Is mitochondrial dysfunction a common root of noncommunicable chronic diseases?
Abstract Mitochondrial damage is implicated as a major contributing factor for a number of noncommunicable chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes. Here, we discuss the role of mitochondria in maintaining cellular and whole-organism homeostasis, the mechanisms that promote mitochondrial dysfunction and the role of this phenomenon in noncommunicable chronic diseases. We also review the state of the art regarding the pre-clinical evidence associated with the regulation of the mitochondrial function and the development of current mitochondria...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 15, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Diaz-Vegas A, Sanchez-Aguilera P, Krycer JR, Morales PE, Monsalves-Alvarez M, Cifuentes M, Rothermel BA, Lavandero S Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Serotonin pathway in carcinoid syndrome: Clinical, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications.
Abstract Carcinoid syndrome represents the most common functional syndrome that affects patients with neuroendocrine neoplasms. Its clinical presentation is really heterogeneous, ranging from mild and often misdiagnosed symptoms to severe manifestations, that significantly worsen the patient's quality of life, such as difficult-to-control diarrhoea and fibrotic complications. Serotonin pathway alteration plays a central role in the pathophysiology of carcinoid syndrome, accounting for most clinical manifestations and providing diagnostic tools. Serotonin pathway is complex, resulting in production of biologically ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fanciulli G, Ruggeri RM, Grossrubatscher E, Calzo FL, Wood TD, Faggiano A, Isidori A, Colao A, NIKE Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Temozolomide therapy for aggressive pituitary tumours - current understanding and future perspectives.
Abstract The use of temozolomide (TMZ) for the management of aggressive pituitary tumours (APT) has revolutionised clinical practice in this field with significantly improved clinical outcomes and long-term survival. Its use is now well established however a large number of patients do not respond to treatment and recurrence after cessation of TMZ is common. A number of challenges remain for clinicians such as appropriate patient selection, treatment duration and the role of combination therapy. This review will examine the use of TMZ to treat APT including mechanism of action, treatment regimen and duration; biom...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Burman P, Lamb L, McCormack A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Metabolically Healthy Obesity.
r M Abstract Obesity contributes to reduced life expectancy, impaired quality of life and disabilities mainly in those individuals who develop cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, osteoarthritis and cancer. However, there is large variation in the individual risk to develop obesity-associated comorbid diseases which cannot simply be explained by the extent of adiposity. Observations that a proportion of individuals with obesity have a significantly lower risk for cardiometabolic abnormalities led to the concept of metabolically healthy obesity (MHO). Although there is no clear definition, normal glucose and l...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Blüher M Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Type 2 diabetes - unmet need, unresolved pathogenesis, mTORC1-centric paradigm.
Abstract The current paradigm of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is gluco-centric, being exclusively categorized by glycemic characteristics. The gluco-centric paradigm views hyperglycemia as the primary target, being driven by resistance to insulin combined with progressive beta cells failure, and considers glycemic control its ultimate treatment goal. Most importantly, the gluco-centric paradigm considers the non-glycemic diseases associated with T2D, e.g., obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, macrovascular disease, microvascular disease and fatty liver as 'risk factors' and/or 'outcomes' and/or 'comorbidities', rather th...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bar-Tana J Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Current perspectives of oleic acid: Regulation of molecular pathways in mitochondrial and endothelial functioning against insulin resistance and diabetes.
Abstract Insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a leading cause of deaths due to metabolic disorders in recent years. Molecular mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of IR and T2DM are multiples. The major factors include mitochondrial dysfunction which may cause incomplete fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Oleic acid upregulates the expression of genes causing FAO by deacetylation of PGC1α by PKA-dependent activation of SIRT1-PGC1α complex. Another potent factor for the development of IR and T2DM is endothelial dysfunction as damaged endothelium causes increased relea...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Rehman K, Haider K, Jabeen K, Akash MSH Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of Paget's disease of bone in mainland China: A systematic review.
In this study, we aimed to retrospectively analyze the clinical features and the status of diagnosis and treatment of PDB in mainland China to improve the clinician's understanding of this disease. For this purpose, we conducted a systematic review of 118 articles, including a total of 332 patients with PDB. The results showed that the onset age of PDB in mainland China was 46-60 years. The number of male patients in most age groups was slightly higher than that of female patients, but there was no statistical difference (p > 0.05). The gender ratio (male to female) of PDB in mainland China was signif...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wang QY, Fu SJ, Ding N, Liu SY, Chen R, Wen ZX, Fu S, Sheng ZF, Ou YN Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Confusion in the nomenclature of ketogenic diets blurs evidence.
Abstract Ketogenic diets have been proposed as a non-pharmacological strategy for the management of several chronic conditions. Their efficacy and safety have been evaluated in the field of neurology, oncology and endocrinology for disorders including cancer, dementia, drug-resistant epilepsy, migraines, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The nutritional requirements of these subjects are expected to differ significantly. Indeed, although all ketogenic diets restrict carbohydrates, each intervention is characterized by a specific daily calorie intake, macronutrient composition and dur...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Trimboli P, Castellana M, Bellido D, Casanueva FF Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of time-restricted feeding on body weight and metabolism. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract The article "Effects of time-restricted feeding on body weight and metabolism. A systematic review and meta-analysis" written by Pellegrini Marianna, Cioffi Iolanda, Evangelista Andrea, Ponzo Valentina, Goitre Ilaria, Ciccone Giovannino, Ghigo Ezio, Bo Simona" was originally published with the surname and then first name of all authors. PMID: 32072363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 17, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pellegrini M, Cioffi I, Evangelista A, Ponzo V, Goitre I, Ciccone G, Ghigo E, Bo S Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Radiation techniques in aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas.
Abstract Defining the role of radiation techniques in treatment of aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas is a difficult task: indeed, studies reported in the literature on this topic can probably be counted on the fingers of one hand. To try to better define these roles, it is thus necessary to extrapolate based on anti-secretory and anti-tumor efficacy reported in studies on non-selected pituitary tumours, regardless of their pathological status and intrinsic aggressiveness. Generally, radiation techniques are delivered as part of a multimodal treatment, usually with the primary aim of controlling tumor vol...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Castinetti F Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Associations between body mass index, waist circumference and erectile dysfunction: a systematic review and META-analysis.
Abstract Growing evidence reports that obesity might play a role in erectile dysfunction (ED), but limited knowledge is available. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of ED in overweight men and men with obesity. We performed a systematic review up to 01/04/2019 to investigate the associations between obesity and ED. Applying a random-effect model, we calculated the prevalence of ED, the odds ratio (OR) for the presence of ED by Body Mass Index (BMI) categories and the mean differences between ED and controls in BMI and Waist Circumference (WC). Among 3409 studies, we included 45 articles ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pizzol D, Smith L, Fontana L, Caruso MG, Bertoldo A, Demurtas J, McDermott D, Garolla A, Grabovac I, Veronese N Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Fertility issues in aggressive pituitary tumors.
Abstract The management of aggressive pituitary adenomas represents a special clinical challenge, and usually involves a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacological agents to control tumor growth and hormone abnormalities. Fertility is commonly affected in these patients due to compressive effects of the tumor, pituitary hormone dysfunction or as a result of the multiple therapies. The initial approach to restore fertility involves the reduction of tumor volume by the use of dopamine agonists in prolactinomas and by surgery in other pituitary adenomas. Somatostatin analogues are alternative options fo...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 26, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marques JVO, Boguszewski CL Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Dynamic changes of views on the brain changes of Cushing's syndrome using different computer-assisted tool.
Abstract Cushing's syndrome (CS) provides a unique model for assessing the neurotoxic effect of chronic hypercortisolism on human brains. With the ongoing development of different computer-assisted tools, four research stages emerged, each with its own pearls and pitfalls. This review summarizes current knowledge and describes the dynamic changes of views on the brain changes of CS, especially in the current era of the rapid development of artificial intelligence and big data. The adverse effects of GC on brain are proven to be on structural, functional and cellular levels at the same time. PMID: 31974674 [Pu...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 22, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gao L, Liu L, Shi L, Luo Y, Wang Z, Guo X, Xing B Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

A systematic review on the role of infrared thermography in the Brown adipose tissue assessment.
Conclusion: Despite the large number of published methodologies, IRT is a promising method for detecting BAT activation. Current knowledge already allows a better understanding of thermography to improve and standardize the technique. PMID: 31965434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Brasil S, Renck AC, de Meneck F, Brioschi ML, Costa EF, Teixeira MJ Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The pathogenic role of the GIP/GIPR axis in human endocrine tumors: emerging clinical mechanisms beyond diabetes.
Abstract The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone produced in the gastrointestinal tract in response to nutrients. GIP has a variety of effects on different systems, including the potentiation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells after food intake (i.e. incretin effect), which is probably the most important. GIP effects are mediated by the GIP receptor (GIPR), a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in several tissues, including islet β-cells, adipocytes, bone cells, and brain. As well as its involvement in metabolic disorders (e.g. it contributes to the impair...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 13, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Regazzo D, Barbot M, Scaroni C, Albiger N, Occhi G Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Aggressive pituitary tumors in the young and elderly.
Abstract Aggressive pituitary tumors (APTs) represent rare pituitary adenomas (PAs) with local invasion of surrounding tissues, increased risk for multiple recurrence, rapid tumor growth, or resistance to standard therapies. The most common APTs in children and adolescents are giant prolactinomas and somatotropinomas. Few cases of Crooke's cell adenomas, silent corticotroph adenomas and pituitary carcinomas have also been reported in the literature. Pediatric patients with APTs have higher risk of harboring germline genetic defects, most commonly in the MEN1 and AIP genes. Since certain genetic defects confer...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tatsi C, Stratakis CA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Microbiota impacts on chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome - related cognitive dysfunction.
dez-Real JM Abstract Cognitive dysfunction, one of the major concerns of increased life expectancy, is prevalent in patients with metabolic disorders. Added to the inflammation in the context of aging (inflammaging), low-grade chronic inflammation (metaflammation) accompanies metabolic diseases. Peripheral and central inflammation underlie metabolic syndrome - related cognitive dysfunction. The gut microbiota is increasingly recognized to be linked to both inflammaging and metaflammation in parallel to the pathophysiology of obesity, type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Microbiota composition, diversity and...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 27, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Arnoriaga-Rodríguez M, Fernández-Real JM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Consider the microbiome in the equation! They were here before us...and hosted us!
lin R PMID: 31865508 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fernández-Real JM, Federici M, Burcelin R Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Male and female sexual dysfunction in diabetic subjects: Focus on new antihyperglycemic drugs.
Abstract The association between diabetes mellitus (and its micro- and macro-vascular complications) and erectile dysfunction is widely known and the presence of hypogonadism may further complicate sexual dysfunction and quality of life, given the association between hypogonadism and reduced libido, ejaculatory disorders, and depressive symptoms. However, the recent introduction of novel antidiabetic agents with a wide range of mechanism of action may have a significant impact both on male and female sexuality directly (by inducing side effects as urinary tract infections) and indirectly (improving metabolic statu...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 19, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Corona G, Isidori AM, Aversa A, Bonomi M, Ferlin A, Foresta C, La Vignera S, Maggi M, Pivonello R, Vignozzi L, Lombardo F Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Gut microbiome and cardiometabolic risk.
Abstract The last decade has been characterized by an intense research on the composition of the gut microbiome and the links with human health. While previous work was focused on the effects of prebiotics and probiotics, nowadays several laboratories are describing the gut microbiome and its metabolic functions. Gut microbiome interaction with nutrients allows the gut microbiome to survive and at the same time determines the production of metabolites that are either adsorbed by intestinal cell in a mutual relationship or promote detrimental effect. Metabolomics, a new method to approach identification of biomarke...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 13, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kappel BA, Federici M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Obesity and overweight decreases the effect of vitamin D supplementation in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Abstract Overweight and obesity are associated with vitamin D deficiency (VitD), which are both important health problems. Reduced serum vitamin D levels has been registered in all phases of life and is commonly associated with the genesis of overweight and obesity. Thus, the objective of this review with meta-analysis was to investigate and evidence the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in vitamin D. Interventional studies were searched for in 5 databases, without restriction of publication date or language. The absolute mean difference was used as a summary measure of the selected studies. A total of 2370 st...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: de Oliveira LF, de Azevedo LG, da Mota Santana J, de Sales LPC, Pereira-Santos M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research