Role of growth factors and cytokines in diabetic foot ulcer healing: A detailed review.
Abstract The aim of the review is to examine the role of growth factors and cytokines in the management of Diabetic Foot Ulcers, such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Insulin like growth factor (IGF). Taking this a step further, the role of Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β-1) and other growth factors have also been examined, with regard to the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. The roles of these above-mentioned growth cytokines have been analyzed by studying various scholastic arti...
Source: ENDOCR REV - April 1, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Zubair M, Ahmad J Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Role of eating disorders-related polymorphisms in obesity pathophysiology.
Abstract Human biological system provides innumerable neuroendocrine inputs for food intake control, with effects on appetite's modulation and the satiety signs. Its regulation is very complex, engaging several molecular interactions with many tissues, hormones, and neural circuits. Thus, signaling molecules that control food intake are critical for normal energy homeostasis and a deregulation of these pathways can lead to eating disorders and obesity. In line of this, genetic factors have a significantly influence of the regulation of neural circuits controlling the appetite and satiety pathways, as well as the r...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 28, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nicoletti CF, Delfino HBP, Ferreira FC, Pinhel MAS, Nonino CB Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Correction to: Statins, metformin, proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and sex hormones: Immunomodulatory properties?
Abstract The authors would like to note that several errors had occurred, especially in Table 2, Tables 5, 6 and 7, Figure 13, and in the legend of Figure 23. PMID: 30903391 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Koch CA, Krabbe S, Hehmke B Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

PET/CT in thyroid nodule and differentiated thyroid cancer patients. The evidence-based state of the art.
Abstract A more conservative approach to the clinical management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer has recently been proposed by the 2015 ATA guidelines. In this context, fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been reserved for nodules with particular ultrasound features or dimensions that exclude low-risk thyroid lesions. Accordingly, a less aggressive surgical approach (i.e. lobectomy) has been recommended as the first-choice treatment in nodules with indeterminate cytology or in small cytologically confirmed malignant nodules. At the same time, radioactive remnant ablation has been considered only...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 21, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Piccardo A, Trimboli P, Foppiani L, Treglia G, Ferrarazzo G, Massollo M, Bottoni G, Giovanella L Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Associations between atherosclerosis and neurological diseases, beyond ischemia-induced cerebral damage.
D, Zaina S Abstract Neurodegeneration is traditionally viewed as a consequence of peptide accumulation in the brain, stroke and/or cerebral ischemia. Nonetheless, a number of scattered observations suggest that neurological disease and atherosclerosis may be linked by more complex mechanisms. Understanding the intricate link between atherosclerosis and neurological conditions may have a significant impact on the quality of life of the growing ageing population and of high cardiovascular risk groups in general. Epidemiological data support the notion that neurological dysfunction and atherosclerosis coexist long b...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 20, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Colín-Castelán D, Zaina S Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The prevalence of retinopathy among type 2 diabetic patients in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most major causes of blindness and disability in diabetic patients and imposes very high cost on Health Care System. Studies conducted in the country showed different and inconsistent prevalence of the disease. The study aims to determine the overall prevalence of retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes in Iran through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The present study was conducted via meta-analysis method during March, 2000 to October, 2018. The articles related to the subject under study were obtained from Magiran, SID, Medline (PubMed), Science Direct, Sco...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mohammadi M, Raiegani AAV, Jalali R, Ghobadi A, Salari N Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Role of epigenomic mechanisms in the onset and management of insulin resistance.
Abstract The prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) is increasing rapidly worldwide and it is a relevant health problem because it is associated with several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. Understanding the mechanisms involved in IR onset and progression will open new avenues for identifying biomarkers for preventing and treating IR and its co-diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are important factors that mediate the environmental effect in the genome by regulating gene expression and consequently its effect on the phenotype and the development of disease...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Izquierdo AG, Crujeiras AB Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Efficacy of radiofrequency ablation in autonomous functioning thyroid nodules. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
In conclusion, a moderate efficacy of RFA in treating TTN was found, and this can represent a solid starting point in this field. PMID: 30887407 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Cesareo R, Palermo A, Benevenuto D, Cella E, Pasqualini V, Bernardi S, Stacul F, Angeletti S, Mauri G, Ciccozzi M, Trimboli P Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Testicular adrenal rest tumors: current insights on prevalence, characteristics, origin and treatment.
Abstract This review provides the reader with current insights on testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs), a complication in male patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).In recent studies, an overall TART prevalence of 40% (range 14-89%) in classic CAH-patients is found. Reported differences are mainly caused by the method of detection, and the selected patient population. Biochemically, histologically, and molecularly TARTs exhibit particular adrenal characteristics and were therefore thought to originate from aberrant adrenal cells. More recently TART has been found to also exhibit testicular character...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 18, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Engels M, Span PN, van Herwaarden AE, Sweep FCGJ, Stikkelbroeck NMML, Claahsen-van der Grinten HL Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The roles of FGF21 in atherosclerosis pathogenesis.
Abstract FGF21 is a peptide hormone that regulates homeostasis of lipid and glucose as well as energy metabolism. It is mainly expressed and secreted in liver and adipose tissues, and it is expressed in lower amounts in the aorta. Recent clinical and preclinical studies indicate increased serum FGF21 levels in atherosclerosis patients. Also, FGF21 therapy has been reported to reduce the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis in animal models and in vitro studies. Moreover, growing evidence indicates that administration of exogenous FGF21 induces anti-atherosclerotic effects, because of its ability to reduce...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 16, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tabari FS, Karimian A, Parsian H, Rameshknia V, Mahmoodpour A, Majidinia M, Maniati M, Yousefi B Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Primary tumors of the posterior pituitary: A systematic review.
In conclusion, PPT are rare tumors and have been misdiagnosed mainly as non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Different types of PPT share similar epidemiology, clinical manifestations and surgical outcomes. Surgery is the only curative option but complications and subtotal resection are common. PMID: 30864049 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 12, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Guerrero-Pérez F, Marengo AP, Vidal N, Iglesias P, Villabona C Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Therapeutic hypernatremia management during continuous renal replacement therapy with elevated intracranial pressures and respiratory failure.
We present our current treatment approach, with demonstrative case vignette illustrations, utilizing hypertonic saline protocols (3% sodium-chloride or, with coexisting severe combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis, with 4.2% sodium-bicarbonate) in conjunction with the CRRT platform, to induce controlled hypernatremia of approximately 155 mEq/L in hemodynamically unstable patients with acute kidney injury and elevated ICP due to acute brain injury. Rationale, mechanism of activation, benefits and potential pitfalls of the therapy are reviewed. The impact of hypertonic citrate solution during regional citrate anti...
Source: ENDOCR REV - March 8, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fülöp T, Zsom L, Rodríguez RD, Chabrier-Rosello JO, Hamrahian M, Koch CA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Differential activity of the corticosteroidogenic enzymes in normal cycling women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Abstract The phenotypic complex of patients with definitive diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome may include patients with normal and high serum androgen levels. Patients with hyperandrogenemia seem to present higher risk of changes to the glucose and lipid metabolism and, eventually, of earlier development of cardiovascular diseases than normoandrogenemic patients or healthy women. From a laboratory and clinical point of view, it is important to check androgen levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. The identification of partial insufficiency of a given corticosteroidogenic enzyme is also relevant to...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Yamamoto MMW, de Medeiros SF Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Statins, metformin, proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and sex hormones: Immunomodulatory properties?
Abstract The immune system is closely intertwined with the endocrine system. Many effects of medications used for various clinical endocrine conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, Graves' disease and others also have an impact on the immune system. Some drugs including statins, metformin, angiotensin converting enzyme and proprotein-convertase-subtilisin-kexin type-9 (PCSK9) inhibitors and sex hormones are known to have immunomodulatory properties. We here review the literature on this topic and provide some clinical examples including the use of statins i...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 23, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Koch CA, Krabbe S, Hehmke B Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Immunoendocrinology: When (neuro)endocrinology and immunology meet.
Abstract PMID: 30656554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 17, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Koch CA, Antonelli A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Testis development.
ppari J Abstract Production of sperm and androgens is the main function of the testis. This depends on normal development of both testicular somatic cells and germ cells. Genetic program initiated from the Y chromosome gene SRY (sex-determining region Y) directs somatic cell specification to Sertoli cells that orchestrate further development. They first guide fetal germ cell differentiation towards spermatogenic destiny, and then take care of the full service to spermatogenic cells during spermatogenesis. The number of Sertoli cells sets the limits of sperm production. Leydig cells secrete androgens that determine...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 26, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mäkelä JA, Koskenniemi JJ, Virtanen HE, Toppari J Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Genetics of Human Primary Hypertension: Focus on Hormonal Mechanisms.
In conclusion: primary hypertension is a syndrome; many proposed genes are likely to be false positives; deep phenotyping will be required to determine the utility of genetics in the treatment of hypertension. Yet, to date, the positive genes are associated with nearly 50% of primary hypertensives, suggesting that in the near term precise, mechanistically driven treatment and prevention strategies for the specific primary hypertension sub-groups are feasible. PMID: 30590482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Manosroi W, Williams GH Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Familial hyperaldosteronism type III a novel case and review of literature.
e;iga Á, Calvo F Abstract Less than 15% of hypertension cases in children are secondary to a primary hyperaldosteronism. This is idiopathic in 60% of the cases, secondary to a unilateral adenoma in 30% and 10% remaining by primary adrenal hyperplasia, familial hyperaldosteronism, ectopic aldosterone production or adrenocortical carcinoma.To date, four types of familial hyperaldosteronism (FH I to FH IV) have been reported. FH III is caused by germline mutations in KCNJ5, encoding the potassium channel Kir3.4. The mutations cause the channel to lose its selectivity for potassium, allowing large quantities of...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pons Fernández N, Moreno F, Morata J, Moriano A, León S, De Mingo C, Zuñiga Á, Calvo F Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Primary hypophysitis and other autoimmune disorders of the sellar and suprasellar regions.
Abstract The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can be affected by autoimmune-mediated structural and functional disruption. These autoimmune-mediated diseases occur more commonly in females and are often found during pregnancy or in the post-partum period. Autoimmune diseases can either affect parts of the pituitary or hypothalamus, or can involve both sellar and suprasellar structures. Most of these cases comprise primary hypophysitis (PRH). Over the years, there has been a tremendous increase in the number of reported PRH cases and related disorders, including hypophysitis induced by immune checkpoint inhibit...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gubbi S, Hannah-Shmouni F, Stratakis CA, Koch CA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The protective effect of myo-inositol on human thyrocytes.
Abstract Patients affected by autoimmune thyroiditis reached positive effects on indices of thyroid autoimmunity and/or thyroidal function, after following a treatment with selenomethionine (Se) alone, or Se in combination with Myo-inositol (Myo-Ins). Our purpose was to investigate if Myo-Ins alone, or a combination of Se + Myo-Ins, is effective in protecting thyroid cells from the effects given by cytokines, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We assessed the interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) secretion by stimulating primary thyrocytes (obtained from Hashimoto's thyroiditis or fr...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 4, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ferrari SM, Elia G, Ragusa F, Paparo SR, Caruso C, Benvenga S, Fallahi P, Antonelli A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Endocrine disorders associated with hepatitis C virus chronic infection.
Abstract The term "HCV syndrome" encompasses several organ- and systemic pathophysiological states, which often recognize autoimmunity or neoplastic evolution in their pathophysiology, as well as chronic HCV infection as trigger. The clinical features of HCV patients are heterogenous, and may include endocrine or metabolic disorders, namely autoimmune thyroiditis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and erectile/sexual dysfunctions. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the endocrine/metabolic diseases associated with chronic HCV infection, focusing on the main concepts emerged in the recent literature...
Source: ENDOCR REV - November 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Colaci M, Malatino L, Antonelli A, Fallahi P, Giuggioli D, Ferri C Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The increasing prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in papillary microcarcinoma.
Abstract Although the incidence of some malignancy has decreased over the recent years, this is not the case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), whose incidence has increased worldwide. Most PTMC are found incidentally after histological examination of specimens from surgery for benign thyroid disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis, whose incidence has also increased, coexists in about one in three PTMC patients. Three different mechanisms have been proposed to clarify the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and PTMC, namely tumor development/growth by: (i) TSH stimulation, (ii) expression of cer...
Source: ENDOCR REV - November 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vita R, Ieni A, Tuccari G, Benvenga S Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Gender dysphoria and transgender medicine in the year 2018.
Abstract PMID: 30382492 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Koch CA, Tangpricha V Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Neuroendocrine neoplasms - think about it and choose the most appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic steps.
Abstract PMID: 30357544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 24, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Koch CA, Petersenn S Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Black swans - neuroendocrine tumors of rare locations.
Abstract Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) are rare and heterogeneous. Therefore, they often remain unrecognized for many years, causing significant disease burden. We here report on four unusual NEN presentations including a metastatic NEN of the kidney, hypoglycemia caused by an insulin-like growth factor-2-oma (previously called non-islet-cell tumor hypoglycemia), multifocal pheochromocytoma in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, and ileal NEN metastatic to the heart. One could say that each one of these tumors were "black swans" and learning about them will increase further awareness of the spectrum of NEN. ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Koch CA, Petersenn S Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Somatostatin receptor expression in non-classical locations - clinical relevance?
Abstract In-111 pentetreotide (Octreoscan) is a radiolabeled somatostatin analog with high binding affinity to somatostatin receptors (SSTR) used in somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS). Pentetreotide labelled with In-111 is widely used due to its high affinity to SSTR 2 and 5. SSTR are expressed on neuroendocrine cells as well as several non-neural and non-endocrine cells with varying levels of density. We retrospectively reviewed articles and publications related to octreoscan accumulation in sites that classically do not have high concentrations of SSTR as well as in organs and tissues from diseases which a...
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bhanat E, Koch CA, Parmar R, Garla V, Vijayakumar V Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Endocrinology of Transgender Medicine.
Abstract Gender affirming treatment for transgender people requires a multidisciplinary approach in which endocrinologists play a crucial role. The aim of this paper is to review recent data on hormonal treatment of this population and its effect on physical, psychological and mental health. The Endocrine Society guidelines for transgender women include estrogens in combination with androgen lowering medications. Feminizing treatment with estrogens and anti-androgens has desired physical changes, such as enhanced breast growth, reduction of facial and body hair growth and fat redistribution in a female pattern. Po...
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: T'Sjoen G, Arcelus J, Gooren L, Klink DT, Tangpricha V Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

The Kr üppel-Like Factors and Control of Energy Homeostasis.
The Krüppel-Like Factors and Control of Energy Homeostasis. Endocr Rev. 2018 Oct 10;: Authors: Hsieh PN, Fan L, Sweet DR, Jain MK Abstract Nutrient handling by higher organisms is a complex process that is regulated in a significant manner at the transcriptional level. Studies over the past 15 years highlight the critical importance of a family of transcriptional regulators termed the Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) in metabolism. Within an organ, distinct KLFs direct networks of metabolic gene targets to achieve specialized functions. This regulation is often orchestrated in concert with recrui...
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hsieh PN, Fan L, Sweet DR, Jain MK Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Gut microbiota and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Abstract About two third of the human microbial commensal community, namely the gut microbiota, is hosted by the gastrointestinal tract which represents the largest interface of the organism to the external environment. This microbial community co-evolved in a symbiotic relationship with the human beings. Growing evidence support the notion that the microbiota plays a significant role in maintaining nutritional, metabolic and immunologic homeostasis in the host. Microbiota, beside the expected role in maintaining gastrointestinal homeostasis also exerts metabolic functions in nutrients digestion and absorption, de...
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 8, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Virili C, Fallahi P, Antonelli A, Benvenga S, Centanni M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Multilayered heterogeneity as an intrinsic hallmark of neuroendocrine tumors.
Castaño JP Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a complex and highly heterogeneous group of neoplasms that can arise all over the body, originating from neuroendocrine cells. NETs are characterized by a general lack of symptoms until they are in advanced phase, and early biomarkers are not as available and useful as required. Heterogeneity is an intrinsic, pivotal feature of NETs that derives from diverse causes and ultimately shapes tumor fate. The different layers that conform NET heterogeneity include a wide range of distinct characteristics, from the mere location of the tumor to its clinical ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 6, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Pedraza-Arévalo S, Gahete MD, Alors-Pérez E, Luque RM, Castaño JP Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Curative and palliative surgery in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract.
Abstract The incidence of neuroendocrine tumors (NET) increases with age. Lately, the diagnosis of NET was mainly caused by early detection of small NET (
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Goretzki PE, Mogl MT, Akca A, Pratschke J Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Is endoscopic ultrasonography more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging in detecting and localizing pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors?
Abstract To compare endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in terms of their sensitivities to localize pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) preoperatively. Systematic analysis of the literature; sensitivity of EUS and MRI in insulinomas and pancreaticoduodenal NETs in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) in series of at least 20 subjects referring to tumors confirmed by surgery and histopathology. Other imaging methods reported were also assessed. Eighteen publications on insulinomas (782 cases) could be analyzed, no study in MEN1 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and compare...
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Kann PH Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Nutrition and neuroendocrine tumors: An update of the literature.
Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with worldwide increasing incidence, high prevalence and survival. Both the tumor itself and the systemic therapy may have an impact on patients' nutrition. Malnutrition negatively impacts on outcome in NETs patients. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that body mass index was a risk factor for NET development and that metabolic syndrome was associated with worse prognosis in these patients. Of note, food could also interact with the metabolism of oral target therapy and antineoplastic agents used for the treatment of progressive NETs. Th...
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 29, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Altieri B, Barrea L, Modica R, Muscogiuri G, Savastano S, Colao A, Faggiano A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Emerging topics in transgender medicine.
PMID: 30255217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 25, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tangpricha V Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Thyroid disorders induced by checkpoint inhibitors.
Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors are drugs that inhibit the "checkpoint molecules". Different types of cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors have been approved recently: CTLA-4 monoclonal antibodies (as ipilimumab); anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies (as pembrolizumab and nivolumab); and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (as atezolizumab, avelumab, and durmalumab). The increased immune response induced by these agents leads to immune-related adverse events (irAEs), that can vary from mild to fatal, according to the organ system and severity. Immune-related endocrine toxicities are thyroid dysfunctions, hy...
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ferrari SM, Fallahi P, Galetta F, Citi E, Benvenga S, Antonelli A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Fertility preservation options in transgender people: A review.
Abstract Gender affirming procedures adversely affect the reproductive potential of transgender people. Thus, fertility preservation options should be discussed with all transpeople before medical and surgical transition. In transwomen, semen cryopreservation is typically straightforward and widely available at fertility centers. The optimal number of vials frozen depends on their reproductive goals and treatment options, therefore a consultation with a fertility specialist is optimal. Experimental techniques including spermatogonium stem cells (SSC) and testicular tissue preservation are technologies currently un...
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mattawanon N, Spencer JB, Schirmer DA, Tangpricha V Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Agreement between medical records and self-reports: Implications for transgender health research.
Abstract A key priority of transgender health research is the evaluation of long-term effects of gender affirmation treatment. Thus, accurate assessment of treatment receipt is critical. The data for this analysis came from an electronic medical records (EMR) based cohort of transgender individuals. A subset of cohort members were also asked to complete a self-administered survey. Information from the EMR was compared with survey responses to assess the extent of agreement regarding transmasculine (TM)/transfeminine (TF) status, hormone therapy receipt, and type of surgery performed. Logistic regression models wer...
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gerth J, Becerra-Culqui T, Bradlyn A, Getahun D, Hunkeler EM, Lash TL, Millman A, Nash R, Quinn VP, Robinson B, Roblin D, Silverberg MJ, Tangpricha V, Vupputuri S, Goodman M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Bone health in patients with inborn errors of metabolism.
Abstract Inborn errors of metabolism encompass a wide spectrum of disorders, frequently affecting bone. The most important metabolic disorders that primarily influence calcium or phosphate balance, resulting in skeletal pathology, are hypophosphatemic rickets and hypophosphatasia. Conditions involving bone marrow or affecting skeletal growth and development are mainly the lysosomal storage disorders, in particular the mucopolysaccharidoses. In these disorders skeletal abnormalities are often the presenting symptom and early recognition and intervention improves outcome in many of these diseases. Many disorders of ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 12, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Langeveld M, Hollak CEM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Impact of pregnancy on inborn errors of metabolism.
Abstract Once based mainly in paediatrics, inborn errors of metabolism (IEM), or inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) represent a growing adult medicine specialty. Individually rare these conditions have currently, a collective estimated prevalence of>1:800. Diagnosis has improved through expanded newborn screening programs, identification of potentially affected family members and greater awareness of symptomatic presentations in adolescence and in adulthood. Better survival and reduced mortality from previously lethal and debilitating conditions means greater numbers transition to adulthood. Pregnancy, once co...
Source: ENDOCR REV - September 10, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Wilcox G Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Transgender medicine- transitioning transgender children to adulthood.
Abstract There has been an increasing prevalence of individuals presenting for treatment of gender dysphoria over the past several years. This growing population includes transgender children referred to pediatric clinics. Transgender children meeting diagnostic criteria for gender dysphoria, with supportive mental health care, may be treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and cross sex hormones. The treatment for these children requires ongoing maintenance and monitoring and therefore follow-up in the adult care setting. As is the case with other conditions that require long term treatment, t...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Abramowitz J Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Quality of life of treatment-seeking transgender adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
Abstract The study aims to systematically extract and analyse data about Quality of Life (QoL) in the transgender population. A systematic literature search and meta-analysis were conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases, up to July 2017. Only English language quantitative studies, in adults, which reported the means for validated QoL measures were included. Random-effect meta-analysis was adopted to pool data and estimate the 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). From 94 potentially relevant articles, 29 studies were included within the review and data extraction for meta-analysis was availabl...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 18, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Nobili A, Glazebrook C, Arcelus J Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Transgender medicine - puberty suppression.
This article will review the rationale behind puberty blockade for transgender children, the providers' options for achieving this goal, the emerging literature for potential adverse effects on such an approach, as well as identify directions of potential future research. PMID: 30112593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 15, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Panagiotakopoulos L Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

When zebras run with horses - inherited metabolic diseases come mainstream.
PMID: 30101364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Sirrs S, Lynd L Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Cardiovascular health in transgender people.
Abstract This review examines the relationship between exogenous sex steroids and cardiovascular events and surrogate markers in trans (transgender) people. Data from trans populations is compared to data from postmenopausal women and hypogonadal men when appropriate. In an age-adjusted comparison with cisgender people, trans people appear to have an increased risk for myocardial infarction and death due to cardiovascular disease. It is uncertain whether hormone therapy in trans people affects their risk of stroke. In studies that followed trans people on hormone therapy, the rates of myocardial infarction and str...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 3, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Irwig MS Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Approach to the interpretation of unexpected laboratory results arising in the care of patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEM).
This article provides a framework for understanding these abnormalities as: a) part of the pathophysiology of the exceptional disease, b) exceptional laboratory errors related to the exceptional disease, or c) routine laboratory errors to which any patient sample is susceptible. PMID: 30032338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 21, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mattman A, Potter M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Circulating Testosterone as the Hormonal Basis of Sex Differences in Athletic Performance.
Abstract Elite athletic competitions have separate male and female events due to men's physical advantages in strength, speed and endurance so that a protected female category with objective entry criteria is required. Prior to puberty, there is no sex difference in circulating testosterone concentrations or athletic performance but from puberty onwards sex difference in athletic performance emerges as circulating testosterone concentrations rise in men because testes produce 30 times more testosterone than before puberty with circulating testosterone exceeding 15-fold those of women at any age. There is a wide se...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 13, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Handelsman DJ, Hirschberg AL, Bermon S Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

An overview of inborn errors of metabolism manifesting with primary adrenal insufficiency.
Abstract Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) results from an inability to produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex. The most common causes of PAI are autoimmune adrenalitis (Addison's disease), infectious diseases, adrenalectomy, neoplasia, medications, and various rare genetic syndromes and inborn errors of metabolism that typically present in childhood although late-onset presentations are becoming increasingly recognized. The prevalence of PAI in Western countries is approximately 140 cases per million, with an incidence of 4 per 1,000,000 per year. Several pitfalls in the genetic di...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 28, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hannah-Shmouni F, Stratakis CA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Disorders of mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation and the carnitine shuttle.
RH Abstract Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is an essential pathway for energy production, especially during prolonged fasting and sub-maximal exercise. Long-chain fatty acids are the most abundant fatty acids in the human diet and in body stores, and more than 15 enzymes are involved in long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Pathogenic mutations in genes encoding these enzymes result in a long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorder in which the energy homeostasis is compromised and long-chain acylcarnitines accumulate. Symptoms arise or exacerbate during catabolic situations, such as fasting, illness and (endurance) e...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 20, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Knottnerus SJG, Bleeker JC, Wüst RCI, Ferdinandusse S, IJlst L, Wijburg FA, Wanders RJA, Visser G, Houtkooper RH Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Gaps in transgender medical education among healthcare providers: A major barrier to care for transgender persons.
Abstract A lack of access to knowledgeable providers is the greatest reported barrier to care for transgender individuals. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the recent literature characterizing transgender medicine education for medical providers and to summarize effective interventions for improving education in transgender care. The PubMed database was searched for all literature that assessed transgender medical education among physicians or trainees and all papers that reported results of transgender-specific educational interventions. Literature that only evaluated general lesbian, gay, bisexual, an...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Korpaisarn S, Safer JD Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Endocrine treatment of aging transgender people.
Abstract High quality empirical data assessing morbidity and mortality and cancer incidence among transgender people are almost non-existent. Sex hormone treatment of conditions in older non-transgender people might as yet be taken as the best available analogy to hormone administration to aging transgender persons. Testosterone administration to transgender men carries little risk with regard to cardiovascular disease and cancer. A dose adaptation may be needed in men with a high hematocrit or cardiac insufficiency. In transgender men, even after breast ablation, breast cancer may occur in residual mammary tissue...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 19, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gooren LJ, T'Sjoen G Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research