Cardiovascular risk and testosterone - from subclinical atherosclerosis to lipoprotein function to heart failure
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09628-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cardiovascular (CV) benefit and safety of treating low testosterone conditions is a matter of debate. Although testosterone deficiency has been linked to a rise in major adverse CV events, most of the studies on testosterone replacement therapy were not designed to assess CV risk and thus excluded men with advanced heart failure or recent history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Besides considering observational, interventional and prospective studies, this review article evaluates the impact of testosterone on ather...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baris Gencer Marco Bonomi Maria Pia Adorni Cesare R Sirtori Fran çois Mach Massimiliano Ruscica Source Type: research

Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22:1-22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09630-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giovanni Corona Alessandro Pizzocaro Walter Vena Giulia Rastrelli Federico Semeraro Andrea M Isidori Rosario Pivonello Andrea Salonia Alessandra Sforza Mario Maggi Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk and testosterone - from subclinical atherosclerosis to lipoprotein function to heart failure
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09628-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cardiovascular (CV) benefit and safety of treating low testosterone conditions is a matter of debate. Although testosterone deficiency has been linked to a rise in major adverse CV events, most of the studies on testosterone replacement therapy were not designed to assess CV risk and thus excluded men with advanced heart failure or recent history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Besides considering observational, interventional and prospective studies, this review article evaluates the impact of testosterone on ather...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baris Gencer Marco Bonomi Maria Pia Adorni Cesare R Sirtori Fran çois Mach Massimiliano Ruscica Source Type: research

Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22:1-22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09630-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giovanni Corona Alessandro Pizzocaro Walter Vena Giulia Rastrelli Federico Semeraro Andrea M Isidori Rosario Pivonello Andrea Salonia Alessandra Sforza Mario Maggi Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk and testosterone - from subclinical atherosclerosis to lipoprotein function to heart failure
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09628-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cardiovascular (CV) benefit and safety of treating low testosterone conditions is a matter of debate. Although testosterone deficiency has been linked to a rise in major adverse CV events, most of the studies on testosterone replacement therapy were not designed to assess CV risk and thus excluded men with advanced heart failure or recent history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Besides considering observational, interventional and prospective studies, this review article evaluates the impact of testosterone on ather...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baris Gencer Marco Bonomi Maria Pia Adorni Cesare R Sirtori Fran çois Mach Massimiliano Ruscica Source Type: research

Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22:1-22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09630-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giovanni Corona Alessandro Pizzocaro Walter Vena Giulia Rastrelli Federico Semeraro Andrea M Isidori Rosario Pivonello Andrea Salonia Alessandra Sforza Mario Maggi Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk and testosterone - from subclinical atherosclerosis to lipoprotein function to heart failure
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09628-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cardiovascular (CV) benefit and safety of treating low testosterone conditions is a matter of debate. Although testosterone deficiency has been linked to a rise in major adverse CV events, most of the studies on testosterone replacement therapy were not designed to assess CV risk and thus excluded men with advanced heart failure or recent history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Besides considering observational, interventional and prospective studies, this review article evaluates the impact of testosterone on ather...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baris Gencer Marco Bonomi Maria Pia Adorni Cesare R Sirtori Fran çois Mach Massimiliano Ruscica Source Type: research

Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22:1-22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09630-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giovanni Corona Alessandro Pizzocaro Walter Vena Giulia Rastrelli Federico Semeraro Andrea M Isidori Rosario Pivonello Andrea Salonia Alessandra Sforza Mario Maggi Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk and testosterone - from subclinical atherosclerosis to lipoprotein function to heart failure
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09628-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cardiovascular (CV) benefit and safety of treating low testosterone conditions is a matter of debate. Although testosterone deficiency has been linked to a rise in major adverse CV events, most of the studies on testosterone replacement therapy were not designed to assess CV risk and thus excluded men with advanced heart failure or recent history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Besides considering observational, interventional and prospective studies, this review article evaluates the impact of testosterone on ather...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baris Gencer Marco Bonomi Maria Pia Adorni Cesare R Sirtori Fran çois Mach Massimiliano Ruscica Source Type: research

Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22:1-22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09630-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giovanni Corona Alessandro Pizzocaro Walter Vena Giulia Rastrelli Federico Semeraro Andrea M Isidori Rosario Pivonello Andrea Salonia Alessandra Sforza Mario Maggi Source Type: research

Cardiovascular risk and testosterone - from subclinical atherosclerosis to lipoprotein function to heart failure
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09628-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe cardiovascular (CV) benefit and safety of treating low testosterone conditions is a matter of debate. Although testosterone deficiency has been linked to a rise in major adverse CV events, most of the studies on testosterone replacement therapy were not designed to assess CV risk and thus excluded men with advanced heart failure or recent history of myocardial infarction or stroke. Besides considering observational, interventional and prospective studies, this review article evaluates the impact of testosterone on ather...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Baris Gencer Marco Bonomi Maria Pia Adorni Cesare R Sirtori Fran çois Mach Massimiliano Ruscica Source Type: research

Diabetes is most important cause for mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09630-8. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe presence of SARS-CoV-2 was officially documented in Europe at the end of February 2020. Despite many observations, the real impact of COVID-19 in the European Union (EU), its underlying factors and their contribution to mortality and morbidity outcomes were never systematically investigated. The aim of the present work is to provide an overview and a meta-analysis of main predictors and of country differences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection-associated mortality rate (MR) in hosp...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 22, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Giovanni Corona Alessandro Pizzocaro Walter Vena Giulia Rastrelli Federico Semeraro Andrea M Isidori Rosario Pivonello Andrea Salonia Alessandra Sforza Mario Maggi Source Type: research

Renal complications in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism on conventional therapy: a systematic literature review : Renal disease in chronic hypoparathyroidism
Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2021 Feb 18. doi: 10.1007/s11154-020-09613-1. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTA systematic literature review was performed to summarize the frequency and nature of renal complications in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism managed with conventional therapy. Methodology was consistent with the recommendations outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles with specified medical subject heading terms were identified using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Data were extracted from eligible articles based on pres...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 18, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Elvira O Gosmanova Pascal Houillier Lars Rejnmark Claudio Marelli John P Bilezikian Source Type: research

Renal complications in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism on conventional therapy: a systematic literature review : Renal disease in chronic hypoparathyroidism.
Abstract A systematic literature review was performed to summarize the frequency and nature of renal complications in patients with chronic hypoparathyroidism managed with conventional therapy. Methodology was consistent with the recommendations outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Peer-reviewed journal articles with specified medical subject heading terms were identified using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Data were extracted from eligible articles based on prespecified parameters for clinical outcomes of renal calcifications and disease. Beca...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 18, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Gosmanova EO, Houillier P, Rejnmark L, Marelli C, Bilezikian JP Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

GH deficiency and insensitivity in children and adults.
Abstract This thematic review includes short reviews on GH deficiency and insensitivity in children and adults from basic science to clinical significance. PMID: 33569699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 10, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Johannsson G, Kopchick JJ Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Management of hyponatraemia and hypernatraemia during the Covid-19 pandemic: a consensus statement of the Spanish Society for Endocrinology (Acqua Neuroendocrinology Group).
Abstract SARS-COV2 infection has swiftly become a pandemic disease of historic relevance and widely variable outcomes. This variable prognosis is related both to uneven damage, among others, to lungs, heart and kidneys, and to a multisystemic inflammatory reaction. All these factors are known to disrupt water balance and potentially induce hyponatraemia or hypernatraemia. Water balance disorders are known mortality and morbidity risk factors in several clinical scenarios and their proper management, though often complex and hazardous, can reduce mortality and length of hospitalization. Clinical uncertainty over CO...
Source: ENDOCR REV - February 5, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fernandez Martinez A, Barajas Galindo D, Ruiz Sanchez J Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Paediatric Cushing's disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical management and outcome.
Abstract Cushing's disease (CD) is rare in paediatric practice but requires prompt investigation, diagnosis and therapy to prevent long-term complications. Key presenting features are a change in facial appearance, weight gain, growth failure, virilization, disturbed puberty and psychological disturbance. Close consultation with an adult endocrinology department is recommended regarding diagnosis and therapy. The incidence of CD, a form of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome (CS), is equal to approximately 5% of that seen in adults. The majority of ACTH-secreting adenomas are monoclonal and sporadic, although recent...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 30, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ferrigno R, Hasenmajer V, Caiulo S, Minnetti M, Mazzotta P, Storr HL, Isidori AM, Grossman AB, De Martino MC, Savage MO Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Progress and challenges in the biology of FNDC5 and irisin.
Abstract In 2002, a transmembrane protein now known as FNDC5 was discovered and shown to be expressed in skeletal muscle, heart and brain. It was virtually ignored for 10 years, until a study in 2012 proposed that, in response to exercise, the ectodomain of skeletal muscle FNDC5 was cleaved,traveled to white adipose tissue and induced browning. The wasted energy of this browning raised the possibility that this myokine, named irisin, might mediate some beneficial effects of exercise. Since then, more than 1,000 papers have been published exploring the roles of irisin. A major interest has been on adipose tissue an...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 25, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Maak S, Norheim F, Drevon CA, Erickson HP Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Effects of offloading devices on static and dynamic balance in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: A systematic review.
Abstract Patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) usually have reduced somatosensory information and altered perception in feet and ankles. Somatosensory information acts as feedback for movement control and loss of somatosensation leads to altered plantar pressure patterns during gait and stance. Offloading devices are used to reduce peak plantar pressure and prevent diabetic foot ulcers. However, offloading devices can unfortunately have negative effects on static and dynamic balance. It is important to investigate these unwanted effects, since patient with DPN already are at high risk of falling and o...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 16, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Horstink KA, van der Woude LHV, Hijmans JM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Update in carcinoid heart disease - the heart of the matter.
Abstract Carcinoid heart disease (CHD) is a paraneoplastic cardiac manifestation occurring in patients with carcinoid syndrome (CS) and advanced neuroendocrine malignancy. In about 20-40% of patients with CS, chronic exposure to tumor-released circulating vasoactive peptides typically results in right-sided valvular fibrosis leading to valve dysfunction and right heart failure. CHD remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of patients with CHD is complex, as both the systemic malignant disease and the heart involvement have to be addressed. Early diagnosis and timely surgical intervent...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Oleinikov K, Korach A, Planer D, Gilon D, Grozinsky-Glasberg S Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Intercellular and interorgan crosstalk through adipocyte extracellular vesicles.
Abstract Functional adipose tissue is essential for homeostatic maintenance of systemic metabolism. As such, adipose tissue dysfunction, like that seen in the obese state, directly contributes to system-wide pathological metabolism, leading to the development of type 2 diabetes and other obesity-associated comorbidities. In addition to the storage function of adipocytes, they also secrete numerous factors that robustly regulate metabolism-related pathways throughout the body. Many of these factors, in addition to other signaling proteins, RNA species and lipids, are found in extracellular vesicles (EVs) released f...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 14, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Crewe C, Scherer PE Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Diabetes mellitus induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors: type 1 diabetes variant or new clinical entity? Review of the literature.
Abstract Immune Check-Point Inhibitors (CPIs) have improved long-term patients' outcomes in several advanced cancers. Diabetes mellitus induced by CPIs (CPI-DM) is considered the second most frequent endocrine CPIs' side effects with a variable prevalence up to 2%. The aim of our study was to identify CPI-DM characteristics and differences from the classical form of diabetes. Therefore, we conducted a structured Pubmed® search collecting publications dated from January 2015 to December 2019. A total of 642 citations were identified and 121 publications met our study criteria. We analyzed 200 case reports, incl...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Lo Preiato V, Salvagni S, Ricci C, Ardizzoni A, Pagotto U, Pelusi C Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Correction to: Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
PMID: 33404967 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 6, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marazuela M, Giustina A, Puig-Domingo M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Lean NAFLD: an underrecognized and challenging disorder in medicine.
Abstract Classically, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) has been thought to be driven by excessive weight gain and obesity. The overall greater awareness of this disorder has led to its recognition in patients with normal body mass index (BMI). Ongoing research has helped to better understand potential causes of Lean NAFLD, the risks for more advanced disease, and potential therapies. Here we review the recent literature on prevalence, risk factors, severity of disease, and potential therapeutic interventions. PMID: 33389543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 3, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Maier S, Wieland A, Cree-Green M, Nadeau K, Sullivan S, Lanaspa MA, Johnson RJ, Jensen T Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Polyphenols and their anti-obesity role mediated by the gut microbiota: a comprehensive review.
Abstract Obesity is a global public health problem that results in chronic pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. The treatment approach based on energy restriction and promotion of physical activity is ineffective in the long term. Due to the high prevalence of this pathology, complementary treatments such as brown adipose tissue activation (BAT) and white adipose tissue browning (WAT) have been proposed. Dietary polyphenols are plant secondary metabolites that can stimulate browning and thermogenesis of adipose tissue. They have also been shown to prevent body weight gain, and decreas...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Duarte L, Gasaly N, Poblete-Aro C, Uribe D, Echeverria F, Gotteland M, Garcia-Diaz DF Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The endocannabinoid system in the adipose organ.
Abstract The endocannabinoid system is found in most, if not all, mammalian organs and is involved in a variety of physiological functions, ranging from the control of synaptic plasticity in the brain to the modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal tract. This signaling complex consists of G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands for those receptors (endocannabinoids) and enzymes/transporters responsible for the formation and deactivation of these ligands. There are two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, and two major endocannabinoids, arachidonoylethanolamide (a...
Source: ENDOCR REV - January 2, 2021 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Jung KM, Lin L, Piomelli D Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Making, Cloning and Expression of Human Insulin Genes in Bacteria: The Path to Humulin@.
Abstract In the mid to late 1970s recombinant DNA methods for cloning and expressing genes in E. coli were under intense development. An important question had become: Can humans design and chemically synthesize novel genes that function in bacteria? This question was answered in 1978 and 1979 with the successful expression in E. coli of two mammalian hormones, first somatostatin and then human insulin. The successful production of human insulin in bacteria provided, for the first time, a practical, scalable source of human insulin and resulted in the approval, in 1982, of human insulin for the treatment of diabet...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Riggs AD Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

How the love of muscle can break a heart: Impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on skeletal muscle hypertrophy, metabolic and cardiovascular health.
Abstract It is estimated 6.4% of males and 1.6% of females globally use anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), mostly for appearance and performance enhancing reasons. In combination with resistance exercise, AAS use increases muscle protein synthesis resulting in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and increased performance. Primarily through binding to the androgen receptor, AAS exert their hypertrophic effects via genomic, non-genomic and anti-catabolic mechanisms. However, chronic AAS use also has a detrimental effect on metabolism ultimately increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Much research has focused ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - December 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: McCullough D, Webb R, Enright KJ, Lane KE, McVeigh J, Stewart CE, Davies IG Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

CorrigendumCorrigendum to: "Clinical Guidelines and PTH measurement: Does Assay Generation Matter?"
CorrigendumCorrigendum to: "Clinical Guidelines and PTH measurement: Does Assay Generation Matter?" Endocr Rev. 2020 Dec 01;41(6): Authors: PMID: 33053580 [PubMed - in process] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - October 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Correction to: Diet approach before and after bariatric surgery.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately, has the incorrect title reported in the published paper. PMID: 32803692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 16, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bettini S, Belligoli A, Fabris R, Busetto L Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Ketogenic diets as treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Abstract During the last decades, several interventions for the management of overweight and obesity have been proposed. Among diets, the first studies focused on the effect of water only and total fasting diets with or without proteins. Unfortunately, they were found to be associated with adverse events which lead to the abandon of these strategies. Interestingly, despite the radical approach, total fasting was effective and generally well tolerated. A strict connection between protein-calorie malnutrition and increased in morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients was found at that time. Then, the seminal ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 14, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Casanueva FF, Castellana M, Bellido D, Trimboli P, Castro AI, Sajoux I, Rodriguez-Carnero G, Gomez-Arbelaez D, Crujeiras AB, Martinez-Olmos MA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The right nutrition for the nutrition related disease.
PMID: 32779061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 9, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vettor R Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Double burden of malnutrition in persons with obesity.
Abstract A paradoxical double challenge has emerged in the last decades with respect to nutrition and nutrition-related clinical conditions. Hunger-related undernutrition continues to represent an unacceptable burden, although its prevalence has been encouragingly reduced worldwide. On the other hand, the prevalence of overweight and obesity, defined as fat excess accumulation with negative impact on individual health, has dramatically increased due to increasingly pervasive obesogenic lifestyle changes. Undernutrition and obesity may coexist in world regions, Countries and even smaller communities and households,...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 5, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Barazzoni R, Gortan Cappellari G Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus: how one pandemic worsens the other.
Abstract In light of the most challenging public health crisis of modern history, COVID-19 mortality continues to rise at an alarming rate. Patients with co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus (DM) seem to be more prone to severe symptoms and appear to have a higher mortality rate. In this review, we elucidate suggested mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of patients with diabetes to infection with SARS-CoV-2 with a more severe COVID-19 disease. The worsened prognosis of COVID-19 patients with DM can be attributed to a facilitated viral uptake assisted by ...
Source: ENDOCR REV - August 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Azar WS, Njeim R, Fares AH, Azar NS, Azar ST, El Sayed M, Eid AA Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The role of dietary protein in obesity.
Abstract Protein-rich diets are surging in popularity for weight loss. An increase in diet-induced thermogenesis, better preservation of fat-free mass, and enhanced satiety with greater dietary protein intakes may lead to increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake; and thus promote a more negative energy balance that facilitates weight loss. Results from large randomized trials and meta-analyses of many smaller trials indicate that high-protein diets typically induce significantly greater amounts of weight loss than conventional low-fat or high-carbohydrate diets during the early, rapid weight loss p...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Magkos F Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Reviews in endocrine and metabolic disorders.
In conclusion, the nutritional management of the bariatric patients requires specific nutritional skills and the intervention of experienced nutritionists and dieticians. PMID: 32734395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 30, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bettini S, Belligoli A, Fabris R, Busetto L Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Melatonin, an ubiquitous metabolic regulator: functions, mechanisms and effects on circadian disruption and degenerative diseases.
oveanu AG Abstract The last four decades, we assist to an increasing scientific interest on melatonin, a circadian hormone, a metabolic regulator which influences not only plants' metabolism and their defense against pathogens but mostly the animals and humans' metabolic pathways, their response to circadian disruption, stress and burnout syndrome. In humans, as a hormonal regulator, produced in the pineal grand as well in mitochondria, melatonin is involved in different, complex intracellular signaling pathways, with antioxidant and immune stimulating effects, proving to act as a circadian synchronizer, as a prev...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 20, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Socaciu AI, Ionuţ R, Socaciu MA, Ungur AP, Bârsan M, Chiorean A, Socaciu C, Râjnoveanu AG Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Microbiome response to diet: focus on obesity and related diseases.
Abstract Numerous studies in humans and animal models describe disturbances of the gut microbial ecosystem associated with adiposity and hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome, including hepatic and cardiovascular diseases. The manipulation of the microbiome, which is largely influenced by the diet, appears as an innovative therapeutic tool to prevent or control obesity and related diseases. This review describes the impact of nutrients on the gut microbiota composition and/or function and when available, the consequences on host physiology. A special emphasis is made on the contribution of bacterial-derived metaboli...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 19, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Delzenne NM, Rodriguez J, Olivares M, Neyrinck AM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Clinical manifestations and management of fatty acid oxidation disorders.
Abstract Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAOD) are a group of rare, autosomal recessive, metabolic disorders caused by variants of the genes for the enzymes and proteins involved in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids in the mitochondria. Those affected by FAOD are unable to convert fatty acids into tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates such as acetyl-coenzyme A, resulting in decreased adenosine triphosphate and glucose for use as energy in a variety of high-energy-requiring organ systems. Signs and symptoms may manifest in infants but often also appear in adolescents or adults during times of increased m...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 10, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Merritt JL, MacLeod E, Jurecka A, Hainline B Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Endocrine and metabolic aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Abstract COVID-19 infection has tremendously impacted our daily clinical practice as well as our social living organization. Virtually all organs and biological systems suffer from this new coronavirus infection, either because the virus targets directly specific tissues or because of indirect effects. Endocrine diseases are not an exception and some of endocrine organs are at risk of direct or indirect lesion by COVID-19. Although there is still no evidence of higher predisposition to contract the infection in patients with diabetes and/or obesity, the coexistence of these conditions contributes to a worse progno...
Source: ENDOCR REV - July 8, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Marazuela M, Giustina A, Puig-Domingo M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Enteroendocrine dynamics - New tools reveal hormonal plasticity in the gut.
Abstract The recent intersection of enteroendocrine cell biology with single-cell technologies and novel in vitro model systems has generated a tremendous amount of new data. Here we highlight these recent developments and explore how these findings contribute to the understanding of endocrine lineages in the gut. In particular, the concept of hormonal plasticity, the ability of endocrine cells to produce different hormones in the course of their lifetime, challenges the classic notion of cell types. Enteroendocrine cells travel in the course of their life through different signaling environments that directly inf...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 11, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Beumer J, Gehart H, Clevers H Tags: Endocr Rev Source Type: research

Ketotherapy as an epigenetic modifier in cancer.
Abstract Epigenetic alterations in cancer play a variety of roles. Aberrant DNA methylation, as one of the epigenetic mechanisms, has been widely studied in both tumor and liquid biopsies and provide a useful bench mark for treatment response in cancer. Recently, several studies have reported an association between the type of diet and epigenetic modifications. Whereby there is a growing interest in finding the "anti-cancer diet formula", if such a thing exists. In this sense, ketogenic diets (KD) have reported potentially beneficial effects, which were able to prevent malignancies and decrease tumor gro...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 7, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Bandera-Merchan B, Boughanem H, Crujeiras AB, Macias-Gonzalez M, Tinahones FJ Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Are aggressive pituitary tumors and carcinomas two sides of the same coin? Pathologists reply to clinician's questions.
Abstract Pituitary adenohypophyseal tumors are considered as benign and termed "adenomas". However, many tumors are invasive and a proportion of these exhibit an "aggressive behavior" with premature death due to progressive growth. Only very rare (0.2%) tumors with metastases are considered malignant and termed "carcinomas". Taking into account this variability in behavior and the oncological definition, pathologists have proposed changing the term adenoma to tumor. Here we explain why use the term tumor instead of adenoma and identify tumor characteristics, associated with a high ris...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 4, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Trouillas J, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Vasiljevic A, Dekkers O, Popovic V, Wierinckx A, McCormack A, Petersenn S, Burman P, Raverot G, Villa C Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Surgical treatment of aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas.
Abstract Surgery of aggressive pituitary adenomas and pituitary carcinomas is part of the interdisciplinary management of these difficult to treat tumors. Invasion, giant size and unusual, asymmetric extent of these tumors frequently require modifications or extensions of the standard approaches for transsphenoidal and transcranial surgery. Frequently, only debulking procedures can be performed. In aggressive and hormone secreting adenomas, the remission rates achieved by surgery alone are relatively poor and adjuvant medical treatments or irradiation are needed. Safe resection of as much tumor as possible and sym...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 3, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Buchfelder M, Schlaffer SM Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Theranostics in neuroendocrine tumors: an overview of current approaches and future challenges.
Abstract Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors, mainly localized in the gastrointestinal system. What characterizes NENs is the expression of hormone receptors on the tumor cell surface, making them accessible for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches (theranostics) using radiolabelled peptides. Somatostatin receptors subtype-two (SST2) play an important role in NENs since they are overexpressed and homogeneously distributed at the surface of the majority of NENs. Accordingly, targeting SST2 for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes has been established. Current research aims at up...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Refardt J, Hofland J, Kwadwo A, Nicolas GP, Rottenburger C, Fani M, Wild D, Christ E Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The use of Broca index to assess cut- off points for overweight in adults: A short review.
iao X Abstract The Broca formula was developed in 1871 by Pierre Paul Broca (a French Army Doctor) to help establish ideal body weight or normal body weight. Initially, the Broca Index (BI) was used to work out the normal weight but was later expanded to ideal Body Weight. Ideal Body weight (kg) = [Height (cm)-100]. The common methods used to explore the levels of adiposity include body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, skinfolds, bioelectrical impedance analysis, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Even though there have be...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 2, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Laurent I, Astère M, Paul B, Liliane N, Li Y, Cheng Q, Li Q, Xiao X Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The optimal numerosity of the referral population of pituitary tumors centers of excellence (PTCOE): A surgical perspective.
Abstract Surgical experience is of paramount importance to reach therapeutic success and minimize operative complications. In the field of pituitary surgery, this led to the concept of Pituitary Center of Excellence (PTCOE) defined as a center where an interdisciplinary team works in collaboration and where surgeons can be trained appropriately to reach and keep excellence in daily practice. To review the literature to define the optimal referral population size to establish a PTCOE to optimize both training and specific field research. A review of the literature was performed about epidemiology. The time needed t...
Source: ENDOCR REV - June 1, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Mortini P, Nocera G, Roncelli F, Losa M, Formenti AM, Giustina A Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

The journey in diagnosis and treatment, from pituitary adenoma to aggressive pituitary tumors.
PMID: 32488740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: ENDOCR REV)
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 31, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fleseriu M, Popovic V Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Regulation of energy intake and mechanisms of metabolic adaptation or maladaptation after caloric restriction.
Abstract Despite their critical role in susceptibility to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, mechanisms regulating energy balance are extremely complex and far from being fully understood. Both central and peripheral feedback circuits are involved and, despite it was traditionally thought that the energy balance of an organism depends on the equality between calorie intake within the system and energy expenditure, the regulation of energy content in biological systems oversteps the classical physical laws of thermodynamics. The fine-tuned mechanism for body weight and energy storage regulation...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Vettor R, Di Vincenzo A, Maffei P, Rossato M Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research

Review of the veteran affairs diabetes trial: Lessons learned.
Abstract Despite robust evidence linking long-term hyperglycemia with cardiovascular complications, several large randomized trials found only modest benefits from intensive compared to standard glucose control. Of these trials, the Veteran Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT), offers a unique long-term perspective in that there were analyses of outcomes at the end of the intervention trial, 5-years post-trial, and after 10-years post-trial. From the VADT and other large trials, we draw several valuable lessons that are relevant to the care of patients with type 2 diabetes. Intensive glucose control reduces development o...
Source: ENDOCR REV - May 25, 2020 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tran K, Reaven P Tags: Rev Endocr Metab Disord Source Type: research