“Threat-unrelated” properties: An ill-defined concept. A reply to “The danger of interpreting detection differences between image categories” (Gayet, Stein, & Peelen, 2019).
In our previous work (Gomes, Soares, Silva, & Silva, 2018), we evidenced that snakes (vs. birds), an archetypal threat-related stimulus, have an advantage in accessing visual awareness during continuous flash suppression. This advantage was observed when the images were filtered in low spatial frequency (LSF) but not in high spatial frequency and interpreted as supporting the role of a subcortical pathway (superior colliculus–pulvinar) to the amygdala in threat detection, thought to be sensitive to LSF but not to high spatial frequency information. Recently Gayet, Stein, and Peelen (2019), using stimuli without d...
Source: Emotion - July 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“Changing interpretations of emotional expressions in working memory with aging”: Correction to Mok et al. (2018).
Reports an error in "Changing interpretations of emotional expressions in working memory with aging" by Robert M. Mok, Jasper E. Hajonides van der Meulen, Emily A. Holmes and Anna Christina Nobre (Emotion, Advanced Online Publication, Oct 15, 2018, np). In the article, the plots for Figure 3a shifted incorrectly to the right. The error bars should be centered on 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90. The corrected figure is present in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2018-51385-001.) Working memory (WM) shows significant decline with age. It is interesting to note that some researc...
Source: Emotion - June 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The danger of interpreting detection differences between image categories: A brief comment on “Mind the snake: Fear detection relies on low spatial frequencies” (Gomes, Soares, Silva, & Silva, 2018).
Using breaking continuous flash suppression (b-CFS; a perceptual suppression technique), Gomes, Soares, Silva, and Silva (2018) showed that human observers have an advantage in detecting images of snakes (constituting an evolutionarily old threat) over birds. In their study, images of snakes and birds were filtered to contain either coarse-scale or fine-grained information. The preferential detection of snakes relied on coarse-scale (rather than fine-grained) information, which was taken as support for the existence of an evolutionarily old subcortical pathway dedicated to snake detection. Here, we raise the concern that i...
Source: Emotion - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

It’s a challenge! Empathizing with sad but not with angry individuals results in cardiovascular reactivity consistent with a challenge motivational state.
The question of what feeling with another person elicits in the empathizing individual has instigated innumerable studies mainly focusing on the affective valence of empathy and the resulting consequences for prosocial behavior (cf. the empathy–altruism debate). The present research may contribute to this long-lasting debate by examining the cardiovascular reactivity of the empathizing individual. To that effect, the biopsychosocial model of challenge and threat (Blascovich & Tomaka, 1996) was applied and impedance cardiography was implemented while individuals were instructed to feel with a target person who rea...
Source: Emotion - December 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A brief behavioral measure of frustration tolerance predicts academic achievement immediately and two years later.
Achieving important goals is widely assumed to require confronting obstacles, failing repeatedly, and persisting in the face of frustration. Yet empirical evidence linking achievement and frustration tolerance is lacking. To facilitate work on this important topic, we developed and validated a novel behavioral measure of frustration tolerance: the Mirror Tracing Frustration Task (MTFT). In this 5-min task, participants allocate time between a difficult tracing task and entertaining games and videos. In two studies of young adults (Study 1: N = 148, Study 2: N = 283), we demonstrated that the MTFT increased frustration more...
Source: Emotion - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Sex moderates the relationship between resting heart rate variability and self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation.
Lower resting vagally mediated heart rate variability (HRV) is thought to reflect poorer function of the neurophysiological pathways underlying emotion regulation (ER) and thus, poorer ER abilities. Sex differences in resting HRV exists such that women typically exhibit higher resting HRV than men. It is proposed that greater HRV in women reflects compensation for greater negative affect such as anxiety and depression. However, research has not yet investigated how the association between resting HRV and every day perceived difficulties in ER may be moderated by sex. The current study sought to test this in a sample of 362...
Source: Emotion - November 26, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Changing interpretations of emotional expressions in working memory with aging.
[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Emotion on Jun 24 2019 (see record 2019-34942-001). In the article, the plots for Figure 3a shifted incorrectly to the right. The error bars should be centered on 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90. The corrected figure is present in the erratum.] Working memory (WM) shows significant decline with age. It is interesting to note that some research has suggested age-related impairments can be reduced in tasks that involve emotion-laden stimuli. However, only a few studies have explored how WM for emotional material changes in aging. Here we developed a novel experime...
Source: Emotion - October 15, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Voluntary arousing negative experiences (VANE): Why we like to be scared.
This study examined survey data and neural reactivity associated with voluntarily engaging in high arousal negative experiences (VANE). Here we suggest how otherwise negative stimuli might be experienced as positive in the context of voluntary engagement. Participants were recruited from customers who had already purchased tickets to attend an “extreme” haunted attraction. Survey data measuring self-report affect, expectations, and experience was collected from 262 adults (139 women and 123 men; age M = 27.5 years, SD = 9.3 years) before and after their experience. Changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) indic...
Source: Emotion - October 11, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Judging the mood of the crowd: Attention is focused on happy faces.
Previous research on valence biases in face perception revealed inconsistent findings either proposing angry or happy faces to be detected more efficiently. We argue that the typical experimental task in this field, the face-in-the-crowd (FiC) paradigm, leads to ambiguous results. In the present paper, we introduce a new task, the mood-of-the-crowd (MoC) paradigm that can complement existing FiC findings. In the new task, participants have to decide which expression is shown by most faces in a crowd. In Experiment 1, photographs were used as stimuli, whereas computer-generated faces were presented in Experiments 2 and 3. W...
Source: Emotion - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exploring the role of gratitude and support-giving on inflammatory outcomes.
Although there has been much interest in understanding the effect of gratitude on health-related outcomes, this remains an understudied area of research, particularly regarding mechanisms and measurement of biological outcomes. The present study explored whether a gratitude intervention could reduce inflammatory outcomes and whether this occurred through increased support-giving. Healthy women (n = 76) were randomly assigned to a 6-week gratitude intervention (i.e., writing on topics intended to induce gratitude) or a control condition (i.e., neutral writing). Support-giving and markers of inflammation were measured pre- a...
Source: Emotion - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A better distraction: Exploring the benefits of flow during uncertain waiting periods.
A worrisome period of uncertainty frequently precedes important life events, and many of the coping strategies people employ during such waiting periods are ineffective. Distraction can be efficacious, but individuals awaiting uncertain news often fail to lose themselves in a sufficiently diverting activity. Across three studies—two observational and one experimental—we test whether flow-inducing activities provide a better distraction and improve the waiting experience. In Study 1, law graduates (N = 125) who experienced more flow while awaiting their bar exam results reported less worry, fewer negative emotio...
Source: Emotion - September 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Parent–child attachment and children’s experience and regulation of emotion: A meta-analytic review.
Attachment relationships serve as contexts within which children develop emotional capacities. This meta-analytic review assessed the strength of associations of parent–child attachment patterns with the experience and regulation of emotion in children under age 18 years. In a series of meta-analyses (k = 72 studies, N’s ranged from 87 to 9,167), we examined children’s positive and negative affective experiences (assessed either globally or elicited in specific contexts), emotion regulation ability, and coping strategies. More securely attached children experienced more global positive affect and less glo...
Source: Emotion - September 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Ghosts in the nursery: An experimental investigation of a parent’s own maltreatment experience, attention to infant faces, and dyadic reciprocity.
This study investigated whether the experience of childhood maltreatment altered attentional processing of infant faces in a community sample of mothers, using an established visual search task. Increased scores on a measure of childhood maltreatment were associated with decreased preferential bias toward infant faces (indexed by slower reaction times to infant compared to adult faces). Exploratory analysis of the relationship between attentional processing and actual “own child” parenting behavior (as measured by a video-recorded mother–child interaction) found that lower attentional bias to infant faces...
Source: Emotion - September 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

You look pretty happy: Attractiveness moderates emotion perception.
A happy face advantage has consistently been shown in emotion categorization tasks; happy faces are categorized as happy faster than angry faces as angry. Furthermore, social category cues, such as facial sex and race, moderate the happy face advantage in evaluatively congruent ways with a larger happy face advantage for more positively evaluated faces. We investigated whether attractiveness, a facial attribute unrelated to more defined social categories, would moderate the happy face advantage consistent with the evaluative congruence account. A larger happy face advantage for the more positively evaluated attractive face...
Source: Emotion - September 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Do positive illusions of control foster happiness?
Positive emotions have been shown to benefit from optimistic perceptions, even if these perceptions are illusory (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). The current research investigated the effects of increases and decreases in illusory control on positive and negative emotions. In two studies we experimentally induced changes in illusory perceptions of control (increase vs. decrease of illusory control) and assessed the extent to which these changes, in turn, influenced participants’ emotions. Extending prior research, the results of both studies revealed that whereas illusions of personal control over environment...
Source: Emotion - September 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

To reappraise or not to reappraise? Emotion regulation choice and cognitive energetics.
Research shows that cognitive reappraisal is an effective emotion regulation (ER) strategy that often has clear benefits. Yet, surprisingly, recent findings demonstrate that people use cognitive reappraisal less frequently than might be expected (Suri, Whittaker, & Gross, 2015). We employ cognitive energetics theory (CET) to explain this puzzling behavior. CET posits that the likelihood of launching any cognitive process is a function of two opposing forces: the driving force (i.e., the motivation to launch the process) and the restraining force (i.e., task difficulty). We thus hypothesized that people choose to use co...
Source: Emotion - September 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Suppressing but not intensifying emotion decreases arousal and subjective sense of recollection.
In conclusion, response-focused emotion regulation techniques with distinct effects on subjective arousal differentially affect the subjective sense of recollection and memory for contextual details. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Emotion)
Source: Emotion - September 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Focusing on the future from afar: Self-distancing from future stressors facilitates adaptive coping.
Prior research indicates that visual self-distancing enhances adaptive self-reflection about negative past events (Kross & Ayduk, 2011). However, whether this process is similarly useful when people reflect on anxiety-provoking future negative experiences, and if so, whether a similar set of mechanisms underlie its benefits in this context, is unknown. Here we addressed these questions using a combination of experimental and individual difference methods with adults and adolescents (total N = 2,344). In Studies 1 and 2, spontaneous self-distancing predicted less anxious emotional reactivity among adults and adolescents...
Source: Emotion - September 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reduced language processing automaticity induces weaker emotions in bilinguals regardless of learning context.
While the evidence for impoverished emotional reactions of bilinguals in their weaker second language (L2) accumulates, the underlying mechanisms of this effect remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate how unbalanced bilinguals’ language-specific emotions vary depending on differences in language processing automaticity versus in language learning and use contexts. We analyzed behavioral emotional reactions in a hypothetical decision-making task with low emotional appeal, the Asian disease problem (Study 1) and pupil and valence responses to authentic narrative video advertising with high emotional appeal (Stud...
Source: Emotion - September 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Feeling certain: Gut choice, the true self, and attitude certainty.
Discussion of these findings highlights the opportunity for new insights at the intersection of feeling-focused decision making, attitudes, and the true self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Emotion)
Source: Emotion - September 10, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Is a snake scarier than a gun? The ontogenetic–phylogenetic dispute from a new perspective: The role of arousal.
Organisms have to be able to detect threats in order to activate their defensive mechanisms. Previous research has suggested that evolutionary old stimuli have an advantage during visual processing. Recent evidence indicates that negative emotional stimuli have a greater effect on the cognitive system regardless of evolutionary relevance. We suggest that the arousal level of the stimuli could account for these mixed results. We investigated how visual processing is influenced by evolutionary relevant and modern threatening emotional stimuli. Furthermore, we manipulated the level of arousal (medium, high) of the threatening...
Source: Emotion - September 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Disgust as an essentialist emotion that signals nonviolent outgrouping with potentially low social costs.
When a person states that s/he is disgusted by an outgroup, what can we conclude about his/her attitudes, beliefs, and character? Based on an analysis of physical disgust, we predicted that expressing disgust toward a social group would convey a belief that this group possesses a negative essence; namely, that it has a biological basis, and clear boundaries, and that its members share immutable, inherent characteristics. Because being disgusting violates the moral foundation of purity, we also predicted that expressing disgust toward a social group would convey moral condemnation of that group. In three studies, we found t...
Source: Emotion - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Daily experiences of emotional clarity and their association with internalizing symptoms in naturalistic settings.
Although emotional clarity contributes to effective emotion regulation and has been suggested as a target for transdiagnostic interventions, little is known about how emotional clarity impacts symptoms and emotion regulation success in daily life. The present study examined the association of emotional clarity with internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression, social anxiety, panic, and worry) in a clinical sample assessed in naturalistic settings over the course of 10 days, examining both within-person and between-person models. In addition, emotion regulation success was tested as a mediator of the association between emotio...
Source: Emotion - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The regulation of negative and positive affect in response to daily stressors.
Experimental investigations of emotion regulation have shown that reappraisal (changing interpretations to change emotions) and distraction (directing attention to change emotions) are effective for regulating the experience of both negative and positive affect, while suppression (changing the outward expression of emotion) has been consistently shown to be ineffective. It is unknown, however, whether this pattern of effects generalizes to the context of daily stressors—a common part of daily life in which effective emotion regulation should be particularly beneficial. In addition, little is known about how frequentl...
Source: Emotion - August 27, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The sure thing: The role of integral affect in risky choice framing.
We examined whether the effect of framing on risk taking can be explained through the mediating roles of immediate and anticipated affect. Two experiments were conducted using a gambling task. On each trial, participants were endowed a sum of money (e.g., $25) then presented with a choice between a sure option (leaving them with a portion of the initial endowment) and a gamble option (that could result in either keeping or losing the entire endowment). The sure option was framed differently across two within-participant conditions: as a gain (keep $20 from $25) or loss (lose $5 from $25). Experiment 1 examined whether imme...
Source: Emotion - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mindfulness’ effects on stress, coping, and mood: A daily diary goodness-of-fit study.
Dispositional mindfulness is often linked to higher positive affect and lower negative affect, and coping with stress has been hypothesized to mediate these links. However, few studies have explicitly tested the ways in which stress appraisals, coping strategies, or coping flexibility (i.e., fit of coping to controllability appraisals) uniquely relate to mindfulness and well-being. Drawing on a stress and coping framework, the present study tested the degree to which (a) lower stress appraisals mediate mindfulness’ effects on daily positive and negative affect; (b) daily coping mediates mindfulness’ impact on d...
Source: Emotion - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When it feels good to give: Depressive symptoms, daily prosocial behavior, and adolescent mood.
Past research has suggested that engaging in prosocial acts enhances the well-being of the helper, but does prosocial behavior benefit some individuals more than others? The current study implements a daily diary design to test associations between adolescents’ daily prosocial behaviors toward relationally close others and mood. The main goal was to investigate whether daily help-giving has unique benefits for adolescents experiencing greater emotional distress. For 10 days, a diverse sample of youth (N = 99; Mage = 18.01) reported on their prosocial behaviors toward friends and romantic partners as well as their moo...
Source: Emotion - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The relationship between emotional abilities and right-wing and prejudiced attitudes.
Previous research revealed that cognitive abilities are negatively related to right-wing and prejudiced attitudes. No study has, however, investigated if emotional abilities also show such a relationship, although this can be expected based on both classic and recent literature. The aim of the present study was 2-fold: (a) to investigate the relationship between emotional abilities and right-wing and prejudiced attitudes, and (b) to pit the effects of emotional and cognitive abilities on these attitudes against each other. Results from 2 adult samples (n = 409 and 574) in which abilities scores were collected in individual...
Source: Emotion - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

You are what I feel: A test of the affective realism hypothesis.
We present evidence for the affective realism hypothesis, that incidental affect is a key ingredient in an individual’s experience of the world. In three studies, we used an interocular suppression technique (continuous flash suppression [CFS]) to present smiling, scowling, or neutral faces suppressed from conscious visual awareness while consciously perceived neutral faces were presented at three different timing intervals: 150 ms before, 150 ms after, and concurrent with the suppressed affective faces (Studies 1 and 3) or at timing intervals of 100 ms (Study 2). Results for all three studies revealed that conscious...
Source: Emotion - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Remembering: Does the emotional content of a photograph affect boundary extension?
Observers falsely remember seeing beyond the bounds of a photograph (i.e., boundary extension [BE]). Do observers “zoom in” when viewing negative emotion photographs, resulting in boundary restriction (Safer, Christianson, Autry, & Österlund, 1998)? Studies have yielded inconsistent outcomes, perhaps because emotional valence was compared across photographs of completely different scenes. To control physical scene structure, two contrasting (negative vs. positive) emotional versions of the same scenes were created by dramatically changing individuals’ facial expressions; 14 such scene pairs were ...
Source: Emotion - August 23, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive and neural facets of dissociation in a traumatized population.
Dissociative phenomena are frequently experienced by psychologically traumatized people. However, little is known about the cognitive profiles of highly dissociative traumatized individuals, and corresponding patterns of neural connectivity when attentional networks are engaged in the context of emotion. One hundred seventeen traumatized women completed the multiscale dissociation inventory (MDI) and neuropsychological testing; MDI scores were used to classify high- and low-dissociative participants. Forty-six participants also underwent fMRI during performance of an attentional control task that incorporates emotionally d...
Source: Emotion - August 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Joint rhythmic tapping elicits distinct emotions depending on tap timing and prior musical training.
Music plays a significant role in human life. It is a form of art and entertainment and a powerful medium for interpersonal interaction. The experience of listening to music is often emotional. Previous research has elucidated many of the mechanisms that effect an emotional response in the listener. In contrast, much less is known about how joint musical engagement impacts emotions. Here we focus on synchronized rhythmic interaction, a fundamental feature of musical engagement. There are theoretical reasons for hypothesizing that synchronized interaction should elicit positive affect among interacting individuals, although...
Source: Emotion - August 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Positive emotion enhances association-memory.
The influence of emotion on association-memory is often attributed to arousal, but negative stimuli are typically used to test for these effects. While prior studies of negative emotion on association-memory have found impairments, theories suggest that positive emotion may have a distinct effect on memory, and may lead to enhanced association-memory. Here we tested participants’ memory for pairs of positive and neutral words using cued recall, supplemented with a mathematical modeling approach designed to disentangle item- versus association-memory effects that may otherwise confound cued-recall performance. In our ...
Source: Emotion - August 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The effect of relevance appraisal on the emotional response.
In this study, we used stimuli with high ecological validity and manipulated their relevance while holding constant the perceptual features of the stimuli. In the experiment, participants were given the result of their Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test (PET). The PET score is highly relevant to most participants, as, at the time of the experiment, it is the only unknown about whether they shall be admitted to their major of choice at the university. Relevance of the information was experimentally controlled both binarily by manipulating whether the presented score is the participant’s or belongs to another unfamilia...
Source: Emotion - August 20, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Timing of adolescent emotional disclosures: The role of maternal emotions and adolescent age.
Adolescent disclosure is a positive feature of parent–adolescent relationships, though disclosure to parents typically declines across adolescence. However, little is known about parental emotions that facilitate or inhibit real-time adolescent disclosures about their emotions and how parents respond to such disclosures during parent–adolescent interactions. The present study tested (1) whether maternal emotions were associated with the time to adolescents’ spontaneous emotional disclosures and (2) whether these associations varied as a function of adolescent age. Adolescents (N = 49, Mage = 14.84 years) ...
Source: Emotion - August 13, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive and personality correlates of trait disgust and their relationship to condemnation of nonpurity moral transgressions.
We present a meta-analysis of 6 studies (N = 1082) which suggests that trait disgust is associated with condemnation of nonpurity transgressions. This relationship was primarily explained by sensitivity toward the very core disgust stimuli that those transgressions lack. We next tested whether this relationship might be mediated by a third variable. We found that trait core disgust was associated with higher orderliness, lower deviance sensitivity, and preference for intuitive thinking; these variables also correlated with moral condemnation. Trait disgust was also associated with lower generalized social trust, but trust ...
Source: Emotion - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Face color facilitates the disambiguation of confusing emotion expressions: Toward a social functional account of face color in emotion communication.
Facial expressions of emotion include both muscular and color modulations that contribute to the accurate perception of emotion. However, some emotion categories share common facial-muscular features during the dynamic expressive sequence, which can lead to confusion and misidentification. The current research posits that a potential social function of facial-color expression lies in its ability to disambiguate confusing facial-muscular emotion expressions. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to rate and categorize confusing emotion expressions (i.e., mixed anger-disgust) that varied in facial color (i.e., CIELAB a*, ...
Source: Emotion - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Meta-emotions in daily life: Associations with emotional awareness and depression.
Meta-emotions are emotions that occur in response to other emotions (e.g., guilt about anger). Although emotion theories often discuss them, much about meta-emotions remains unknown. In the present study, we aim to assess the frequency of meta-emotions in everyday life, determine whether increased attention to and clarity of emotions are associated with a greater likelihood of meta-emotions, and examine whether negative emotions about negative emotions (negative-negative meta-emotional experiences) are associated with depressive severity. We recruited a diverse adult community sample (n = 79) to complete 7 days of experien...
Source: Emotion - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When facial expressions do and do not signal minds: The role of face inversion, expression dynamism, and emotion type.
Recent research has linked facial expressions to mind perception. Specifically, Bowling and Banissy (2017) found that ambiguous doll-human morphs were judged as more likely to have a mind when smiling. Herein, we investigate 3 key potential boundary conditions of this “expression-to-mind” effect. First, we demonstrate that face inversion impairs the ability of happy expressions to signal mindful states in static faces; however, inversion does not disrupt this effect for dynamic displays of emotion. Finally, we demonstrate that not all emotions have equivalent effects. Whereas happy faces generate more mind ascr...
Source: Emotion - August 6, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Facial mimicry and play: A comparative study in chimpanzees and gorillas.
Play fighting, a common form of mammalian play, can escalate into aggression if playful motivation is misinterpreted and not shared by players. In primates, playful facial expressions and mimicry can be performed to signal and share playful motivation. Here we compare play facial expressions (play face [PF]: lower teeth exposed; full play face [FPF]: upper and lower teeth exposed) and their mimicry in captive chimpanzees and lowland gorillas, during play fighting. These two species have different social dynamics, with social cohesion being lower—and play possibly riskier—in gorillas than in chimpanzees. Thus, w...
Source: Emotion - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fear and happiness, but not sadness, motivate attentional flexibility: A case for emotion influencing the ability to split foci of attention.
One prominent and consistent effect is that negative emotions with high motivational intensity, such as fear, narrow attention. However, recent data concerning how fear influences vision may suggest that fear could make attention flexible. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine whether fear, like happiness, enhances attentional flexibility when multiple targets are present in noncontiguous locations. Fear, happiness, or sadness was induced followed by participants completing an attentional task that required splitting foci of attention to noncontiguous regions of space in the presence (Exp. 1) or absence (Exp. ...
Source: Emotion - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Paradoxical associations between familial affective responsiveness, stress, and amygdala reactivity.
Studies of early life extremes such as trauma, abuse, and neglect highlight the critical importance of quality caregiving in the development of brain circuits supporting emotional behavior and mental health. The impact of normative variability in caregiving on such biobehavioral processes, however, is poorly understood. Here, we provide initial evidence that even subtle variability in normative caregiving maps onto individual differences in threat-related brain function and, potentially, associated psychopathology in adolescence. Specifically, we report that greater familial affective responsiveness is associated with heig...
Source: Emotion - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exercise and emotion dynamics: An experience sampling study.
Though it has been widely demonstrated that regular exercise is associated with better emotional wellbeing, the nature of this association remains unclear. The present study explored the relationship between voluntary exercise and the temporal dynamics of daily emotions, and thus how voluntary exercise could be impacting emotional reactivity and recovery in naturalistic contexts. Seventy-six young adults participated simultaneously in this ecological momentary assessment study, and received 75 prompts over the course of 15 days. Emotional inertia (persistence of emotional states), emotional variability (intensity of emotio...
Source: Emotion - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cultural religiosity as the moderator of the relationship between affective experience and life satisfaction: A study in 147 countries.
People in different cultures may give different weights to emotional experience when evaluating their lives. In modern secularized cultures, people are more likely to focus on maximizing the experience of positive emotions and minimizing the experience of negative emotions to achieve well-being. In contrast, in traditional religious cultures, people are more likely to use religious standards to evaluate their lives. Therefore, the present study predicted that the frequency of positive and negative affect would be a better predictor of life satisfaction in secular (vs. religious) cultures. A sample of 295,933 participants f...
Source: Emotion - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Forecasting the duration of emotions: A motivational account and self-other differences.
This research investigates the forecasts that people make about the duration of positive versus negative emotions, and tests whether these forecasts differ for self versus for others. Consistent with a motivated thinking framework, six studies show that people make optimistic, asymmetric forecasts that positive emotions will last longer than negative ones. However, for other people, wishful thinking is absent, and therefore people make less optimistic, more symmetric forecasts. Potential implications of these motivated forecasts and self–other differences are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rig...
Source: Emotion - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Remembering or knowing how we felt: Depression and anxiety symptoms predict retrieval processes during emotional self-report.
Researchers and clinicians routinely rely on patients’ retrospective emotional self-reports to guide diagnosis and treatment, despite evidence of impaired autobiographical memory and retrieval of emotional information in depression and anxiety. To clarify the nature and specificity of these impairments, we conducted two large online data collections (Study 1, N = 1,983; Study 2, N = 900) examining whether depression and/or anxiety symptoms would uniquely predict the use of self-reported episodic (i.e., remembering) and/or semantic (i.e., knowing) retrieval when rating one’s positive and negative emotional exper...
Source: Emotion - July 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When emotions run high: A critical role for context in the unfolding of dynamic, real-life facial affect.
Although positive and negative affect are assumed to be highly distinct, recent work has shown that facial valence of positive and negative situations may be highly confusable, especially when the emotions are intense. However, previous work has relied exclusively on static images, portraying a single peak frame of the emotional display. Dynamic expressions, on the other hand, convey a far broader representation of the emotional reaction, but are they diagnostic of the situational valence? Participants (N = 245) watched videos portraying reactions to real-life highly positive situations and evaluated the affective valence ...
Source: Emotion - July 9, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Should job applicants be excited or calm? The role of culture and ideal affect in employment settings.
Do cultural differences in emotion play a role in employment settings? We predicted that cultural differences in ideal affect—the states that people value and ideally want to feel—are reflected in: (a) how individuals present themselves when applying for a job, and (b) what individuals look for when hiring someone for a job. In Studies 1–2 (NS1 = 236, NS2 = 174), European Americans wanted to convey high arousal positive states (HAP; excitement) more and low arousal positive states (LAP; calm) less than did Hong Kong Chinese when applying for a job. European Americans also used more HAP words in their appl...
Source: Emotion - July 5, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Who smiles while alone? Rates of smiling lower in China than U.S.
Previous studies have found that Westerners value high intensity positive emotions more than people in China and Japan, yet few studies have compared actual rates of smiling across cultures. Particularly rare are observational studies of real-time smiling (as opposed to smiling in photos). In Study 1, raters coded student ID photos of European American and East Asian students in the U.S. In Study 2, observers coded people’s smiles as they walked outside in the U.S. and China. Both studies found that people from East Asia smiled much less—about 50% less. These differences could reflect differences in happiness a...
Source: Emotion - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Intergroup emotional exchange: Ingroup guilt and outgroup anger increase resource allocation in trust games.
Intergroup exchanges are an integral part of social life but are compromised when one group pursues its interests at another group’s expense. The present research investigates whether expressing emotion can mitigate the negative consequences of such actions. We examine how emotions communicated by either an ingroup or outgroup member following an ingroup member’s breach of trust affect other ingroup members’ feelings of guilt and pride, and subsequent allocation of resources. In both studies, groups of participants played a two-round trust game with another group. In round one, they observed a member of t...
Source: Emotion - July 2, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research