The BigBrainWarp toolbox for integration of BigBrain 3D histology with multimodal neuroimaging
Neuroimaging stands to benefit from emerging ultrahigh-resolution 3D histological atlases of the human brain; the first of which is 'BigBrain'. Here, we review recent methodological advances for the integration of BigBrain with multi-modal neuroimaging and introduce a toolbox, 'BigBrainWarp', that combines these developments. The aim of BigBrainWarp is to simplify workflows and support the adoption of best practices. This is accomplished with a simple wrapper function that allows users to easily map data between BigBrain and standard MRI spaces. The function automatically pulls specialised transformation procedures, based ...
Source: eLife - August 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Cancer risk perception and physician communication behaviors on cervical cancer and colorectal cancer screening
(Source: eLife)
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Epidemiology and Global Health Source Type: research

An evidence-based 3D reconstruction of < i > Asteroxylon mackiei < /i > , the most complex plant preserved from the Rhynie chert
The Early Devonian Rhynie chert preserves the earliest terrestrial ecosystem and informs our understanding of early life on land. However, our knowledge of the 3D structure, and development of these plants is still rudimentary. Here we used digital 3D reconstruction techniques to produce the first well-evidenced reconstruction of the structure and development of the rooting system of the lycopsidAsteroxylon mackiei, the most complex plant in the Rhynie chert. The reconstruction reveals the organisation of the three distinct axis types – leafy shoot axes, root-bearing axes, and rooting axes – in the body plan. Combining...
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Evolutionary Biology Plant Biology Source Type: research

Identification of neural progenitor cells and their progeny reveals long distance migration in the developing octopus brain
Cephalopods have evolved nervous systems that parallel the complexity of mammalian brains in terms of neuronal numbers and richness in behavioral output. How the cephalopod brain develops has only been described at the morphological level, and it remains unclear where the progenitor cells are located and what molecular factors drive neurogenesis. Using histological techniques, we located dividing cells, neural progenitors and postmitotic neurons inOctopus vulgaris embryos. Our results indicate that an important pool of progenitors, expressing the conserved bHLH transcription factorsachaete-scute orneurogenin, is located ou...
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Developmental Biology Evolutionary Biology Source Type: research

Superspreaders drive the largest outbreaks of hospital onset COVID-19 infections
SARS-CoV-2 is notable both for its rapid spread, and for the heterogeneity of its patterns of transmission, with multiple published incidences of superspreading behaviour. Here, we applied a novel network reconstruction algorithm to infer patterns of viral transmission occurring between patients and health care workers (HCWs) in the largest clusters of COVID-19 infection identified during the first wave of the epidemic at Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, UK. Based upon dates of individuals reporting symptoms, recorded individual locations, and viral genome sequence data, we show an uneven pattern of tra...
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Evolutionary Biology Microbiology and Infectious Disease Source Type: research

Augmin deficiency in neural stem cells causes p53-dependent apoptosis and aborts brain development
Microtubules that assemble the mitotic spindle are generated by centrosomal nucleation, chromatin-mediated nucleation, and nucleation from the surface of other microtubules mediated by the augmin complex. Impairment of centrosomal nucleation in apical progenitors of the developing mouse brain induces p53-dependent apoptosis and causes non-lethal microcephaly. Whether disruption of non-centrosomal nucleation has similar effects is unclear. Here we show, using mouse embryos, that conditional knockout of the augmin subunitHaus6 in apical progenitors led to spindle defects and mitotic delay. This triggered massive apoptosis an...
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Cell Biology Developmental Biology Source Type: research

Reexamination of N-terminal domains of Syntaxin-1 in vesicle fusion from central murine synapses
Syntaxin-1 (STX1) and Munc18-1 are two requisite components of synaptic vesicular release machinery, so much so synaptic transmission cannot proceed in their absence. They form a tight complex through two major binding modes: through STX1's N-peptide and through STX's closed conformation driven by its Habc- domain. However, physiological roles of these two reportedly different binding modes in synapses are still controversial. Here we characterized the roles of STX1's N-peptide, Habc-domain, and open conformation with and without N-peptide deletion using our STX1-null mouse model system and exogenous reintroduction of STX1...
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Combinations of maternal-specific repressive epigenetic marks in the endosperm control seed dormancy
In this study, we show that maternal alleles marked by H3K27me3 in the Arabidopsis endosperm were targeted by the H3K27me3 demethylase REF6 and became activated during germination. In contrast, maternal alleles marked by H3K27me3, H3K9me2, and CHG methylation (CHGm) are likely to be protected from REF6 targeting and remained silenced. Our study unveils that combinations of different repressive epigenetic modifications time a key adaptive trait by modulating access of REF6. (Source: eLife)
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Chromosomes and Gene Expression Source Type: research

Analysis of meiosis in < i > Pristionchus pacificus < /i > reveals plasticity in homolog pairing and synapsis in the nematode lineage
Meiosis is conserved across eukaryotes yet varies in the details of its execution. Here we describe a new comparative model system for molecular analysis of meiosis, the nematodePristionchus pacificus, a distant relative of the widely studied model organismCaenorhabditis elegans.P. pacificus shares many anatomical and other features that facilitate analysis of meiosis inC. elegans. However, whileC. elegans has lost the meiosis-specific recombinase Dmc1 and evolved a recombination-independent mechanism to synapse its chromosomes,P. pacificus expresses both DMC-1 and RAD-51. We find that SPO-11 and DMC-1 are required for sta...
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Cell Biology Genetics and Genomics Source Type: research

A unified platform to manage, share, and archive morphological and functional data in insect neuroscience
Insect neuroscience generates vast amounts of highly diverse data, of which only a small fraction are findable, accessible and reusable. To promote an open data culture, we have therefore developed the InsectBrainDatabase (IBdb), a free online platform for insect neuroanatomical and functional data. TheIBdbfacilitates biological insight by enabling effective cross-species comparisons, by linking neural structure with function, and by serving as general information hub for insect neuroscience. TheIBdballow users to not only effectively locate and visualize data, but to make them widely available for easy, automated reuse vi...
Source: eLife - August 24, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Integrated single-cell analysis unveils diverging immune features of COVID-19, influenza, and other community-acquired pneumonia
The exact immunopathophysiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) remains clouded by a general lack of relevant disease controls. The scarcity of single-cell investigations in the broader population of patients with CAP renders it difficult to distinguish immune features unique to COVID-19 from the common characteristics of a dysregulated host response to pneumonia. We performed integrated single-cell transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a matched cohort of eight patients with COVID-19, eight patients with CAP caused by Influenza A or other pat...
Source: eLife - August 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Immunology and Inflammation Microbiology and Infectious Disease Source Type: research

Subventricular zone/white matter microglia reconstitute the empty adult microglial niche in a dynamic wave
Microglia, the brain's resident myeloid cells, play central roles in brain defense, homeostasis, and disease. Using a prolonged colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor inhibitor (CSF1Ri) approach, we report an unprecedented level of microglial depletion and establish a model system that achieves an empty microglial niche in the adult brain. We identify a myeloid cell that migrates from the subventricular zone and associated white matter areas. Following CSF1Ri, these amoeboid cells migrate radially and tangentially in a dynamic wave filling the brain in a distinct pattern, to replace the microglial-depleted brain. These repop...
Source: eLife - August 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Immunology and Inflammation Neuroscience Source Type: research

Urocortin-3 neurons in the mouse perifornical area promote infant-directed neglect and aggression
While recent studies have uncovered dedicated neural pathways mediating the positive control of parenting, the regulation of infant-directed aggression and how it relates to adult-adult aggression is poorly understood. Here we show thaturocortin-3 (Ucn3)-expressing neurons in the hypothalamic perifornical area (PeFAUcn3) are activated during infant-directed attacks in males and females, but not other behaviors. Functional manipulations of PeFAUcn3 neurons demonstrate the role of this population in the negative control of parenting in both sexes. PeFAUcn3 neurons receive input from areas associated with vomeronasal sensing,...
Source: eLife - August 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Neuroscience Source Type: research

Interferon receptor-deficient mice are susceptible to eschar-associated rickettsiosis
We report that intradermal infection of mice lacking both interferon receptors (Ifnar1-/-;Ifngr1-/-) with as few as 10R. parkeri elicits eschar formation and disseminated, lethal disease. Similar to human infection, eschars exhibited necrosis and inflammation, with bacteria primarily found in leukocytes. Using this model, we find that the actin-based motility factor Sca2 is required for dissemination from the skin to internal organs, and the outer membrane protein OmpB contributes to eschar formation. ImmunizingIfnar1-/-;Ifngr1-/- mice withsca2 andompB mutantR. parkeri protects against rechallenge, revealing live-attenuate...
Source: eLife - August 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Microbiology and Infectious Disease Source Type: research

Emergence of a smooth interface from growth of a dendritic network against a mechanosensitive contractile material
Structures and machines require smoothening of raw materials. Self-organized smoothening guides cell and tissue morphogenesis, and is relevant to advanced manufacturing. Across the syncytial Drosophila embryo surface, smooth interfaces form between expanding Arp2/3-based actin caps and surrounding actomyosin networks, demarcating the circumferences of nascent dome-like compartments used for pseudo-cleavage. We found that forming a smooth and circular boundary of the surrounding actomyosin domain requires Arp2/3 in vivo. To dissect the physical basis of this requirement, we reconstituted the interacting networks using node-...
Source: eLife - August 23, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Cell Biology Physics of Living Systems Source Type: research