Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates and Anogenital Distance in Male Infants from a Low-Exposed Danish Cohort (2010–2012)
Conclusion: We found no significant trends towards shorter AGD in boys with higher phthalates exposures in this low exposed Danish population. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation: Jensen TK, Fred...
Source: EHP Research - December 15, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Recommendations for Evaluating Temporal Trends of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Breast Milk
Conclusions: Time-trend data of rapidly-eliminated POPs provide information on exposure time trends and elimination half-lives. Temporal trends of slowly-eliminated POPs are more complicated to interpret, and the extraction of exposure time trends and elimination half-lives require data sets covering several decades. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as ...
Source: EHP Research - December 15, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Ambient Temperature and the Risk of Preterm Birth in Guangzhou, China (2001–2011)
Conclusions: These findings might have important implications in preventing preterm birth in Guangzhou as well as other areas with similar weather conditions. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation:...
Source: EHP Research - December 15, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Biomolecular Markers Within the Core Axis of Aging and Particulate Air Pollution Exposure in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study
Author Affiliations open 1Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Hasselt, Belgium; 2Primary Health Care Centre GVHV, Genk, Belgium; 3Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Mol, Belgium; 4Belgian Interregional Environment Agency, Brussels, Belgium; 5Department of Public Health & Primary Care, Unit of Environment & Health, Leuven University, Leuven, Belgium. *Authors equally contributed. PDF Version (880 KB) Abstract About This Article Supplemental Material Background: Telomere length and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content are markers of aging and aging-related d...
Source: EHP Research - December 15, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development: Profiling 774 Chemicals for Molecular Targets and Adverse Outcomes
Conclusion: Computational modeling of available in vivo and in vitro data for chemicals that produce adverse effects on male reproductive endpoints revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across animal studies consistent with the human TDS hypothesis. We confirmed the known role of estrogen and androgen signaling pathways in rodent TDS, and importantly, broadened the list of molecular targets to include retinoic acid signaling, vascular remodeling proteins, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and cytochrome-P450s. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted...
Source: EHP Research - December 11, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Three-Month Real-Time Dengue Forecast Models: An Early Warning System for Outbreak Alerts and Policy Decision Support in Singapore
Conclusions: Statistical models built using machine learning methods such as LASSO have the potential to markedly improve forecasting techniques for recurrent infectious disease outbreaks such as dengue. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at eac...
Source: EHP Research - December 11, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

A Birth Cohort Study of Maternal and Infant Serum PCB-153 and DDE Concentrations and Responses to Infant Tuberculosis Vaccination
Author Affiliations open 1Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA; 2Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York, USA; 3Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; 4Program in Epidemiology, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA; 5Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public...
Source: EHP Research - December 9, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Maternal Occupational Exposure to Noise during Pregnancy and Hearing Dysfunction in Children: A Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study in Sweden
Author Affiliations open 1Institute of Environmental Medicine, Unit of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Centre for Occupational and Environmental Medicine at Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 4Department of Audiology and Neurotology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden PDF Version (637 KB) Abstract About This Article Background: Many women of childbearing age are occupationally active which leads to a large number of pregnancies potentially expos...
Source: EHP Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities
Conclusion: Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity of the countries to manage and adapt in the face of such risks. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable usin...
Source: EHP Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Childhood Blood Lead Levels and Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Cross-Sectional Study of Mexican Children
The objective of this study was to explore the association of low-level concurrent lead exposure with subtypes of ADHD-symptoms in 578 Mexican children aged 6 to 13 years. Methods: We measured concurrent blood lead levels using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). We administered the Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R) to mothers to evaluate their children’s ADHD-symptoms. We filled missing values in blood lead levels with imputation method and used segmented regression models adjusted for relevant covariates to model the non-linear relationship between blood lea...
Source: EHP Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Study of Ambient Ozone Exposure and Emergency Department Visits for Specific Respiratory Diagnoses in California (2005-2008)
Conclusions: Short-term ozone exposures among California residents ozone monitor were positively associated with EDVs for asthma, ARI, pneumonia, COPD, and URTI during 2005-2008. Those associations were typically larger and more consistent during the warm season. Our findings suggest that these outcomes should be considered when evaluating the potential health benefits of reducing ozone concentrations. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to ...
Source: EHP Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Flavoring Chemicals in E-Cigarettes: Diacetyl, 2,3-Pentanedione, and Acetoin in a Sample of 51 Products, Including Fruit-, Candy-, and Cocktail-Flavored E-Cigarettes
Author Affiliations open Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA PDF Version (871 KB) Abstract About This Article Supplemental Material Background: There are over 7,000 e-cigarette flavors currently marketed. Flavoring chemicals gained notoriety in the early 2000’s when inhalation exposure of the flavoring chemical diacetyl was found to be associated with a disease that became known as “Popcorn Lung.” There has been limited research on flavoring chemicals in e-cigarettes. Objective: To determine if the flavoring chemical diacetyl, and two other hig...
Source: EHP Research - December 8, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Temperature Observation Time and Type Influence Estimates of Heat-Related Mortality in Seven U.S. Cities
Conclusions: There were systematic and substantial differences in the association between temperature and mortality based on the time and type of temperature observation. Because the strongest hourly temperature-mortality relationships were not always found at times typically associated with daily maximum temperatures, temperature variables should be selected independently for each study location. In general, heat-mortality was more closely coupled to afternoon and maximum temperatures in most cities we examined, particularly those typically prone to heat-related mortality. This EHP...
Source: EHP Research - December 4, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Source-Related Components of U.S. Fine Particle Air Pollution
Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures from fossil fuel combustion, especially coal burning, but also from diesel traffic, were associated with increases in IHD mortality in this nationwide population. Results suggest that PM2.5 – mortality associations can vary greatly by source, and that the largest IHD health benefits per µg/m3 from PM2.5 air pollution control may be achieved via reductions of fossil fuel combustion exposures, especially from coal-burning sources. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication...
Source: EHP Research - December 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Response to “Comment on ‘In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol A β-D-Glucuronide (BPA-G) on Adipogenesis in Human and Murine Preadipocytes’”
Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada About This Article open Citation: Atlas E, Boucher JG, Ahmed S, Boudreau A. 2015. Response to “Comment on ‘In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol A β-D-Glucuronide (BPA-G) on Adipogenesis in Human and Murine Preadipocytes.’” Environ Health Perspect 123:A289–A290; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510356 Address correspondence to E. Atlas, Health Canada, Environmental Health, Science and Research Bureau, 50 Colombine Dr., Ottawa ON K1A 0K9, Canada. E-mail: ella.atlas@hc-sc.gc.ca The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial inte...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Correspondence December 2015 Source Type: research

Comment on “In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol A β-D-Glucuronide (BPA-G) on Adipogenesis in Human and Murine Preadipocytes”
About This Article open Citation: Gayrard V, Gauderat G, Lacroix MZ, Viguié C, Bousquet-Melou A, Toutain P, Picard-Hagen N. 2015. Comment on “In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol A β-D-Glucuronide (BPA-G) on Adipogenesis in Human and Murine Preadipocytes.” Environ Health Perspect 123:A289; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510315 Address correspondence to V. Gayrard, INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique), Unité Mixte de Recherche 1331, Research Centre in Food Toxicology, Université de Toulouse, F-31027 Toulouse, France. E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr The authors declare they hav...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Correspondence December 2015 Source Type: research

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Research Studies: The Challenge of Creating More Diverse Cohorts
This reporting project was funded through a grant provided by the Reporting Award at New York University’s Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute. Background image: Bahri Altay/Shutterstock About This Article open Citation: Konkel L. 2015. Racial and ethnic disparities in research studies: the challenge of creating more diverse cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 123:A297–A302; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A297 Published: 1 December 2015 PDF Version (873 KB) Minority populations are much less likely than their white counterparts to be included in studies on environmentally related diseases...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Spheres of Influence December 2015 Source Type: research

Africa’s Indigenous Fruit Trees: A Blessing in Decline
Fruits native to the African continent offer nutrients that often come up short in local diets, and they grow on trees that provide a range of ecosystem services. But deforestation is threatening Africa’s indigenous fruit trees. Now researchers and local farmers are partnering to ensure the trees have a future.© Ake Mamo/ICRAF Grafted bush mango seedlings await planting. According to the World Agroforestry Centre, bush mango has been identified by farmers in Cameroon and Nigeria as their highest priority for domesticating indigenous fruit trees. © Charlie Pye-Smith/ICRAF   ...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured Focus News December 2015 Source Type: research

Unexpected Activity: Evidence for Obesogenicity of a BPA Metabolite
Wendee Nicole has written for Discover, Scientific American, and other publications. About This Article open Citation: Nicole W. 2015. Unexpected activity: evidence for obesogenicity of a BPA metabolite. Environ Health Perspect 123:A303; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A303 Published: 1 December 2015 PDF Version (192 KB) Related EHP Article In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol A β-D-Glucuronide (BPA-G) on Adipogenesis in Human and Murine Preadipocytes Jonathan G. Boucher, Adèle Boudreau, Shaimaa Ahmed, and Ella Atlas Bisphenol A (BPA) has been implicated as an obesogen, a compound that alters lipid metabolism...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection December 2015 Source Type: research

Examining BPA’s Mechanisms of Action: The Role of c-Myc
This study is important for showing that BPA has very significant effects on breast health,” says study coauthor Mickey Hu, an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at Stanford Medical School. “Finding c-Myc as a target of BPA actually is a very important step for us to know how to prevent an adverse effect of BPA on human health.” Hu cautions, however, that the findings should not be construed as saying that BPA will definitely cause breast cancer. “We cannot one hundred percent say that if you are exposed to BPA, you will develop breast cancer—that’s not true. There are a lo...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection December 2015 Source Type: research

Identifying Potential Breast Carcinogens: A New Approach
This study could help to bridge that gap by proposing an intriguing and novel screening strategy for breast cancer carcinogens,” Guyton says. There is evidence that both genotoxic and nongenotoxic mechanisms drive the development and growth of breast cancer—a consideration that is built into the HIA-BC framework. And although this testing scheme focuses on breast cancer, the authors say the same approach could be used to develop hazard assessment schemes relevant to other diseases as well. “We really have the chance, by improving the way we’re testing chemicals, to detect those that are setting us u...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection December 2015 Source Type: research

A Preventive Approach to Arsenic Toxicity: Testing Folic Acid in Bangladesh
Carol Potera, based in Montana, also writes for Microbe, Genetic Engineering News, and the American Journal of Nursing. About This Article open Citation: Potera C. 2015. A preventive approach to arsenic toxicity: testing folic acid in Bangladesh. Environ Health Perspect 123:A306; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A306 Published: 1 December 2015 PDF Version (390 KB) Related EHP Article Folic Acid and Creatine as Therapeutic Approaches to Lower Blood Arsenic: A Randomized Controlled Trial Brandilyn A. Peters, Megan N. Hall, Xinhua Liu, Faruque Parvez, Tiffany R. Sanchez, Alexander van Geen, Jacob L. Mey, Abu B. S...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection December 2015 Source Type: research

Association of Supply Type with Fecal Contamination of Source Water and Household Stored Drinking Water in Developing Countries: A Bivariate Meta-analysis
Conclusions We found substantive evidence for deterioration in water quality between source and stored water. Therefore, estimates of the global population drinking safe water, even those that account for water quality and sanitary inspection, are likely to be overestimates due to contamination during collection, transport, or storage. We propose that monitoring of drinking water quality should occur at both the source and in HSW. We found that piped water was significantly less likely to be contaminated than other water supply types, both at the source and in HSW, and thus suggest that a shift toward piped supplies will l...
Source: EHP Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sam Duvall Tags: Review December 2015 Source Type: research

Residential Road Traffic Noise and High Depressive Symptoms after Five Years of Follow-up: Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study
Conclusion: Our results suggest that residential road traffic noise exposure increases the risk of depressive symptoms. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation: Orban E, McDonald K, Sutcliffe R, Hoffmann B, Fuk...
Source: EHP Research - November 25, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Key Characteristics of Carcinogens as a Basis for Organizing Data on Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis
Conclusion: We describe the use of the 10 key characteristics to conduct a systematic literature search focused on relevant endpoints and construct a graphical representation of the identified mechanistic information. Next, we use benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls as examples to illustrate how this approach may work in practice. The approach described is similar in many respects to those currently being implemented by the U.S. EPA’s IRIS Program and the U.S. National Toxicology Program. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for public...
Source: EHP Research - November 24, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Arsenic and Environmental Health: State of the Science and Future Research Opportunities
Conclusions: Promising research strategies and technologies for arsenic exposure and adverse health effect mitigation are being pursued, and future research is moving toward deeper collaborations and integration of information across disciplines to address data gaps. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number use...
Source: EHP Research - November 20, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Inorganic Arsenic Related Changes in the Stromal Tumor Microenvironment in a Prostate Cancer Cell–Conditioned Media Model
Conclusions: Our results suggest a concentration-dependent alteration of stromal signaling, specifically attenuation of stromal-mediated TGFβ signaling following exposure to iAs. Our results indicate iAs may enhance prostate cancer cell viability through a previously unreported stromal-based mechanism. These findings illustrate that the stroma may mediate the effects of iAs in tumor progression, which may have future therapeutic implications. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are comple...
Source: EHP Research - November 20, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Soy-Based Infant Formula Feeding and Ultrasound-Detected Uterine Fibroids among Young African-American Women with No Prior Clinical Diagnosis of Fibroids
Conclusions: Our observation that women fed soy formula as infants have larger fibroids than unexposed women provides further support for persistent effects of early life phytoestrogen exposure on the uterus. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document a...
Source: EHP Research - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Evolution of Minimum Mortality Temperature in Stockholm, Sweden, 1901-2009
Conclusions: The increase in MMT over the course of the last century suggests autonomous adaptation within the context of the large epidemiological, demographical and societal changes that occurred. Whether the rate of increase will be sustained with climate change is an open question. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through...
Source: EHP Research - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Modification of Heat-Related Mortality in an Elderly Urban Population by Vegetation (Urban Green) and Proximity to Water (Urban Blue): Evidence from Lisbon, Portugal
Conclusions: Urban green and blue appeared to have a mitigating effect on heat-related mortality in the elderly population in Lisbon. Increasing the amount of vegetation may be a good strategy to counteract the adverse effects of heat in urban areas. Our findings also suggest potential benefits of urban blue that may be present several kilometers from a body of water. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replac...
Source: EHP Research - November 13, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Moving to a Highly Walkable Neighborhood and Incidence of Hypertension: A Propensity-Score Matched Cohort Study
Author Affiliations open 1Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 4Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; 5Schulich Heart Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada PDF Version (593 KB) Abstract About This Article Supplemental Material Background: The impact of moving to a neighborhood more conducive to utilitarian walking on the...
Source: EHP Research - November 8, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Urinary Phthalate Metabolite Concentrations and Reproductive Outcomes among Women Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization: Results from the EARTH Study
Conclusions: Urinary concentrations of DEHP metabolites were inversely associated with oocyte yield, clinical pregnancy and live birth following ART. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation: Hauser R...
Source: EHP Research - November 6, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Computational Exposure Science: An Emerging Discipline to Support 21st-Century Risk Assessment
Conclusions: Computational exposure science, linked with comparable efforts in toxicology, is ushering in a new era of risk assessment that greatly expands our ability to evaluate chemical safety and sustainability and to protect public health. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will ...
Source: EHP Research - November 6, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Sperm Aneuploidy in Faroese Men with Lifetime Exposure to Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Pollutants
Conclusions: Organochlorine exposures measured at age 14 and in adulthood were associated with sperm disomy in this sample of high exposure men, suggesting the impacts of persistent pollutants on testicular maturation and function need deeper investigation. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citatio...
Source: EHP Research - November 4, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Modeling and Prediction of Oyster Norovirus Outbreaks along Gulf of Mexico Coast
Author Affiliations open Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA PDF Version (4.4 MB) Abstract About This Article Background: Oyster norovirus outbreaks often pose high risks to human health. However, little is known about environmental factors controlling the outbreaks and little can be done to prevent the outbreaks as they are generally considered to be unpredictable. Objective: We sought to develop a mathematical model for predicting risks of oyster norovirus outbreaks using environmental predictors. Methods: A novel pr...
Source: EHP Research - November 3, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Human Health Effects of Biphenyl: Key Findings and Scientific Issues
Conclusions: The available health effects data for biphenyl provides suggestive evidence for carcinogenicity in humans, based on increased incidences of male rat urinary bladder tumors at high exposure levels and on female mouse liver tumors. Kidney toxicity is also a potential human health hazard of biphenyl exposure. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version a...
Source: EHP Research - November 3, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Response to “Comment on ‘Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013’”
1Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholars Program, University of California, San Francisco, and University of California, Berkeley, California, USA; 2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 3Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 4Center for Health Research, Geisinger Health System, Danville, Pennsylvania, USA About This Article open Citation: Casey JA, Rasmussen SG, Schwartz BS. 2015. Response to “Comment on ‘Predictors of Indoor Radon Concent...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Correspondence November 2015 Source Type: research

Comment on “Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013”
Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA About This Article open Citation: Engelder T. 2015. Comment on “Predictors of Indoor Radon Concentrations in Pennsylvania, 1989–2013.” Environ Health Perspect 123:A273; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510250 Address correspondence to T. Engelder, Department of Geosciences, 334A Deike Building, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 USA. E-mail: jte2@psu.edu The author declares his company, Appalachian Fracture Systems (ASF), has served as a consultant to the Pennsylvania Department...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Correspondence November 2015 Source Type: research

Lessons from Toxicology: Developing a 21st-Century Paradigm for Medical Research
Conclusions Our proposed new research paradigm, adapted from 21st-century toxicology, would involve the following aspects: Developing a big picture of human diseases, integrating extrinsic and intrinsic causes, and linking environmental sciences with medical research using systems biology. Introducing a disease AOP concept, analogous to toxicity AOPs, with the intention of providing a unified framework for describing relevant pathophysiology pathways and networks across multiple biological levels. Creating a strong focus on advanced human-specific research (in vitro, ex vivo, in vivo, and in silico) in place of empirical,...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Brief Communication November 2015 Source Type: research

Outbreak Breakthrough: Using Whole-Genome Sequencing to Control Hospital Infection
Carrie Arnold is a freelance science writer living in Virginia. Her work has appeared in Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist, Smithsonian, and more. Background image: Reprinted by permission from Macmillan Publishers Ltd: doi:10.5923/s.microbiology.201401.02 About This Article open Citation: Arnold C. 2015. Outbreak breakthrough: using whole-genome sequencing to control hospital infection. Environ Health Perspect 123:A281–A286; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A281 Published: 1 November 2015 PDF Version (2.7 MB) The level of detail provided by whole-genome sequencing could give hospita...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured Focus News November 2015 Source Type: research

Between Extremes: Health Effects of Heat and Cold
Nate Seltenrich covers science and the environment from Petaluma, CA. His work has appeared in High Country News, Sierra, Yale Environment 360, Earth Island Journal, and other regional and national publications. Background image: © Roy Scott About This Article open Citation: Seltenrich N. 2015. Between extremes: health effects of heat and cold. Environ Health Perspect 123:A275–A279; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A275 Published: 1 November 2015 PDF Version (2.4 MB) Although heat waves and cold snaps pose major health risks and grab headlines when they occur, recent studies have uncovered a more com...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured Focus News November 2015 Source Type: research

Time and Temperature: Changes in Heat-Related Mortality over 27 Years
Wendee Nicole was awarded the inaugural Mongabay Prize for Environmental Reporting in 2013. She writes for Discover, Scientific American, National Wildlife, and other magazines. About This Article open Citation: Nicole W. 2015. Time and temperature: changes in heat-related mortality over 27 years. Environ Health Perspect 123:A287; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A287 Published: 1 November 2015 PDF Version (557 KB) Related EHP Article Temporal Variation in Heat–Mortality Associations: A Multicountry Study Antonio Gasparrini, Yuming Guo, Masahiro Hashizume, Patrick L. Kinney, Elisaveta P. Petkova, Eric Lavigne,...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection November 2015 Source Type: research

Bias in Environmental Cohort Studies: The Example of Bone Lead and Mortality
Carol Potera, based in Montana, also writes for Microbe, Genetic Engineering News, and the American Journal of Nursing. About This Article open Citation: Potera C. 2015. Bias in environmental cohort studies: the example of bone lead and mortality. Environ Health Perspect 123:A288; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.123-A288 Published: 1 November 2015 PDF Version (252 KB) Related EHP Article Biased Exposure–Health Effect Estimates from Selection in Cohort Studies: Are Environmental Studies at Particular Risk? Marc G. Weisskopf, David Sparrow, Howard Hu, and Melinda C. Power Unrecognized biases in prospective e...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection November 2015 Source Type: research

Interweaving Knowledge Resources to Address Complex Environmental Health Challenges
Conclusions: By providing structure for interweaving science with its stakeholders, we are better able to leverage resources, increase potential for innovation, and proactively ensure a more fully developed spectrum of beneficial outcomes of research investments. Citation: Anderson BE, Naujokas MF, Suk WA. 2015. Interweaving knowledge resources to address complex environmental health challenges. Environ Health Perspect 123:1095–1099; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409525 Address correspondence to M.F. Naujokas, MDB, Inc., 2525 Meridian Corporate Center, Suite 50, Durham, North Carolina 27713 USA. Telepho...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sam Duvall Tags: Commentary November 2015 Source Type: research

Social Science Collaboration with Environmental Health
Conclusions: A transdisciplinary approach for environmental health practice has emerged that engages the social sciences to paint a full picture of the consequences of contamination so that policy makers, regulators, public health officials, and other stakeholders can better ameliorate impacts and prevent future exposure. Citation: Hoover E, Renauld M, Edelstein MR, Brown P. 2015. Social science collaboration with environmental health. Environ Health Perspect 123:1100–1106; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409283 Address correspondence to P. Brown, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Northeaster...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sam Duvall Tags: Commentary November 2015 Source Type: research

Lung Cancer and Exposure to Nitrogen Dioxide and Traffic: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Conclusion: We found consistent evidence of a relationship between NO2, as a proxy for traffic-sourced air pollution exposure, with lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer related to residential proximity to roadways and NOx also suggest increased risk, which may be attributable partly to air pollution exposure. The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified outdoor air pollution and particulate matter as carcinogenic (Group 1). These meta-analyses support this conclusion, drawing particular attention to traffic-sourced air pollution. Citation: Hamra GB, Laden F, Cohen AJ, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Brauer...
Source: EHP Research - November 2, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sam Duvall Tags: Review November 2015 Source Type: research

Blood Cadmium Levels and Incident Cardiovascular Events during Follow-up in a Population-Based Cohort of Swedish Adults: The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study
Conclusions: Blood cadmium in the highest quartile was associated with incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in our population-based samples of Swedish adults. The consistent results among never-smokers are important, since smoking is a strong confounder. Our findings suggest that measures to reduce cadmium exposures are warranted, even in populations without unusual sources of exposure. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the art...
Source: EHP Research - October 30, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Cross-Sectional Associations of Serum Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Thyroid Hormones in U.S. Adults: Variation According to TPOAb and Iodine Status (NHANES 2007-2008)
We examined associations between serum PFASs and thyroid hormones (THs) in a representative, cross-sectional sample of US adults. We hypothesized that people with high thyroid peroxidase antibodies and low iodine would be more susceptible to PFAS-induced thyroid disruption. Methods: Our sample included 1,525 adults (≥18 years) from the 2007-2008 NHANES study with available serum PFASs and THs. We examined associations between four serum PFASs (perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)), and serum THs [free T3 ...
Source: EHP Research - October 30, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

In Utero and Early-Life Exposure to Ambient Air Toxics and Childhood Brain Tumors: A Population-Based Case–Control Study in California, USA
Conclusions: Our data suggest that in utero and infancy exposures to air toxics generated by industrial and road traffic sources may increase the risk of PNET and medulloblastoma, with little support for increased risks for astrocytoma in children up to age 6. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the cita...
Source: EHP Research - October 27, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Parabens and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands Cross-Talk in Breast Cancer Cells
Conclusion: Our studies demonstrate that HER ligands enhance the potency of BP to stimulate oncogene expression and breast cancer cell proliferation in vitro via ERα, suggesting that parabens might be active at exposure levels not previously considered toxicologically relevant from studies testing their effects in isolation. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatt...
Source: EHP Research - October 27, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research