The Right Tools for the Job: Evaluating Frameworks for Chemical Alternatives Assessment
Carrie Arnold is a freelance science writer living in Virginia. Her work has appeared in Scientific American, Discover, New Scientist, Smithsonian, and more. About This Article open Citation: Arnold C. 2016. The right tools for the job: evaluating frameworks for chemical alternatives assessment. Environ Health Perspect 124:A58; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.124-A58 Published: 1 March 2016 PDF Version (310 KB) Related EHP Article Alternatives Assessment Frameworks: Research Needs for the Informed Substitution of Hazardous Chemicals Molly M. Jacobs, Timothy F. Malloy, Joel A. Tickner, and Sally Edwards With the ...
Source: EHP Research - March 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection March 2016 Source Type: research

Prenatal Triclosan Exposure and Anthropometric Measures including Anogenital Distance in Danish Infants
Author Affiliations open 1Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Growth and Reproduction, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Odense University Hospital, Hans Christian Andersen Children’s Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Odense Patient data Exploratory Network (OPEN), Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA; 5Department of Environmental Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark PDF Version (537 KB) Abstract About This Article Bac...
Source: EHP Research - February 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project
Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other endpoints. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this doc...
Source: EHP Research - February 23, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids (PFCAs) and Fetal and Postnatal Growth in the Taiwan Maternal and Infant Cohort Study
Conclusions: Prenatal exposure to long-chain PFCAs may interfere with fetal and childhood growth in girls, and childhood growth in boys. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation: Wang Y, Adgent M, Su PH, Ch...
Source: EHP Research - February 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Adequacy of Current State Setbacks for Directional High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing in the Marcellus, Barnett, and Niobrara Shale Plays
Conclusions: Our results suggest that setbacks may not be sufficient to reduce potential threats to human health in areas where hydraulic fracturing occurs. It is more likely that a combination of reasonable setbacks with controls for other sources of pollution associated with the process will be required. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it ...
Source: EHP Research - February 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Mutagenicity- and Pollutant-Emission Factors of Solid-Fuel Cookstoves: Comparison to Other Combustion Sources
Conclusions: Both mutagenicity- and pollutant-emission factors may be informative for characterizing cookstove performance. However, mutagenicity-emission factors may be especially useful for characterizing potential health effects, and should be evaluated in relation to health outcomes in future research. A FDS operated as intended by the manufacturer is safer than a TSF, but without adequate ventilation, it still results in poor indoor air quality. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are com...
Source: EHP Research - February 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

In Vitro Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor p,p’DDT on Human Follitropin Receptor
Conclusion: p,p’DDT acted as a positive allosteric modulator of FSHR in our experimental model. These findings suggest that G Protein-coupled receptors are additional targets of endocrine disruptors. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at e...
Source: EHP Research - February 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

A Statewide Nested Case-Control Study of Preterm Birth and Air Pollution by Source and Composition: California, 2001–2008
Conclusions: In our statewide nested case-control study population, exposures to both primary and secondary pollutants were associated with an increase in PTB. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation...
Source: EHP Research - February 19, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Laying a Community-Based Foundation for Data-Driven Semantic Standards in Environmental Health Sciences
Conclusions: Recommendations included developing a community-supported Web-based toolkit that would enable: 1) collaborative development of EHS research questions and use cases; 2) construction of user-friendly tools for searching and extending existing semantic resources; 3) education and guidance about standards and their implementation; and 4) creation of a plan for governance and sustainability. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the...
Source: EHP Research - February 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Review Source Type: research

Particulate Matter Exposure and Cardiopulmonary Differences in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Author Affiliations open 1Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA; 2Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University, New York, New York, USA; 3Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA; 4Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA; 5Radiology and Imaging Sciences, National Institutes of Health/Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland, USA; 6Departments of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences, Me...
Source: EHP Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Birth Outcomes among a Population Residing near a Mining-Related Superfund Site
Conclusions: In a population with environmental exposure levels similar to the U.S. general population, maternal blood arsenic was negatively associated with fetal growth. Given the potential for relatively common fetal and early childhood arsenic exposures, our finding that prenatal arsenic can adversely impact birth outcomes is of considerable public health importance. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be rep...
Source: EHP Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Methods to Estimate Acclimatization to the Urban Heat Island Effects on Heat- and Cold-Related Mortality
Conclusions: We have proposed two analytical methods for estimating the degree of acclimatization to the heat- and cold-related mortality burdens associated with UHI. The results for London suggest relatively complete acclimatization to the UHI effect on summer heat-related mortality, but less clear evidence for cold. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as...
Source: EHP Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The Genetic Basis for Variation in Sensitivity to Lead Toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster
Conclusions: Drosophila melanogaster presents an advantageous model to study the genetic underpinnings of variation in susceptibility to lead toxicity. Evolutionary conservation of cellular pathways that respond to toxic exposure allows predictions regarding orthologous genes and pathways across phyla. Thus, studies in the D. melanogaster model system can identify candidate susceptibility genes to guide subsequent studies in human populations. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citab...
Source: EHP Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Air Pollution and Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Nested Case-Control Study among Members of a Northern California Health Plan
Author Affiliations open 1Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA; 2Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California, USA; 3California Air Resources Board, Sacramento, California, USA; Departments of 4Biostatistics, 5Carolina Population Center, and 6Geography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA PDF Version (690 KB) Abstract About This Article Supplemental Material Background: Ecologic analyses, case-case comparisons, and animal experiments suggest positive associations between air po...
Source: EHP Research - February 9, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Long-Term Air Pollution and Traffic Noise Exposures and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study
Conclusions: Long-term exposures to air pollution and traffic noise were positively associated with MCI, mainly with the amnestic subtype. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation: Tzivian L, Dlugaj M, Wink...
Source: EHP Research - February 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Associations of Residential Long-Term Air Pollution Exposures and Satellite-Derived Greenness with Insulin Resistance in German Adolescents
Conclusions: NO2, often considered as a marker of traffic, was independently associated with insulin resistance. The observed association between higher greenness exposure and lower HOMA-IR in adolescents might thus be mainly due to the lower co-exposure to traffic-related air pollution. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Throu...
Source: EHP Research - February 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Transgenic Overexpression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Repressor (AhRR) and AhR-Mediated Induction of CYP1A1, Cytokines, and Acute Toxicity
Conclusion: In conclusion, the current study identifies AhRR as a previously uncharacterized regulator of specific inflammatory cytokines, which may protect from acute toxicity induced by TCDD. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of...
Source: EHP Research - February 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City
Author Affiliations open 1New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, New York, New York, USA; 2Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 3Departments of Epidemiology and Obstetrics and Gynecology, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA; 4Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA; 5ZevRoss Spatial Analysis, Ithaca, New York, USA PDF Version (515 KB) Abstract About This Article Supplemental Material Background: Re...
Source: EHP Research - February 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Key Elements for Judging the Quality of a Risk Assessment
Conclusions: The key characteristics of a high quality assessment can be summarized and integrated into a Guide for judging whether an assessment possesses the desired features of high quality, transparency and usefulness. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access t...
Source: EHP Research - February 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Community Engagement and Data Disclosure in Environmental Health Research
Conclusion An academic–community scientific team effectively developed and implemented an environmental health pilot study and DD strategies at the individual and community level. Incorporating community partners at the onset of developing the study and DD strategies resulted in the creation of an outside-the-scientific-box image (e.g., blood tube) to effectively translate biological data to the target audience. Scientists should include community partners from the target population in the development of research and DD strategies in order to enhance the quality of research, to support the rights of the study partici...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Brief Communication February 2016 Source Type: research

Comment on “Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study”
1Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Trujillo, Perú; 2Instituto Regional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas del Norte, Trujillo, Perú; 3Hospital Regional Docente de Trujillo, Trujillo, Perú About This Article open Citation: Lezama V, Chauca L, Marchena M, Duran D. 2016. Comment on “Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study.” Environ Health Perspect 124:A28; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510540 Address correspondence to V. Lezama, Instituto Regional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas del Norte, Trujillo-Perú, Carretera Panam...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Correspondence February 2016 Source Type: research

Response to “Comment on ‘Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behavioral Problems in 7-Year-Old Children: A Cohort Study’”
1Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark; 4Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona, Spain; 5Department of Genes and Environment, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway About This Article open Citation: Hjortebjerg D, Andersen AM, Christensen JS, Ketzel M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sunyer J, Julvez J, Forns J, Sørensen M. 2016. Response to “Comment on ‘Exposure to Road Traffic Noise and Behav...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Correspondence February 2016 Source Type: research

Erratum: “Ethical Issues in Environmental Health Research Related to Public Health Emergencies: Reflections on the GuLF STUDY”
About This Article open Final Publication: 1 February 2016 PDF Version (50 KB) Environ Health Perspect 123(9):A227–A231 (2015), http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509889 In the acknowledgments of this article, the authors neglected to recognize the contributions of Joan P. Packenham, Director of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Office of Human Research Compliance, Clinical Research Program (CRP) and Vice-Chair of the NIEHS Institutional Review Board (IRB); Jane M. Lambert, NIEHS CRP IRB Administrator; and Craig Wladyka, NIEHS, CRP, IRB Protocol Coordinator, for their roles in the rev...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Erratum February 2016 Source Type: research

Healthy Ground, Healthy Atmosphere: Recarbonizing the Earth’s Soils
Discussion Paper Series: The Bioeconomics of Conservation Agriculture and Soil Carbon Sequestration in Developing Countries. Environment for Development Discussion Paper Series EfD DP 10-07. Gothenburg, Sweden:Environment for Development (March 2010). Available: http://www.rff.org/files/sharepoint/Work​Images/Download/EfD-DP-10-07.pdf [accessed 25 January 2016]. 13. Bot A, Benites J. Practices that influence the amount of organic matter. In: The Importance of Soil Organic Matter: Key to Drought-Resistant Soil and Sustained Food Production. FAO Soils Bulletin 80. Rome, Italy:Food and Agriculture Organization of the United...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured Focus News February 2016 Source Type: research

Arsenic and Latent Disease Risk: What’s the Mechanism of Action?
Carol Potera, based in Montana, also writes for Microbe, Genetic Engineering News, and the American Journal of Nursing. About This Article open Citation: Potera C. 2016. Arsenic and latent disease risk: what’s the mechanism of action? Environ Health Perspect 124:A36; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.124-A36 Published: 1 February 2016 PDF Version (233 KB) Related EHP Article Mechanisms Underlying Latent Disease Risk Associated with Early-Life Arsenic Exposure: Current Research Trends and Scientific Gaps Kathryn A. Bailey, Allan H. Smith, Erik J. Tokar, Joseph H. Graziano, Kyoung-Woong Kim, Panida Navasumrit, Mathur...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection February 2016 Source Type: research

Variable Effectiveness: Assessing Methods to Adjust for Covariates in Biomonitoring
This study provides us with good empirical data that in some situations, more complex methods to account for urine dilution may be necessary. As scientists, we need to be thoughtful of how and when to employ these new methods,” says Joe Braun, an epidemiologist at Brown University. Braun was not involved in the current study. The new methods may prove particularly useful in racially diverse study populations. Whites and Mexican Americans, on average, have lower levels of creatinine in their urine than black Americans.4 Low creatinine in urine also may be a predictor of cardiovascular risk.5 Braun says researchers loo...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection February 2016 Source Type: research

A Clearer Picture of China’s Air: Using Satellite Data and Ground Monitoring to Estimate PM2.5 over Time
Nate Seltenrich covers science and the environment from Petaluma, CA. His work has appeared in High Country News, Sierra, Yale Environment 360, Earth Island Journal, and other regional and national publications. About This Article open Citation: Seltenrich N. 2016. A clearer picture of China’s air: using satellite data and ground monitoring to estimate PM2.5 over time. Environ Health Perspect 124:A38; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.124-A38 Published: 1 February 2016 PDF Version (397 KB) Related EHP Article Satellite-Based Spatiotemporal Trends in PM2.5 Concentrations: China, 2004–2013 Zongwei Ma, Xuefei Hu...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection February 2016 Source Type: research

Arsenic Exposure and the Western Diet: A Recipe for Metabolic Disorders?
Julia R. Barrett, MS, ELS, a Madison, WI–based science writer and editor, is a member of the National Association of Science Writers and the Board of Editors in the Life Sciences. About This Article open Citation: Barrett JR. 2016. Arsenic exposure and the Western diet: a recipe for metabolic disorders? Environ Health Perspect 124:A39; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.124-A39 Published: 1 February 2016 PDF Version (3.5 MB) Related EHP Article Effects of Arsenite Exposure during Fetal Development on Energy Metabolism and Susceptibility to Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Disease in Male Mice Eric J. Ditzel, Thu N...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Science Selection February 2016 Source Type: research

Mechanisms Underlying Latent Disease Risk Associated with Early-Life Arsenic Exposure: Current Research Trends and Scientific Gaps
Conclusions: Evidence is mounting that relates early-life iAs exposure and cancer development later in life. Future research should include animal studies that address mechanistic hypotheses and studies of human populations that integrate early-life exposure, molecular alterations, and latent disease outcomes. Citation: Bailey KA, Smith AH, Tokar EJ, Graziano JH, Kim KW, Navasumrit P, Ruchirawat M, Thiantanawat A, Suk WA, Fry RC. 2016. Mechanisms underlying latent disease risk associated with early-life arsenic exposure: current research trends and scientific gaps. Environ Health Perspect 124:170–175; http://dx.doi...
Source: EHP Research - February 1, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Sam Duvall Tags: Commentary February 2016 Source Type: research

The History, Status, Gaps, and Future Directions of Neurotoxicology in China
Conclusions: Despite extensive efforts, neurotoxicity remains a significant public health problem. This provides great challenges and opportunities. We identified ten significant areas requiring major educational, environmental, governmental, research, and public awareness and attention. For example, there is a need to increase efforts to utilize new in vivo and in vitro models, determine the potential neurotoxicity and mechanisms involved in newly emerging pollutants, and examine the effects and mechanisms of mixtures. In the future, we anticipate working with scientists worldwide to accomplish these goa...
Source: EHP Research - January 29, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Review Source Type: research

A Review of Health Risks and Pathways for Exposure to Wastewater Use in Agriculture
Conclusions: To provide a more comprehensive understanding of the health risks of wastewater use in agriculture, future research should consider multiple exposure routes, long-term health implications, and increase the range of contaminants studied, particularly in regions heavily dependent on wastewater irrigation. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as s...
Source: EHP Research - January 29, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Review Source Type: research

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Physical Health among Adult Women in Southern Louisiana: The Women and Their Children’s Health (WaTCH) Study
Conclusions: Among Southern Louisiana women, both physical/environmental and economic exposure to the DHOS was associated with an increase in self-reported physical health outcomes. Additional longitudinal studies of this unique cohort are needed to elucidate the impact of the DHOS on short and long-term human health. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as...
Source: EHP Research - January 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Perfluoroalkyl Substances, Sex Hormones, and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 at 6–9 Years of Age: A Cross-Sectional Analysis within the C8 Health Project
Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that PFAS are associated with lower levels of IGF-1 and sex hormones in young children. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation: Lope...
Source: EHP Research - January 22, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Epigenome-Wide Assessment of DNA Methylation in the Placenta and Arsenic Exposure in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (USA)
This study examined variation in placental DNA methylation and its relationship to arsenic exposure in 343 individuals enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study. Methods: Linear regression models using a reference-free correction to account for cellular composition were employed to determine CpG loci affected by arsenic levels. Results: Total arsenic measured in maternal urine during the second trimester was not associated with methylation in the placenta, while arsenic levels quantified through maternal toenail collected at birth were associated with methylation at a single CpG loc...
Source: EHP Research - January 15, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

On the Utility of ToxCastTM and ToxPi as Methods for Identifying New Obesogens
Conclusions: ToxCast PPARγ and RXRα assays do not correlate well with laboratory measurements of PPARγ and RXRα activity. The adipogenesis ToxPi performed poorly, perhaps due to the performance of ToxCast assays. We observed a modest predictive value of ToxCast for PPARγ and RXRα activation and adipogenesis and it is likely that many obesogenic chemicals remain to be identified. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assign...
Source: EHP Research - January 13, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation and Cigarette Smoking in Chinese
Author Affiliations open 1Department of Occupational and Environmental Health and Ministry of Education Key Lab for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 2Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 3Department of Cardiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; 4Department of Cardiology, People’s Hospital of Zhuhai, Zhuhai, China; 5Department of Cardiology, Bao’an Hosp...
Source: EHP Research - January 12, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria
Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the...
Source: EHP Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Estimating Children’s Soil/Dust Ingestion Rates through Retrospective Analyses of Blood Lead Biomonitoring from the Bunker Hill Superfund Site in Idaho
Conclusions: Soil/dust ingestion rate estimates for 1-9 year old children at the BHSS are lower than those commonly used in human health risk assessment. A substantial component of children’s exposure comes from sources beyond the immediate home environment. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the ...
Source: EHP Research - January 8, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Childhood Exposure to Ambient Air Pollutants and the Onset of Asthma: An Administrative Cohort Study in Québec
Conclusions: Asthma onset in children appears to be associated with residential exposure to PM2.5, O3 and NO2. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at each stage of the publication process. Citation: Tétreault LF, Doucet M, Gamache P, Fournier M,...
Source: EHP Research - January 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

A Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation and Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Three Study Populations: KORA F3, KORA F4, and the Normative Aging Study
Author Affiliations open 1Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Epidemiology II, Neuherberg, Germany; 2Exposure, Epidemiology and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 3Laboratory of Environmental Epigenetics, Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 4Research Unit of Molecular Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München – German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherber...
Source: EHP Research - January 5, 2016 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

What Can Epidemiological Studies Tell Us about the Impact of Chemical Mixtures on Human Health?
Conclusions By defining the types of research questions related to chemical mixtures that epidemiological studies can address, we hope to identify the gaps in our knowledge and develop or apply appropriate statistical methods that accurately quantify the impact of chemical mixtures on human health. In this article, we have chosen to focus on environmental chemicals, but the three questions we describe naturally extend to other environmental exposures (e.g., air pollution and infectious agents), as well as the broader exposome (e.g., stress and nutrition) (Wild 2005). By examining chemical mixtures, instead of one chemical ...
Source: EHP Research - December 31, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Brief Communication January 2016 Source Type: research

NIEHS Celebrates 50 Years of Environmental Health Research at the NIH
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and National Toxicology Program, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA About This Article open Citation: Birnbaum LS. 2016. NIEHS celebrates 50 years of environmental health research at the NIH. Environ Health Perspect 124:A5; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1511015 E-mail: birnbaumls@niehs.nih.gov The author declares she has no actual or potential competing financial interests. Final Publication: 1 January 2016 PDF Version (177 KB) On 1 November 2016 the National...
Source: EHP Research - December 31, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Editorial January 2016 Source Type: research

Perspectives on the Children’s Health Collection 2015
1Editor-in-Chief and 2Children’s Health Editor, Environmental Health Perspectives, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA About This Article open Citation: Darney SP, Dimes MM. 2016. Perspectives on the Children’s Health Collection 2015. Environ Health Perspect 124:A1–A2; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1511049 E-mail: sally.darney@nih.gov Final Publication: 1 January 2016 PDF Version (158 KB) EHP’s sixth annual Children’s Health Collection, now onlin...
Source: EHP Research - December 31, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Editorial January 2016 Source Type: research

Renewing the Federal Commitment to Advance Children’s Health: The President’s Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children
1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC USA; 2U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC USA About This Article open Citation: Etzel RA, Howard SN. 2016. Renewing the federal commitment to advance children’s health: the President’s Task Force on Environmental Health Risks and Safety Risks to Children. Environ Health Perspect 124:A3–A4; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1511016 E-mail: etzel.ruth@epa.gov The authors declare they have no actual or potential competing financial interests. Final Publication: 1 January 2016 PDF Version (166 KB) Eighteen years ago President W...
Source: EHP Research - December 31, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Editorial January 2016 Source Type: research

Beyond a One-Time Scandal: Europe’s Ongoing Diesel Pollution Problem
Charles W. Schmidt, MS, an award-winning science writer from Portland, ME, has written for Discover Magazine, Science, and Nature Medicine. Background image: © RooM the Agency/Alamy About This Article open Citation: Schmidt CW. 2016. Beyond a one-time scandal: Europe’s ongoing diesel pollution problem. Environ Health Perspect 124:A19–A22; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.124-A19 Published: 1 January 2016 PDF Version (1.7 MB) More than half the European passenger fleet is diesel-powered. Although the European Union has been progressively tightening vehicle emissions for decades, new diesel cars still pr...
Source: EHP Research - December 31, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured News Spheres of Influence January 2016 Source Type: research

A Scourge Returns: Black Lung in Appalachia
In the early 1970s, coal workers’ pneumoconiosis, or black lung, affected around one-third of long-term underground miners. After new dust regulations took effect, rates of black lung plunged. Today, however, they are once again rising dramatically, and the new generation of black lung patients have disease that progresses far more rapidly than in the past. © Tyler Stableford/Getty A section of lung shows the ravages of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). The disease is characterized by large, dense masses of fibrous tissue that often appear in the upper lungs. The lung itself can appear blac...
Source: EHP Research - December 31, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Featured Focus News January 2016 Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides and Fetal Growth: Pooled Results from Four Longitudinal Birth Cohort Studies
Conclusions: This study confirms previously reported associations of prenatal OP exposure among Black women with decreased infant size at birth, but finds no evidence of smaller birth weight, length, or head circumference among Whites or Hispanics. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found stronger inverse associations of DAPs and birth outcome in infants with the less susceptible PON1192RR genotype. The large pooled dataset facilitated exploration of interactions by race/ethnicity and PON1 genotype, but was limited by differences in study populations. This EHP Advance Publication article has ...
Source: EHP Research - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Children's Health Source Type: research

Effect of Chrysotile Exposure in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells: Insights on the Pathogenic Mechanisms of Asbestos-Related Diseases
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that chrysotile asbestos induces EMT, a common event in asbestos-related diseases, at least in part by eliciting the TGF-β-mediated Akt/GSK-3β/SNAIL-1 pathway. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This document will be replaced with the copyedited and formatted version as soon as it is available. Through the DOI number used in the citation, you will be able to access this document at eac...
Source: EHP Research - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Assessing the Health Impact of Water Quality Interventions in Low-Income Settings: Concerns Associated with Blinded Trials and the Need for Objective Outcomes
Conclusions: Unless researchers can be assured that a placebo will not cause a control group to change their behaviour in a manner that increases their risk, it is incumbent on them to use alternatives. Validated objective measures are needed for assessing the health impact of WASH interventions that are reliable, affordable and suitable both for research and program evaluation. This EHP Advance Publication article has been peer-reviewed, revised, and accepted for publication. EHP Advance Publication articles are completely citable using the DOI number assigned to the article. This docume...
Source: EHP Research - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Converging Molecular Mechanisms that Link Different POPs to Common Metabolic Diseases
Conclusions: Our systems biology approach allowed identification of converging pathways leading to activation of common targets downstream. To our knowledge, this is the first study to propose an integrated global set of step-by-step molecular mechanisms for a combination of 3 common POPs, using a systems biology approach, which may link POPs exposure to diseases. Experimental evaluation of the proposed pathways may lead to development of predictive biomarkers of POPs’ effects, which could translate into disease prevention and more effective clinical treatment strategies. This...
Source: EHP Research - December 18, 2015 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Web Admin Tags: Research Article Source Type: research