Monkeypox Rash Severity and Animal Exposures in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
This study provides a preliminary step in understanding the association between animal exposure and rash severity and demonstrates correlation with exposure to NHPs and human MPX presentation. Additional research exploring the relationship between rash severity and NHPs is warranted. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pig Exposure and Health Outcomes in Hospitalized Infectious Disease Patients in Vietnam
AbstractMany infectious diseases have a zoonotic origin, and several have had major public health implications. Contact with animals is a known risk factor for zoonotic infections, although there are limited data on disease symptoms and pathogens associated with contact with different animal species. The rise in pig production in Southeast Asia has contributed to the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic infections caused by contact with pigs and pig products. To compare the symptom and pathogen profiles of hospitalized patients with and without pig contact, we collected data on disease symptoms, infecting pathogens, and ...
Source: EcoHealth - December 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In This Issue
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Land Use Change Special Feature Guest Editors
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Humans and Black Rhinoceroses in Kenya
AbstractUpsurge of antibiotic resistance in wildlife poses unprecedented threat to wildlife conservation. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance at the human –wildlife interface is therefore needed. We evaluated differences in antibiotic resistance ofEscherichia coli isolates from human and the endangered black rhinoceros in Lambwe Valley, Kenya. We used standard microbiological techniques to carry out susceptibility assays using eight antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Standard PCR method was used to characterize antibiotic resistance genes. There was no difference in resistance betweenE. coli isolate...
Source: EcoHealth - December 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Coronaviruses Detected in Bats in Close Contact with Humans in Rwanda
AbstractBats living in close contact with people in Rwanda were tested for evidence of infection with viruses of zoonotic potential. Mucosal swabs from 503 bats representing 17 species were sampled from 2010 to 2014 and screened by consensus PCR for 11 viral families. Samples were negative for all viral families except coronaviruses, which were detected in 27 bats belonging to eight species. Known coronaviruses detected included the betacorona viruses: Kenya bat coronaviruses, Eidolon bat coronavirus, and Bat coronavirus HKU9, as well as an alphacoronavirus, Chaerephon Bat coronavirus. Novel coronaviruses included two beta...
Source: EcoHealth - December 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Editorial: Can the Health Implications of Land-use Change Drive Sustainability?
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Water Security in the Gal ápagos: Socioecological Determinants and Health Implications
AbstractWater security is strongly associated with important health outcomes and has many socioecological determinants. Several studies have documented the social determinants of water security and impacts of water security on health, independently. Yet few have examined both components in one setting. Using data from Ecuador ’s nationally representative health survey (ENSANUT-ECU), we proposed a new methodological framework for assessing water security in the Galápagos and assessed the relationship between socioecological indicators and water security among 2701 individuals in 693 households. We then tested t...
Source: EcoHealth - December 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

What ’s New
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Hantavirus Transmission in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus
AbstractThe cricetid rodentOligoryzomys longicaudatus is the species host of Andes virus (ANDV) which causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina and Chile. Population density, behavioral interactions, and spacing patterns are factors that affect viral transmission among wild rodents. We predict that the highest prevalence of hantavirus antibody positive would be found among wounded, reproductive males and that, at high population densities, wounded, reproductive males would be dispersers rather than resident individuals. The study was conducted seasonally from October (spring) 2011 to October (spring) 2013 ...
Source: EcoHealth - December 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Human Activities Attract Harmful Mosquitoes in a Tropical Urban Landscape
This study examined the effects of land use types in urban, peri-urban and natural landscapes on mosquito community structure to test whether the urban landscape is implicated in increased prevalence of potentially harmful mosquitoes. Three land use types (park, farm, and forest nested in urban, peri-urban and natural landscapes, respectively) in Klang Valley, Malaysia, were surveyed for mosquito larval habitat, mosquito abundance and diversity. We found that the nature of human activities in land use types can increase artificial larval habitats, supporting container-breeding vector specialists such asAedes albopictus, a ...
Source: EcoHealth - November 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zoonotic Pathogen Seroprevalence in Cattle in a Wildlife –Livestock Interface, Kenya
AbstractA cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence ofBrucella spp. andLeptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife –livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock–wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock–wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife–livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies ...
Source: EcoHealth - November 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Occupational Animal Contact in Southern and Central Vietnam
AbstractDespite the global zoonotic disease burden, the underlying exposures that drive zoonotic disease emergence are not understood. Here, we aimed to assess exposures to potential sources of zoonotic disease and investigate the demographics, attitudes, and behavior of individuals with sustained occupational animal contact in Vietnam. We recruited 581 animal workers (animal-raising farmers, slaughterers, animal health workers, and rat traders) and their families in southern and central Vietnam into a cohort. Cohort members were followed for 3  years and interviewed annually regarding (1) demography and attitudes reg...
Source: EcoHealth - November 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mercury in Populations of River Dolphins of the Amazon and Orinoco Basins
This study reports the presence of mercury in river dolphins ’ generaInia andSotalia. Mercury concentrations were analysed in muscle tissue samples collected from 46 individuals at the Arauca and Orinoco Rivers (Colombia), the Amazon River (Colombia), a tributary of the Itenez River (Bolivia) and from the Tapajos River (Brazil). Ranges of total mercury (Hg) concentration in muscle tissue of the four different taxa sampled were:I. geoffrensis humboldtiana 0.003 –3.99 mg kg−1 ww (n = 21,Me = 0.4),I. g. geoffrensis 0.1 –2.6 mg kg−1 ww (n&t...
Source: EcoHealth - November 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Correction to: A Case –Control Study of Environmental and Occupational Risks of Leptospirosis in Sri Lanka
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in one of the co-author ’s family name. The correct name should be Janith Warnasekara instead of Janith Warnasuriya. The original article has been corrected. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In This Issue
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Incorporating Health Outcomes into Land-Use Planning
AbstractThe global trend toward increased agricultural production puts pressure on undeveloped areas, raising the question of how to optimally allocate land. Land-use change has recently been linked to a number of human health outcomes, but these are not routinely considered in land-use decision making. We review examples of planners ’ currently used strategies to evaluate land use and present a conceptual model of optimal land use that incorporates health outcomes. We then present a framework for evaluating the health outcomes of land-use scenarios that can be used by decision makers in an integrated approach to lan...
Source: EcoHealth - November 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

What ’s New
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Detection of Leptospira spp. in Captive Broad-Snouted Caiman ( Caiman latirostris)
This study aimed to investigate the presence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and leptospiral DNA in captiveCaiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman). Of the 23 reptiles studied by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 22/23 (95.65%) were considered reactive (titers  ≥ 100) and 1/23 (4.35%) non-reactive (titer 
Source: EcoHealth - November 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Insights into the Host Specificity of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Infecting Wild Mammals
Abstract Mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs) are of public and animal health concern because they cause millions of human deaths annually and impact domestic animals and wildlife globally. MBFVs are phylogenetically divided into two clades, one is transmitted byAedes mosquitoes (Ae-MBFVs) associated with mammals and the other byCulex mosquitoes (Cx-MBFVs) associated with birds. However, this assumption has not been evaluated. Here, we synthesized 79 published reports of MBFVs from wild mammals, estimating their host. Then, we tested whether the host specificity was biased to sampling and investigation efforts or to phylo...
Source: EcoHealth - October 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A Case –Control Study of Environmental and Occupational Risks of Leptospirosis in Sri Lanka
AbstractSri Lanka has one of the highest incidences of human leptospirosis worldwide. Outbreaks of this zoonotic infection are related to the monsoons and flooding. The study investigates risk factors associated with environmental, animal and occupational exposure while acknowledging the potential bias due to hanta viral infections in the study samples. Data were obtained from structured interviews with 483 patients (276 cases and 207 controls). Risk exposures were studied for the entire population and for two stratified occupational groups: non-paddy workers and paddy workers. A higher odds ratio (OR) of leptospirosis tra...
Source: EcoHealth - October 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Population-Level Resistance to Chytridiomycosis is Life-Stage Dependent in an Imperiled Anuran
AbstractAmphibian declines caused by chytridiomycosis have been severe, but some susceptible populations have persisted or even recovered. Resistance to the causal agentBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) could result from alleles of the adaptive immune system. During metamorphosis, however, immune systems may not be fully functional, implying that an effective immune response toBd may be life-stage dependent. We evaluated the susceptibility of the relict leopard frog (Rana onca) sourced from two areas whereBd was present or absent, and where the populations appeared to show differences in pathogen resistance. We evaluated...
Source: EcoHealth - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Exotic Pinus radiata Plantations do not Increase Andes Hantavirus Prevalence in Rodents
In this study, we analyzed the influence of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations, an important monoculture in the global forest industry, on small mammal assemblage and on ANDV seroprevalence and abundance of seropositive rodents from central Chile. Small mammals were sampled seasonally during 2  years in native forests, adult pine plantations and young pine plantations. A total of 1630 samples from seven rodent species were analyzed for antibody detection. ANDV seroprevalence and abundance of seropositive rodents were significantly higher in the native forest compared to pine plantations. Furthermore, Monterey p...
Source: EcoHealth - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Global Emergence of Buruli Ulcer
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - October 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Laryngeal Demasculinization in Wild Cane Toads Varies with Land Use
AbstractAnthropogenic factors, including the spread of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, have been linked to alterations in the reproductive physiology, morphology, and behavior of wildlife. Few studies of endocrine disruption, however, focus on secondary sexual traits that affect mating signals, despite their importance for reproductive success. The larynx of many anurans (frogs and toads), for example, is larger in males than in females and is crucial for producing mating calls. We aim to determine if wild populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) near sugarcane fields in Florida have demasculinized larynges when compare...
Source: EcoHealth - October 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evidence that Passerine Birds Act as Amplifying Hosts for Usutu Virus Circulation
AbstractEnvironment determines the distribution and prevalence of vector-borne pathogens due to its direct and indirect effects on the hosts, vectors, and pathogens. To investigate the relationship between Usutu virus occurrence and host biodiversity and to characterize the nidus of infection, we used field-based measures of host diversity and density (all birds and only passerines), vector abundance, landscape and Usutu virus prevalence (mosquito infection rate), an emergent disease with a similar cycle to West Nile virus. We collected 908,237 female mosquitoes in an area of 54,984  ha in the Doñana National P...
Source: EcoHealth - October 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zoonotic Trypanosomes in Rats and Fleas of Venezuelan Slums
In this study, we report trypanosome-infectedRattus norvegicus andRattus rattus in human dwellings in slums neighboring Maracay, a large city near Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. Blood samples ofR. norvegicus andR. rattus examined by PCR and FFLB (fluorescent fragment length barcoding) revealed a prevalence of 6.3% / 31.1% forTrypanosoma lewisi (agent of rat- and flea-borne human emergent zoonosis), and 10.5% / 24.6% forTrypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease). Detection in flea guts ofT. lewisi (76%) and, unexpectedly,T. cruzi (21.3%) highlighted the role of fleas as carriers and vectors of these trypanosomes. A hig...
Source: EcoHealth - October 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance and Ecology: A Dialog Yet to Begin
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - September 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A Transdisciplinary Approach to   Brucella  in Muskoxen of the Western Canadian Arctic 1989–2016
This study enhances the available knowledge onBrucella exposure and infection in muskoxen and provides an example of how scientific knowledge and local knowledge can work together to better understand disease status in wildlife. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Giardia Infection and Trypanosoma Cruzi Exposure in Dogs in the Bosaw ás Biosphere Reserve, Nicaragua
AbstractIndigenous Mayangna and Miskitu inhabit Nicaragua ’s remote Bosawás Biosphere Reserve, located in the North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region. They are sedentary horticulturists who supplement their diet with wild game, hunting with the assistance of dogs. To test whether hunting dogs increased the risk of human exposure to protozoal zoonotic ne glected tropical diseases (NTDs), we sampled dogs from three communities varying in population size and level of contact with other communities. We screened dog feces (n  =  58) forGiardia andCryptosporidium DNA and sera (n  =  78) f...
Source: EcoHealth - August 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Temporal and Spatial Dynamics of Monkeypox in Democratic Republic of Congo, 2000 –2015
AbstractMonkeypox is a viral disease with a clinical presentation resembling that of smallpox. Although monkeypox is considered to be an important zoonotic viral disease, its epidemiology remains poorly understood, especially the spatial and temporal distribution of the disease. The present study examined weekly reports of monkeypox cases collected from 2000 to 2015 at the health zone scale in the Democratic Republic of Congo. SaTScan® was performed to identify spatial and temporal clusters of monkeypox cases. Significant primary spatial clusters were detected in the districts of Sankuru and Tshuapa. A centrifugal patt...
Source: EcoHealth - August 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Costs and Benefits of Delaying Remediation on Ecological Resources at Contaminated Sites
AbstractThe USA and other nations have massive industrial, radiologic, and chemical legacy wastes on numerous sites, for example from the Cold War and industrial activities. Most of these sites will require remediation (cleanup of contaminants). Prioritization is essential to determine the order of cleanup, leaving some tasks for a later time. This paper examines the potential costs and benefits of delaying remediation on ecological resources on contaminated sites. Aspects to consider include those related to management and planning, source term and pathways, risks and resources, and external drivers (regulations and laws,...
Source: EcoHealth - August 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Carnivore Protoparvovirus 1 at the Wild –Domestic Carnivore Interface in Northwestern Mexico
AbstractEighty-three wild and domestic carnivores of nine species from Janos Biosphere Reserve (JBR), Mexico, were tested by serologic and molecular assays to determine exposure and infection rates of carnivore protoparvovirus 1. Overall, 50.8% (33/65) of the wild carnivores and 100% (18/18) of the domestic dogs tested were seropositive for Canine protoparvovirus 1 (CPV), while 23% (15/65) of the wild carnivores and 22.2% (4/18) of the domestic dogs were PCR positive for CPV. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed circulation of CVP-2 with residues 426 Asn (CPV2a  = 1/19) and 426 Glu (CPV-2c = 18/19) a...
Source: EcoHealth - August 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In This Issue
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 26, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Suburbanization Increases Echinostome Infection in Green Frogs and Snails
We examined how suburbanization affects the infection of green frog (Rana clamitans) tadpoles and metamorphs by parasitic flatworms (Echinostoma spp.) through the alteration of landscapes surrounding ponds and concomitant changes in water quality. Using sixteen small ponds along a forest-suburban land use gradient, we assessed how the extent of suburban land use surrounding ponds influenced echinostome infection in both primary snail and secondary frog hosts. Our results show that the degree of suburbanization and concurrent chemical loading are positively associated with the presence and burden of echinostome infection in...
Source: EcoHealth - July 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Risk in Entre R íos, Argentina
AbstractHantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe emerging endemic disease of the Americas. Because hantavirus reservoirs are sylvatic rodents, HPS risk has been associated with occupational and recreational activities in natural and rural environments. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk of HPS in an endemic province of Argentina. For this, we explored the relationship between HPS cases occurring in Entre R íos province between 2004 and 2015 and climate, vegetation, landscape, reservoir population, and rodent community characteristics by means of generalized linear models. We modeled HPS occurrence ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pathogen Dynamics in an Invasive Frog Compared to Native Species
AbstractEmerging infectious diseases threaten the survival of wildlife populations and species around the world. In particular, amphibians are experiencing population declines and species extinctions primarily in response to two pathogens, the fungusBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and the iridovirusRanavirus (Rv). Here, we use field surveys and quantitative (q)PCR to compare infection intensity and prevalence ofBd andRv across species and seasons on Jekyll Island, a barrier island off the coast of Georgia, USA. We collected oral and skin swabs for 1  year from four anuran species and three families, including two ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

So Sing the Redwoods of San Servolo
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

EcoHealth Action Over Lifetimes: Unity of Spirit, Voice, and Deeds
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 22, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Epidermal Lesions and Injuries of Coastal Dolphins as Indicators of Ecological Health
AbstractHumpback dolphins (genusSousa), obligatory inshore delphinids, are frequently exposed to adverse effects of many human activities. In Hong Kong, one of the world ’s most urbanised coastal regions, ~ 50% of the dolphins suffer from at least one type of epidermal lesions, likely related to anthropogenically degraded habitat. Furthermore, one in every ten dolphins has physical injuries indicative of vessel collisions, propeller cuts and fishing-gear entangl ements. As top predators with long lifespan, dolphins are good “barometers” of marine environment and their compromised health conditions ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 22, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Population Dynamics of Bank Voles Predicts Human Puumala Hantavirus Risk
AbstractPredicting risk of zoonotic diseases, i.e., diseases shared by humans and animals, is often complicated by the population ecology of wildlife host(s). We here demonstrate how ecological knowledge of a disease system can be used for early prediction of human risk using Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in bank voles (Myodes glareolus), which causesNephropathia epidemica (NE) in humans, as a model system. Bank vole populations at northern latitudes exhibit multiannual fluctuations in density and spatial distribution, a phenomenon that has been studied extensively. Nevertheless, existing studies predict NE incidence only a fe...
Source: EcoHealth - July 15, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in Awash River Basin, Ethiopia
In this study, the occurrence of three groups of antimicrobials including tetracycline, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolone, and their corresponding ARGs were investigated in the sediments of Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. Out of twelve studied compounds, sulfadiazine and enrofloxacin showed the highest and lowest detection frequency, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed thattetA andtetB occurred in all the samples. The relative abundance of the resistant genes was in the following order:tetA  >  tetB  >  sul2  >  sul1. Redundancy analysis result indi...
Source: EcoHealth - July 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Residues in Chicken and Fish, Chittagong, Bangladesh
AbstractA cross-sectional observation and an intervention study were conducted in Chittagong, Bangladesh in 2015 to assess the status of antimicrobial residues in chicken and fish. The samples were tested for selected antimicrobials (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin) using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC-based overall prevalence of residues was 87.9% in chicken (N = 182) and 56.9% in fish (N = 153). The prevalences in chicken in June (N = 91) and in October (N = 91), respectively, were 91.2% and 83.5% (amoxicillin), 1.1% and 1.1% (...
Source: EcoHealth - July 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Survey of Aujeszky ’s Disease Virus in Hunting Dogs from Spain
AbstractDirect contact with swine infected by Aujeszky ’s disease virus (ADV) represents a potential risk of transmission to carnivore species, in which the infection is normally fatal. We assessed exposure to ADV in hunting dogs in an area where the virus is highly endemic in wild boar populations. Two out of 466 (0.43%; 95% CI 0.00–1.02%) hunting dogs analyzed were positive by gE-bELISA, gB-bELISA and the virus neutralization test. The seroprevalence levels detected, as well as the absence of reports of clinical cases in the hunting dog groups tested, indicate limited contact of this species with ADV in the s...
Source: EcoHealth - July 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

What ’s New
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Critical Importance of a One Health Approach to Antimicrobial Resistance
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - June 28, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Correction to: The One Health Approach to Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Control, and Prevention Strategies
This article was originally published electronically on the publisher ’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on April 3, 2019 without open access. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - June 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

First Report of a Novel Hepatozoon sp. in Giant Pandas ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca )
AbstractThe first report of giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) infected with a novelHepatozoon species is presented. An intraleukocytic parasite was detected via routine blood smear from a zoo-housed giant panda at the National Zoological Park. Ribosomal DNA sequences indicated a previously undescribedHepatozoon species. Phylogenetic and distance analyses of the sequences placed it within its own branch, clustered with Old World species with carnivore (primarily ursid and mustelid) hosts. Retrospective and opportunistic testing of other individuals produced additional positive detections (17/23, 73.9%), demonstrating 10...
Source: EcoHealth - May 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A Review of Zoonotic Pathogens of Dromedary Camels
AbstractDromedary, or one-humped, camelsCamelus dromedarius are an almost exclusively domesticated species that are common in arid areas as both beasts of burden and production animals for meat and milk. Currently, there are approximately 30 million dromedary camels, with highest numbers in Africa and the Middle East. The hardiness of camels in arid regions has made humans more dependent on them, especially as a stable protein source. Camels also carry and may transmit disease-causing agents to humans and other animals. The ability for camels to act as a point source or vector for disease is a concern due to increasing hum...
Source: EcoHealth - May 28, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Quantifying Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans Viability
AbstractThe disease chytridiomycosis is responsible for global amphibian declines. Chytridiomycosis is caused byBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) andB. salamandrivorans (Bsal), fungal pathogens with stationary and transmissible life stages. Establishing methods that quantify growth and survival of both life stages can facilitate research on the pathophysiology and disease ecology of these pathogens. We tested the efficacy of the MTT assay, a colorimetric test of cell viability, and found it to be a reliable method for quantifying the viability ofBd andBsal stationary life stages. This method can provide insights into the...
Source: EcoHealth - May 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research