Caver Knowledge and Biosecurity Attitudes Towards White-Nose Syndrome and Implications for Global Spread
AbstractWhite-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungusPseudogymnoascus destructans, has caused catastrophic declines of bat populations in North America. Risk assessment indicates that cavers could pose a risk for the spread of the fungus, however, information on cavers ’ knowledge of WNS and their caving and biosecurity habits is lacking. An anonymous qualitative survey was completed by delegates (n = 134) from 23 countries at an international speleological conference in Sydney, Australia. Cavers indicated that they visit caves frequently (80.6% at least bimonthly), including outside of their own coun...
Source: EcoHealth - January 23, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Dispersal and Land Cover Contribute to Pseudorabies Virus Exposure in Invasive Wild Pigs
AbstractWe investigated the landscape epidemiology of a globally distributed mammal, the wild pig (Sus scrofa), in Florida (U.S.), where it is considered an invasive species and reservoir to pathogens that impact the health of people, domestic animals, and wildlife. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that two commonly cited factors in disease transmission, connectivity among populations and abundant resources, would increase the likelihood of exposure to both pseudorabies virus (PrV) andBrucella spp. (bacterial agent of brucellosis) in wild pigs across the Kissimmee Valley of Florida. Using DNA from 348 wild pigs and s...
Source: EcoHealth - January 14, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Social Network Predicts Exposure to Respiratory Infection in a Wild Chimpanzee Group
AbstractRespiratory pathogens are expected to spread through social contacts, but outbreaks often occur quickly and unpredictably, making it challenging to simultaneously record social contact and disease incidence data, especially in wildlife. Thus, the role of social contacts in the spread of infectious disease is often treated as an assumption in disease simulation studies, and few studies have empirically demonstrated how pathogens spread through social networks. In July –August 2015, an outbreak of respiratory disease was observed in a wild chimpanzee community in Kibale National Park, Uganda, during an ongoing ...
Source: EcoHealth - January 6, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Mapping the Illegal International Ivory Trading Network to Identify Key Hubs and Smuggling Routes
This study aims to examine the global illegal ivory trades, identify key hub countries and map the key smuggling routes in the worldwide illegal ivory trading network. A social network analysis (SNA) and a set of network indicators are used to investigate CITES ’s (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) ivory trading data from 1975 to 2017. Several important conclusions are derived: (1) The social network of global ivory trading is closely connected, with an average path length of 2.643 and an average clustering coefficient of 0.463. An average of 45,410.384 kg of ivory ...
Source: EcoHealth - January 2, 2021 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus Detected in Mountain Gorilla Respiratory Outbreaks
AbstractRespiratory illness (RI) accounts for a large proportion of mortalities in mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), and fatal outbreaks, including disease caused by human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections, have heightened concern about the risk of human pathogen transmission to this endangered species, which is not only critically important to the biodiversity of its ecosystem but also to the economies of the surrounding human communities. Our goal was to conduct a molecular epidemiologic study to detect the presence of HRSV and HMPV in fecal samples from wild human-habituated free-ranging mountain gorillas i...
Source: EcoHealth - December 20, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Foodborne Zoonoses Common in Hunted Wild Boars
In this study, we investigated the presence of important foodborne pathogens in wild boars hunted in 2016 in Finland using serology, PCR and culturing. Seroprevalence ofSalmonella (38%) andYersinia (56%) infections was high in wild boars. Antibodies to hepatitis E virus,Toxoplasma gondii andBrucella were found in 18%, 9% and 9% of the wild boars, respectively.Trichinella antibodies were detected in 1% of the animals. We recorded no differences in the seroprevalence between males and females. However,Yersinia andT. gondii antibodies were detected significantly more often in adults than in young individuals.Listeria monocyto...
Source: EcoHealth - December 16, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Differences in Fungal Disease Dynamics in Co-occurring Terrestrial and Aquatic Amphibians
AbstractThe fungal pathogen,Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has devastated biodiversity and ecosystem health and is implicated as a driver of mass amphibian extinctions. This 100-year study investigates which environmental factors contribute toBd prevalence in a fully terrestrial species, and determines whether infection patterns differ between a fully terrestrial amphibian and more aquatic host species. We performed a historical survey to quantifyBd prevalence in 1127Batrachoseps gregarius museum specimens collected from 1920 to 2000, and recent data from 16 contemporary (live-caught)B. gregarius populations from the...
Source: EcoHealth - November 25, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Molecular Detection of Human Adenovirus and Rotavirus in Feces of White-Eared Opossums
AbstractThe white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris) is the largest Brazilian marsupial and a great example of animal synanthropy. Considering the high potential as a carrier of viruses originating from environmental contamination, the presence ofHuman adenovirus (AdV) and rotavirus was investigated in the feces of rescued white-eared opossums, which were in the process of rehabilitation. The feces of 49 animals were initially investigated by immunochromatography, with three samples positive for AdV and one sample positive for rotavirus. When submitted to PCR andnested PCR, the samples of six animals were positive for ...
Source: EcoHealth - November 24, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
No Evidence of Coronaviruses or Other Potentially Zoonotic Viruses in Sunda pangolins ( Manis javanica ) Entering the Wildlife Trade via Malaysia
AbstractThe legal and illegal trade in wildlife for food, medicine and other products is a globally significant threat to biodiversity that is also responsible for the emergence of pathogens that threaten human and livestock health and our global economy. Trade in wildlife likely played a role in the origin of COVID-19, and viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been identified in bats and pangolins, both traded widely. To investigate the possible role of pangolins as a source of potential zoonoses, we collected throat and rectal swabs from 334 Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) confiscated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sab...
Source: EcoHealth - November 23, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Cultural Values and the Coliform Bacterial Load of “ Masato ,” an Amazon Indigenous Beverage
AbstractAccess to safe drinking water is limited in many isolated areas, such as the Amazon where Indigenous peoples frequently reside. Identifying safe forms of drinking water accepted by the communities could have positive health benefits for Indigenous peoples. Many Amazon Indigenous peoples traditionally prepare and consume a fermented beverage calledmasato, which is frequently the only form of water consumption. Despite its widespread consumption and evidence of the health benefits of fermentation,masato remains poorly investigated. We partnered with a Shawi Indigenous community in the Peruvian Amazon to conduct parti...
Source: EcoHealth - November 20, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Vulnerabilities for Exposure to Emerging Infectious Disease at Urban Settlements in Nepal
This study conducted surveillance for viruses in small mammals and assessed potential risks for virus transmission to people in urban settlements along rivers in Kathmandu, Nepal. We collected samples from 411 small mammals (100 rodents and 311 shrews) at four riverside settlement sites and detected six viruses from four virus families including Thottapalayam virus; a strain of murine coronavirus; two new paramyxoviruses; and two new rhabdoviruses. Additionally, we conducted surveys of 264 residents to characterize animal –human contact. Forty-eight percent of individuals reported contact with wildlife, primarily wit...
Source: EcoHealth - November 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Tracking Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Infection Across the Globe
AbstractInfection records ofBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that has devastated amphibian populations worldwide, have rapidly increased since the pathogen ’s discovery. Dealing with so many records makes it difficult to (a) know where, when and in which species infections have been detected, (b) understand how widespread and pervasiveBd is and (c) prioritize study and management areas. We conducted a systematic review of papers and compiled a database withBd infection records. Our dataset covers 71 amphibian families and 119 countries. The data revealed how widespread and adaptableBd is, being able to...
Source: EcoHealth - November 17, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Vector-Borne Pathogens in Ectoparasites Collected from High-Elevation Pika Populations
AbstractThe American pika,Ochotona princeps, is projected to decline throughout North America as climate change reduces its range, and pikas have already disappeared from several locations. In addition to climate, disease spillover from lower elevation mammalian species might affect pikas. We sampled pika fleas in Colorado and Montana across elevations ranging from 2896 to 3612 m and screened them for the presence of DNA from rodent-associated bacterial pathogens (Bartonella species andYersinia pestis) to test the hypothesis that flea exchange between pikas and rodents may lead to occurrence of rodent-associated path...
Source: EcoHealth - November 16, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Human Interactions with Bat Populations in Bombali, Sierra Leone
This study explores two sites in Bombali, Sierra Leone, where human populations have had close contact with microchiropteran bats via household infestations and fruit bats by hunting practices. Through interviews and focus groups, we identify the knowledge, beliefs, perceptions, and behaviors that may potentially protect or expose individuals to zoonotic spillover through direct and indirect contact with bats. We also describe how this research was used to develop a risk reduction and outreach tool for living safely with bats. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 11, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Urban Aerobiomes are Influenced by Season, Vegetation, and Individual Site Characteristics
AbstractExposure to biodiverse environments such as forests can benefit human well-being, and evidence suggests exposure to high microbial diversity may improve mental and immune health. However, the factors that drive microbial community assembly are poorly understood, as is the relationship between exposure to these communities and human health. We characterized airborne bacterial communities in two disparate types of urban greenspace (forest and grass) in late-spring 2017 at sites previously sampled in late-summer 2015 in Eugene-Springfield, Oregon, using high-throughput metabarcode sequencing. While all sites shared a ...
Source: EcoHealth - November 10, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
The Ecology of Protective Behaviors: A Study in New Risk Areas for Mosquito-Borne Diseases
In conclusion, French Mediterranean residents are increasingly knowledgeable about MBDs and the proximity of tiger mosquitoes. However, self-protection was predominantly related to the frequency of mosquito bites and higher perceived vulnerability. These results suggest that Self-protective Behaviors are being shaped more in new risk areas by environmental cues to which people are exposed than by other common personal determinants of health behaviors. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 5, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Environmental Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Unhealthy Tapirs in the Southern Yucatan Peninsula
This study hints at the negative effect that land-use change to agriculture occurring in Calakmul might have on tapir health, with 95.45% of unhealthy tapirs recorded in such landscapes. Further studies should investigate the proximate determinants of tapir health in anthropogenic landscapes, which might be linked to stress or to contact with domestic animals . (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 1, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Telomere Length is a Susceptibility Marker for Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease
AbstractTelomeres protect chromosomes from degradation during cellular replication. In humans, it is well-documented that excessive telomere degradation is one mechanism by which cells can become cancerous. Increasing evidence from wildlife studies suggests that telomere length is positively correlated with survival and health and negatively correlated with disease infection intensity. The recently emerged devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) has led to dramatic and rapid population declines of the Tasmanian devil throughout its geographic range. Here, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to DFTD is negatively correla...
Source: EcoHealth - October 30, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
COVID-19, the Anthropocene, and the Imperative of US –China Cooperation
Source: EcoHealth - October 28, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Serosurvey on Sheep Unravel Circulation of Rift Valley Fever Virus in Nigeria
AbstractRift Valley fever is an arboviral zoonoses causing severe morbidity and mortality among humans and animals in many African countries. A cross-sectional study in populations of sheep reared around the Gidan-Waya Forest Reserve located in Jema ’a LGA of Kaduna State, Nigeria to determine the serological evidence of exposure to Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) using a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of the 200 sheep sampled, 9 (4.5%; 95 CI 2.23–8.33) were positive for antibodies to the RVFV. The detection of ant ibodies suggests a covert circulation among the sheep and may be indica...
Source: EcoHealth - October 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Is Yersinia bercovieri Surpassing Yersinia enterocolitica in Wild Boars ( Sus scrofa )?
AbstractYersiniosis was the fourth reported zoonosis in the European Union in 2018. As well-known, pigs are recognized important reservoirs ofYersinia enterocolitica. The study was focused onY. enterocolitica detection in mesenteric lymph nodes and faeces of 305 wild boars, butYersinia bercovieri was more common, being isolated from 108 animals (35.4%). Cold season (p = 1.17 × 10–5) and young age (p = 0.004) significantly increasedY. bercovieri detection.Y. enterocolitica 1A belonging to six serotypes (O:4.32 –4.33; O:5; O:6.30–6.31; O:7.8–8–8.19...
Source: EcoHealth - October 15, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Integrating the Technical, Risk Management and Economic Implications of Animal Disease Control to Advise Policy Change: The Example of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control in Uruguay
Source: EcoHealth - October 14, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Rotavirus A in Fruit Bats in Bangladesh
AbstractRotavirus A (RVA) is the primary cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea in human and numerous animal species. Animal-to-human interspecies transmission is one of the evolutionary mechanisms driving rotavirus strain diversity in humans. We screened fresh feces from 416 bats (201Pteropus medius, 165Rousettus leschenaultii and 50Taphozous melanopogon) for RVA using rRT-PCR. We detected a prevalence of 7% (95% CI 3.5 –10.8) and 2% (95% CI 0.4–5.2) inP. medius andR. leschenaultii, respectively. We did not detect RVA in the insectivorous bat (T. melanopogon). We identified RVA strains similar to the human strain...
Source: EcoHealth - September 1, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Impact of Annual Bacterial Epizootics on Albatross Population on a Remote Island
AbstractThe reduced species richness typical of oceanic islands provides an interesting environmental setup to examinein natura the epidemiological dynamics of infectious agents with potential implications for public health and/or conservation. On Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean), recurrent die-offs of Indian yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche carteri) nestlings have been attributed to avian cholera, caused by the bacteriumPasteurella multocida. In order to help implementing efficient measures for the control of this disease, it is critical to better understand the local epidemiology ofP. multocida and to examine its inte...
Source: EcoHealth - July 22, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Synergistic Effects of Grassland Fragmentation and Temperature on Bovine Rabies Emergence
AbstractIn 2007, common vampire bats were the source of the first outbreak of paralytic bovine rabies in Uruguay. The outbreak coincided in space and time with the fragmentation of native grasslands for monospecific forestry for wood and cellulose production. Using spatial analyses, we show that the increase in grassland fragmentation, together with the minimum temperature in the winter, accounts for the spatial pattern of outbreaks in the country. We propose that fragmentation may increase the connectivity of vampire bat colonies by promoting the sharing of feeding areas, while temperature modulates their home range plast...
Source: EcoHealth - July 21, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Developing a Global One Health Workforce: The “Rx One Health Summer Institute” Approach
AbstractThe One Health approach has gained support across a range of disciplines; however, training opportunities for professionals seeking to operationalize the interdisciplinary approach are limited. Academic institutions, through the development of high-quality, experiential training programs that focus on the application of professional competencies, can increase accessibility to One Health education. TheRx One Health Summer Institute, jointly led by US and East African partners, provides a model for such a program. In 2017, 21 participants representing five countries completed theRx One Health program in East Africa. ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Species Identity and Size are Associated with Rat Lungworm Infection in Gastropods
AbstractAngiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that cycles between definitive rat and intermediate gastropod hosts. Zoonotic infection occurs when humans intentionally or accidentally consume infectious larvae in a gastropod host, and may manifest as neuroangiostrongyliasis, characterized by eosinophilic meningitis, severe neurological impairment, and even death. Thus, the risk ofA. cantonensis zoonoses may be related to the distribution ofA. cantonensis larvae across gastropod hosts. We screened 16 gastropod species from 14 communities on the island of O ‘ahu, Hawai‘i, ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 15, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Earthquake-Ridden Area in USA Contains Coccidioides , the Valley Fever Pathogen
This study is the first to confirm the presence ofCoccidioides in soils near Trona using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. First responders to earthquake events, the public, and physicians in the San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert should be informed about the risk of pathogen exposure during and after the time of an earthquake, since there are many fault lines in addition to the large San Andreas Fault and future earthquakes in this region are expected to occur. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 13, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Genetic Analysis of Chelonid Herpesvirus 5 in Marine Turtles from Baja California Peninsula
In this study, we report for the first time ChHV5 in marine turtles and a leech from Baja California Peninsula. Eighty-seven black, olive or loggerhead turtle species, one FP tumor and five leeches were analyzed. The tumor sample from an olive, a skin sample from a black and a leech resulted positive of ChHV5 for conventional PCR. Two viral variants were identified and grouped within the Eastern Pacific phylogenetic group, suggesting a possible flow of the virus in this region. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 12, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Occupationally Acquired Q Fever in Shepherds and Sheep Milk Cheesemakers
AbstractQ fever is a zoonosis caused byCoxiella burnetii, and transmission to humans is often associated with contact with ovine and caprine livestock. Those exposed to sheep are particularly at high risk of infection. Recent studies show that Q fever is increasing in sheep farms in Portugal raising alerts on spillover to humans. We detected anti-C. burnetii IgG in shepherds and sheep milk cheesemakers (27 [28.1%] in a total of 96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.4 –38.2%) and in controls (21 [8.1%] in a total of 260; 95% CI 5.1–12.1%), pointing to an increased risk ofC. burnetii infection (P = ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 9, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Ecosystem Restoration: A Public Health Intervention
Source: EcoHealth - June 22, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Catastrophic Risk: Waking Up to the Reality of a Pandemic?
AbstractWill a major shock awaken the US citizens to the threat of catastrophic pandemic risk? Using a natural experiment administered both before and after the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak, our evidence suggests “no.” Our results show that prior to the Ebola scare, the US citizens were relatively complacent and placed a low relative priority on public spending to prepare for a pandemic disease outbreak relative to an environmental disaster risk (e.g., Fukushima) or a terrorist attack (e.g., 9/11). After the Ebola scare, the average citizen did not over-react to the risk. This flat reaction was unexpected g...
Source: EcoHealth - April 28, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Gender Roles and One Health Risk Factors at the Human –Livestock–Wildlife Interface, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
This study described the roles and responsibilities of community residents, specifically those that have been identified as critical control points for infectious pathogen exposure, by gender. Male gender-typed tasks inclu ded those associated with livestock and poultry husbandry, hunting and slaughtering wildlife, and rodent control. Female gender-typed tasks included animal-sourced food preparation, domestic cleaning and maintenance, and caregiving to children and ill family members. Given the gender-specific nature of these tasks, potential pathogen exposure and transmission patterns of infectious diseases may be also g...
Source: EcoHealth - April 12, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Correction to: Zoonotic Disease Exposure Risk and Rabies Vaccination Among Wildlife Professionals
The original version of the article unfortunately contained a typo error in second author name in the author group. The author name was incorrectly published as “Jesse Grewal” and the correct name is “Jessie Grewal”. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - March 18, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Serological Survey on Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Wild Boars Hunted in Tuscany
AbstractWild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the large mammals most spread worldwide, including Italy. This animal is highly adaptable, and its population has rapidly increased in many areas in Europe. Central Italy, as well as Tuscany region, is an area particularly suitable for wild boar. In order to verify the role of this animal species in the epidemiology of some important infectious diseases for livestock and humans, a seroepidemiological survey onBrucella spp.,Leptospira spp.,Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pseudorabies virus (PrV), and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been performed on 374 sera collected from wild boar during 201...
Source: EcoHealth - February 6, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Ecological Fallacy and Aggregated Data: A Case Study of Fried Chicken Restaurants, Obesity and Lyme Disease
AbstractInterdisciplinary approaches are merited when attempting to understand the complex and idiosyncratic processes driving the spillover of pathogens from wildlife and vector species to human populations. Public health data are often available for zoonotic pathogens but can lead to erroneous conclusions if the data have been spatially or temporally aggregated. As an illustration, we use human Lyme disease incidence data as a case study to examine correlations between mammalian biodiversity, fried chicken restaurants and obesity rates on human disease incidence. We demonstrate that Lyme disease incidence is negatively c...
Source: EcoHealth - February 5, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Eating Bushmeat Improves Food Security in a Biodiversity and Infectious Disease “Hotspot”
In this study, we test the hypothesis that bushmeat improves food security in communities t hat hunt and trade bushmeat regularly. We conducted 478 interviews with men and women in six communities near Cross River National Park in Nigeria. We used interview responses to relate prevalence and diversity of bushmeat consumption to household food security status. Animal-based foods were the mo st commonly obtained items from the forest, and 48 types of wild vertebrate animals were consumed within the past 30 days. Seventy-five percent of households experienced some degree of food insecurity related to food access. Bushmea...
Source: EcoHealth - February 4, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Synergistic China –US Ecological Research is Essential for Global Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness
AbstractThe risk of a zoonotic pandemic disease threatens hundreds of millions of people. Emerging infectious diseases also threaten livestock and wildlife populations around the world and can lead to devastating economic damages. China and the USA —due to their unparalleled resources, widespread engagement in activities driving emerging infectious diseases and national as well as geopolitical imperatives to contribute to global health security—play an essential role in our understanding of pandemic threats. Critical to efforts to mitigate risk is building upon existing investments in global capacity to develop...
Source: EcoHealth - February 2, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Factors Contributing to Anthrax Outbreaks in the Circumpolar North
AbstractA 2016 outbreak of anthrax on the Yamal Peninsula in Siberia that led to the culling of more than two hundred thousand reindeer and killed one human, resulted in significant media interests and in the reporting was often linked to thawing permafrost and ultimately climate change. Here, we review the historic context of anthrax outbreaks in the circumpolar North and explore alternative explanations for the anthrax outbreak in Western Siberia. Further, we propose a convergence model where multiple factors likely contributed to the outbreak of anthrax, including an expanded population and discontinued vaccination. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - January 30, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Zoonotic Disease Exposure Risk and Rabies Vaccination Among Wildlife Professionals
AbstractMore than 70% of zoonotic diseases are wildlife associated putting wildlife professionals at increased risk of occupational exposure. In 2008 and 2018, the Arizona Department of Health Services surveyed Arizona wildlife professionals from multiple agencies to assess the risk of disease exposure, rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) history, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and zoonoses knowledge. In 2008, a 12-question survey was distributed at a state wildlife professional meeting using an anonymous email link. In 2018, a 20-question survey was distributed using an anonymous email link to wildlife agency...
Source: EcoHealth - January 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Seroprevalence of Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. in Invasive Non-native American Mink
AbstractInvasive non-native species can become reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens and cause their spread during colonization, increasing the risk of zoonoses transmission to both wild hosts and humans. American mink (Neovison vison) are considered an important invasive mammal species responsible for carrying endoparasites. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of feral American mink as a possible transmission vector ofEchinococcus spp. andToxocara spp. in wildlife. We analysed the frequency of American mink exposure to both parasites, the spatial distribution in Poland, and the variability over time on the basis of s...
Source: EcoHealth - January 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Hunting Bats for Human Consumption in Bangladesh
AbstractBats are important wildlife to their ecologic system, but they are also a zoonotic disease reservoir. Close bat –human interaction can lead to pathogen spillover. We conducted a qualitative study in two districts of Bangladesh and interviewed 30 bat hunters who hunt bats primarily for consumption, to understand the process and their reasons for hunting bats and their perceptions about bats and bat-borne dis ease. Most hunters catch bats during winter nights, using a net. Bat meat is used for household consumption, and the surplus is sold to cover household expenditures. They prepare the bat meat at home to se...
Source: EcoHealth - January 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Luxury Fashion Wildlife Contraband in the USA
This study examined US luxury fashion-related wildlife seizures made between 2003 and 2013 to better guide detection, enforcement, and policy. The findings of this study indicate that the number of incidents has increased over the 11-year period, while the number of associated items seized has decreased over this time. Of these seizures, nearly 88% were produced goods. A small proportion of genera made up the majority of seizures, with reptiles in particular accounting for 84% of incidents. Over half of all wildlife was wild-caught and was exported from eight countries. Based on these findings, it is suggested that policy ...
Source: EcoHealth - January 26, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Monkeypox Rash Severity and Animal Exposures in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
This study provides a preliminary step in understanding the association between animal exposure and rash severity and demonstrates correlation with exposure to NHPs and human MPX presentation. Additional research exploring the relationship between rash severity and NHPs is warranted. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 23, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
Pig Exposure and Health Outcomes in Hospitalized Infectious Disease Patients in Vietnam
AbstractMany infectious diseases have a zoonotic origin, and several have had major public health implications. Contact with animals is a known risk factor for zoonotic infections, although there are limited data on disease symptoms and pathogens associated with contact with different animal species. The rise in pig production in Southeast Asia has contributed to the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic infections caused by contact with pigs and pig products. To compare the symptom and pathogen profiles of hospitalized patients with and without pig contact, we collected data on disease symptoms, infecting pathogens, and ...
Source: EcoHealth - December 15, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research