Impact of Annual Bacterial Epizootics on Albatross Population on a Remote Island
AbstractThe reduced species richness typical of oceanic islands provides an interesting environmental setup to examinein natura the epidemiological dynamics of infectious agents with potential implications for public health and/or conservation. On Amsterdam Island (Indian Ocean), recurrent die-offs of Indian yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche carteri) nestlings have been attributed to avian cholera, caused by the bacteriumPasteurella multocida. In order to help implementing efficient measures for the control of this disease, it is critical to better understand the local epidemiology ofP. multocida and to examine its inte...
Source: EcoHealth - July 23, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Synergistic Effects of Grassland Fragmentation and Temperature on Bovine Rabies Emergence
AbstractIn 2007, common vampire bats were the source of the first outbreak of paralytic bovine rabies in Uruguay. The outbreak coincided in space and time with the fragmentation of native grasslands for monospecific forestry for wood and cellulose production. Using spatial analyses, we show that the increase in grassland fragmentation, together with the minimum temperature in the winter, accounts for the spatial pattern of outbreaks in the country. We propose that fragmentation may increase the connectivity of vampire bat colonies by promoting the sharing of feeding areas, while temperature modulates their home range plast...
Source: EcoHealth - July 22, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Developing a Global One Health Workforce: The “Rx One Health Summer Institute” Approach
AbstractThe One Health approach has gained support across a range of disciplines; however, training opportunities for professionals seeking to operationalize the interdisciplinary approach are limited. Academic institutions, through the development of high-quality, experiential training programs that focus on the application of professional competencies, can increase accessibility to One Health education. TheRx One Health Summer Institute, jointly led by US and East African partners, provides a model for such a program. In 2017, 21 participants representing five countries completed theRx One Health program in East Africa. ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 19, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Species Identity and Size are Associated with Rat Lungworm Infection in Gastropods
AbstractAngiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that cycles between definitive rat and intermediate gastropod hosts. Zoonotic infection occurs when humans intentionally or accidentally consume infectious larvae in a gastropod host, and may manifest as neuroangiostrongyliasis, characterized by eosinophilic meningitis, severe neurological impairment, and even death. Thus, the risk ofA. cantonensis zoonoses may be related to the distribution ofA. cantonensis larvae across gastropod hosts. We screened 16 gastropod species from 14 communities on the island of O ‘ahu, Hawai‘i, ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 16, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Earthquake-Ridden Area in USA Contains Coccidioides , the Valley Fever Pathogen
This study is the first to confirm the presence ofCoccidioides in soils near Trona using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. First responders to earthquake events, the public, and physicians in the San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert should be informed about the risk of pathogen exposure during and after the time of an earthquake, since there are many fault lines in addition to the large San Andreas Fault and future earthquakes in this region are expected to occur. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 14, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Genetic Analysis of Chelonid Herpesvirus 5 in Marine Turtles from Baja California Peninsula
In this study, we report for the first time ChHV5 in marine turtles and a leech from Baja California Peninsula. Eighty-seven black, olive or loggerhead turtle species, one FP tumor and five leeches were analyzed. The tumor sample from an olive, a skin sample from a black and a leech resulted positive of ChHV5 for conventional PCR. Two viral variants were identified and grouped within the Eastern Pacific phylogenetic group, suggesting a possible flow of the virus in this region. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - July 13, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Occupationally Acquired Q Fever in Shepherds and Sheep Milk Cheesemakers
AbstractQ fever is a zoonosis caused byCoxiella burnetii, and transmission to humans is often associated with contact with ovine and caprine livestock. Those exposed to sheep are particularly at high risk of infection. Recent studies show that Q fever is increasing in sheep farms in Portugal raising alerts on spillover to humans. We detected anti-C. burnetii IgG in shepherds and sheep milk cheesemakers (27 [28.1%] in a total of 96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 19.4 –38.2%) and in controls (21 [8.1%] in a total of 260; 95% CI 5.1–12.1%), pointing to an increased risk ofC. burnetii infection (P  =  ...
Source: EcoHealth - July 10, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ecosystem Restoration: A Public Health Intervention
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - June 23, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Catastrophic Risk: Waking Up to the Reality of a Pandemic?
AbstractWill a major shock awaken the US citizens to the threat of catastrophic pandemic risk? Using a natural experiment administered both before and after the 2014 West African Ebola Outbreak, our evidence suggests “no.” Our results show that prior to the Ebola scare, the US citizens were relatively complacent and placed a low relative priority on public spending to prepare for a pandemic disease outbreak relative to an environmental disaster risk (e.g., Fukushima) or a terrorist attack (e.g., 9/11). After the Ebola scare, the average citizen did not over-react to the risk. This flat reaction was unexpected g...
Source: EcoHealth - April 29, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Gender Roles and One Health Risk Factors at the Human –Livestock–Wildlife Interface, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa
This study described the roles and responsibilities of community residents, specifically those that have been identified as critical control points for infectious pathogen exposure, by gender. Male gender-typed tasks inclu ded those associated with livestock and poultry husbandry, hunting and slaughtering wildlife, and rodent control. Female gender-typed tasks included animal-sourced food preparation, domestic cleaning and maintenance, and caregiving to children and ill family members. Given the gender-specific nature of these tasks, potential pathogen exposure and transmission patterns of infectious diseases may be also g...
Source: EcoHealth - April 13, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In This Issue
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - March 19, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Correction to: Zoonotic Disease Exposure Risk and Rabies Vaccination Among Wildlife Professionals
The original version of the article unfortunately contained a typo error in second author name in the author group. The author name was incorrectly published as “Jesse Grewal” and the correct name is “Jessie Grewal”. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - March 19, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Self-Portrait with the Spanish Flu
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - February 29, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Serological Survey on Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Wild Boars Hunted in Tuscany
AbstractWild boar (Sus scrofa) is one of the large mammals most spread worldwide, including Italy. This animal is highly adaptable, and its population has rapidly increased in many areas in Europe. Central Italy, as well as Tuscany region, is an area particularly suitable for wild boar. In order to verify the role of this animal species in the epidemiology of some important infectious diseases for livestock and humans, a seroepidemiological survey onBrucella spp.,Leptospira spp.,Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pseudorabies virus (PrV), and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been performed on 374 sera collected from wild boar during 201...
Source: EcoHealth - February 7, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Ecological Fallacy and Aggregated Data: A Case Study of Fried Chicken Restaurants, Obesity and Lyme Disease
AbstractInterdisciplinary approaches are merited when attempting to understand the complex and idiosyncratic processes driving the spillover of pathogens from wildlife and vector species to human populations. Public health data are often available for zoonotic pathogens but can lead to erroneous conclusions if the data have been spatially or temporally aggregated. As an illustration, we use human Lyme disease incidence data as a case study to examine correlations between mammalian biodiversity, fried chicken restaurants and obesity rates on human disease incidence. We demonstrate that Lyme disease incidence is negatively c...
Source: EcoHealth - February 6, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Eating Bushmeat Improves Food Security in a Biodiversity and Infectious Disease “Hotspot”
In this study, we test the hypothesis that bushmeat improves food security in communities t hat hunt and trade bushmeat regularly. We conducted 478 interviews with men and women in six communities near Cross River National Park in Nigeria. We used interview responses to relate prevalence and diversity of bushmeat consumption to household food security status. Animal-based foods were the mo st commonly obtained items from the forest, and 48 types of wild vertebrate animals were consumed within the past 30 days. Seventy-five percent of households experienced some degree of food insecurity related to food access. Bushmea...
Source: EcoHealth - February 5, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Synergistic China –US Ecological Research is Essential for Global Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness
AbstractThe risk of a zoonotic pandemic disease threatens hundreds of millions of people. Emerging infectious diseases also threaten livestock and wildlife populations around the world and can lead to devastating economic damages. China and the USA —due to their unparalleled resources, widespread engagement in activities driving emerging infectious diseases and national as well as geopolitical imperatives to contribute to global health security—play an essential role in our understanding of pandemic threats. Critical to efforts to mitigate risk is building upon existing investments in global capacity to develop...
Source: EcoHealth - February 3, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Factors Contributing to Anthrax Outbreaks in the Circumpolar North
AbstractA 2016 outbreak of anthrax on the Yamal Peninsula in Siberia that led to the culling of more than two hundred thousand reindeer and killed one human, resulted in significant media interests and in the reporting was often linked to thawing permafrost and ultimately climate change. Here, we review the historic context of anthrax outbreaks in the circumpolar North and explore alternative explanations for the anthrax outbreak in Western Siberia. Further, we propose a convergence model where multiple factors likely contributed to the outbreak of anthrax, including an expanded population and discontinued vaccination. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - January 31, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zoonotic Disease Exposure Risk and Rabies Vaccination Among Wildlife Professionals
AbstractMore than 70% of zoonotic diseases are wildlife associated putting wildlife professionals at increased risk of occupational exposure. In 2008 and 2018, the Arizona Department of Health Services surveyed Arizona wildlife professionals from multiple agencies to assess the risk of disease exposure, rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) history, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and zoonoses knowledge. In 2008, a 12-question survey was distributed at a state wildlife professional meeting using an anonymous email link. In 2018, a 20-question survey was distributed using an anonymous email link to wildlife agency...
Source: EcoHealth - January 28, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Echinococcus spp. and Toxocara spp. in Invasive Non-native American Mink
AbstractInvasive non-native species can become reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens and cause their spread during colonization, increasing the risk of zoonoses transmission to both wild hosts and humans. American mink (Neovison vison) are considered an important invasive mammal species responsible for carrying endoparasites. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of feral American mink as a possible transmission vector ofEchinococcus spp. andToxocara spp. in wildlife. We analysed the frequency of American mink exposure to both parasites, the spatial distribution in Poland, and the variability over time on the basis of s...
Source: EcoHealth - January 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Hunting Bats for Human Consumption in Bangladesh
AbstractBats are important wildlife to their ecologic system, but they are also a zoonotic disease reservoir. Close bat –human interaction can lead to pathogen spillover. We conducted a qualitative study in two districts of Bangladesh and interviewed 30 bat hunters who hunt bats primarily for consumption, to understand the process and their reasons for hunting bats and their perceptions about bats and bat-borne dis ease. Most hunters catch bats during winter nights, using a net. Bat meat is used for household consumption, and the surplus is sold to cover household expenditures. They prepare the bat meat at home to se...
Source: EcoHealth - January 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Luxury Fashion Wildlife Contraband in the USA
This study examined US luxury fashion-related wildlife seizures made between 2003 and 2013 to better guide detection, enforcement, and policy. The findings of this study indicate that the number of incidents has increased over the 11-year period, while the number of associated items seized has decreased over this time. Of these seizures, nearly 88% were produced goods. A small proportion of genera made up the majority of seizures, with reptiles in particular accounting for 84% of incidents. Over half of all wildlife was wild-caught and was exported from eight countries. Based on these findings, it is suggested that policy ...
Source: EcoHealth - January 27, 2020 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Monkeypox Rash Severity and Animal Exposures in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
This study provides a preliminary step in understanding the association between animal exposure and rash severity and demonstrates correlation with exposure to NHPs and human MPX presentation. Additional research exploring the relationship between rash severity and NHPs is warranted. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 24, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Pig Exposure and Health Outcomes in Hospitalized Infectious Disease Patients in Vietnam
AbstractMany infectious diseases have a zoonotic origin, and several have had major public health implications. Contact with animals is a known risk factor for zoonotic infections, although there are limited data on disease symptoms and pathogens associated with contact with different animal species. The rise in pig production in Southeast Asia has contributed to the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic infections caused by contact with pigs and pig products. To compare the symptom and pathogen profiles of hospitalized patients with and without pig contact, we collected data on disease symptoms, infecting pathogens, and ...
Source: EcoHealth - December 16, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In This Issue
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Land Use Change Special Feature Guest Editors
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Humans and Black Rhinoceroses in Kenya
AbstractUpsurge of antibiotic resistance in wildlife poses unprecedented threat to wildlife conservation. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance at the human –wildlife interface is therefore needed. We evaluated differences in antibiotic resistance ofEscherichia coli isolates from human and the endangered black rhinoceros in Lambwe Valley, Kenya. We used standard microbiological techniques to carry out susceptibility assays using eight antibiotics of clinical and veterinary importance. Standard PCR method was used to characterize antibiotic resistance genes. There was no difference in resistance betweenE. coli isolate...
Source: EcoHealth - December 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Coronaviruses Detected in Bats in Close Contact with Humans in Rwanda
AbstractBats living in close contact with people in Rwanda were tested for evidence of infection with viruses of zoonotic potential. Mucosal swabs from 503 bats representing 17 species were sampled from 2010 to 2014 and screened by consensus PCR for 11 viral families. Samples were negative for all viral families except coronaviruses, which were detected in 27 bats belonging to eight species. Known coronaviruses detected included the betacorona viruses: Kenya bat coronaviruses, Eidolon bat coronavirus, and Bat coronavirus HKU9, as well as an alphacoronavirus, Chaerephon Bat coronavirus. Novel coronaviruses included two beta...
Source: EcoHealth - December 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Editorial: Can the Health Implications of Land-use Change Drive Sustainability?
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Water Security in the Gal ápagos: Socioecological Determinants and Health Implications
AbstractWater security is strongly associated with important health outcomes and has many socioecological determinants. Several studies have documented the social determinants of water security and impacts of water security on health, independently. Yet few have examined both components in one setting. Using data from Ecuador ’s nationally representative health survey (ENSANUT-ECU), we proposed a new methodological framework for assessing water security in the Galápagos and assessed the relationship between socioecological indicators and water security among 2701 individuals in 693 households. We then tested t...
Source: EcoHealth - December 6, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

What ’s New
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - December 5, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Hantavirus Transmission in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus
AbstractThe cricetid rodentOligoryzomys longicaudatus is the species host of Andes virus (ANDV) which causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina and Chile. Population density, behavioral interactions, and spacing patterns are factors that affect viral transmission among wild rodents. We predict that the highest prevalence of hantavirus antibody positive would be found among wounded, reproductive males and that, at high population densities, wounded, reproductive males would be dispersers rather than resident individuals. The study was conducted seasonally from October (spring) 2011 to October (spring) 2013 ...
Source: EcoHealth - December 2, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Human Activities Attract Harmful Mosquitoes in a Tropical Urban Landscape
This study examined the effects of land use types in urban, peri-urban and natural landscapes on mosquito community structure to test whether the urban landscape is implicated in increased prevalence of potentially harmful mosquitoes. Three land use types (park, farm, and forest nested in urban, peri-urban and natural landscapes, respectively) in Klang Valley, Malaysia, were surveyed for mosquito larval habitat, mosquito abundance and diversity. We found that the nature of human activities in land use types can increase artificial larval habitats, supporting container-breeding vector specialists such asAedes albopictus, a ...
Source: EcoHealth - November 30, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zoonotic Pathogen Seroprevalence in Cattle in a Wildlife –Livestock Interface, Kenya
AbstractA cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence ofBrucella spp. andLeptospira spp. and risk factors of exposure in cattle in three zones with varying land use types and wildlife –livestock interactions. Five villages were selected purposively; two in areas with intensive livestock–wildlife interactions (zone 1), another two in areas with moderate livestock–wildlife interactions (zone 2) and one in areas where wildlife–livestock interactions are rarer (zone 3). Sera samples were collected from 1170 cattle belonging to 390 herds in all the zones and tested for antibodies ...
Source: EcoHealth - November 14, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Occupational Animal Contact in Southern and Central Vietnam
AbstractDespite the global zoonotic disease burden, the underlying exposures that drive zoonotic disease emergence are not understood. Here, we aimed to assess exposures to potential sources of zoonotic disease and investigate the demographics, attitudes, and behavior of individuals with sustained occupational animal contact in Vietnam. We recruited 581 animal workers (animal-raising farmers, slaughterers, animal health workers, and rat traders) and their families in southern and central Vietnam into a cohort. Cohort members were followed for 3  years and interviewed annually regarding (1) demography and attitudes reg...
Source: EcoHealth - November 13, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Mercury in Populations of River Dolphins of the Amazon and Orinoco Basins
This study reports the presence of mercury in river dolphins ’ generaInia andSotalia. Mercury concentrations were analysed in muscle tissue samples collected from 46 individuals at the Arauca and Orinoco Rivers (Colombia), the Amazon River (Colombia), a tributary of the Itenez River (Bolivia) and from the Tapajos River (Brazil). Ranges of total mercury (Hg) concentration in muscle tissue of the four different taxa sampled were:I. geoffrensis humboldtiana 0.003 –3.99 mg kg−1 ww (n = 21,Me = 0.4),I. g. geoffrensis 0.1 –2.6 mg kg−1 ww (n&t...
Source: EcoHealth - November 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Correction to: A Case –Control Study of Environmental and Occupational Risks of Leptospirosis in Sri Lanka
The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake in one of the co-author ’s family name. The correct name should be Janith Warnasekara instead of Janith Warnasuriya. The original article has been corrected. (Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 12, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

In This Issue
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 11, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Incorporating Health Outcomes into Land-Use Planning
AbstractThe global trend toward increased agricultural production puts pressure on undeveloped areas, raising the question of how to optimally allocate land. Land-use change has recently been linked to a number of human health outcomes, but these are not routinely considered in land-use decision making. We review examples of planners ’ currently used strategies to evaluate land use and present a conceptual model of optimal land use that incorporates health outcomes. We then present a framework for evaluating the health outcomes of land-use scenarios that can be used by decision makers in an integrated approach to lan...
Source: EcoHealth - November 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

What ’s New
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - November 9, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Detection of Leptospira spp. in Captive Broad-Snouted Caiman ( Caiman latirostris)
This study aimed to investigate the presence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and leptospiral DNA in captiveCaiman latirostris (broad-snouted caiman). Of the 23 reptiles studied by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), 22/23 (95.65%) were considered reactive (titers  ≥ 100) and 1/23 (4.35%) non-reactive (titer 
Source: EcoHealth - November 7, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Insights into the Host Specificity of Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses Infecting Wild Mammals
Abstract Mosquito-borne flaviviruses (MBFVs) are of public and animal health concern because they cause millions of human deaths annually and impact domestic animals and wildlife globally. MBFVs are phylogenetically divided into two clades, one is transmitted byAedes mosquitoes (Ae-MBFVs) associated with mammals and the other byCulex mosquitoes (Cx-MBFVs) associated with birds. However, this assumption has not been evaluated. Here, we synthesized 79 published reports of MBFVs from wild mammals, estimating their host. Then, we tested whether the host specificity was biased to sampling and investigation efforts or to phylo...
Source: EcoHealth - October 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

A Case –Control Study of Environmental and Occupational Risks of Leptospirosis in Sri Lanka
AbstractSri Lanka has one of the highest incidences of human leptospirosis worldwide. Outbreaks of this zoonotic infection are related to the monsoons and flooding. The study investigates risk factors associated with environmental, animal and occupational exposure while acknowledging the potential bias due to hanta viral infections in the study samples. Data were obtained from structured interviews with 483 patients (276 cases and 207 controls). Risk exposures were studied for the entire population and for two stratified occupational groups: non-paddy workers and paddy workers. A higher odds ratio (OR) of leptospirosis tra...
Source: EcoHealth - October 29, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Population-Level Resistance to Chytridiomycosis is Life-Stage Dependent in an Imperiled Anuran
AbstractAmphibian declines caused by chytridiomycosis have been severe, but some susceptible populations have persisted or even recovered. Resistance to the causal agentBatrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) could result from alleles of the adaptive immune system. During metamorphosis, however, immune systems may not be fully functional, implying that an effective immune response toBd may be life-stage dependent. We evaluated the susceptibility of the relict leopard frog (Rana onca) sourced from two areas whereBd was present or absent, and where the populations appeared to show differences in pathogen resistance. We evaluated...
Source: EcoHealth - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Exotic Pinus radiata Plantations do not Increase Andes Hantavirus Prevalence in Rodents
In this study, we analyzed the influence of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) plantations, an important monoculture in the global forest industry, on small mammal assemblage and on ANDV seroprevalence and abundance of seropositive rodents from central Chile. Small mammals were sampled seasonally during 2  years in native forests, adult pine plantations and young pine plantations. A total of 1630 samples from seven rodent species were analyzed for antibody detection. ANDV seroprevalence and abundance of seropositive rodents were significantly higher in the native forest compared to pine plantations. Furthermore, Monterey p...
Source: EcoHealth - October 25, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Global Emergence of Buruli Ulcer
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - October 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Laryngeal Demasculinization in Wild Cane Toads Varies with Land Use
AbstractAnthropogenic factors, including the spread of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, have been linked to alterations in the reproductive physiology, morphology, and behavior of wildlife. Few studies of endocrine disruption, however, focus on secondary sexual traits that affect mating signals, despite their importance for reproductive success. The larynx of many anurans (frogs and toads), for example, is larger in males than in females and is crucial for producing mating calls. We aim to determine if wild populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) near sugarcane fields in Florida have demasculinized larynges when compare...
Source: EcoHealth - October 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Evidence that Passerine Birds Act as Amplifying Hosts for Usutu Virus Circulation
AbstractEnvironment determines the distribution and prevalence of vector-borne pathogens due to its direct and indirect effects on the hosts, vectors, and pathogens. To investigate the relationship between Usutu virus occurrence and host biodiversity and to characterize the nidus of infection, we used field-based measures of host diversity and density (all birds and only passerines), vector abundance, landscape and Usutu virus prevalence (mosquito infection rate), an emergent disease with a similar cycle to West Nile virus. We collected 908,237 female mosquitoes in an area of 54,984  ha in the Doñana National P...
Source: EcoHealth - October 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Zoonotic Trypanosomes in Rats and Fleas of Venezuelan Slums
In this study, we report trypanosome-infectedRattus norvegicus andRattus rattus in human dwellings in slums neighboring Maracay, a large city near Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. Blood samples ofR. norvegicus andR. rattus examined by PCR and FFLB (fluorescent fragment length barcoding) revealed a prevalence of 6.3% / 31.1% forTrypanosoma lewisi (agent of rat- and flea-borne human emergent zoonosis), and 10.5% / 24.6% forTrypanosoma cruzi (agent of Chagas disease). Detection in flea guts ofT. lewisi (76%) and, unexpectedly,T. cruzi (21.3%) highlighted the role of fleas as carriers and vectors of these trypanosomes. A hig...
Source: EcoHealth - October 3, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance and Ecology: A Dialog Yet to Begin
(Source: EcoHealth)
Source: EcoHealth - September 18, 2019 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research