Challenges and shifting paradigms in clinical trials in oncology: the case for immunological and targeted therapies.
Authors: Sotelo-Rodríguez DC, Ruíz-Patiño A, Ricaurte L, Arrieta O, Zatarain-Barrón ZL, Cardona AF Abstract The advent of immunotherapy has undoubtedly changed the current standard for cancer treatment. Immunotherapy offers the possibility of achieving excellent results-a new alternative for patients with advanced-stage or relapsed disease. Nowadays, the progress made in tumour biology has led to multiple advances in clinical and translational cancer research. Many oncogenic pathways responsible for tumour growth and metastases have been described and, consequently, multiple new cancer t...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Depression and quality of life in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies.
Conclusions: Despite the small sample of our study, this study provided evidence that depressive symptoms in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies treatments detrimentally reduced various aspects of QoL. PMID: 31552110 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Challenges and opportunities in the creation and implementation of cancer-control plans in Africa.
Authors: Duncan K, Cira MK, Barango P, Trimble EL Abstract Cancer on the African continent is quickly becoming an overt public health crisis due to an aging population and changes in lifestyle. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that a national cancer-control programme should aim to reduce cancer incidence and mortality and improve quality of life of cancer patients, through a national cancer-control plan (NCCP) that is systematic, equitable and evidence-based. Despite this, only 11 countries in Africa have a current NCCP. Participants in a US National Cancer Institute-supported, multi-year, technical assis...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Increasing cancer awareness and prevention in Africa.
Authors: Jemal A, Brawley OW Abstract Cancer awareness in the general population is an absolute essential and the basis on which a cancer-control programme can be constructed. Elements that go into cancer awareness and prevention efforts include knowledge of the problem and its solutions, a group of people who respect and care for the populations they want to serve, and resources. This paper discusses the importance of cancer awareness to cancer control and outlines some successful cancer awareness and control programmes in Africa. There is an audience in North America, Europe and Asia with resources that can be us...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Developing medical oncology in Africa.
Conclusions: The development of a medical oncology program requires a multi-disciplinary team focused on integration within existing programs and expansion of collaborative networks in order to provide the best care to patients. PMID: 31552113 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

The state of medical oncology in Senegal.
Authors: Diop M Abstract Senegal has only one medical oncology specialist, who works at the Cancer Institute, but chemotherapy is performed in several public and private sites in the capital city of Dakar by competent general practitioners and oncology surgeons. There are several key needs. Human resources development is necessary that includes an offer of fellowships for full specialisation for freshly graduated doctors, combined with capacity training of experienced general practitioners, without forgetting to add chemotherapy in the training curricula of nurses. There is a need for a substantial subsidy of anti-...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Radiotherapy treatment in cancer control and its important role in Africa.
Conclusions: With an imminent cancer epidemic, the scarcity of radiotherapy facilities in Africa is a cause for concern. The measures to correct this should include a multipronged approach that addresses specific needs for individual countries. Radiotherapy is an essential, cost-effective treatment for cancer and its availability must be given priority alongside the management interventions for other common diseases and conditions. PMID: 31552115 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer control in Africa: surgery.
Authors: Galloway DJ Abstract Surgery is the mainstay of cancer treatment and lack of surgical treatment is a major driver in holding back optimal cancer care. Surgery is essential for global cancer care in all resource settings. Of the estimated 18.1 million new cases of cancer in 2018, over 80% of cases will need surgery, some several times. Many patients throughout the world do not have access to cancer surgery. Many of the key adjunct treatment modalities for cancer surgery-e.g., anaesthesia, pathology and imaging-are also inadequate. Solutions are necessary and should include better-regulated public systems, i...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer treatment in Africa: the importance of the role of nursing.
Authors: Mitema A, Maree L, Young A Abstract Nurses in all aspects of oncology have a key role to play in the delivery of effective cancer care. Unfortunately, oncology nursing is not yet an established nursing subspecialty in most of Africa; six out of 22 African countries reported as having no trained oncology nurses at all. The need for more personnel and quality training programmes are an absolute necessity. PMID: 31552117 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Pathology and cancer in Africa.
Authors: Fleming K Abstract In high-income countries, it would be inconceivable to treat a tumour when its pathology is unknown. However, this can be the case among patients in sub-Saharan Africa. The absence of pathologists and the resultant delays in reporting contribute to patients being treated before the nature of the lesion is known. This is compounded by the frequent absence of auxiliary tests to better define tumour characteristics. PMID: 31552118 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Improving access to palliative care for patients with cancer in Africa: 25 years of Hospice Africa.
Authors: Merriman A, Mwebesa E, Zirimenya L Abstract All cancer care must target the needs of the whole population, not just the few who reach curative services. This paper will refer to palliative care in Uganda and in the countries now aware of the need for palliative care. Human Rights Watch has declared that doctors who are aware that we can control cancer pain and are not doing it or taking steps to make it happen, are considered to be torturers (Human Rights Watch (2009) Please, do not make us suffer any more... Accessed 11 July 2019). As Uganda celebrates 25 years since the introduction of palliative care, i...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer control in Africa: is cancer research a luxury or necessity?
Authors: Ngoma T, Ngoma M Abstract Decision makers dealing with resource allocation in Africa have the impression that cancer research is a luxury. As a result of this, very few or no resources are allocated for cancer research in Africa. Since in healthcare, clinical and epidemiological research provides an evidence base for formulation of health policies and facilitates decision making by policy makers, the lack of evidence base makes decision making intuitive. A situation like this is not cost-effective and is unacceptable. It is, therefore, important that for Africa to make effective decisions to improve the he...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Importance of hospital cancer registries in Africa.
Authors: Curado MP Abstract The establishment of effective population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) in low-resource countries is challenging. There is a lack of knowledge among cancer patients who do not go to treatment centres, there is an absence of mortality information, frequently employed as a complementary back-up in cancer registries and a lack of efficient and accurate population census. Hospital-based cancer registries (HBCRs) have a different, although complementary role: they focus more on clinical information about patients and are sources of cancer information about cancer diagnosis, treatment and su...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer prevention and control: hepatocellular carcinoma.
Authors: Hainaut P, Amadou A, Gormally E Abstract Liver cancer (mostly hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) is both common and highly lethal throughout Africa, in particular in western and middle Africa where HCC is the first cause of cancer death in men and the third in women. In these high-incidence areas, HCC develops mostly early (
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer prevention in Africa: liver cancer.
Authors: Ndom P Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma is a common cancer in Africa. The risk factors are well known and avoidable in most cases (hepatitis B, hepatitis C, aflatoxin and alcohol). Vaccination against hepatitis B and the fight against aflatoxin are efficient contributions to the fight against liver cancer. The costly nature of these measures in Africa is an impediment to the fight against liver cancer in Africa. PMID: 31552123 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer prevention and control: Kaposi's sarcoma.
Authors: Orem J Abstract Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumour of endothelial origin that is associated with human herpes virus-8 infection. In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS-KS remains the most common HIV-associated malignancy, and hence it poses a huge burden to the already constrained health-care systems. KS has four clinical variants, namely, classic, endemic, iatrogenic and epidemic KS. The histopathology in these different KS forms is essentially identical; however, they have different clinical patterns. Expanding knowledge of KS biology increases hope for prevention, disease control, and hence better quality ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer prevention: cervical cancer.
Conclusion: Sub-Saharan countries still have a long way to go in controlling the high burden of cervical cancer. Effective prevention methods exist, such as HPV vaccination and screening, but their affordability and implementation remain challenging for most of these countries. Despite that, there is still light on the horizon, as the cost of HPV vaccines has been steadily decreasing and most African countries are using the more cost-effective methods of cervical cancer screening. PMID: 31552125 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Cancer in Africa: the way forward.
Authors: Boyle P, Ngoma T, Sullivan R, Brawley O Abstract While progress in oncology has been remarkable in recent decades, not every cancer patient is benefitting from the advances made in treating their disease. The contrast in diagnosis, treatment and its outcome between high-resource and low-resource countries is dramatic. Africa presents an enormous challenge with population growth and life expectancy increasing in many countries as the toll of AIDS and other communicable diseases declines. However, there has been little investment in capacity of any sort to deal with the current cancer problem, never mind the...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

An evaluation of access to critical breast oncoplastic patient information within a regional autologous free-flap reconstruction service.
Authors: Ahmed M, Wood S, Leff D Abstract The configuration of autologous free-flap breast reconstruction services within regional hubs means that increasing numbers of patients operated upon at these units will be external referrals without their oncological investigations carried out at the tertiary receiving centre. Oncoplastic guidelines exist that clearly state the minimum necessary patient information that should be provided by the referring unit to the reconstruction centre. However, the logistics of such critical information transfer can be challenging, but it is essential that such issues are addressed to ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

The current state of African oncology research publication: how to increase Africa's research impact.
Authors: Foxalla K Abstract African oncology professionals face significant obstacles to getting their research published due to geographical bias, funding issues and lack of publication skills. There is a major inequity in the availability of high-quality, local data from African countries and this makes it difficult for the continent's governments to develop robust cancer-control policies based on the latest evidence. Both African and international journal publishers have a duty to work towards increasing the volume of African published research and making it freely available to all. PMID: 31552128 [PubMed] (...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 26, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Innovative approaches for cancer treatment: current perspectives and new challenges.
Authors: Pucci C, Martinelli C, Ciofani G Abstract Every year, cancer is responsible for millions of deaths worldwide and, even though much progress has been achieved in medicine, there are still many issues that must be addressed in order to improve cancer therapy. For this reason, oncological research is putting a lot of effort towards finding new and efficient therapies which can alleviate critical side effects caused by conventional treatments. Different technologies are currently under evaluation in clinical trials or have been already introduced into clinical practice. While nanomedicine is contributing to th...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - September 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Experience with concurrent chemoradiotherapy treatment in advanced cervical cancer: results from a hospital in Argentina.
Conclusion: Concurrent chemo-radiotherapy appears to be an effective regimen, with acceptable toxicity, for patients with locally advanced cervical cancer. PMID: 31281416 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Precision oncology in Latin America: current situation, challenges and perspectives.
Conclusion: Latin America must create policies allowing excluded populations to gain access to health systems and next generation anti-cancer drugs, i.e. high-cost targeted therapies to improve survival. Also, cancer clinical research must be oriented to establish cancer biomarkers adapted to specific populations with different ethnicity, allowing the improvement of patient outcomes. PMID: 31281417 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Assessing the tolerability and efficacy of first-line chemotherapy in elderly patients with metastatic HER2-ve breast cancer.
Conclusions: A relevant number of patients required dose reduction but dose-reduced chemotherapy was tolerated well. Anthracycline-based regimens were used in patients who had not received adjuvant chemotherapy. Capecitabine required the most dose reductions. Taxanes were generally started at reduced doses, resulting in fewer grade 3+ toxicities. As well as age, underlying physiological reserve, current performance status and co-morbidities should guide physicians who should consider lower starting doses in OA and recognise that dose reductions may be required to improve tolerability. The PFS of all regimens were similar i...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Primary cardiac angiosarcoma diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Authors: Burns EA, Ahmed A, Sunkara A, Khan U, Sharif R, Abdelrahim M, Reardon M, Trachtenberg B Abstract Primary cardiac angiosarcoma (PCAS) is a malignancy seldom seen in pregnancy. A 23-year-old G1P0 Chinese female was found to have PCAS during her first trimester when she presented with tamponade physiology. The transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) results did not indicate the presence of an intracardiac lesion, and pericardial fluid cytology analysis showed no evidence of malignancy. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) exhibited a right atrial mass, and tissue biopsy indicated a high-grade angiosarcoma. ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Breast lesions with atypia in percutaneous biopsies, managed with surgery in the last 10 years.
Conclusion: These data show the clinical relevance in the diagnosis of ADH and FEA in percutaneous biopsies. For the diagnosis of FEA in particular, the associated risk of biologically high-risk lesions and ductal carcinoma is made evident. PMID: 31281420 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Highlights of the 16th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference, Vienna, Austria, 20-23 March 2019: personalised treatments for patients with early breast cancer.
Authors: Morigi C Abstract The 16th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference took place in Vienna for the third time, from 20-23 March 2019. More than 3000 people from all over the world were invited to take part in this important bi-annual critical review of the 'state of the art' in the primary care of breast cancer (BC), independent of political and industrial pressure, with the aim to integrate the most recent research data and most important developments in BC therapies since St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2017, with the ultimate goal of drawing up a consensus for the current optimal ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Oro-facial rehabilitation of cancer patients: 'Zygomatic 2019'-1-2 March 2019, London, UK.
Authors: Wilson PH, Fasanmade K, Anand P Abstract This first truly global conference on the use of zygomatic implants for the oral reconstruction of patients with compromised or deficient maxillae was held at the Museum of London from 1 to 2 March 2019. It attracted over 200 clinicians and academics from 24 nations and reviewed over 25 years' experience and research in this field. This conference presented concepts heralding new opportunities for the oro-facial rehabilitation of doctor-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), both osteonecrosis radiation-induced (ORN) and medication-induced ONJ (MRONJ) in oncology p...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Highlights from 11th Breast-Gynecological and Immunooncology International Cancer Conference (BGICC), 17-18 January 2019, Egypt.
Authors: El-Ghazaly H, Bahie-Eldin N, Aref A Abstract During the 11th Breast-Gynecological and Immunooncology International Cancer Conference (BGICC), which was held on 17 and 18 January 2019, in Cairo, Egypt, around 100 international, regional and national experts from every continent presented the latest updates in breast cancer, gynaecological cancers and immunotherapy in oncology. Through this report, we highlight the important data and consensus issues that were discussed during the conference. PMID: 31281423 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Prepectoral implant-based breast reconstruction: a joint consensus guide from UK, European and USA breast and plastic reconstructive surgeons.
Authors: Vidya R, Berna G, Sbitany H, Nahabedian M, Becker H, Reitsamer R, Rancati A, Macmillan D, Cawthorn S Abstract Advances in implantable biologic and synthetic products over the last decade have enabled surgeons to replace traditional submuscular implant-based breast reconstruction techniques with a prepectoral or muscle-sparing technique. Prepectoral breast reconstruction is becoming increasingly popular among surgeons and patients due to the preservation of normal chest wall anatomy, with the restoration of body image with minimal morbidity. In this article, we have described a guide to prepectoral or muscl...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Associated factors with the knowledge of nurses of a high complexity oncology centre in Brazil, on the management of cancer pain.
Authors: Dos Santos Ferreira F, Meira KC, Félix RS, de Oliveira IRS, Pinto CMI, Dos Santos Silva MA, Dos Santos J Abstract Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in cancer patients and may be directly related to cancer or to the procedures needed for its diagnosis and treatment. It is estimated that about 40% of cancer patients receive inadequate treatment for painful conditions. Among the barriers to adequate pain management are inadequate knowledge and the dysfunctional beliefs of healthcare professionals. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the knowledge of oncology nurses on the management of...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Relevance of minor discrepancies at second pathology review in gynaecological cancer.
Conclusions: A second pathology review also adds valid information in those cases with minor discrepancies leading to a difference in patients´ counselling regarding follow-up and prognosis. PMID: 31281426 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Chemotherapy and anti-HER2 therapy in metastatic breast cancer in pregnancy followed by surgical treatment.
We present the case of a young, pregnant patient with metastatic BC with a complete clinical response to chemotherapy followed by surgical treatment. PMID: 31281427 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Surgical treatment in oligometastatic breast cancer.
We present the case of a 36-year-old woman with a diagnosis of hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-positive breast cancer and isolated sternal metastasis, who received neoadjuvant ST with complete remission and later primary tumour surgery. Oligometastatic patients are a subgroup of MBC that can benefit from aggressive local therapies, even with curative intent. PMID: 31281428 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Highlights from the 13th African Continental Meeting of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP), 6-9 March 2019, Cairo, Egypt.
Authors: Khalek ER, Afungchwi GM, Beltagy ME, Mariam N, Zaki H, Israels T, Molyneux E, Howard SC, Patte C, Schoeman J, Ladas E, Zaghloul MS, ElDeen YS, Ahmed S, Kamal S, Bouffet E, Pritchard-Jones K, Hessissen L Abstract The 13th African continental meeting of the international society of paediatric oncology, held on 6-9 March 2019 in Cairo, was organised in collaboration with the Children Cancer Hospital (57357) in Egypt and the global parents' organisation (Childhood Cancer International) and supported by a large international faculty. With 629 delegates from 37 countries (24 African), this was the largest forum ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Two cases of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma masquerading as follicular gastritis.
In this report, we describe two cases of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) of the stomach, which presented with multiple small, whitish nodules in the gastric body. The endoscopic appearance was similar to that of lymphoid follicular hyperplasia found in follicular gastritis or nodular gastritis. Both patients were positive for Helicobacter pylori, and the eradication treatment resulted in complete remission of the lymphoma. However, recurrence was noted in one patient. These cases indicate that, although infrequent, gastric MALT lymphoma can show a nodular appearance re...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Subtypes of minimal residual disease, association with Gleason score, risk and time to biochemical failure in pT2 prostate cancer treated with radical prostatectomy.
Conclusions: G7 and G6 pT2 patients have different patterns of MRD and relapse. Risk stratification using MRD sub-types may help to define the need for adjuvant therapy. This needs confirmation with large randomised long-term trials. PMID: 31281431 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Effect of FOLFOX on minimal residual disease in Stage III colon cancer and risk of relapse.
Conclusions: MRD subtypes pre-chemotherapy did not predict treatment response. Post-chemotherapy MRD subtypes were associated with the pattern of failure and time to failure. MRD negative patients had an excellent prognosis with 87% disease-free survival at 5 years. Those with only mM had a similar outcome up to 2 years and then were at increasing risk of late failure. Patients who were CTC positive had a high risk of early failure. MRD subclassification may be useful to define the risk of relapse in Stage III colon cancer patients and warrants further studies with a larger number of patients. PMID: 31281432 [PubMed] (...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Welcome to Eduardo Cazap, Editor-in-Chief, ecancer.
Authors: McVie G PMID: 31281433 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

ecancer-towards effective global cancer control through innovation, collaboration and dissemination.
Authors: Cazap E PMID: 31281434 [PubMed] (Source: Ecancermedicalscience)
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Environmental exposures and cancer: using the precautionary principle.
Authors: Cohen L, Jefferies A Abstract Since the 1970s, more than 87,000 chemicals have been approved for commercial use. Yet of those thousands of chemicals, only just over one thousand have been formally examined and graded for their carcinogenic potential. Of those, five hundred have been found worthy of being graded on a cautiously worded scale ranging from "known" carcinogens to "possibly" carcinogenic. In addition to carcinogenic substances, a new field has emerged researching how environmental toxins cause endocrine or hormonal disruption. A class of these compounds known as endocrine-dis...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - July 11, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Petroclival meningiomas: radiological features essential for surgeons.
Authors: Nicosia L, Pietro SD, Catapano M, Spadarella G, Sammut L, Cannataci C, Resta F, Reganati P Abstract Petroclival meningiomas (PCMs) have always been a challenge for surgeons because of their difficult anatomical location. The role of radiology in providing precise indications regarding the tumour site and aggressiveness plays a major part in guiding the subsequent therapeutic process. The purpose of this review is to provide a set of the main radiological features helpful in the management of PCMs towards the most correct therapeutic approach. We aim to offer a radiological overview to allow the patient to ...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Laser thermal ablation to treat a recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma of the leg: a case report.
We present the case of a 52-year-old male patient with recurrence of a soft-tissue sarcoma of the left leg treated with percutaneous laser ablation. The patient received the diagnosis of sarcoma for the first time in 2011; further local recurrences and a pulmonary metastatic spread occurred during follow-up, so the patient has been treated several times with chemotherapy, limb-sparing surgery and radiotherapy. In September 2017, a new local recurrence of sarcoma occurred, for which limb amputation was proposed but refused by the patient. Laser ablation with ultrasound guidance was performed, with complete ablation at 6 mon...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Non-hormonal strategies for managing menopausal symptoms in cancer survivors: an update.
Authors: Biglia N, Bounous VE, De Seta F, Lello S, Nappi RE, Paoletti AM Abstract Vasomotor symptoms, particularly hot flushes (HFs), are the most frequently reported symptom by menopausal women. In particular, for young women diagnosed with breast cancer, who experience premature ovarian failure due to cancer treatments, severe HFs are an unsolved problem that strongly impacts on quality of life. The optimal management of HFs requires a personalised approach to identify the treatment with the best benefit/risk profile for each woman. Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is effective in managing HFs but it is contrai...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Creating a low-cost virtual reality surgical simulation to increase surgical oncology capacity and capability.
Authors: Parham G, Bing EG, Cuevas A, Fisher B, Skinner J, Mwanahamuntu M, Sullivan R Abstract Worldwide, more than 80% of people with cancer will require surgery during their disease course, but less than 25% have access to safe, affordable and timely surgery. Among the barriers to increasing surgical capacity are the time and costs required to train novices. Virtual reality (VR) surgical simulations can reduce the time required for novices to reach surgical proficiency, though their costs may exceed USD $100,000. The goal of this study was to determine if a low-cost system, using commercially available technology...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Ethics of cancer care: beyond biology and medicine.
Authors: Ghose S, Radhakrishnan V, Bhattacharya S Abstract Treatable cancers are on the rise due to improved early diagnosis and more innovative treatments, and preventative strategies against cancer are becoming a global concern. With the rapidly increasing complexity of cancer treatment, a clear definition of what constitutes ethical cancer care has become a matter of great debate. This situation is more complex in a developing country where healthcare resources are limited. Doctors, nurses and public health professionals engaged in the prevention, screening, diagnosis, treatment and research of cancers are often...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

The patient perspective: investigating patient empowerment enablers and barriers within the oncological care process.
Authors: Bailo L, Guiddi P, Vergani L, Marton G, Pravettoni G Abstract Patient empowerment is a multi-factorial concept and its relevance has led to a growing body of literature; despite this attention, there is still no agreement regarding the elements that define its expression. While several studies have already investigated the positive effect of empowerment interventions on the care process outcome, the aim of this study is to investigate which factors can foster an empowered management of the cancer condition from the patient's perspective. To examine patients' perception of empowerment enablers, we asked for...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

How do clinicians rate patient's performance status using the ECOG performance scale? A mixed-methods exploration of variability in decision-making in oncology.
Authors: Datta SS, Ghosal N, Daruvala R, Chakraborty S, Shrimali RK, van Zanten C, Parry J, Agrawal S, Atreya S, Sinha S, Chatterjee S, Gollins S Abstract Background: Medical decisions made by oncology clinicians have serious implications, even when made collaboratively with the patient. Clinicians often use the Eastern Clinical Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) scores to help them make treatment-related decisions. Methods: The current study explores the variability of the ECOG score when applied to 12 predetermined specially designed clinical case vignettes presented to a group of oncology clinicia...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

The role of emotions in cancer patients' decision-making.
Conclusions: Decision making is a complex non-linear process that is affected by several factors, such as, for example, personal knowledge, past experiences, individual differences and certainly emotions. Research studies should investigate further potential moderators of the effect of emotions on cancer-related choice. Big data and machine learning could be a good opportunity to test the interaction between a large amount of factors that is not feasible in traditional research. New technologies such as eHealth and virtual reality can offer support for the regulation of emotions and decision making. PMID: 31123497 [Pub...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research

Perception of tobacco use in young adults in urban India: a qualitative exploration with relevant health policy analysis.
Authors: Ghose S, Sardar A, Shiva S, Mullan BE, Datta SS Abstract Tobacco is one of the biggest global health concerns of this century with a significant contribution to the increasing burden of cancers, chronic diseases and associated mortality. Tobacco-related cancers are one of the commonest causes of cancer-related mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The tobacco epidemic is constantly on the rise, affecting LMICs in particular due to a lack of awareness in the population, insufficient health infrastructure and weak regulatory interventions. India is home to the world's largest youth populatio...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - May 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research